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Cement Packer Experience in Java Sea: Status Up To Date

Yoliandri Susilo; Wahju Wibowo, BP Indonesia


Abstract

Reserves with marginal production potential are often by-passed during the early stages of reservoir
development. Re-evaluations of well logging data has resulted in the discovery of potential reserves located
above the production packer that were not previously considered in the initial completion strategy.
Conventional completion techniques required a workover to re-complete to these potential zones.
However, due to marginal reserves or the presence of production from existing zones below the proposed recompletion (ex: a dual completion where the long string is still producing while short string is shut-in), a
workover is not a good economic option to recover these zones. A new technique of cement packer has
been successfully developed in Offshore North West Java (ONWJ) field to re-complete these zones without
pulling out the existing completion. Pressure isolation of potential zones is accomplished by placing cement
in the tubing-casing annulus above the production packer. This cement then acts as a new production packer
further up the wellbore. Conventional or oriented perforating is then used to complete the well in the new
productive intervals.
The advantages of this technique are it is inexpensive (rigless), there is no need to wait for other tubing
strings in the well to deplete to their economic limit before re-completing up-hole and most importantlyaccess to and production from lower completion is not affected. To date, a total of 14 wells have been
reactivated using this technique to recover productive zones located above the production packer. The
average cost was only 20-60% of conventional workovers and savings of up to US$ 800,000 have been
achieved. These successful results have brought new opportunities for reactivating many more shut-in wells
with by-passed reserves that are economically marginal.
Background
The Offshore North West Java Production Sharing Contract (ONWJ PSC) area is located off of the North
Coast of Java Island in Indonesia (see Fig. 1). The contract area is about 18,000 sq-km. The first
exploration well was drilled in 1967 while the first production occurred in 1971. The ONWJ PSC is divided
into four main areas: Ardjuna, Arimbi, Bima and North West Corner. It consists of about 50 fields, most of
them are oil, distributed in three productive formations, Parigi, Upper and Lower Cibulakan. Throughout its
30 years of production history, 13 flow stations, 150 production platforms, 700 wells with 1013 production
string and more than 1,000 miles of sub-sea pipelines have been built in a
sea depth of up to 40 meters. Gas lift is the primary artificial lift method in this area.
ONWJ reached its peak crude production rate of 180,000 BOPD in 1984 but now it has declined to
around 43,000 BOPD with 200 MMCFD of gas. The continuous decline of crude production is a challenge
to the company goal of being a low cost offshore operator.
In 1999, only 43% of the strings were currently still producing while the rest of them have been shut in
because production has reached economic limit rates or have watered out. Re-evaluations of these shut-in
wells have identified potential reserves above the production packers. Previously, a conventional workover
job was required to recover these zones. However due to marginal reserves a workover is not an option to
develop these zones. In some dual completion cases where one of the strings is still producing, a workover
can not be done without sacrificing the other strings. This condition has challenged the company to find a
better technique to recover those reserves and re-activate shut-in wells without sacrificing production in the
other strings/wells.

