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# Phase 1 ISD Project

Will Foster
Elizabeth Haas

Problem: Students must be able to factor basic quadratics in order to solve for the roots of quadratics; however, pre-test data shows
that students show no understanding of factoring.

1.1 Instructional Goal- Teach analytic geometry students to factor quadratic functions when a is equal to one.

1.2 Learners will be students in Analytic Geometry in Mr. Foster and Mrs. Haas classes. They will be provided with calculators to aid
them and will be assessed with post tests to compare to the pre-test. Additionally, this skill will be needed later in the unit to solve real

## 1.3 Mager and Pipe Performance Model

The gap was evident in pre-test data; if students lives depended on factoring quadratics, they would still not be able to complete the
task. No students demonstrated any knowledge of quadratic factoring on the pre-test; thus, the gap is extremely large. Direct
instruction for this new content is essential, as well as feedback as a corrective measure, coaching to ensure the right attitudes
are developed toward this skill, and possible job aids to assist them in factoring. Potential job aids could be a factoring YouTube video
or a multiplication table for students weak in multiplication. Even though the gap is evident, the right side of the Mager and Pipe

model is still important to explore. For example, motivation is always a key issue with high school aged students, so we will consider
this in our design by making relevant questions. We will ensure that performance of the task is rewarding to all learners through verbal
praise and support. We will also ensure that non-performance is not rewarding. We will not bring attention to non-performance
because attention is often what non-performers seek. We will confront non-performance with positive coaching and support using
relevant questioning that places emphasis on the question of When we will we need this? The environment in the classroom setting
will allow learners to feel safe and will be an environment where questioning is encouraged high-expectations are the norm.

## 2.1 Learning Goal Worksheet- See attachment

Instructor(s):
Program:
Will
ISD
Foster
Project
& Elizabeth Haas

Date: 11/9/14

Measurement:

Learning Goal
Using the steps laid out in their notes (CN) students will be able to
factor and solve a quadratic equation in standard form with a
leading coefficient of 1 (B) completely and correctly as modeled by
their instructor (CR).
Performance
Condition
Intellectual Cognitive
(learning
Skills
Strategies
environment)
With teacher/material
support (CN) students
will identify function
standard form (B) to
determine if this type
of factoring is
appropriate (CR).
Using their notes (CN)
students will state the
equation (B) that
represent a, b, and c
in the standard form
of the equation (CR).
Using their notes (CN)
students will confirm
if a=1 (B) to ensure
they use the correct
method of factoring
(CR).

Classroom
Instruction

## With the assistance of

a calculator and a
multiplication chart
(CN) students will list
all the factors of c (B)
correctly and
completely (CR).
Using the rhyme, the
to equal c (CN)
students will identify
the factors of c that
sum to equal b (B) in
preparation for two
binomial form (CR).
Using their notes and
teacher support (CN)
students will place the
factors identified

Classroom
Instruction

Classroom Eval.- x
Performance Test- x
Verbal
Information

Motor
Skills

Attitude

Criterion
(restrictions,
tools)
- Standard form
function.

Classroom
Instruction

- Graphic
labeling a, b,
and c.

Classroom
Instruction

- Notes

Classroom
Instruction

Classroom
Instruction

- Calculator
- Multiplication
Table
- Notes

- Calculator
- Notes

- Notes

2.2 The domain classification for our problem is classified as an intellectual skill. It is classified as intellectual because it requires the
learner to solve a problem that differs from previously encountered examples (Dick, Carey, & Carey 2001/2015 p. 43). The learner
must be able to solve by factoring a quadratic when A=1 by applying learned rules and procedures.

## Diagram of Main Steps:

1. Identify function as quadratic in standard form

Identify
function as a
standard form

Identify the
characteristics
of standard
form

Define
Function

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
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18.
19.
20.
21.
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25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

## Students will solve by factoring a quadratic equation where

A=1

Identify A,
B, and C in
the
function

Determine
if the
coefficient
of A is
equal to 1

Determine
if the
coefficient
of A=1

List the
factors of C

Select the
factors of C
that sum to
equal B

Write Solve
Set
the each
each
factorsequation
binomial
in
two equal to
binomial
zero,
form forming an
equation

Calculate
the factors
of a number

Identify two
binomial
form

and negative
numbers
Define
Coefficient

Define
factor

47. 2.3. The instructional analysis method we have chosen is to use a hierarchical analysis of
the steps and subordinate skills for the problem we have identified. We have identified
the subordinate skills and entry skills required to reach our instructional goal. See
attached diagram detailing our instructional analysis.
48.

