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Film Terms

Shots
Long Shot (LS): Overall view from a distance of whole scene often
used as an establishing shot - to set scene. Person - will show whole
body.
Wide Shot (WS): Extremely wide shot - shot with wide-angle lens.
Medium or Mid Shot (MS): Middle distance shot - can give
background information while still focusing on subject. Person -
usually shows waist to head.
Close Up (CU): Focuses on detail / expression / reaction Person -
shows either head or head and shoulders.
Extreme Close Up (ECU): Shows part of object in extremely close
detail Person - e.g. eye or part of face
Over the Shoulder Shot: Camera shoots from over the shoulder of
one character from behind. Often used for dialogue.
Subjective Shot (P.O.V. Shot): Framed from a particular character's
point of view. Audience sees what character sees.
Camera Movement
Pan Camera moves from side to side from a stationary position
Tilt Movement up or down from a stationary position
Zoom Camera is stationary - Lens moves closer to the subject
(zoom in) or further away from the subject (zoom out).
Tracking Following anything by physically moving the camera or by
camera action.
Camera Angles
Low Angle Camera shoots up at subject. Used to increase size,
power, status of subject
High Angle Camera shoots down at subject. Used to increase
vulnerability, powerlessness, decrease size

Editing
Cut The ending of a shot. If the cut seems inconsistent with the
next shot, it is called a jump cut.
Fade in or out The image appears or disappears gradually. Often
used as a division between scenes.
Dissolve One image fades in while another fades out so that for a
few seconds, the two are superimposed.
lnpoint An image which starts the scene. Sometimes the inpoint is
used to smooth the transition between scenes, by making a visual
link with the previous scene.
Sound
Soundtrack Consists of dialogue, sound effects and music. Should
reveal something about the scene that visual images don't.
Sound effects All sounds not made by characters.
a) Foley effects : made by actions of on-screen characters. Often
need to be enhanced or dubbed on later.
b) Atmosphere : background sounds e.g. wind, birds, dogs barking.
Lighting
Strongly influences the way the film looks and feels. Lighting effects
are created by the use of artificial lights, natural lighting and
reflection, and the use of colour filters
Structure of a Film
Shot This is the basic unit from which the film is constructed
Sequence A group of shots depicting one action, or which seem to
belong together.
Scene A group of sequences, or for short scenes, a group of shots,
which depict an event in the story or occur in one place. A scene is
generally a larger unit than a sequence.