YOLIANDRI SUSILO; WAHJU WIBOWO

IATMI

Since early last 4 year, a technique in ONWJ has been developed to recover the zones without pulling
out completion strings. Isolation of potential zones is accomplished by cementing in the tubing-casing
annulus above the production packer. The cement above the zones replaces the production packers and
conventional perforating is then used to complete the well. Current practices require that at least 200 ft of
cement be placed above the top of the target zone to ensure annulus isolation. Casing pressure is monitored
to verify zonal isolation.
A total of 14 wells have been reactivated through this technique to recover by-passed zones above the
first packer. A significant cost savings of up to 80% of conventional workover jobs has been achieved using
this technique. The production results have also been encouraging. These successful results have brought
new opportunities for reactivating many more shut-in wells with by-passed reserves that are economically
marginal.
Workover vs. Cement Packer
Reserves with marginal production potential are often bypassed during the early stages of reservoir
development. Reevaluations of well logging data have resulted in finding potential reserves located above
the shallowest packer that were not previously considered in completion strategies during drilling and
completion of the wells. Therefore, an additional workover or well service job is then required to
access/drain these reserves.
A conventional workover job would require pulling out existing completions, perforating and running a
new completion with a production packer set above the new zones. This would require a rig or light-pulling
unit. Meanwhile, well service jobs only require coiled tubing that can be done by using a boat or jack up
barge, which is in our case (offshore operations) much less expensive than a rig. As a result, the well
service jobs are chosen. Isolation of potential zones is accomplished by cementing in the annulus tubingcasing above the production packer. The cement above the zones replaces or acts as a production packer.
Figure 2 shows the pre-treatment completion diagram and compares the post-treatment completion diagram
of a conventional workover with the cement packer.
In the petroleum industry, a cement packer is a not a new technique. Some operators have used this
technique to recover zones above production packers without pulling out completion strings (5,6,7,8).
However, the applied technique so far that they must abandon the lower completion or they have to drill out
cement in order to re-gain access into lower completion. A novel technique of cement packer has been
successfully developed in OWJ field to place cement in annulus tubing-casing while maintaining access into
lower completion without need to drill out the cement. This novel technique is relatively simple and a cost
efficient compare to previous technique or conventional workover.
The advantages of cement packer technique compare to conventional workover are:
Rigless operation
A cement packer job can be done with coiled tubing or could be done with a pumping unit in a boat only.
Especially on platforms where jack up rigs cannot move in due to obstacles such as: pipelines, spud can
holes, etc, this technique offers an alternative solution to recover zones above the production packer.
Inexpensive
In our experience, the average costs cement packer workovers are only 20%-60% of a conventional
workover costs. This means zones with marginal reserves can be accessed economically.
Minimized Production Deferment.
Simultaneous operation practices in OWJ require shutting in the platform during rig move-in/out. The
impact of deferring production can be significant on platforms that have high production rates. Well
interventions using coiled tubing off of a lift boat or a boat do not necessarily require shutting in the
platform.
Still allows access into the lower completion
For single completions, conventional workovers still might allow well interventions to access lower
completions if the new completions can latch/sting onto lower/old completions properly. But in dual
completion cases, it is almost impossible to gain access into lower completions on both strings anymore

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CEMENT PACKER EXPERIENCE IN JAVA SEA: STATUS UP TO DATE

once it has been worked over because no technique to re-sting/latch the new completions onto both
old/existing completions. The cement packer technique makes wireline/coiled tubing intervention into
lower completion on both strings still possible to perform as no need to change out the completion.
No need to wait the well achieves economic limits for recovering the zones.
Workovers to recover the zones above the first packer are usually done only when the well had achieved
its economic limit rate. In dual completions, where one string is still produced, a workover risk
sacrificing the other string. The cement packer technique allows us to recover new zones without
sacrificing the other string since there is no need to pull out the completion string.

The disadvantages of this technique are: less gun penetration (tubing-cement-casing-cement-formation


must be penetrated), and workover/sidetracking below the packer is difficult to carry out once the packer has
been covered with cement.
Gun sizes are limited by the tubing size, and this results in less shot density and less penetration. The PI
can be significantly reduced if the penetration to formation is not sufficient or is covered by debris(2). As
stated in the study by McDowell & Muskat (1950); there must be a minimum of 4 SPF open with at least an
8-inch penetration in order for the perforated well to have a productivity equivalent to an open hole
completion. The perforation software package predicted that the gun we use, a 2 Hollow Carrier gun with
deep penetration charges, would still enable us to penetrate 8 inches into the formation.
From the production results of our work, the cement packer completions are similar to a slim hole
completion case. Previous studies have shown that there is very little impact on the inflow performance
associated with wellbore-diameter reduction (3).
Wells in OWJ field are typically completed using 9-5/8 or 7 casings with 2-7/8 tubing and almost
half of them are dual completions.
Treatment Considerations
Several things should be taken into account before choosing the well candidate and executing the job. A
proper candidate selection, cement design, and gun selection are important for the success of this job, as
briefly explained below:
Well Candidate Selection: Basically, any types of completion are applicable for this technique. In our
case, the main criteria used to select candidates for cement packer in the ONWJ field include the following:
- The wellbore/completion is in mechanically good condition.
- There are no plans to work over/sidetrack the well below the packer in the future, as these would be
difficult to carry out once the packer has been covered with cement.
- In gas lifted wells, there is no significant impact on production rates due to the loss of some GL injection
points, as they will be covered with cement.
Pressure Isolation: For safety reasons, the cement volume on the casing should be designed to fill up the
tubing-casing annulus and cover the new zone and provide sufficient cement coverage to ensure annulus
isolation above the producing zone. The higher the cement is above the producing zone the better. Current
practices require at least 200 ft of cement to be placed above the top of the target zone to ensure annulus
isolation. There hasnt been any rigorous research to calculate a suitable height of cement, but results have
shown that this is enough to give isolation during the production of the new zones.
Special concerns must be addressed to wells that do not have tubing integrity before the job is executed,
as company policies require well integrity with two barriers. This requires tubing and cement packer
integrity. Cement packer integrity cannot be tested incase of the tubing have leaks above the top of cement
packer. Unless leaks on tubing can be packed off or covered by cement and therefore cement packer
integrity can be tested, a conventional workover is the better option since the tubing can be replaced with
new ones.