Solve an
equation
containing
one variable
Define
Define
Binomial
Equation

49. 2.4. As identified in the instructional analysis, the entry behaviors listed below are
behaviors that should have been mastered prior to a student being introduced to the
problem identified in the goal statement.
50.

Define factor

Define equation

## Solve an equation for 1 variable

Define binomial

Define coefficient

51.
52. 2.5. After conducting our needs and task analysis, we still feel that this is an instructional
issue. Our goal is to design instruction for analytic geometry students that will teach
them how to factor basic quadratics when a is equal to one.
53.
54. Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2015). Introduction to Instructional Design. In The
55. Systematic Design of Instruction (8th ed., pp. 43). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
56.
57.
58.
59. Phase 2 ISD Project
60. Will Foster
61. Elizabeth Haas
62.
63. 3.1 Performance and Context Analysis
64. Performance Context:

65. As identified in our needs assessment, our target learners need to master our terminal
objective, because it is a standard for instruction required by the Georgia Department of
Education. Beyond high school our learners need to have mastered this concept to
prepare them to be successful on high stakes tests (ACT, SAT) and in collegiate math
classes. Our learners will also need to have mastered this concept in order to apply it in
various engineering situations where they are required to find the distance an object will
have traveled after it is propelled to a certain height, or the inverse of that.
66. Learner Environment:
67. The physical environment will be the math classroom. Each student is placed in a seat
where we think they will most effectively learn the material. Students with ADHD or
visual problems will be placed close to the front, so they can be redirected more often and
can see the board/visuals more clearly. On the board the objective of the lesson will be
posted for the instructor to reference and students to review. There are several visual aids
on the board that offer students help when struggling with difficult mathematical
processes. One of these includes a large calculator poster that the instructor can use as a
visual reference when teaching calculator functions. The schedule for the day and a list of
concepts and activities will be posted to allow students to focus on the material, as
opposed to what we have planned for the day(s).
68. The room is designed to allow the instructor(s) to be able to walk to every desk in order
to provide assistance when needed. The teacher will also model activities on the
whiteboard or document viewer at the front of the classroom. Below is a chart showing
the location of instruction and the resources/tools available to the instructor and learners.
69.
70. Location(s):
71. Available Tools and Resources:
72. Math Classroom
73. Calculators
74.
75. Multiplication Charts
76.
77. Projector and Document Viewer
78.
79. Smart Board
80.
81. Various Aids (posters, diagrams,
memory tools)
82.
83. Classroom and individual marker
boards and markers
84.
85. 3.2 Learner Analysis and Entry Skills Analysis
86. We would first determine the entry skills of our group of learners. We would do this by
giving them a pre-test at the beginning of each unit of instruction. The results of
questions pertaining to this lesson (ability to find factors/ability to solve equations) would
be evaluated and would dictate what pre-requisites we emphasize leading up to this
lesson. We would also examine the results of Gardiners Learning Intelligences
Inventory that each student will have taken earlier in the year. We will also ask each
student at the beginning of the year to indicate their feelings toward lecture/note based
instruction and individually led/computer based instruction. We also asked them their
answer to the question How do you learn best? We will use the answer to this question,
their lesson presentation preferences, as well as the learning style indicated by the
assessment to design instruction that seeks to effectively reach every learner. Before
designing instructing we would also look at the IEPs of each student we have with

special needs. We would see what accommodations they require and ensure that our
instruction provides those accommodations to them. Below is an example table detailing
the information to be collected. The names are not names of actual students.
87.
88.
89. Dis
91. Gardiner
92.
93. Acco
N
C
pos
to How
s
IE
mmo
itio
do you
Learning
dation
n
learn
Intelligen
s
To
best?
ces
94. Need
war
Inventory
ed:
ds
Co
nte
nt
95.
96.
97. Pos
98. I learn
99. Logical/
100.
101.
Jo
9
itiv
best
Mathema
N
n/a
e
through
tical
feel
notes and
ing
repeating
s
a
tow
process.
ard
s
lect
ure/
tea
che
r
led
inst
ruct
ion
102.
103.
104.
105.
I
106.
V
107.
108.
H
9
No
learn
isualY
pre
best by
Spatial
aloud
fere
seeing
direct
nce
examples
ions,
in
/modelin
notes
pre
g.
provi
sen
ded,
tati
multi
on
plicati
of
on
inst
chart.
ruct
ion.
Pre

