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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objective

To understand the proper ways of handling the blast furnace

To determine the materials needed to feed the blast furnace

To understand the process and mechanism of the blast furnace

1.2 Introduction
A vertical shaft furnace that produces liquid metals by the reaction of a flow of air
introduced under pressure into the bottom of the furnace with a mixture of metallic ore, coke,
and flux fed into the top. Blast furnaces are used to produce pig iron from iron ore for
subsequent processing into steel, and they are also employed in processing lead, copper, and
other metals. Rapid combustion is maintained by the current of air under pressure.
Blast furnaces produce pig iron from iron ore by the reducing action of carbon
(supplied as coke) at a high temperature in the presence of a fluxing agent such as limestone.
Ironmaking blast furnaces consist of several zones: a crucible-shaped hearth at the bottom of
the furnace; an intermediate zone called a bosh between the hearth and the stack; a vertical
shaft (the stack) that extends from the bosh to the top of the furnace; and the furnace top,
which contains a mechanism for charging the furnace. The furnace charge, or burden, of ironbearing materials (e.g., iron-ore pellets and sinter), coke, and flux (e.g., limestone) descends
through the shaft, where it is preheated and reacts with ascending reducing gases to produce
liquid iron and slag that accumulate in the hearth.

Figure 1.1

The bosh is the hottest part of the furnace because of its close proximity to the
reaction between air and coke. Molten iron accumulates in the hearth, which has a taphole to
draw off the molten iron and, higher up, a slag hole to remove the mixture of impurities and
flux. The hearth and bosh are thick-walled structures lined with carbon-type refractory
blocks, while the stack is lined with high-quality fireclay brick to protect the furnace shell. To
keep these refractory materials from burning out, plates, staves, or sprays for circulating cool
water are built into them.
The stack is kept full with alternating layers of coke, ore, and limestone admitted at
the top during continuous operation. Coke is ignited at the bottom and burned rapidly with
the forced air from the tuyeres. The iron oxides in the ore are chemically reduced to molten
iron by carbon and carbon monoxide from the coke. The slag formed consists of the
limestone flux, ash from the coke, and substances formed by the reaction of impurities in the
ore with the flux; it floats in a molten state on the top of the molten iron. Hot gases rise from
the combustion zone, heating fresh material in the stack and then passing out through ducts
near the top of the furnace.
Blast furnaces may have the following ancillary facilities: a stock house where the
furnace burden is prepared prior to being elevated to the furnace top by skip cars or a belt
conveyor system; a top-charging system consisting of a vertical set of double bells (cones) or
rotating chutes to prevent the release of furnace gas during charging; stoves that utilize the
furnace off-gases to preheat the air delivered to the tuyeres; and a cast house, consisting of
troughs that distribute liquid iron and slag to appropriate ladles for transfer to steelmaking
furnaces and slag-reclamation areas.

CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Procedures

1. Iron oxides can come to the blast furnace plant in the form of raw ore, pellets or sinter
2. Coal was dumped into large ovens where it was heated up to 2.4k degrees which remove most
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

coal gases and converts it to coke


Coke was used because it burns with intense heat and little smoke
Coke and iron ore and limestone was sent into the blast furnace
The elements were hoisted to the top of the furnace and sprinkled In layers of the stove
Hot blasts of air raised melts the falling ore
The molten iron were collected at the bottom and drained
Impurities raised from the top of the ore and were skimmed off.

Figure 2.1 Blast Furnace

CHAPTER 3

RESULTS

Figure 3.1 The outgoing composition

Figure 3.2 Heat in and out

Figure 3.3 Charging result

Figure 3.4 Heat and mass balance

CHAPTER 4

DISCUSSION

Based on the result above , Fe was found the most abundant in the hot that produced
the final product of this experiment. The percentage of Fe was 94.91% that conclude almost a
full part of the composition of the sample itself. Furthermore , 3.61% Carbon was found and
1.0% Si was detected from the hot metal produced. The slag composition was also
determined with 41.85% of CaO was indicated the highest amount present in the slag among
other compositions that was 34.99% SiO2 , 11.87% Al2O3 and 10.3% MgO. The most used
gas was non other than Co2 with 42.15% that can be proved by observing the slag amount
that had been oxidized.
The mass that had been used in this experiment and the mass produced by the
experiment can be seen in figure 3.4. The mass that was used approximately 2972.44kg
meanwhile the mass of the product was 2856.90kg. There was a 2% increase of mass. The hot
metal produced was 35% out of all mass that was from the experiment with 1000kg. The
most contributed heat in was over 50%. In contrast the most heat contributed to heat out was
oxide decomposition due to high oxygen usage.
The overall result can be seen in the charging result in figure 3.3. The utilization
energy of the experiment was very high which means that the energy was fully utilized and
there are few excess energy left. Unfortunately there are mass balance error recorded that
may had happen due to the product produce more mass and the slag mostly fused with the
oxygen which might be the cause of the massive mass. As an example Fe fused with oxygen
and becomes FeO.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

In a nutshell , the experiment was conducted to fully utilized the ways of handling the
blast furnace was a success with only few errors recorded on the simulation. We can conclude
that the parameter for the blast furnace is very crucial on getting the best result. The materials
needed to feed the blast furnace was discovered and identified. The process and mechanism
of the blast furnace was determined.

REFERENCES

1. https://www.steeluniversity.org/play/blast-furnace-simulation/
2. Paper XVIII.The chemistry of the blast-furnace I. Lowthian Bell J. Chem. Soc.,
1869,22, 203-254
3. The Iron Blast Furnace: Theory and Practice Book by J. G. Peacey and William
George Davenport