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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSH514 :
SAFETY MANAGAMENT IN
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Lesson Plan
Introduction

Module 1: Occ. Safety and Health management and the law


Module 2: Preparing for work
Module 3: Setting up the site
Module 4: Construction-phase safety and health

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Management of OSH at site


Overview of OSH Management System
MS 1722
Policy
Organizing
Planning and Implementation
Evaluation
Action for improvement

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OSH MS

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Make compulsory as stated in Section 15, general


duties of employers to ensure so far as is
practicable the plant and system of works are
maintain safely and without risks to the employees,
other people (not its immediate workers) &
surrounding.
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OSH MS 1722:2011

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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OSH MS 1722: Policy

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The policy should be:a) specific to the organisation and appropriate to its size
and the nature of its activities;
b) concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by
the signature or endorsement of the employer or the
most senior accountable person in the organisation;
c) communicated and readily accessible to all persons
at their workplace;
d) reviewed for continuing suitability; and
e) employee participation
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OSH MS 1722: Policy

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Should have the following key principles:a) protecting the safety and health of all members of the
organisation and others who may be affected by the work
carried out;
b) preventing work-related fatalities, disabilities, injuries, ill health,
diseases, property and environmental damage and near
misses;
c) complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations,
and other requirements to which the organisation subscribes;
d) ensuring that employees and their representatives are
consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements
of the OSHMS; and
e) continually improving the performance of the OSHMS.
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OSH MS1722: Organising

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In organising stages: Assign responsibility, accountability and


authority;
Ensure competence, training and
awareness are fulfilled;
Establish OSHMS documentation
Proper communication to the stakeholder

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSH MS1722: Planning & Implementation


In these stages:
Initial review to know the gap
Set the OSH objectives
Include OSH element in procurement &
contracting
Do the HIRARC
Emergency prevention, preparedness
and response
Management of change

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OSH MS1722: Evaluation

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The company should evaluate the


implementation OSH thru;

Performance monitoring and measurement


Incident investigation
Audit
Management review

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSH MS1722: Action for Improvement


Once evaluated and required improvement;

Recommend and perform preventive and


corrective actions
Findings shall be addressed
Continual improvement

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

HIRARC
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Contents

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Objectives
Accidents
Basic of accident prevention method

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Objectives
At the end, participants would know:

Terminologies related to hazards, risks and accidents.


Exposure to accidents and its causes and consequences
happens in construction site, and
Understood and be able to elaborate the basic method of
accidents prevention

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Definition of Hazard, Risk and


Danger

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard
Defined as source or condition which has
potential to cause injury and/or ill health to
humans, damage to property or damage to
workplace or environment or combination of any

Hazard source

of the above.
Hazard may cause harm if not in control
(uncontrolled hazards)
Attack of the tiger
hazard due to potential
impact may cause harms
Note: Source OHSAS 18000 & MS1722:2003

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Example of Hazard

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fallen from height

Tripping

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Risks
Definition of OHSAS 18002 Combination of
likelihood or probability AND consequences/
effect for a particular hazard to happen.
Definition of MS1722 A combination of the
likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or

High risk

exposure with specified period or in specified


circumstances and the severity of injury or damage
to the health of people, property, environment or any
combination of these caused by the event or
exposure.
Low risk

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Risks
Definition of OHSAS 18002 Combination of
likelihood or probability AND consequences/
effect for a particular hazard to happen.
Definition of MS1722 A combination of the
likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or

High risk

exposure with specified period or in specified


circumstances and the severity of injury or damage
to the health of people, property, environment or any
combination of these caused by the event or
exposure.
Low risk

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Example of Risks
Scope of work

Hazard

Risk

Grinding

Eyes hit by flying


debris

Eye injury or blind

Welding

Radiation from
the welding arc

Eye inflammation/
kataraks/blind

Working at height Fall from height

Injury/Death

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Danger

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Danger explains relative exposure to the hazard. It shows the tendency of a


hazard hit / struck an employee in a risky situation.
Examples:
Employees who regularly handle chemicals will be more vulnerable to
the dangers of the chemicals than other employees who rarely do.
More concentrated sulfuric acid is more dangerous than the sulfuric acid
was diluted, so the risk is higher for workers handling the concentrated
acid compared to workers who handle dilute acids.
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Do you know?
SIGNAGE

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

MEANING THAT DANGER


HIGH RISK SITUATION
WARNING
MEDIUM RISK SITUATION
CAUTION
LOW RISK SITUATION

Sumber: Panduan ISO/IEC 51:1990 (E)

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What is ACCIDENT?

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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Definition of accident

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Events or conditions that are not planned or expected


Unfortunate Events as a result of negligence or ignorance
Events occurring unintentional
Events that occur due to reasons unknown
An accident is an unexpected sequence of events and unplanned
occurs through a logical sequence and by a combination of several
historical reasons cause harm either an injury or illness to people,
damage to property or the environment, accidents, near misses,
loss, or a combination of the above effects

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Source of accident

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

METHOD/
PROCEDURE
MACHINERY/
EQUIPMENT

HUMAN

MATERIALS

MEDIA

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Effect of accident

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Injuries

Disablement

Disability

Death

Loss (monetary)

Damage

Reputation

Phobia/Fear
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Cost of accident
Direct
(magnitud 1)

Loss of income
Medical

Damage of property

Indirect
(magnitud 8-36)

New workers

Affect the performance


Supervisory time
Reputation
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Video

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Most frequent cases


Safety issues

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Health issues

Falls

Asbestos

Mobile plant

Manual handling

Falling materials and collapses

Noise and vibration

Electrical accident

Chemical

Trips
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Statistic
Year

No of reported
accidents

No of workplace
accident

No of accident
to/fro workplace

No of death
accident

2001

84,333

67,163

17,170

958

2002

81,810

63,423

18,387

858

2003

73,858

56,249

17,609

822

2004

69,132

50,803

18,329

846

2005

61,182

43,885

17,297

773

2006

58,321

40,617

17,704

733

2007

56,339

38,657

17,682

755

2008

54,133

35,092

19,041

981

2009

55,186

34,376

20,810

663

2010

57,656

34,911

22,745

409

Source: PERKESO & JKKP (as cited by Sayani Saidon in her research on HSE in JBPM)

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Graph: No of accident vs Years


90,000

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

2001

2002

No of reported accidents

2003

2004

2005

No of workplace accident

2006

2007

No of accident to/fro workplace

2008

2009
No of death accident

2010

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What is your roles?