109.
Ji

110.
8

116.
C

117.
9

fers
mo
deli
ng
of
beh
avi
or
req
uire
d.
111.
Does
not
like
lect
ure.
Ne
gati
ve
attit
ude
tow
ard
s
tea
che
r
lea
d
inst
ruct
ion.
118.
Positiv
e
feel
ing
s
tow
ard
s
lect
ure
and
fee

112.
I
learn
best
when I
can work
at my
own
pace.

113.
B
odilyKinesthet
ic

114.
N

115.
n/a

119.
I
learn
best
when a
teacher
tells me
somethin
g new
and then
shows
me how
it can be
done.

120.
Li
nguistic

121.
N

122.
n/a

123.
Bi

124.
7

130.
T

131.
8

dba
ck.
Pre
fers
tea
che
r
sup
por
t.
125.
Positiv
e
attit
ude
tow
ard
s
tea
che
r
led
inst
ruct
ion.
132.
Positiv
e
attit
ude
tow
ard
s
tea
che
r
lea
d
inst
ruct
ion.
Pre
fers
lots
of
exa

126.
I
like to
learn
using
notes as
a guide
and then
trying
things on
my own.

127.
L
ogical/M
athematic
al

128.
Y

133.
I
learn
best
when a
teacher
shows
me the
steps and
I can just
follow
the step
until I
remembe
r/underst
and
them.

134.
L
ogical/M
athematic
al

135.
Y

129.
aloud
direct
ions,
graph
ic
organ
izer if
applic
able,
multi
plicati
on
chart.
136.
Small
group
testin
g,
multi
plicati
on
chart

137.
M

138.
9

mpl
es
139.
No
pre
fere
nce
s in
pre
sen
tati
on.
Pre
fers
to
be
abl
e to
que
stio
ns
ofte
n

140.
I
learn
best
when I
can
practice
problems
on my
own and
once I
have
finished I
questions
them.

141.
Li
nguistic

142.
N

143.

144.
145.
Below we have included the results of the entry skills assessment for questions
pertaining to the prerequisite skills of this lesson:
146.
S
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
kill
Solving
Solving
Solving
Creating
Creating
Assessed
Equa
Equa
Equa
Com
Com
/Questio
tions
tions
tions
plete
plete
n
w/
with
with
Facto
Facto
Number:
Whol
Whol
Whol
r List
r List
147.
e
e
e
#8
#21
Num
Num
Num
bers
ber
ber
#4
#15
#20
153.
%
154.
156.
158.
160.
162.
of
Students
155.
157.
159.
161.
163.
Who
60%
65%
55%
85%
90%
d
Correctly
:
164.

165.
The data in the table above has shown that the students lack the skills required to
solve equations with whole numbers. The day before our lesson we will work with the
students on this skill and ask that each student complete several practice problems for
homework. The data above also shows that the learners have almost completely mastered
finding the factors of a number. We will not need to re-teach this skill as the learners have
shown proficiency in it and they can use their calculator as an aid.
166.
3.3 Technology Analysis
167.
Technology Assessment
168.
Technology Planning and
169.
There is no specified
Policies
technology policy at the school.
Teachers are encouraged to use
technology at their discretion.
Technology is expected to be used
appropriately and responsibly, and it
needs to be the most effective
instruction available. If a specified
technology plan exists it is not
communicated to the teachers.
170.
171.
Financing
172.
average in comparison of technology
expenditures in both our region and our
state. We do update technology on a
regular basis. Our infrastructure is
sound, but we do not offer the support
and professional development in this
field to be at the top of the state or
region.
173.
Equipment and
174.
Our school does have several
Infrastructure
media labs. There are three PC labs and
one Mac lab. Our school does have
high speed internet, but we do not have
the bandwidth to support a device for
each of our students. In my classroom
there is 1 computer to 28 students in an
average class. My classroom has a
projector, a TV with cable, a document
viewer, and a mimio/smartboard
device.
175.
Technology Applications
176.
Our school has some
technology applications. These
applications are not cross curricular and
are used to support students who are
credit online or who need remedial

177.
Technology Maintenance and
Support

179.

Professional Development

181.

Technology Integration

178.
Our school does have resources
in place to maintain technology, but the
technology department would be
understaffed if the technology needs of
the school increased.
180.
Staff receives few if any hours
of technology related professional
development. Some technology related
topics are discussed in faculty meetings
and the district will offer professional
development with a focus on
technology to 5-10 people per year per
school.
182.
Around 1/3 of teachers are
proficient in the use of technology for
learning. Possibly 1/3 of the students
are proficient in the use of technology
for learning. Technology is integrated
in some classrooms around the school,
but not the majority. The school is a
level two on the LOTI Scale. My
classroom is a level 3 on the LOTI
Scale.