YOLIANDRI SUSILO; WAHJU WIBOWO

IATMI

Cement Design: The cement slurry for this job was a regular class G cement used for coiled tubing
cementing. It was designed to have short thickening time but still be safe enough to pump through coiled
tubing. The short thickening time was designed to reduce the possibility of cement inside tubing-casing
annulus flowing back into the tubing because of the u-tube effect while waiting on cement. A longer
thickening time will give more chance for the cement inside the casing to flow back into the tubing since
fluid (sea water) inside the tubing has less density than the cement inside the casing.
In cases where access into lower completions must be maintained, then tail cement is designed which
has a much longer thickening time or is contaminated in order to still be able to clean out the cement inside
the tubing once the cement in the annulus casing is set. Typically the tail cement and lead cement are mixed
together (so will have same density) and then it separated to put extra retarder. Equivalent weighted mud
could also be used to replace tail cement. In most cases, than weighted mud is preffer than tail cement
eventhough is more difficult to blend onsite. The last cople job we always use mud.
Gun Selection: The gun performance is very crucial for this application since it must be able to penetrate
the tubing-cement-casing-cement-formation. In this case, a deep penetration charge must be used to ensure
the penetration is sufficiently deep enough into the formation. Also, a hollow carrier gun is preferred
instead of a strip gun to prevent the gun from getting stuck and debris from accumulating after the gun is
fired. Typically, a 2 hollow carrier gun with 4 to 6 SPF deep penetration charges is used and so far proved
to have sufficient penetration to formation. Smaller gun, 1-9/16 HC gun, have showed to have very poor
penetration for this type of application.
On dual completion cases, a magnetic oriented device/tool is used to orient the gun and prevent the other
strings from being penetrated by the perforating charges.
Cement Packer Procedure
A guideline procedure for cement packer has been established as a best practice for this technique. The
procedure is as follows:
1. Perform tubing integrity test.
Plug should be installed at the tubing profile below the production packer for tubing integrity test
purposes. For gas lift wells, all GLV valves should be dummied-off.
2. Punch a hole in the tubing close to the production packer.
This can be done using a tubing puncher by slickline unit. Typically two punch holes are sufficient. If
GLM depth close enough then just left it blank and so no need to punch additional hole.
3. Circulate water from tubing to casing to fill up tubing and casing with liquid (uncompressible fluid)
4. Perform packer-casing integrity test.
5. Run coiled tubing to top of plug.
6. Pump lead cement through the coiled tubing while keeping the casing valve open and keeping the CTtubing annulus valve closed.
All cement slurry will automatically go to the casing after filling-up the tubing pass through the punch
hole point.
7. Close casing valve when all cement has gone out of CT. Open CT-tubing annulus valve while continue to
circulate water (displacement fluid).
8. Pump and lay in quivalent weighted mud (or tail cement) from the top of the plug to the punch hole
point. Pull out the CT to the surface (or a safe depth) while keeping water circulating to clean any
unwanted cement in the tubing above the punch hole point.
The cement inside the casing will not flow back into the tubing as long as the casing valve is closed and
the differential pressure achieved between tubing & casing is maintained. The differential pressure
between CHP & WHP is resulted from different on hydrostatic pressure inside tubing and inside casing
due to the different column/height of cement inside them. In this step, equivalent weighted mud could be
replaced with tail cement. (Tail cement is mixed together with lead cement to ensure the same cement
slurry density but then separated and added more retarder just before the tail cement will be pumped).