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

This image cannot currently be display ed.

Safety and health at work is the responsibility of every employer and


employee.
Cooperation between employers and employees is very important to
avoid any incident that threatens the safety and health at work
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fundamental of Accident
Prevention

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Accidents Prevention Method


Method

C = H = Hazard identification
A = Analyse the risks
T = Take action
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Hazard Identification

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

CAMKAN HAZARD (HAZARD IDENTIFICATION)


Identify and record where each hazard or potential hazard exists arising from
any type of work
Include all types of hazards i.e. physical, biological, chemical, psychosocial
For example: Employees who work at height might slips and fall down.
Employees who install electrical wiring, when contact to exposed cable will get
electrocuted.

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Hazard Identification

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Methods of identifying hazards


Observations & reference,
Documentation i.e. complaints, reports, proposals, records of accidents,
sick leave records, information from internet etc.
Systematic method i.e. HAZAN (Hazard Analysis)
Occupation health and safety audit

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Analyse the Risk

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

ANALISA RISIKO (RISK ANALYSIS)


Simple analysis method - qualitative analysis involves a two-dimensional risk
matrix or 3-dimensional like JSA, HAZOP
Generic analysis method - based on the risk of others having the same system
Complex analysis method - for the quantitative analysis of complex systems
through certain method such as Principal Failure Analysis (Fault Tree Analysis)
Hybrid method - combining semi-quantitative as qualitative and quantitative
analysis Failure Mode & Impressions (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Take action
TINDAKAN (ACTION)

Right action, practical and appropriate for controlling risks arising from
hazards
Involve risk control hierarchy that consists of 2 main options:
Eliminate the risk, or
Accept hazard but reduces the level of risk

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First control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Control the source of the hazard by


ELIMINATION
- Remove the hazard from the workplace
- Do not perform unsafe act or dangerous practices
- Eliminate harmful equipment, processes, machinery,
equipment or hazardous materials

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Second control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Control the source of the hazard by


SUBSTITUTION
- Substitute materials, equipment, machines with less
dangerous and safer items
- Do the same job with safer procedure/method

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Third control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ISOLATION


- Hazard isolated, contained or kept away from workers
- Hazard kept away through engineering controls such
as the installation of a dividing wall, barrier or security
fence
- Lock off / interlocking system

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Fourth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL


- Modification & Redesign
- The work, machinery or processes can be redesigned
to make them safer.

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Fourth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL


- Automation
- Dangerous process can be automated or mechanized.
For example, computer-controlled robots can handle spot
welding operations in car assembly plants. Precautions
should be taken to protect workers from the hazards of
robotics.

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Fourth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL


- Barriers
- Hazard can be blocked before it reaches workers.
For example, guard/barriers protect workers from contact
with moving parts.

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Fourth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL


- Absorption
- Baffles can block or absorb noise.
Typically, the most effective baffles is the one that keep the
most distance between the hazard and human

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Fourth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL


- Dilution
- Some hazards can be diluted or dissipated.
For example, the ventilation system can dilute the toxic gas
before it reaches the operator.
Add water

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Fifth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL


- Signboard
- Signboard warning or prohibition of a hazard
- Signboard rules or safe work
- OSH promotion
- OSH promotion by conducting awareness programs
such as OSH, OSH day celebrations, etc.

47

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Fifth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL


-

Safe work procedures


- Employees are required to use safe work procedures when
executing the works.
- Employers are expected to ensure that employees comply
with safe work procedures. Safe work procedures should be
periodically reviewed and constantly updated.

Supervision and training


- Initial training on safe work procedures and refresher
training should be provided. Appropriate regulation to help
workers identify hazards and assess the possible procedures.
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Fifth control method

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL


Job rotations and other procedures can reduce the time workers are exposed
to hazards. For example, employees working in a given period is limited to work
involving ergonomic problems to prevent cumulative trauma injuries. Noise
process can be scheduled when no one is at work.
Housekeeping program and hygiene (cleanliness) in the workplace, repairs
and maintenance
Housekeeping at work including cleaning, waste disposal and clean-up after the
completion of a job. spill.
Hygiene practices can reduce the risk of toxic substances absorbed by workers
or taken home to their families. Street clothing should be stored in separate
lockers to avoid being contaminated by work clothing.
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Last control method

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PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

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Job Safety Analysis

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

- Systematically proactive measures to prevent


accidents by identify hazards for each step / activity
assignments
- Use principles SREDIM (select, record, examine,
Develop, install & maintain)
- A basis for the formulation of safety policy, safe
systems of work or safe work procedures that can be
used in the field of training (ie courses or OJT)
- Important factors to consider when forming JSA is
- Accident frequency and severity level
- New or rarely performed work.
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Job Safety Analysis

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Select the work\process


Break into small significant
activities

Normally, 10 steps is okay

Observe and analyze in detail


potential hazard in each activities

Hazard category

Develop control measures as per


hierarchy
Establish safe systems of work and
safe working instruction
Review the continually

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Job Safety Analysis


TUGASAN: Menukar bulb lampu incandescent (mentol) jenis pin
AKTIVITI
1. Periksa suis lampu dalam
keadaan OFF
2. Tanggalkan bulb dengan
menekan sedikit bulb lampu
kedalam soketnya

HAZARD
1.1 kejutan elektrik
2.1 kejutan elektrik
2.2 bulb meletup
2.3.kaca tajam

KAWALAN
1.1.1 Matikan suis utama DB dan guna pen ujian untuk
memastikan bekalan benar-benar putus
2.1.1 Pastikan suis dimatikan
2.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan
2.3.1 Pakai saring tangan keselamatan