183.
184.
185.
4.1-4.3 Terminal Objective (TO), 3 Subordinate Objectives (1 Cognitive, 1
Intellectual, 1 Verbal) and Performance Objectives as reflected in the Learning Goal
Worksheet.
186.
TO (Intellectual):
187.
Using the steps laid out in their notes (CN) students will be able to factor and
solve a quadratic equation in standard form with a leading coefficient of 1 (B) completely
and correctly as modeled by their instructor (CR).
188. - This skill is categorized as an intellectual skill, and would be classified as wellstructured problem solving (Dick, Dick, & Carey pp. 43, 2014).
189.
SO #1 (Cognitive):
190.
Using the rhyme, the factors of c add to equal b (CN) students will identify the
factors of c that sum to equal b (B) in preparation for two binomial form (CR).
191. - This cognitive strategy would be classified as mental repetition because it
requires the learner to mentally repeat that the factors of c add to equal b in order to
remember and apply the new information to problems.
192.
193.
SO #2 (Intellectual):
194.
With teacher/material support (CN) students will identify function as quadratic in
standard form (B) to determine if this type of factoring is appropriate (CR).
195. - This intellectual skill would be classified as forming concepts as defined by
Gagnes domains of learning (Dick et. al, pp. 42 2014).

196.
SO #3 (Verbal):
197.
Using their notes (CN) students will state the pieces of a quadratic equation (B)
that represent a, b, and c in the standard form of the equation (CR).
198. - This verbal skill would be classified as a learner stating something as defined by
Gagnes domains of learning (Dick et. al, pp. 43 2014).
199.
200.
201.
Performance Objectives:
202.
Objectives:
203.
Domain:
204.
With teacher/material
205.
Intellectual
support (CN) students will identify
form (B) to determine if this type of
factoring is appropriate (CR).
206.
Using their notes (CN)
207.
Verbal
students will state the pieces of a
a, b, and c in the standard form of
the equation (CR).
208.
Using their notes (CN)
209.
Verbal
students will confirm if a=1 (B) to
ensure they use the correct method of
factoring (CR).
210.
With the assistance of a
211.
Intellectual
calculator and a multiplication chart
(CN) students will list all the factors
of c (B) correctly and completely
(CR).
212.
Using the calculator (CN)
213.
Cognitive
students will Identify the factors of c
that sum to equal b (B) in
preparation for two binomial form.
214.
Using their notes and teacher
215.
Intellectual
support (CN) students will place the
factors identified earlier into two
binomial form (B) as their model
demonstrates.
216.
Following the model in their
217.
Intellectual
notes (CN) students will set each
binomial equal to zero (B) to form
two equations (CR).
218.
Using their notes as a guide
219.
Intellectual
(CN) students will solve each
equation (B) to identify each solution
(CR).
220.

221.
222.
5.1 Subordinate Objective: With teacher/material support (CN) students will
identify function as quadratic in standard form (B) to determine if this type of factoring is
appropriate (CR).
223.
Due to the verb identify in this objective and it being classified as an intellectual
skill, the ideal assessment for this would be a short answer or a live performance. Here is
a sample assessment question for this objective:
224.
Which of the following is a quadratic function written in standard form? Explain
y=2 ( x3 )2 +5
225.
226.

y=2 x+ 5

227.

y=2 x 2+3 x +5

228.

y=x 3 +5

229.
Not only does the learner have to select the correct function, but they also have to
explain why they selected that function. The writing aspect to this short answer would
ensure that the learner did not merely guess the correct answer but that they truly
mastered this subordinate objective.
230.
231.
5.2 The instruction will contain a pre-test that contains both pre-requisite skills
and skills aligned to objectives. During instruction, there will be built in formative
assessment opportunities for students to calibrate their accuracy, and a post test will be
administered after instruction is complete. The assessment item from 5.1 is a short
answer question, and it will best assess whether or not the learner can identify a quadratic
while also revealing their thinking process of why or how they selected the quadratic. All
assessment will be given online and students will be able to use their calculators. A
rubric will be designed for each item to assess mastery of each objective.
232.
233.
5.3.1 Domain: Cognitive
234.
Subordinate Objective: Using the calculator (CN) students will Identify the
factors of c that sum to equal b (B) in preparation for two binomial form.
235.
236.
Assessment Item:
237.
Using your calculator, list all the factors of C and identify the factor pair that
2
sums to B for the following quadratic: x 8 x+16 .
238.
239.
240.
241.
242.
243.
244.
245.

