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I Gede Arga Anggara SLA020351502

6
Tuesday/1p
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Summary of Second Language Acquisition
Input, Interaction, and Second Language Acquisition
Input is defined as the language that is addressed to the L2 learner either by a
native speaker or by another L2 learner. Meanwhile, interaction is defined as the
conversation constructed by the learner and his partners. Thus, input is the result
of the interaction. Ellis ( 2000) propose three different views on the role of input
in language acquisition. They are behaviorists, nativist, and the interactionist view.
The behaviorists view emphasizes the importance of the linguistics
environment that would give learner stimuli and feedback. In addition, it views
the learner as a language producing machine who habitually and easily learns a
second language when getting the right input data.
The nativist view tries to minimalize the role of input and to explain language
development mostly in terms of the learners internal processing mechanism. It
also emphasizes on the learner as a grand initiator who is equipped by the
learners internal processing mechanisms for discovering L2.
The interactionist view consider language development as the result both of
input factors and innate mechanisms. It emphasize on how language grows from
the collaborative efforts of the learners and their interlocutors and involves a
dynamic interaction between external and internal factors.
The influence of studies of the input provided by mothers in L1 acquisition,
which together with three different views mentioned before is beneficial to
understand the direction that SLA research has followed. Mothers speech is
remarkably well formed structures which contain a few ungrammatical utterances
or sentence fragment. Further, it is characterized by a number of formal
adjustments in comparison to speech used in adult-adult conversations, and
adjustments in pronunciation. These adjustments are believed to establish a
special use of language or register called as motherese. According to Ferguzon
(1977), the motherese has there main function related to language acquisition.
They are as an aid to communication, a language teaching aid, and a socialization
function. After that, the crucial importance of the basis of adjustment constructed
by mothers is the degree of children comprehension on what is said to them and
the level of their signals on their comprehension or lack comprehension to their
caretaker.
Talking about the effect of motherese, the presented evidence suggests that the
route of L1 acquisition does not change in any significant way as a result of
differences in the linguistic environment. Though, there is much stronger evidence
for an effect rate acquisition in which the way mothers talk to their children will
influence on how rapidly they acquire the language. According to Clark & Clark,
(1977), there three types of language lessons to communicate with children;
conversational lesson, mapping lesson, and segmentation lesson.
In natural setting, input has been considered in terms of foreigner talk that is.
register used by native speakers when they address non-native speakers and study
of discourse which involves conversations between native speakers and L2

I Gede Arga Anggara SLA020351502


6
Tuesday/1p
m
learners. The need of negotiate meaning and the result of universal processes in
simplification which is found in SLA and pidgin study produce foreigner talk.
This foreigner talk involves a number of formal and interactional adjustments in
native speaker speech. Some of these adjustments lead to ungrammatical speech.
This foreigner talk adjustments found more frequently in discourse including
children than adults, and also in two-way as contrasting to one-way
communication. Later, regression, matching and negotiation are also included on
how native speakers are able to adjust their speech contains
As said by Hatch, (1983), foreigner talk aims promoting communication,
creating a special kind of affective bond between the native speaker and the nonnative speaker, and helping as an implicit teaching mode. However, special
condition including when the non-native speaker has very low proficiency in the
L2; when the native speaker thinks he is of a higher status; when the native
speaker has considerable prior experience of foreigner talk; or when the
conversation occurs spontaneously produce ungrammatical foreigner talk.
Interaction has been reflected in terms of the discourse that learner and native
speaker participate in. The differences in the type of discourse involving between
children and adolescent/adult learners have been observed. The result showed
that:
1. Adults must cope with greater communicative demands topics, but they
are more probable to contribute to maintain the conversation going.
2. Children require more playing with language
3. Adult native speakers get the chance to nominate a topic which the adult
helps to stand.
The result of studies of discourse relating L2 learners display that there is a
negotiation of meaning occurred when the participants struggle to avoid and to
overcome communicative failures. The use of strategies and tactics are also
involved by the speaker. The negotiation of meaning implies the use of particular
types of input and interaction result. Especially, it has been assumed that
negotiation will make input comprehensible.
Regarding to input and interaction in classroom setting, it was recognized that
successful outcomes may depend on the type of language used by the teacher and
the type of interactions occurring in the classroom. It was hypothesized that
classroom interaction was the major variable affecting SLA in formal settings. In
classroom process research, there are three aspects could be investigated like
interaction analysis, teacher talk, and discourse analysis. In addition, Allwright
(1980) state that Classroom interaction can be accounted for in terms of three
types of analysis including a turn taking analysis, a topic analysis, and a task
analysis.