3 Tukar bulb lampu baru

3.1 kejutan elektrik


3.2 bulb meletup
3.3.kaca tajam

3.1.1 Pastikan susi dimatikan


3.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan
3.3.1 Pakai sarung tangan keselamatan

4. Nyalakan lampu (ON suis)

4.1 kejutan elektrik


4.2 bulb meletup

4.1.1 Pastikan suis ditebatkan dengan sempurna


4.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan

5. Discaj bulb lampu rosak ke


dalam bekas khas

5.1 bulb meletup


5.2.kaca tajam

5.1.1 Pastikan bulb dibuang kedalam bekas khas yang tak


mudah koyak dan diseal
5.1.1. Pakai cermin mata keselamatan
5.2.1 Pakai sarung tangan keselamatan
53

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

MODULE 1
Laws & regulations
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Contents
Legislative requirement
OSHA
FMA
UBBL
CIDB
Others

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY ACT &


REGULATIONS

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FMA 1967

Provision for control of OSH and welfare related issues in


the factory but focus on workers
Registration and inspection of machinery and all related
equipment. Covering most premises which operations
involving engineering and machinery operations EXCEPT:
Storing locomotives / vehicles where only cleaning activities,
cleaning and repairs.
Areas where only five or fewer employees whose work does not
involve the use of machinery

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FMA 1967
Generally, the act:

Contains 11 regulations on OSH & 4 supported regulations


(administration, penalty & certification)
Registration of competent personnel,
Provision of maintenance and inspection & T&C of machinery and
installation
Endorsement for hazardous machinery
Certification for machinery installation
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FMA 1967
Regulations relating to construction:

Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction Safety


(BOWECS) 1986
Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970
Notification, Certificate Of Fitness & Inspection Regulations 1970
Fencing Of Machinery And Safety Regulations 1970

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FMA 1967
Others are:

Steam Boiler And Unfired Pressure Vessel Regulations 1970


Electric Passenger And Goods Lift Regulations 1970
Persons-In-Charge Regulations 1970
Administration Regulations 1970
Certificates Of Competency Examinations Regulations 1970
Compoundable Offences Regulations 1978
Lead Regulations 1984
Asbestos Process Regulations 1986

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Notification, Certificate of Fitness and Inspection 1970


Provision for
Pursuant to Section 35 (1) required registration of BOWEC within seven
days from date of commencement, the regulation specify the forms that
must be used to notify the DOSH officer of a new occupancy of a
factory, the start of building work, the installation of certain machinery
and the notification of accidents and diseases
Describes the certificate of fitness that must be held for steam boilers,
unfired pressure vessel and hoisting machines

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BOWECS 1986

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Provision for
Safety of the construction which explains on the hazard and risk
emerge from construction and control measures
Detailing on concrete and structural work
Provision for constructions structures likes catch platform, chutes,
safety belts, ladders and scaffolds
Safety in constructions works likes demolition, excavation, manual
handling, piling, blasting and explosion
Safety of hand and power tools
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970


Provision for
Safe means of access and safe place of employment, provision of edge
protection on floor openings and stairs (Regulation 7, 8)
All stairways and floors must be of good construction and properly
maintained; ladders must be of adequate construction and maintained
in a sound condition (Regulations 9 to 11)
Persons must be protected from falls of more than 10 feet by the use of
safety belts or ropes (Regulation 12)
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970


Provision for
Adequate protection are necessary before working inside a confined space
(Regulation 13)
Flammable and dangerous liquids must be securely stored and precautions
taken against fire and explosion (Regulations 14 to 17, 21, 22)
Materials and finished goods must be securely stacked and stored
(Regulations 19, 20)
Specifications are laid down for cleaning of surfaces inside factory
(Regulation 23)
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970


Provision for
Lighting, ventilation and climate requirements are all detailed (Regulations
24-29)
Working clothes and protective equipment (Regulation 32)
Welfare facilities such as toilets, drinking water, washing facilities and first
aid (Regulation 33 to 38)

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND


HEALTH ACT 1994 & REGULATIONS

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INTRODUCTION

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FMA 1967 is too prescriptive which overtime become


irrelevant and just covering mostly on workers involving
in manufacturing, mining & construction
OSHA 1994 more holistic with systematic and simpler
method to control the hazard and risk

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSHA 1994

Contains 67 section, 7 regulations & 2 orders


One stop center main act for OSH related issues
Duty of Care
So far as is practicable
Self-regulation
Welfare of the workers
Participation of all level
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OSHA 1994
The purpose of the Act:

To ensure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work


against safety risks arising from work activities
Protecting other people and surrounding against health and safety
risks arising from the activities of persons at work.
Promote a safe work environment for people at work that are
tailored to their physiological and psychological needs.
69

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSHA 1994
Main provision:Section 15 Responsibility of employer

Ensure the safety and health of the workers are maintained


Ensure the working environment free from hazard or risk
Section 16 OSH polisy
Prepared, communicate and maintain the OSH policy according to act
Section 17 Responsibility of employers to the public or people other than
his employee
70

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OSHA 1994
Main provision:Section 24 - Responsibility of Employee
To ensure the safety and health of yourself and others

Cooperation with employers for compliance with the Act


Section 29 - Appointment of OSH Officer
OSH officer appointed by resolution of OSH regulations
Section 30 - Establishment of Safety Committee
Establish and permit the Safety Committee to perform their roles effectively
Section 32 - NADOOPOD
A report on the accident and dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning / disease
to the authorities
71

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OTHER RELATED ACTS

72

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FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The provisions necessary for the Fire and Rescue Department


to function effectively and efficiently, to protect people and
property from the risk of fire and for purposes connected
therewith.
Contains 63 sections and 4 rules
Key provisions: Elimination of fire hazard
Requirements of fire fighting equipment
Certificate Requirements (Fire Certificate) - needs to CFO
73

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

UBBL 1984

Enforced by local government for each state


Details specifications for premises such as lighting, ventilation,
fire protection systems etc.
Issuance of certificate of fitness for occupation (CFO) when
provisioning requirements are met

74

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT 1974

The provisions necessary to prevent, eliminate, control hazards


and risks that threaten the quality of the environment.
Intended to advise the Director-General to carry out his duties
with respect to the environment.
Contains 51 provisions and regulations 30 which includes
pollution, waste management, emissions banned substances etc.