Factors: -16 & -1; 1 & 16; -2 &-8; 2 & 8; 4 &4; -4&4
-4 &-4 are the factors of C that sum to B.
5.3.2 Domain: Intellectual
Subordinate Objective: Identify a function as quadratic in standard form.
Assessment Item:

246.
Which of the following is a quadratic function written in standard form? Explain
y=2 ( x3 )2 +5
247.
248.

y=2 x+ 5

249.

y=2 x +3 x +5

250.

y=x 3 +5

251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.
261.
262.
263.
264.
265.
266.
267.
268.
5.3.3 Domain: Verbal
269.
Subordinate Objective: Using their notes (CN) students will identify the pieces of
a quadratic equation (B) that represent a, b, and c in the standard form of the equation
(CR).
270.
271.
Assessment Item:
272.
For which of the following quadratic functions is a=1, b= -3, and c= -10?
2
x 310 x
a.
b.

3 x 2 + x10

c.

x 23 x10

273.
274.
275.
6.1 Pre-instructional activities:
276.
knowledge about factoring quadratics, thus student grouping by knowledge will be of no
use.

277.
Motivation: Gain attention using real world basketball problem (Dan Myers) and
explain by that mastering the TO, students will be able to apply their math to solve real
world problems. We could also show a video to gain attention (Cliff Diving top 10)
278.
Objectives: State clustered objectives and share terminal goal. Research suggests
that students knowing what they are supposed to learn, leads to higher outcomes.
279.
Entry Skills: Prior to instruction, learners will complete a TIP (Term, Information,
Picture) Chart for these vocabulary words: quadratic function, coefficient, factor,
binomial, equation. The activator problem will include solving a one variable equation,
while requiring students to add positive and negative numbers. These two activities will
address all the pre-requisite skills needed for the lesson, while also strengthening their
vocabulary.
280.
281.
Term
282.
Informa
283.
Pictur
284.
Non
tion
e
Example
285.
286.
287.
288.
ic Equation
289.
Coeffici
290.
291.
292.
ent
293.
294.
Activator:
x8=17
295.
Solve the following equation for x:
296.

Student Grouping: Students will work individually, due to lack of any knowledge on pretests.

297.
298.
299.
6.2 Presentation Strategy for subordinate objective Identify factors of C that sum
to B.
300.
Instructor will provide a worked example of how to find the factors of C that
sum to B, modeling how to use a calculator and multiplication chart (Performance
support if learner needs it (ie. Graphic organizer to support IEP). Instructor will
emphasize the rhyming mnemonic to assist learners in recall, Factors of C that sum to
B.
301.
302.
6.3 Practice Activity: First learners will be given sentence strips with various
steps of a complete problem. They will have to put them in the correct order to solve the
problem to demonstrate understanding of the steps needed to factor a quadratic where a is
one.
303.
Learners will use dry erase white boards to identify the correct factors of C that
sum to B for quadratic functions. Instructor will provide live feedback and address any
misconceptions during activity.
304.
305.
6.4 Follow-through Activity:
306.
Memory Aids- The skills acquired by learners will be transferred in the near
future, as the next lessons in a quadratic unit would be real world applications for

factoring. Learners would use their knowledge to factor in order to solve for the roots of
a quadratic. Ideally, the next lesson would reference the original hook basketball
problem by Dan Myer, so that students could see the relative advantage of the math they
learned and be able to apply it.
307.
308.
6.5 Matrix
309.
310.
L
311.
Details
312.
Time
esson
Outline
313.
P
314.
Pretest, vocab and linear equations
315.
NA
rior to
assignment. (Formative assessment)
Unit
316.
W
317.
Video opener to hook students, then
318.
10
hat?
present the objectives and explain relevance to
minutes
learners.
319.
S
320.
Instruction begins with worked
329.
20
o
examples:
minutes
What?
321.
-How to identify a quadratic in standard
form
322.
-How to identify A, B, and C
323.
-Determine if A=1
324.
-List factors of C
325.
-Identify factors of C that sum to b
326.
-How to write in binomial form
327.
-Set equal to zero to solve
328.
330.
N
331.
Elicit practice through white board
332.
20
ow
problems; instructor gives immediate feedback.
minutes
What?
(Formative Assessment)
333.
334.
Closing discussion and Ticket Out the
335.
5
Door to assess student comfort level with
minutes
content.
336.
P
337.
Post Test
338.
55
ost Test
minutes
339.
B
340.
Test for Transfer of skills to real world
341.
55
enchma
minutes
rk Test
342.
343.
344.
References
345.
Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J. O. (2010). The systematic design of instruction
(8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
346.
347.