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CEMENT PACKER EXPERIENCE IN JAVA SEA: STATUS UP TO DATE

9. Close the CT-tubing annulus valves. Wait for the cement and keep monitoring the casing pressure
(CHP) and tubing pressure (WHP).
Pressure trends on the WHP & CHP can identify whether the cement inside the casing has set. Once
there are indications that the cement inside the casing has set, bleed off the casing valve to ensure that
there are no other communications (u-tube) between the casing and tubing.
10. Once the cement inside the casing has set, run CT back in hole to clean out mud (tail cement) to the top
of the plug until there is a clear return. POOH CT.
11. Pull out the plug (if necessary).
While waiting on the cement, the tubing pressure (WHP) and casing pressure (CHP) should be
monitored. These pressures can identify when the cement inside casing has set. Figures 5 show typical
pressure trends during cement setting process. Indications that the cement in the casing has set can be
identified when the differential pressure decreases and goes to minus or the WHP becomes lower than the
CHP. This is caused when there is no communication anymore between the tubing and casing once the
cement inside the casing annulus has already set. They will become two different closed systems. Pressure
tends to decrease when cement starts to set since the cement will release heat during this process and cause
the temperature to drop. Temperature drops cause volumes of fluid inside the casing and tubing to shrink
and the pressure decreases. This trend can be observed in every job where differential pressures were
obtained.
Field History
Two case histories are presented here. The first case history (Well LLB-8) was the first cement packer
application in the OWJ field. The second case history highlights the use of tail cement (retarded cement) in
order to be able to pull out the plug after treatment and still have access into the lower completion.
Case History # 1 (Well LLB-8)
LLB-8 monobore completion was the first well executed to develop by-passed reserves above production
packer. Previously, the well was shut in for 1 year due to being watered-out from the existing zone (L-62).
Another potential zone was located above the production packer. A conventional workover was not a good
option since it would have deferred production of at least 120 MMCFD because of the need to shut down the
platform during rig move-in/out. This was also especially undesirable at that time due to the high gas
demand. The other option was to try to dump the cement on the tubing-casing annulus to isolate the L-40
zone during production. This would only require coiled tubing by jack-up barge and would not require that
the platform be shut down during move-in/out. It was decided to use the cement packer technique to recover
this zone. Figure 3 shows the completion diagram of LLB-8 well before and after the cement packer job.
Prior to the cement job, all GLVs were dummied off. A plug was set on the nipple at 6620 MD and a
tubing integrity test was done to confirm that there were no leaks on the tubing. The gas lift valve in the
deepest GLM @ 6447 MD was pulled out and left blank. Filtered seawater was then circulated from tubing
to casing to clean out any hydrocarbon in casing and fill up casing with incompressible liquid. A total of 49
bbls of cement slurry were laid in from the top of the plug by using coiled tubing to let the cement fill up the
casing and tubing. 420 psi of higher differential pressure was maintained in the tubing compared to the
casing while waiting on the cement in order to keep the cement in the casing from flowing back into the
tubing. The job was successfully performed according to the design, with the top of the cement in the casing
predicted to be around 4685 MD and in tubing at 5959 MD.
The L-40 zone was perforated under balance using a 2 HC gun, 6 SPF 60 deg phasing, and was
continued with the perforation breakdown using 15% HCL acid. The well was flowed 4 MMCFD with
choke and 800 psi FTP. A cost savings of +/- US$ 400,000 (less than 20% of conventional workover costs)
was achieved through this technique. And after 2-year production, casing pressure is remained 0 psi that
indicate cement is still working good as isolation of producing zones.
Additional candidates were selected due to the encouraging results of this well. Continuing
improvements were also made as part of the learning curve through developing this technique.

YOLIANDRI SUSILO; WAHJU WIBOWO

IATMI

Case History # 3 (Well EQD-1)