75

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ACT 1990

Provisions for the electrical installations and electrical equipment to


ensure the safety of the installation / equipment and also the people
involved.
Details for safety factors involving electrical works, and also
competent person who is authorized to perform electrical engineering
work
Electricity Regulations 1994 require the installation must be tested
and approved before use and should be maintained by a competent
person

76

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CIDB 1994

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Promotions and boost quality in the construction industry


Promote the use of standards and the development of
construction techniques and building materials
Accreditation of skilled workforce and site supervisor
Accredit and register the construction contractors as well as
suspend, terminate and re-registration the blacklisted company

77

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

MODULE 2
Preparing for Works
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Contents
Introduction
Planning the work
Organizing the work
Notifying the site to HSE

79

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Objective

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

To expose to the participant on the


preparation required before stating the
construction works

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Introduction

To ensure that health and safety issues are planned, organized,


controlled, monitored and reviewed.
Everyone controlling site work has health and safety
responsibilities.
Ensuring that the proposed work is not going to put others at risk
requires planning and organization.
Planning for the entire duration of the project
81

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Planning the work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Gathering as much health and safety information about the


project and the proposed site before work begins is important.
Sources of information include:
the client, the design team & contract documents;
contractors and consultants;
equipment and material suppliers; and
HSE guidance and standards.
82

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Pre-inspection

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Investigate the history of the site and its surroundings.


Inspect the site for any unusual features which might affect the work, or
how the work will affect others. Pay particular attention to:
asbestos or other contaminants;
overhead power lines and underground services;
unusual ground conditions;
public rights of way across the site;
nearby schools, footpaths, roads or railways; and
other activities going on at the site.

83

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Work programme

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

When estimating costs and preparing the programme, consider any


particular health and safety hazards associated with the work.
Make sure suitable allowances have been made in the price.
The job will run more smoothly, efficiently and profitably if hazards
have been predicted, planned for and controlled from the outset.
Having to stop or reschedule work to deal with emergencies wastes
time and money.

84

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Material/machinery safety

Inspect the machinery, plants, equipment to ensure suitability


Plan for the delivery of material, plant, equipment etc. and its storage area
Obtain health and safety information (MSDS, CSDS or manual). It may be
necessary to:
Get a specialist who is familiar with the necessary precautions;
Carry out an assessment of the health risks arising from substances
or equipment; and
act on your findings, e.g. by eliminating harmful substances where possible,
or by using a less hazardous method of work or providing training on the safe
use of the material or equipment.

85

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Safe working methods

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Discuss and ask the contractor on safe working practice


Identify potential hazards and risks that may arise from their works
Assess the exposure of hazard to others (public and other
contractors)
Establish safety measures
Emergency and rescue procedures
Training need analysis
PPE requirements
86

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Organising the work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Manpower requirement
Experienced, background & trained worker
Subcontractor management
Monitoring and supervision
Safe working instruction to be communicated and understood
Coordination among the contractors
Work programme scheduling and organizing the jobs and
resources

87

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Notify the authority

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Subjected to Section 35 under Factories And Machinery Act


1967, every person who undertakes any building operations or
works of engineering construction shall notify to Department of
Occupational Safety and Health not later than seven days from
the commencement of construction activities.
The notification is exempted to the construction activities that
can be completed in a period less than six (6) weeks and does
not involve the use of machinery.
88

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Authority concerned

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Construction Industry Development Board


Contractor registration
Workers Safety Induction Course green card
Site registration and levy for contract sum above RM 0.5 M

Department of Occupational Safety and Health


Certificate of Fitness for machinery
Registration of on site batching plant
Appointment or termination of Safety Officer
89

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Authority concerned

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Department of Environment
Effluent discharge
Disturbance to nature

Local authorities - UBBL


Others BOMBA, Police or Health
90

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MODULE 3
Setting up the Site
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Contents
Site requirement
Facilities
Safety Plan

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Objectives
At the end, participants would know:

Fundamental health and safety issues that required to be


addressed when setting up the site

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Site Requirement
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Site access

Activities in and out of the site must go through a


designated gateway.
Must be no barriers and is suitable for vehicles
and equipment in and out. Foreign routes for
pedestrians.

Safe access onto and around the site for people and vehicles.
Ensure vehicles can be kept clear of pedestrians at vehicle loading/unloading areas,
parking and maneuvering places and areas where drivers vision may be obstructed.

95

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Workers safe passage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Worker walkway must be free from obstructions, have adequate light (50 lux) and signboards
Employees are not allowed to use the shortcut that expose them to danger.
* Rule 10 BOWEC - Access to Workplace
* Rule 20 BOWEC - Illumination of Passageways etc.

96

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Site boundaries

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

HOARDING

Preventing unauthorized access / trespassers


Protecting the public from hazard from the site
Minimum height of 2 meters and not have any gaps or holes.
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Facilities
98

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Welfare facilities

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The construction industry involves a lot of manual work and physical.


Welfare facilities should be provided so that the workers can reduce fatigue and
improve health in turn stimulate the job. Welfare facilities should be available are:
 Clean water to drink

 Place locker / break room

 Preparation of food / dining

 Sanitary / clean room


99

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Waste area

Proper waste management at site


Designated area for temporary waste collection before shipping
out from the construction site
100

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Storage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Tidy, floor clean and dry, free of tripping hazard or slippery condition.
When storing materials, ensure a safe load for the floor or racks
Maintain the work passage or emergency routes are not blocked
Ensure that building materials are not stored within 2 m of open space during
construction
101

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Hazardous materials storage

Hazardous materials i.e. flammable liquid


should be stored separately from other
non-combustible materials and the storage
required special design.
Should have good air circulation.
The storage area of flammable materials must have adequate warning signs and no
smoking in the vicinity of 6 meters from it.
Flammable waste materials must be stored in special storage before being taken
out for disposal.
102

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Illumination

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Natural light is available for


people to see to do their work
and move about the site safely.
Provide sufficient illumination to
prevent accident

Installation of emergency lights for emergency purposes


Avoid working in dark place or insufficient brightness
103

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Safety Planning
104

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Safety Planning

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Emergency procedures
Planning for an emergency
Fire safety
First aid
NADOOPOD
On site regulations

105

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Emergency procedures

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Emergency response plan should be established and maintained.