348.

## Phase 3 ISD Project

349.

Will Foster

350.

Elizabeth Haas

351.
352.
7 Develop and select instructional materials
353.
7.1 Prior to beginning formal instruction, consider three factors: motivating the
learners, informing them of what they will learn and stimulating recall of relevant
knowledge and skills that they already should know. (Dick, Carrey & Carrey, p.175)
Pre-tests were selected to assist in learner and goal analysis, and a weakness in solving
linear equations was identified. This knowledge allowed us to choose more appropriate
and targeted pre-instructional materials. Thus, we are going to do an opening problem to
activate their knowledge on solving equations. To inform students of the learning goals,
these will be displayed and verbally introduced. Additionally, in order to motive
students, we will show two online resources displaying real world uses for quadratics:
Basketball 3 Act Problem (Dan Myers) and a real world quadratic video(Cliff Diving top
10). The video is a practical option, because it is short and of interest to our target
audience, and it will serve to gain the attention and hook them into the relevant material.
We will also have the TO and SO visible and reference them throughout the lesson.
354.
Entry Skills: Prior to instruction, learners will complete a TIP (Term, Information,
Picture) Chart for these vocabulary words: quadratic function, coefficient, factor,
binomial, equation. The activator problem will include solving a one variable equation,
while requiring students to add positive and negative numbers. These two activities will
address all the pre-requisite skills needed for the lesson, while also strengthening their
vocabulary.
355.
356.
Term
357.
Informa
358.
Pictur
359.
Non
tion
e
Example
360.
361.
362.
363.
ic Equation
364.
Coeffici
365.
366.
367.
ent
368.
369.
Activator:
x8=17
370.
Solve the following equation for x:
371.
372.
I believe by explicitly telling students the objectives, while connecting the prerequisite skills they already possess, and showing them examples of quadratics in real
world problems, as well as explaining their mastery of this lesson will lead to better
outcomes on ACT and SAT exams will adequately motivate our students to engage in the
learning process.
373.
374.
7.2 With the assistance of a calculator and a multiplication chart (CN) students
will list all the factors of c (B) correctly and completely (CR).

375.
376.
Due to environmental constraints, like one teacher for thirty learners, the
preference and comfort level of learner, and the expectation of administration, our
learning system will follow the traditional model with instructor and students in a
classroom. Additionally due to limited technology resources, our content will be
presented via a mimio/smartboard projector. The subordinate objectives will be chucked
to assist the learners and prevent cognitive overload. For this specific subordinate
objective, instruction will follow a general deductive model, providing worked examples
and non-examples to guide the learners understanding of how to find the appropriate set
of factors for C that sum to B. Because this is an intellectual skill, Dick and Carrey
suggest giving verbal feedback from the instructor, which connects back to why we
choose this traditional model of instruction. Feedback will be given during the practice
period.
377.
378.
379.
7.3 With the assistance of a calculator and a multiplication chart (CN) students
will list all the factors of c (B) correctly and completely (CR).
380.
381.
Students will be given white boards and dry erase markers to practice mastering
this SO. The instructor will put up a quadratic in standard form where a =1, and then
elicit students to list the factors of c. After one to two minutes, depending on the
complexity of the factor, the instructor will ask students to lift their white boards into the
air.
382.
Dry erase boards provide high accountability to learners, as well as a way for the
instructor to formatively assess the amount of understanding. Rather than praising right
or wrong answers, the instructor will write up all responses on the projector and ask
students to defend or argue whether each response is correct. This process allows
students to understand where the factors are derived from in student friendly language, as
well encourages positive math discourse and vocabulary in the classroom. This process
is also supported by Dick and Carreys beliefs on the need for feedback on what the
correct response should be (p.181).
383.
384.
385.
The end result of this instruction should accomplish the terminal goal: Using the
steps laid out in their notes (CN) students will be able to factor and solve a quadratic
equation in standard form with a leading coefficient of 1 (B) completely and correctly as
modeled by their instructor (CR).
386.
387.
Due to the nature of End of Course testing, ACT/SAT testing, and college
professor expectations, no memory aids will be given. At the end of this lesson, each
student should be able to factor a quadratic in standard form where a is one with only the
use of a calculator. The next lesson, the activator will be a quadratic factoring practice
problem. When students complete this problem, they will then be asked to assess how
confident or unsure they are about their solutions and to write about why they feel this
way. Allowing them time to reflect on their own progress will deepen their
understanding. Additionally the topic of the next lesson will be solving quadratic