The EQD-1 well is a dual completion. Previously, the short string side was shut in for several years due to
being watered out while the long string was still producing about 1.6 MMCFD of gas. Further log
evaluation identified a potential zone above the production packer. To work over the well to recover the
zone above the production packer could not be done without sacrificing the long string that still produced
gas. The cement packer was therefore the most suitable technique for this case. The job was planned so that
cement would be placed inside the tubing-casing annulus through the short string but still give access into
the lower completion in the short string. Figure 4 shows the completion diagram of EQD-1 well before and
after cement packer job
Prior to the cement job, all GLVs on both strings were dummied off and a plug was set in the short string
on SSD at 3,081 MD. Tubing integrity tests were done on both strings. Before placing cement, a short
string was punched @ 2,676 MD (close to the packer). Cement was pumped into the casing through this
point.
To make it easier to pull out the plug on the short string after placing cement, tail cement (retarded
cement) was used. The lead cement (5 hrs thickening time) filled up the tubing-casing annulus from the
packer to +/- 2,350 MD while the tail cement filled up the tubing from the top of the plug to the punched
hole (tail cement has a thickening time of >7 times longer than lead cement; this meant that the tail cement
inside the tubing could still be cleaned out when the lead cement inside the tubing-casing annulus was
already set). An initial differential pressure of 120 psi was achieved between the tubing head pressure &
casing pressure once the cement was placed. Figure 5 shows pressure response on casing pressure and CTtbg annulus pressure during waiting on cement.
After the cement inside the casing had set (based on pressure response indication in figure 7), the tail
cement inside the short string was then easily cleaned out. The plug on the short string at 3,081 MD could
be pulled out easily using slickline after the cement job and access into the lower completion could still be
maintained (well intervention into the lower completion still could be done on both strings after the job).
The E-22A & E-22B zones were then perforated through the short string using an oriented gun with 4 SPF, 0
deg phasing.
The initial short string production was 549 BOPD with 4.5 MMCFD of gas. The cost was less than 30%
of conventional workover jobs. Overall, the job was mechanically and economically very successful.
Results and Evaluations
A total of 14 wells have been reactivated to develop by-passed reserves above the production packers. Four
of them are dual completions, and three of the wells are single completion. The production results and the
cost of the treatments are summarized in Table 1.
The production results show that there are not many differences in well performance compared to the
initial rate predictions and conventional workovers. It shows the gun could penetrate deep enough into the
formation. On dual completion cases, the application of cement packer did not have much impact on the
performances of the other strings.
40-80% cost savings compared to conventional workover costs and savings of up to US$ 800,000 have
been achieved using the cement packer technique. Both overall production results and costs are encouraging.
However, questions remain on the longevity of the cement as isolation of productive zones. Therefore,
future job will involve the use of other types of cement, such as latex cement, to compare cement longevity.
Latex cement should have better cement bonding to metal (tubing & casing) that will result better longevity.
In summary, the cement packer technique has proven to be a low cost method to recover reserves above
production packers. These successful results have given rise to new opportunities for developing by passed
reserves with marginal potential within the ONWJ field. Most importantly, it brings opportunities for
reactivating many more shut-in wells.

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CEMENT PACKER EXPERIENCE IN JAVA SEA: STATUS UP TO DATE

Conclusions
1. Cement packer technique has proven successful as an alternative and attractive way to develop the zones
above production packer.
2. There are no differences in production results between cement packers and conventional workovers.
3. A guideline procedure for the cement packer technique has been developed and presented.
References
1) Susilo, Y., Wahju, W., Rich, D.: Cement Packer: An Innovative Technique to Recover Reserves
Above Packer Without Re-completion, paper SPE 78493 presented at 10th ADIPEC in Abu Dhabi,
United Arab Emirate, 13-16 Oct 2002.
2) Nelson, E.B, editors: Well Cementing, Schlumberger Educational Services, 1990.
3) McLeods, B.: Effect on Perforating Condition on Well Performance, paper SPE 10649
4) Kroell, E., Spoerker, H.F.: Brief: Slimhole Completion and Production, JPT, September 1996.
5) Nowak, T.W., et al: Rigless Multi-zone Recompletion Using a Cement Packer Placed with Coiled
Tubing: A Case history, paper SPE 35613 presented at the Gas Technology Conference, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada, 28 Apr 1 May 1996.
6) Loveland, K.R., Bond, A.J.: Recent Applications of Coiled Tubing in Remedial Wellwork at Prudhoe
Bay, paper SPE 35587 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 22-24 May
1996.
7) Hathcock, Larry et al: Innovative Through-tubing Workover Process Utilizing a Cement Packer, paper
SPE 30510 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX, 22-25 Oct
1995.
8) Soetedja, V., Hunter, D.L.: Production Optimizing With Coiled Tubing and Other Rigless Techniques,
paper SPE 36963 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference, Adelaide, Australia, 28-31
October 1996.