Be able to identify the potential for accidents and emergency
situations
Address the prevention of occupational safety and health risk
associated with them.
The plan should be made according to the size and nature of activity
based on relevant international standard.
106

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Emergency procedures

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The emergency procedures should:


(a) ensure that the necessary information, internal communication and
coordination are provided to protect all people in the event of an emergency at
the worksite;
(b) provide information and communication with the relevant authorities and the
neighbourhood and the emergency response services;
(c) address first aid, fire fighting and evacuation at construction sites; and
(d) provide relevant information and training to all members of the
organization, at all levels, including regular exercise in emergency response.
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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Planning for an emergency


6. Make the plan works

5. Delegate roles and


responsibility
4. The best plan that suit
the current work
3. Objective/scope of the plan
2. Review existing emergency plan
1. Perform HIRARC to identify immediate
dangers

108

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Fire safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Source of ignition:
-

From the air or


oxidizing
substances

Static electricity
Smoking
materials
Naked flame
Electrical
equipment
Hot surface

Flammable gases, liquids, solids


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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fire safety

Classification of fires as per MS 1182:1990


Class A: Fires involving solid materials, usually of an organic nature, in which
combustion normally takes place with the formation of glowing embers.
Class B: Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids.
Class C: Fires involving gases

Class D: Fires involving metals.

Class E: Fires involving electrical.


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Fire safety: means of giving warning


Set up an alert system
Periodically test the system to familiarize

Improvement to ensure the alert system is audible


and recognizable by the workers

111

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fire safety: means of escape

Is a structural means whereby a safe route(s) is provided for


persons to travel from any point in a building to a place of safety.
Escape route should not be obstructed , safest way to safer place,
and communicated to workers
In planning means of escape, three major elements to consider:
travel distances (or, alternatively, direct distances);
escape route and exit capacities;
the number of occupants for whom means of escape must be provided
112

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fire safety: means of fighting fire


Type of Fire Extinguishers
4 main fire extinguishers:

Water Class A

Foam Class A and B

Carbon dioxide Class B and E

Dry Chemical Powder Class A, B, C and E

113

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Fire safety: means of fighting fire


How to Use the Fire Extinguishers

114

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Fire safety
IN THE EVENT OF FIRE

Activate the emergency bell


Evacuate the area and foes to safer place
Call the fire brigade
Inform the person in charge (BOMBA) whoever trap in
the building

If emergency siren activated, RESPONSE IMMEDIATELY


even though it is a drill
115

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First aid

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Provide adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and


personnel to enable first aid to be given to workers when needed.
Provision for first aid
First aid box should be located at potential hazardous place
First aid box equipped with enough equipment to cope with numbers of
workers
An appointed person for first aid for every 50 workers
Information communicated to workers on details of appointed person or first
and where to find them and easily recognizable.

Workplace more than 200 workers should provide properly


equipped first aid or treatment room.

116

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First aid

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

In the event of accident at work place:


Alert the qualified first aider/doctor/ambulance
Pay attention to the surrounding and ensure the area is
safe
Isolate the source of accident and evaluate the situation
or condition of the victim. If possible, do not attempt to
move the victim
Check the breathing and heart beat. If bleeding, make
effort to stop the bleeding by pressing the injured area.
Ensure victim not shivering and motivate the victim.
Do not remove any evidence.
117

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Reporting the accidents

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Under the OSHA 1994 and NADOOPOD 2004


regulations
Whoever in control at site has obligation to
report any incidents or accidents based on
details as prescribed in regulations
Generally, immediately report on accidents,
dangerous occurrences, occupational
poisoning & occupational diseases to
authorities.
118

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On site regulations

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Every workplace has specific regulations for safe work.


In form of written - includes all operations especially those involve in high
risks as working at heights, excavation, confine space and so on.
119

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Signage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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Signage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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Signage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

122

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Signage

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

MODULE 4
Construction Phase
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CONTENTS
Overview of Construction Safety
Stage 1: Infrastructure Work
Stage 2: Substructure
Stage 3: Super structure
Stage 4: Finishing works
General requirements

125

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Overview of Construction Safety


Stage 1: Infrastructure Work
Stage 2: Substructure
Stage 3: Super structure
Stage 4: Finishing works
General requirements

126

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10 common accidents

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Physical

Health

1. Falls incl. from height

1. Asbestos

2. Mobile plant

2. Manual handling

3. Falling objects & collapse

3. Noise &vibration

4. Electrical accidents

4. Chemicals

5. Trips

127

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Stage 1: Infrastructure Work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Survey work
Site clearing
Logistic mobilisation of materials, machine, man etc.
Earthwork
Service relocation work
Confined space
Demolition
128

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Stage 1: Survey work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

129

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Survey work

SURVEY WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. ERGONOMIC
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. BITTEN/STUNG

1. SWOLLEN

2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT

2. BACK PAIN

3. FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS

1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM

2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS

2.PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING ETC

4. SUN RADIANCE

130

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Stage 1: Site clearing

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

131

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Site clearing

SITE CLEARING

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. PHYSICAL
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. BITTEN/STUNG

1. SWOLLEN

2. MACHINERY OVERTURN

2. INJURY

3. FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS

1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM

2. UNEVEN @ UNSTABLE GROUND

2. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. JOB ROTATION ETC

132

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Stage 1: Earth work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Earth work

EARTH WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. PHYSICAL
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. EXTREME WEATHER

1. ILL HEALTH

2. MACHINERY OVERTURN

2. INJURY

3. SLIP, TRIP OR FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS

1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM

2. UNEVEN/UNSTABLE/SOFT GROUND

2. STABILISED THE GROUND, LEVELING

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

134

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Service relocation work

135

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Service relocation work

SERVICE RELOCATION WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. MACHINERY OVERTURN