expressions in real world scenarios, so the follow through will built into the expectation
of the next lesson. Students will transfer their knowledge of factoring to solve real world
388.
389.
8.1 Formative Assessment
390.
- We would begin our assessment by conducting a one-to-one evaluation with a
subject matter expert (SME) which in our case would be an experienced and successful
teacher. Next we would hold 2 one-too-one evaluations with two different levels of
learners. Next we will hold a small-group evaluation where a group of 5 students will be
selected at random. Last we will conduct a field test evaluation with a classroom of
learners.
391.
One-to-one Evaluation
- For our one-to-one evaluations we would select two learners. One would be an average
student who scores average on tests and quizzes and who is not our most highly
motivated students, but falls somewhere in the middle of the spectrum of motivation
amongst our students. The second student we would choose would be an average
performer in terms or grades and a student who has average motivation, but also this
student would be a student with an IEP. We would select this type of student to ensure
that our instructional process and materials accommodate for the learners needs
effectively. Below we have detailed each formative evaluation we will conduct. The
questions we have chosen were recommended by Dick, Carey, & Carey (2014, p. 287).
-

## One-to-one with SME

o Have all the entry skills required been accounted for?
o Is the content covered thoroughly in the instruction?
o Does the material in the pre/posttests effectively assessment mastery of the
objective(s)?
o Are the examples and practice items reflective of the skills required by the
objective?
o Can the objective(s) be taught and mastered in the time allotted?

## One-to-one with Learners

o Are the objectives of this lesson clear?
o Is the content presented in a manner that is understandable?
o Do the examples make you feel more comfortable performing the task?
o Are there enough examples?

## o Are the practice problems at an appropriate level?

o Is there enough feedback given with the practice problems?
392.
393.
Small Group Evaluation
- For the small group evaluation we will inform the group of our intentions first. Next we
will administer all the materials and instruction in the format that we intend our final
lesson to be in. We will also administer a version of the post-test. All students will have
already taken a pre-test at the beginning of the unit. After instruction and the post-test, the
following questionnaire will be given and discussed, as suggested by Dick, Carey, &
Carey (2014, p. 294).
o Was the instruction interesting? Why or why not?
o Did you understand what was presented to you?
o Were the practice problems effective? Were there too many or too few?
o Did you feel comfortable with the questions on the test?
o Were the questions aligned with the objective of this lesson?
394.
Field Trial
395.
During the field trial we will have a co-teacher present the information so that we
can see the changes that need to be made more clearly. We will also check and see if our
changes based on the one-to-one evaluations and the small group evaluation conducted
previously are effective. This will give us an opportunity to see the lesson presented and
made any changes in materials or instruction we feel will benefit our learners. We will
conduct our field trial on a class of our choosing. This class with contain approximately
30 students. We will ensure this class is at least a day ahead in terms of scheduling so that
we can use this information gathered from the field trial to make our final lesson more
effective.
396.
397.
9.1 Revision
398.
For the revision process we will use the Summary of Formative Evaluation form
below as recommended by Dick, Carey, & Carey (p.325). The material within the form is
not reflective of actual information from evaluations. The information has been fabricated
and is not necessarily an accurate depiction of the problems with our instruction that we
may face.
399.
Compo
400.
Proble
401.
Propos
402.
Eviden
nent
m Identified
ed Changes to
ce and Source

403.
Entry
Skills Test
407.
Motiva
tional Material
411.
Pretest

404.

none

Instruction
405.
None

408.

none

409.

412.
Some
questions were
unclear to
learner

413.
Chang
e wording of
questions

415.
Inform
ation
Presentation
419.
Learne
r Participation

416.

417.