YOLIANDRI SUSILO; WAHJU WIBOWO

IATMI

ONWJ

Offshore North West Java Contract Area


AV
AVS
AA

S
U
M
AT
E

KALIMANTA SULAWES
N
I

AV
VA
JJ A

BIMA

ZU

APN

ARDJUNA
B

L
KLX

KLY

E
F

U
CILAMAY
CILAMAYA

JAKAR
JAKART

CIREBON
CIREBON
25

50

Fig. 1 Offshore North West Java Contract Area

Pre-Treatment Completion
2-7/8
Tubing

Post-Treatment Completion
Conventional Workover

Cement Packer

9-5/8
Casing

Cement
New Zone

New Zone
New Zone
Packer
Zone # 1
Packer
Zone # 2

New Zone

New Zone
Cmt Retainer

New Zone
Packer
Zone # 1

Zone # 1

Zone # 3

Zone # 2
Packer

Packer
Zone # 3

Zone # 3
7 Shoe

Packer

Packer
Zone # 2

Packer

Packer

7 Shoe

7 Shoe

Fig 2. Pre & Post-Treatment Completion of Conventional Workover vs. Cement Packer

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CEMENT PACKER EXPERIENCE IN JAVA SEA: STATUS UP TO DATE

LLB-8 Well
Before
3-1/2 Tubing

After
3-1/2 Tubing

1639 MD
2429 MD
3191 MD
3919 MD

GLM

4588 MD

4685
LL-40 Zone

5228 MD

( 5232-5246 )

5868 MD

Cement

5959

6447 MD
Packer @ 6550 MD

Packer @ 6550 MD

7 Casing

7 Casing

X- Nipple @ 6620 MD

LL-62 zone
( 8113-8150 )

X- Nipple @ 6620 MD

X- Nipple @ 6620 MD

LL-62 zone
( 8113-8150 )

3-1/2 Monobore

X- Nipple @ 6620 MD

3-1/2 Monobore

Fig. 3 LLB-8 Well Completion Diagram Before & After Treatment

EQD-1 Well
Before

2-7/8
Tubing
1259 MD

After

1286 MD

1830 MD

1856 MD

GLM

GLM
2246 MD

2276 MD

2535 MD

2558 MD
Packer @ 2702

E-23

Cement

E-22 Zone
(2561-2566)
(2587-2602)

Packer @ 2702

E-23
3081

Packer @ 3050

Packer @ 3050

E-26A

E-26
Packer @ 3213

Packer @ 3213

E-27B

E-27B
Packer @ 3490

Packer @ 3490

E-29/30

E-29/30
9-5/8 Casing

9-5/8 Casing

Fig. 4 EQD-1 Well Completion Diagram Before & After Treatment

10

YOLIANDRI SUSILO; WAHJU WIBOWO

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Table 1 Cement Packer Job Summary


Size
Rate
Well
Completion
Dev. Casing Tubing
type
BOPD MCFD
(deg)
(in)
(in)

Cost
( US$ )

No.

Well #

LLB-8

Single

50

7"

3-1/2"

URA-4

Dual

50

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

BD-5

Single

49

9-5/8"

3-1/2"

2,500

160,800

BK-1S

Dual

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

453

74,000

BNA-5

Single

50

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

500

244,400

EQD-1S

Dual

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

4,524

157,500

EZA-4S

Dual

52

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

2,957

116,700

LLD-13S

Dual

51

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

1,450

2,200

345,000

FZA-1S

Dual

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

>2,000

160,000

10

PB-2

Single

55

9-5/8"

3-1/2"

Not Perforated

80,200

11

BF-3

Dual

48

9-5/8"

3-1/2"

273

380

82,300

12

BL-3

Dual

50

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

72

129,800

13

LLB-8

Single

50

7"

3-1/2"

318

445

186,800

14

LLB-1

Dual

58

9-5/8"

2-7/8"

413

79,200

549

4,084
-

82,000
232,400

EQD-1S Pressure Reading

500

PRESSURE, PSIG

400
300
200

100
Cement set in
consistometer

0
0
-100
-200

100

200

CT-TBG PRESS

CASING PRESS

300

400

500

Cement set
in water bath

DIFF PRESS

ELAPSED WOC TIME, MINS

Fig. 5 Well EQD-1S Pressure Reading During Waiting on Cement (WOC)

600