1. INJURY

2. ENBANKMENT COLLAPSE

2. INJURY, DEATH

3. SLIP, TRIP & FALLS

3. INJURY

4. UTILITIES DAMAGE

4. UTILITIES BREAKDOWN

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. UNEVEN GROUND

1. STABILSED THE GROUND

2. SOFT/UNSTABLE SOIL

2. STABILISED SOIL, SUPERVISION

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING, COMPETENCY

4. EXCAVATION

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

136

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Stage 1: Confined space

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

OKSIGEN > 23% (oxygen richness) cause flammable


materials or liquids easily caught fire
When Oxygen < 19.5%  oxygen deficiency causing
dizziness and faint/unconcoius
137

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Why confined space is dangerous place

Closed manhole/sewage tunnel for a long period accumulate


toxic gaseous or flammable gaseous likes hydrogen sulfide,
ammonia, methane or else.
Also contaminated
Sometimes, toxic
due to leaks of
materials/substances/
tanks or pipelines
H2 S
wastes were illegally
containing toxic
dump into the sewage
materials which
lines or manholes.
seep through the
sol to the sewage
CH4
lines or manhole.

138

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 1: Confined space

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Prior to confined space works, obtain permit from relevant


authorities and ensure the site has been inspected by
competent person and approved to enter.

139

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 1: Confined space

CONFINED SPACE

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. PSYCOSOCIAL
4. ERGONOMICS

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. SUFFOCATION

1. FAINT/DEATH

2. ELECTROCUTION

2. INJURY, DEATH

3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS

3. INJURY

4. INHALATION OF TOXIC GASEOUS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS/DEATH

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. RESPIRATORY FAILURE

1. ADEQUATE VENTILATION, GAS DETECTOR

2. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION/CABLE

2. CABLE DETECTION, PTW APPROVAL

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. TOXIC GASOUES

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT, SCBA

140

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

PPE confined space

Fresh air

??

O2
??
O2
??

O2

O2

If the concentration still hazardous, the workers shall wear proper


PPE likes respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
141

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Equipment used for confined space entry

142

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Stage 1: Demolition

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Done by competence person or company registered with


authorities
Method of demolition is depending on design and construction
of the building
Prior to work, approval from relevant authorities

143

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 1: Demolition

DEMOLITION

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. BIOLOGICAL
2. ERGONOMIC
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. HIT BY FLYING OBJECT

1. INJURY

2. ERGONOMICS

2. BACK PAIN

3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

5. FALL FROM HEIGHT

5. INJURY DEATH

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. FLYING OBJECT/DEBRIS

1. ISOLATION, NETTING

2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT

2. JOB ROTATION, PROPER EQUIPMENT

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

144

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Remove fragile object such as glasses and


disconnect gas pipelines, electricity, water
Sufficient warning sign and ensure proper
communication to stakeholder especially public
Get consent from relevant authorities
Thorough inspection of the structures of the building
to be demolished.
Supervised and monitor by competent person during
the works
Where practicable, works only on approved platform
design for the work
Obey safe procedure working at height
145

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Substructure

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Foundation works
Piling work safety
Concreting work safety

Welding and cutting work safety

146

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Piling work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

147

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 2: Piling work

PILING WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMIC
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. NOISE AND VIBRATION

1. HEARING PROBLEM, DEAFNESS

2. GROUND FAILURE

2. INJURY, DEATH

3. FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. NOISE

1. ISOLATION

2. SOFT GROUND, UNSTABLE

2. SOP, SUPERVISION

3. OPENING, EXCAVATION

3. SIGNAGE, PTW,

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

148

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Concreting work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

149

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Stage 2: Concreting work

CONCRETING WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMIC
3. PSYCOSOCIAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY, DEATH

2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT

2. BACK PAIN

3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. UNSAFE ACT, NEGLIGENT

1. SIGNAGE, RAILINGS, NETTING

2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS

2. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. HOUSEKEEPING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

150

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Welding and cutting

Gas cutting and welding


Oxy-acetylene

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Electrical arc welding

151

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Welding and cutting

WELDING AND CUTTING

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

1. PHYSICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. BIOLOGICAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING OBJECT

1. INJURY

2. SMOKE, HARMFUL GASEOUS

2. RESPIRATORY PROBLEM

3. FIRE & EXPLOSION

3. INJURY , DEATH

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. NEGLIGENT

1. HOUSEKEEPING, TOE BOARD

2. TOXIC GASOUES OF WELDING

2. VENTILATION, RESPIRATOR

3. WELDING EQUIPMENT
4. SUN RADIANCE

3. SOP, SUPERVISION
4. PPE WELDER MASK, SAFETY BOOT, HAT
ETC

152

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Welding and cutting

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Ensure work place well ventilated


Ensure work place or surrounding free from flammable or
combustible materials
If arc welding, emergency cut off located at reachable distance
All the equipment are inspected and free from defect.
Stand by extinguishment equipment in case of fire
153

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 2: Welding and cutting

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Gas cylinder stored upright and in special secured cage with


good ventilation
Keep distance gas cylinder storage from occupied place and
flammable materials
Isolate and label empty cylinder
Do not store cylinder in confined space or under ground store
or enclosed place.

154

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Super structure

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Scaffolds
Temporary structure
Chutes
Catch platform

Ladder safety
Lifting Operations
Passenger Hoist
Lifting crane
155

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Scaffolding

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Sebuah platfom sementara yang tinggi bagi


membantu melaksanakan sesuatu kerja
156

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Scaffolding

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

157

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Stage 3: Scaffolding safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The scaffolding should be designed, erected, modified, maintained


and dismantled by ONLY competent and skilled worker which
supervised by competent personnel.
Mandatory requirement to inspect and approve the scaffolding once in
a week or after bad weather (rains, heavy storm etc) and such
inspection should be recorded.
Safety of scaffold depending on:
Erection comply with manufacturers OEM, specification, code of
practice and done by skilled and competence workers
158
The in and out pathway is safe
Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Scaffolding tag

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

159

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Stage 3: Scaffolding safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Static scaffold should not be more than 15 m & mobile not


more than 9.6 m or 12 m if secured to fixed structure.
Minimum size for wheel of mobile scaffold is 5 inches and
properly secured on level ground and locked before
working.
Do not move/push the mobile while people or materials still
on top
Mechanically push or pull the scaffold is not recommended

160

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Scaffolding safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

No gap more than 1 between platform.


