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 CAUSE AND EFFECT Nguyn nhn v kt qu

 CONTRAST S tng phn, i lp
I. Connectives express CAUSE & EFFECT T ni din t ngha nguyn nhn kt qu
1. Because/ Because of/ Due to/ Due to the fact that/ Owing to/ On account of/ as a result of/
result from/ Since
Because of the weather was cold, we stayed home.
Because of the cold weather, we stayed home.
Due to heavy traffic, we were late to the meeting.
Due to the fact that Bills wife is ill, he has to do all the cooking and cleaning.
The factory was closed owing to the fact that the local labour cost had raised.
It is due to/ on account of his hard work over the winter month that he has passed the exam with
such a good grade.
Since we lose sixty percent of our body heat through our head, it is important to wear a hat on
cold days.
2. Therefore/ Consquently/ As a result/ Thus/ Hence/ For this reason
Last nights storm damaged the power lines. Consquently, the town was without electricity for
several hours.
Because of the snowstorm only five students came to class. Therefore, the teacher canceled the
class/ The teacher, therefore, canceled the class.
Ali didnt study. As a result, he failed the test.
Thus, therefore, consquently u c th ng u cu hoc gia cu (c du phy hoc khng,
ring thus nu ng gia cu khng c du phy)
V d cho cng 1 cu/ Different place in the same sentence:
It was hot. Therefore, we went swimming.
It was hot. We, therfore, went swimmming.
It was hot. We went swimming, therefore.
The elevator was broken. Thus, we had to use the stair.
Rent is too expensive in London. For this reason, I have decided to move to another city.
Practices: Using these given words, combined the two ideas:
The weather was bad. We postponed our trip.
1. Because
2. Because of
3. Consquently/ Therefore/ Thus
4. Due to/ Owing to
5. Due to the fact that
6. As a result
7. For this reason
8. Since

Fb: C Thanh Hng TOEIC t c bn ti nng cao

3. Such that/ So that

Such + adjective + noun + that
So + (adjective/ adverb) + that
So + many, few, much, a little
It was such a foggy day that we couldnt see the street.
It was such nice weather that we went to the zoo.
The car was so expensive that I couldnt afford to buy it.
She made so many mistakes that she failed the exam.
He has so few friends that he is always lonely.
Tom ate so much candy that he got a stomache.
He had so little trouble with the test that he left twenty minutes early.

II. Connectives express CONTRAST T ni din t ngha tng phn, i lp

Connectives showing contrast Cc t ni th hin s tng phn
All these sentences have the same meaning.
Tt c cc cu sau u c cng ngha.
(a) Even though it was cold, I went swimming.
Mnh trng ng Although
(b) Although it was cold, I went swimming.
(c) Though it was cold, I went swimming.
(d) It was cold, but I went swimming anyway.
(e) It was cold, but I still went swimming.
Lin t
(f) It was cold, yet I still went swimming.
TRANSITIONS Nevertheless
(g) It was cold. Nevertheless, I went swimming.
(h) It was cold; nonetheless, I went swimming.
However still (i) It was cold. However, I still went swimming.
(j) I went swimming despite the cold weather.
Gii t
Inspite of
(k) I went swimming in spite of the cold weather.
Despite the fact (l) I went swimming despite the fact that the
weather was cold.
Inspite of the (m) I went swimming in spite of the fact that the
fact that
weather was cold.
Showing direct contrast Th hin s i lp tuyt i
Mary is rich, while John is poor.
John is poor, whereas Mary is rich.
On the other hand
Mary is rich. John, on the other hand, is poor.
Create sentences with the same meaning by using in spite of, despite of, eventhough, although,
however, but,etc
The weather is extremely hot. They went jogging in the park.

Fb: C Thanh Hng TOEIC t c bn ti nng cao