Other Terms
Hand held camera The tripod and dolly are sometimes deliberately
abandoned in favour of holding the camera by hand, when a
director wants to create a sense of anxiety or confusion, exploiting
the unsteady movement of the camera, or to create an "realistic"
impression.
Storyboard Drawn up when designing a production. Plans AV text
and shows how each shot relates to sound track.
Freeze-frame A single frame stopped so that we just see that
frame.
Composition All the elements which contribute to the appearance of
a frame.
Shots
Long Shot (LS): Overall view from a distance of whole scene often
used as an establishing shot - to set scene. Person - will show whole
body.
Wide Shot (WS): Extremely wide shot - shot with wide-angle lens.
Medium or Mid Shot (MS): Middle distance shot - can give
background information while still focusing on subject. Person -
usually shows waist to head.
Close Up (CU): Focuses on detail / expression / reaction Person -
shows either head or head and shoulders.
Extreme Close Up (ECU): Shows part of object in extremely close
detail Person - e.g. eye or part of face
Over the Shoulder Shot: Camera shoots from over the shoulder of
one character from behind. Often used for dialogue.
Subjective Shot (P.O.V. Shot): Framed from a particular character's
point of view. Audience sees what character sees.
Camera Movement
Pan Camera moves from side to side from a stationary position
Tilt Movement up or down from a stationary position
Tracking The camera moves to follow a moving object or person
Crab The whole camera is moved to the left or right on a dolly track
which allows the camera to be physically moved closer or further
away from, or parallel to the subject.
Zoom Camera is stationary - Lens moves closer to the subject
(zoom in) or further away from the subject (zoom out).
Aerial Shots taken from a helicopter or aircraft.
Camera Angles
Low Angle Camera shoots up at subject. Used to increase size,
power, status of subject
High Angle Camera shoots down at subject. Used to increase
vulnerability, powerlessness, decrease size
Editing
When considering editing, it is important to consider shot duration
(how long each shot in a sequence lasts), - juxtaposition (how shots
and sequences follow each other) and pace of editing (whether
shots are rapidly juxtaposed or whether the pace of the sequence is
more slow-moving).
Cut The ending of a shot. If the cut seems inconsistent with the
next shot, it is called a jump cut.
Fade in or out The image appears or disappears gradually. Often
used as a division between scenes.
Dissolve One image fades in while another fades out so that for a
few seconds, the two are superimposed.
lnpoint An image which starts the scene. Sometimes the inpoint is
used to smooth the transition between scenes, by making a visual
link with the previous scene.
Cutaways Type of cutting usually in which the reaction of one
character to another or to an event is shown. They can compress
time without losing continuity.
Soundtrack
Consists of dialogue, sound effects and music. Should reveal
something about the scene that visual images don't.
Lighting
Strongly influences the way the film looks and feels. Lighting effects
are created by the use of artificial lights, natural lighting and
reflection, and the use of colour filters
Structure of a Film
Shot This is the basic unit from which the film is constructed
Sequence A group of shots depicting one action, or which seem to
belong together.
Scene A group of sequences, or for short scenes, a group of shots,
which depict an event in the story or occur in one place. A scene is
generally a larger unit than a sequence.
Other Terms
Hand held camera The tripod and dolly are sometimes deliberately
abandoned in favour of holding the camera by hand, when a
director wants to create a sense of anxiety or confusion, exploiting
the unsteady movement of the camera, or to create an "realistic"
impression.
Montage The editing together of a large number of shots with no
intention of creating a continuous reality. A montage is often used
to compress time, and montage shots are linked through a unified
sound - either a voiceover or a piece of music.
Storyboard Drawn up when designing a production. Plans AV text
and shows how each shot relates to sound track.
Freeze-frame A single frame stopped so that we just see that
frame.
Shots
Long Shot (LS): Overall view from a distance of whole scene often
used as an establishing shot - to set scene. Person - will show whole
body.
Wide Shot (WS): Extremely wide shot - shot with wide-angle lens.
Medium or Mid Shot (MS): Middle distance shot - can give
background information while still focusing on subject. Person -
usually shows waist to head.
Close Up (CU): Focuses on detail / expression / reaction Person -
shows either head or head and shoulders.
Extreme Close Up (ECU): Shows part of object in extremely close
detail Person - e.g. eye or part of face
Over the Shoulder Shot: Camera shoots from over the shoulder of
one character from behind. Often used for dialogue.
Reverse Angle shot Alternate over the shoulder shot. Shows
viewpoint of speaker in dialogue, reaction of listener.
Two-Shot: Shot includes two people, often to indicate relationship
information.
Subjective Shot (P.O.V. Shot): Framed from a particular character's
point of view. Audience sees what character sees.
Camera Movement
Pan Camera moves from side to side from a stationary position
Tilt Movement up or down from a stationary position
Tracking The camera moves to follow a moving object or person
Crab The whole camera is moved to the left or right on a dolly track
which allows the camera to be physically moved closer or further
away from, or parallel to the subject.
Zoom Camera is stationary - Lens moves closer to the subject
(zoom in) or further away from the subject (zoom out).
Crane Camera moves up/down in any direction when mounted on a
crane.
Aerial Shots taken from a helicopter or aircraft.
Camera Angles
Low Angle Camera shoots up at subject. Used to increase size,
power, status of subject
High Angle Camera shoots down at subject. Used to increase
vulnerability, powerlessness, decrease size
Editing
When considering editing, it is important to consider shot duration
(how long each shot in a sequence lasts), - juxtaposition (how shots
and sequences follow each other) and pace of editing (whether
shots are rapidly juxtaposed or whether the pace of the sequence is
more slow-moving).
Cut The ending of a shot. If the cut seems inconsistent with the
next shot, it is called a jump cut.
Fade in or out The image appears or disappears gradually. Often
used as a division between scenes.
Dissolve One image fades in while another fades out so that for a
few seconds, the two are superimposed.
lnpoint An image which starts the scene. Sometimes the inpoint is
used to smooth the transition between scenes, by making a visual
link with the previous scene.
Sound
Soundtrack Consists of dialogue, sound effects and music. Should
reveal something about the scene that visual images don't.
Sound effects All sounds not made by characters.
a) Foley effects : made by actions of on-screen characters. Often
need to be enhanced or dubbed on later.
b) Atmosphere : background sounds e.g. wind, birds, dogs barking.
Lighting
Strongly influences the way the film looks and feels. Lighting effects
are created by the use of artificial lights, natural lighting and
reflection, and the use of colour filters
Structure of a Film
Shot This is the basic unit from which the film is constructed
Sequence A group of shots depicting one action, or which seem to
belong together.
Scene A group of sequences, or for short scenes, a group of shots,
which depict an event in the story or occur in one place. A scene is
generally a larger unit than a sequence.

Other Terms
Hand held camera The tripod and dolly are sometimes deliberately
abandoned in favour of holding the camera by hand, when a
director wants to create a sense of anxiety or confusion, exploiting
the unsteady movement of the camera, or to create an "realistic"
impression.
Montage The editing together of a large number of shots with no
intention of creating a continuous reality. A montage is often used
to compress time, and montage shots are linked through a unified
sound - either a voiceover or a piece of music.
Mise-en-scene The manipulation of staging and action within a shot.
Includes action, costumes, framing, camera placement, lenses.
Storyboard Drawn up when designing a production. Plans AV text
and shows how each shot relates to sound track.
Freeze-frame A single frame stopped so that we just see that
frame.
Depth of field Amount of distance able to be focused upon sharply.
Composition All the elements which contribute to the appearance of
a frame
Movement Also affects composition. Can be of three kinds:
a) Movement within the frame when people or objects move.
Walking into frame refers to a character moving into the frame.
b) Movement of the frame (pan, tilt, zoom)
c) Camera movement (tracking, etc.)
Cinematography Includes all aspect of camera-work - types of shots