Platform more than 2 meter should install guard rail high about 1
meter from platform and toe board min 6 inches high.
Calculation and endorsement for scaffold more than 40 m high for
tubular and 15 m for other types
Structure strengthening required for loading bay or storage bay
and safely blockaded with guard rail and toe board

161

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 3: Scaffolds & Formwork

SCAFFOLDS AND FORMWORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMICS
3. BIOLOGICAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING OBJECT

1. INJURY

2. ELECTROCUTION

2. INJURY DEATH

3. COLLAPSE

3. INJURY , DEATH

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. NEGLIGENT

1. HOUSEKEEPING, TOE BOARD

2. ELECTRICAL

2. EARTHING, CHECK THE POWERED EQPT ETC

3. UNSTABLE STRUCTURE
4. SUN RADIANCE

3. SOP, COMPETENCY, INSPECTION


4. PPE WELDER MASK, SAFETY BOOT, HAT
ETC

162

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 3: Fall prevention method

Personal Fall
Arrest System
(PFAS)

Guardrails

Safety netting

163

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 3: Fall prevention method

164

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Temporary structure

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Use of approved chute


for waste removal for
height more than 6 m
Barricade, isolate or
fence off the collection
area

165

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Temporary structure

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

CATCH PLATFORM

Construction waste that falls can be arrested by the use of catch


platforms.
Catch platforms should be cleaned daily to avoid the overloading
which will cause it to collapse.
166

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Ladder safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Straight ladder or access ladder for accessing to


and from a space or place

Step ladder for performance of work

167

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Ladder safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Set the ladder on a flat and firm


ground
Do not work on the stairs in front
of a closed door
Tie the ladder at the top and
bottom in the absence of helper
Stairs must have a height of 1m
above the landing (roof & height)
Use the principle of 1:4

168

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 3: Ladder safety

LADDER SAFETY

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMIC

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALL FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY

2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT

2. BODY PAIN

3. FALLING OBJECT

3. INJURY

4. AWKWARD POSTURE

4. BODY PAIN

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. UNSAFE ACT, NEGLIGENT

1. PROPER TRAINING, LADDER INSPECTION

2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS

2. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

3. UNSAFE ACT

3. SUPERVISION, SAFE WORK PROCEDURE

4. AWKWARD POSTURE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

169

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Passenger Hoist

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hoist must be installed or dismantled by trained and


competence person
Only operate approved hoist
The hoist should be operated by trained hoist operator
Hoist must be equipped with 'fall arrester' and 'over-run', in
place of 2m high fence out and the safe working load as shown
170
in the hoist.
Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Passenger Hoist

PASSENGER HOIST

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

1. PHYSICAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALL FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY

2. PINCHED/STUCK IN BETWEEN

2. INJURY

3. FALLING OBJECT

3. INJURY

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. UNSAFE LIFTING DEVICES

1. CERTIFIED LIFTING DEVICES

2. NEGLIGENT

2. PROPER TRAINING, SOP

3. NEGLIGENT

3. SAFE WALKWAY, OVERHEAD PROTECTION


4. SIGNAGE

171

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 3: Lifting crane

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

A crane is equipment that be able to lift up or down


or transfer loads using its long boom
Type found at site:
Crawler crane
Mobile crane
Tower crane

172

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Risks associated with crane

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

173

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Loads

Load calculation basing on materials delivery note


Ensure calculation is right and should be done by competent
person
Ensure the loading capacity within acceptable range of the
crane
Load capacity depending on

Ground condition & surface condition

Wind direction

Other loads

Cable, sling and other lifting equipment

Ensure the crane operator know:

Load capacity

Scope

Lifting procedure

174

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Accident involving crane

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

IMBALANCE LOADS

175

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 3: Lifting crane

LIFTING CRANE

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING OBJECT

1. INJURY

2. CRANE FAILURE

2. DAMAGE PROPERTY, INJURY, DEATH

3. GROUND/FOUNDATION FAILURE

3. DAMAGE PROPERTY, INJURY, DEATH

4. COMMUNICATION FAILURE

4. MISPLACE, ACCIDENT

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR

1. APPROVED CRANE,

2. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR

2. LIFTING/RIGGING SOP

3. SOFT/UNSTABLE SOIL

3. PROPER CRANE HANDLING

4. INCOMPETENT, HUMAN ERROR

4. TRAINED OPERATOR

176

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Finishing works

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Roofing work
Insulation & cladding work
Electrical safety
Testing and Commissioning

177

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Roofing work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Risk associated with working on the roof

Falling from roof


Falling when stepping onto rotten roof
Fall from stair or scaffolding
Lightning strike when bad weather
178

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Stage 4: Roofing work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

179

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 4: Roofing work

ROOFING WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMIC

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY, DEATH

2. FALLING OBJECT

2. INJURY, DEATH

3. STRIKE BY LIGTHNING

3. INJURY, DEATH

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR

1. FALL PROTECTION, WARNING SIGN

2. INSECURED, HUMAN ERROR

2. TRAINING

3. LIGTHNING

3. SOP, SAFE WORKING INSTRUCTION

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC

180

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Painting

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

181

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 4: Painting

PAINTING

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. ERGONOMICS

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY

2. FALLING OBJECT

2. INJURY

3. AWKWARD POSTURE

3. BODY PAIN

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

1. FALL PROTECTION, SIGNAGE

2. UNSAFE ACT

2. TRAINING, SUPERVISON

3. REPEATITIVE MOVEMENT

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT

182

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Plastering

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

183

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OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Stage 4: Plastering

PLASTERING

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

1. PHYSICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. ERGONOMICS

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT

1. INJURY

2. FALLING OBJECT

2. INJURY

3. AWKWARD POSTURE

3. BODY PAIN

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

1. FALL PROTECTION, SIGNAGE

2. UNSAFE ACT

2. TRAINING, SUPERVISON

3. REPEATITIVE MOVEMENT

3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT

184

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Electrical safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Electrical energy is hazard that is