423.
t

424.
Not
enough
multiple
choice
question to
prepare
students for
Performance
Context
(Benchmark)
428.
none

Posttes

none

420.
Studen
ts not
participating
with boards

None

None

421.
Requir
e marker
board
participation.
Co-teacher
support
425.
more multiple
choice
questions to
better reflect
style of
questions on
benchmark
test

406.
410.
414.
Learne
r feedback
(one-to-one
and small
group)
418.
422.
Teache
r observation
(field trial)

426.
SME
feedback
(SME one-toone)

427.
Attitud
429.
None
430.
e
Questionnaire
431.
Transfe
432.
none
433.
None
434.
r to
Performance
Context
435.
436.
If these were actual results from our formative evaluation process we would work
to revise our instruction. We would make sure that all questions were worded clearly in
the pretest in order to ensure the accuracy of the results from the pretest. We would also
use the data from the pretest to determine if any of the new material to be covered should
be left out because of prior mastery from our student population. If we had some students
who were not participating with their marker boards during instruction we would
emphasize the importance of this type of practice and we would enlist our co-teacher to
check during instruction that all students are participating in this activity. If our expert
teacher told us that we needed to add more multiple choice questions to our posttest to be

more reflective of the benchmark, then we would do just this. We want our posttest t test
for mastery of the concept while introducing our students for the style of questions that
will be including on their benchmark assessment. We would also use the results of our
posttest to determine what parts of instruction may not have been effective in achieving
mastery of the objectives. We would also use the data from the posttest to determine what
type of questions gave our learners the most trouble (Ex. Numeric vs Application). We
would use this data to revise our instruction to include more of this type of questioning in
the examples and practice problems.
437.
10.1 Summative Evaluation
438.
The summative evaluation for our instruction will come in the form of a state
administered benchmark exam. We have modeled our instructional goals after the ones
given to us by the state in order to ensure congruency in our instruction. We have
obtained and reviewed all of the resources presented by the state. We have modeled our
instruction as best we can after the resources presented and the topics and types of
questions presented within our instruction. The evaluation materials themselves have
been reviewed and checked for alignments with objectives by content expert (teachers).
We will present real world examples to make the transfer of the knowledge feasible, but
we do not have control over the questions in the summative assessment. Our instructional
materials have been designed to gain the attention of learners and based upon proven
effective instructional methods. Using the information we have and the materials that
have been released by the state department, we have prepared a lesson that is congruent
with the objectives stated and contains materials appropriate with our level of resources
to help achieve effective learning. We have also designed our instruction based upon the
needs of our learners presented in the entry skills assessment, pretest, and through or oneto-one, small group, and field trial evaluations.
439.
10.2 Kirkpatricks Evaluation Model
440.
Below is a table displaying the different levels of learning outcomes according to
Kirkpatricks training evaluation model (Kirkpatrick & Kirpatrick, 2009).
441.
442.
How information
443.
What
was collected:
information/results will be used
for:
444.
R
445.
Collected from
446.
Will be used to
eaction
learners during and
determine what can be done to
immediately following
improve motivation of learning
instruction. Learners
during instruction.
reactions and feelings will
be observed by teachers.
447.
L
448.
Collected from
449.
Level of understandings
earning
learners immediately
will be assessed and issues with
following instruction
instruction can be observed and
during practice problems.
fixed.
450.
B
451.
Measured by
452.
Will see if learners are
ehavior
teacher during posttest.
weak in certain area of
objective. Use data and scores
to improve/alter instructional
plan.

453.

R
esults

454.
Gathered during
state benchmark test.

455.
Use data to determine if
there was an effective change in
how well the learners were able
to apply the informative on a
state-mandated and measured
evaluation. Can compare results
with other schools and other
years to see if instructional
methods were better/worse and
if need be, seek ways to
improve instruction.

456.
457.
We will use the Kirkpatrick model to evaluate our instruction. Each level in the
model will be used in order to effectively evaluate instruction and learning throughout the
process. As we evaluate, we will modify instruction in order to make it more effective in
the future, as expressed in the table above. We will use our results from observations and
data gathered to either change our instructional process or materials, or use it as
justification of our process and materials, depending on the nature of the data collected.
458.
459.
Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2015). Introduction to Instructional Design.
In The
460.

Systematic Design of Instruction (8th ed., pp. 43). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

461.
Kirkpatrick, J., & Kirkpatrick, W. (2009). The Kirkpatrick Model: Past, Present
and Future.
462.

## Chief Learning Officer, 8(11), 20-55.

463.
Rohrer, D., Dedrick, R. F., & Burgess, K. (2014). The benefit of interleaved
mathematics
464.
465. practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems. Psychonomic
Bulletin &
466.
467. Review, 21(5), 1323-1330. doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0588-3
468.
469.
Jaehnig,W., &Miller, M. L. (2007). Feedback Types in Programmed Instruction: A
Systematic
470.
471. Review. Psychological Record, 57(2), 219-232.
472.

473.