Unseen
No smell
Quiet

Electrical energy flow thru


conductor

Metal
Water
Human body

Object non conductive (insulation) wood, plastic, glass,


rubber etc
185

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Electrical safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Basic safety precaution in electrical is important when


performing electrical work. Hazard from electrical

Electrocuted
Fire
Electric static
Explosion

Two main protection from electricity: Protection from direct contact insulation
Protection from indirect contact earthing

186

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Stage 4: Electrical safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

The degree of electrocution


depending on:
Flow of current in body
Amount of current enter the
body
Period of exposure

187

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Stage 4: Electrical safety


AMOUNT OF
CURRENT

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

SEVERITY / CONSEQUENCES

< 1 mA

NO HARM

1-8 mA

SLIGHTLY SHOCK, BUT NOT SO HURT AND MIGHT TEMPORARY LOOSE MUSCLE
CONTROL

8-15 mA

PANTFUL SHOCK EFFECT, HAZARD RELEASE BY ITSELF

15-20 mA

PAINFUL SHOCK EFFECT, THE HAZARD CAN NOT BE RELEASED ON ITS OWN AND
LOSS OF MUSCLE CONTROL

20-50 mA

PAINFUL; SEVERE CONTRACTION IN THE MUSCLES AND DIFFICULTY IN


BREATHING

100-200 mA

VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION WHICH IS A HEART CONDITION THAT CAN RESULT


IN DEATH

> 200 mA

SEVERE BURNS AND SEVERE CONTRACTION IN THE MUSCLES, CAUSING THE


MUSCLES IN THE CHEST COMPRESS THE HEART AND CAUSE CARDIAC ARREST
(DEATH)

188

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Electrical safety

ELECTRICAL WORK

JOB SCOPE:
HAZARD
CATEGORY:

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

1. PHYSICAL
2. ERGONOMIC

WORKPLACE HAZARD

RISKS

1. ELECTROCUTION

1. INJURY, DEATH

2. SHARP EDGE

2. BACK PAIN

3. TRIP, SLIP OR FALLS

3. INJURY

4. HEAT STRESS

4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS

CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

CONTROL MEASURE

1. ELECTRICITY

1. LOCKOUT TAG OUT PROCEDURE

2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS

2. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT

3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING

3. GOOD MANUAL HANDLING & HOUSEKEEPING

4. SUN RADIANCE

4. SOP, TRAINING AND COMPETENCY ETC

189

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Stage 4: Electrical safety

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

FUSE
MCCB
MCB

HRC FUSE

ELCB / RCCB

CUT OUT FUSE

190

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General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hand power tool safety


Road traffic management
Working over water
Permit to Work

191

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hand power tool safety


Section 147 153 BOWEC Hand & Power Tools

192

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General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hand power tool safety








Well maintained
Right tools
Inspect before use
Follow instruction
Right PPE

193

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hand power tool safety


 Do not use defective
tools
 Must have protection or
guarding

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Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hand power tool safety


 Use according to the capacity
specified by the manufacturer
 Wear appropriate PPE - gloves
and safety shoes
 Store in a dry place
 Precautious if working in a
humid place
 Ensure sufficient light
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Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Use of modified tool grinder

196

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Traffic management

Work system should be planned carefully so as not to


endanger road users and workers themselves.
Accidents can happen to other users as a result of broken
machinery or vehicles site if negligent.

197

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Traffic management
Local authorities and the police
should be contacted to determine if
the right job path should be closed
and traffic control systems such as
temporary traffic lights and clear
signage should be used to control
the flow of traffic
Traffic Signal Manual must be used to determine the needs
and size of the safety zone signal is necessary.
198

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Working over water


Working over the water surface
exposes the workers to risk of
drowning or swept away when fall
into the water.
Safety precautions must be observed
so that the employee is not dropped
or pushed into the water.
Determine the employee can be
saved in the shortest period if they
fall into the water.
199

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Working over water


Helmet and non slippery
safety boot shall be
wearing all time
Workers shall wears
floatable safety jacket

200

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Working over water

When working on swift currents, run the rope or net across the surface
of the water on the downstream side of all workplace locations and
equipped with floats or other tools that can help the employee to float
during emergency.
The line must be tied to a solid structure at each end.
201
Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

General requirements

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Working over water


A platform must be
built properly and
equipped with retaining
bar and toe-board
around.
Safety nets will catch
fallen worker which
then can be rescued by
boat.
Rescue Line (grab lines) should be placed with
some distance (reachable distance) to the
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structure or platform.
Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Permit To Work

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

PTW system is a formal written system used to


regulate certain occupations that have been
identified to possess potential hazards and risks
and also one of the means of communication
between employers (who create jobs & Hazard)
and employees.
Based on the definition by the International
Association of Oil and Gas Association (OGP) in
the Guidelines in PTW system, serial Report
6.29/189; published in January 1993
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Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Objective of PTW

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

To avoid or reduce the risk of a serious accident or


incident for the work to be carried out
To control and coordinate work activities
To provide a system of communication between the end
users or employers with subcontractors
Evidence or record of evidence
204

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Characteristic of PTW

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

 A formal written system detailing on working, attached with


HIRARC or similar
 A form of safe work instructions
 Ensure that all elements of the work system are adhered to
 Clearly identifies the responsibilities of each person
involved
 The involvement of all relevant parties, including
contractors
 Ensure everyone is trained
 A checking mechanism (check & balance)

205

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Example of PTW

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hot work such as welding, gas cutting, etc


Electrical works
Working with hazardous materials
Confined space
Working over/in the water
Handle radioactive materials and explosives
Lifting heavy materials etc.
...........SO ON...
206

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Type of PTW








OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

Hot work Permit


General Work Permit i.e. Cold Work
Electrical Work Permit
Radiation Work Permit
Pressure Testing Permit
Lifting Permit
Blasting Permit etc

207

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

Procedure of PTW

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

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Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com

OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

THE END
Thanks you
209

Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com