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This book covers the analysis and design

of reinforced concrete elements in


foundations and superstructures in a
logical, step-by-step fashion. The theory of
reinforced concrete and the derivation of
the code formulae have been clearly
explained.

The text is backed up by numerous


illustrations, design charts and tables
referring frequently to the relevant codes of
practice. A large number of worked
examples cover almost all types of
reinforced concrete elements.

The step-by-step approach will ensure


that:

all design requirements are logically


adhered to

a standardised approach is established


in a design office

a simplified procedure for checking


and for quality assurance can be
implemented.

REINFORCED CONCRETE
Analysis and Design

REINFORCED CONCRETE
Analysis and Design

S.S. RAY
BE (Cal), CEng, FICE, MBGS

b
Blackwell
Science

1995 by
Blackwell Science Ltd
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A catalogue record for this book is available
from the British Library
ISBN 0-632-03724-5
Library of Congress
Cataloging in Publication Data
Ray, S.S.
Reinforced concrete: analysis and
design/S.S. Ray.
p.
cm.
Includes bibliographical references and
index.
ISBN 0-632-03724-5
1. Reinforced concrete construction.
I. Title.
TA683.R334 1994
624.1'8341-dc20
94-13306
CIP

Dedicated to my father Professor K. C. Ray

Contents

Preface
References
Chapter 1 Theory of Reinforced Concrete
1.0
Notation
1.1
Introduction
1.2
Characteristic strength of materials
1.3
Material factors
1.4
Material stress-strain relationship
1.5
Design formulae for reinforced concrete sections
1.5.1 Singly reinforced rectangular section
1.5.2 The concept of balanced design and redistribution
of moments
1.5.3 Doubly reinforced rectangular section
1.5.4 Singly reinforced flanged beams
1.6
Ultimate limit state - shear
1. 7
Serviceability limit state - crack width
1.8
Serviceability limit state - deflection
1.9
Ultimate limit state - torsion
1.10 Ultimate limit state - columns
1.11 Ultimate limit state - corbels
1.12 Wood- Armer combination of moment triads
1.13 Serviceability limit state - bending and direct loads
Chapter 2 Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams
2.0
Notation
2.1
Analysis of beams
2.2
Load combinations
2.3
Step-by-step design procedure for beams
2.4
Worked examples
Example 2.1: Simply supported rectangular beam
Example 2.2: Three span continuous beam
Example 2.3: Design of beam with torsion
2.5
Figures for Chapter 2
Figure 2.1: Values of ~t
Figure 2.2: Simplified detailing rules for beams

XIII

xv
1
1
2

3
3
4
6
6
7
8
9
11
17
18

18
19
31
32
34
41
41
43

47
50
65
65

73
85

99
99
100

vii

viii

Contents
Chapter 3 Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs
101
3.0
Notation
101
3.1
Analysis of slabs
103
3.2
Load combinations
107
3.3
Step-by-step design procedure for slabs
107
3.4
Worked example
120
Example 3.1: Design of a two-way slab panel
120
3.5
Figures and Tables for Chapter 3
130
Figures 3.1 and 3.2: Elastic and elasto-plastic unit resistances
for one-way elements, and support shears
130-1
Figures 3.3. to 3.17: Moment and deflection coefficients for
two-way elements
132-6
Figures 3.18 to 3.33: Location of yield-lines for
two-way elements
137-44
Figure 3.34: Simplified detailing rules for slabs
145
Table 3.1: Graphical summary of two-way elements
146
Table 3.2: Ultimate unit resistance for two-way
elements (symmetrical yield-lines)
147
Table 3.3: Ultimate unit resistance for two-way
elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines)
148
Table 3.4: Ultimate support shears for two-way
elements (symmetrical yield-lines)
149
Table 3.5: Ultimate support shears for two-way
elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines)
150
Chapter 4 Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns
4.0
Notation
4.1
Analysis of columns
4.2
Load combinations
4.3
Step-by-step design procedure for columns
4.3.1 Rectangular columns
4.3.2 Circular columns
4.3.3 Rectangular and circular columns
4.4
Worked examples
Example 4.1: Design of a biaxially loaded slender column
Example 4.2: Design of a column with predominant
moment about the major axis
Example 4.3: Design of a member with uniaxial moment
and tension
Example 4.4: Design of a member with biaxial moment
and tension

151
151
152
154
155
155
161
164
164
164

Chapter S Design of Corbels and Nibs


5.0
Notation
5.1
Load combinations
5.2
Step-by-step design procedure for corbels
5.3
Step-by-step design procedure for nibs
5.4
Worked examples

193
193
193
194
197

169
176
183

200

Contents ix
Example 5.1: Design of a corbel
Example 5.2: Design of a concrete nib
Figures and Tables for Chapter 5
Figure 5.1: Chart for determining z/d
Table 5 .1: Allowance for effects of spalling at supports
Table 5.2: Allowance for effects of spalling at
supported members
Table 5.3: Allowance for construction inaccuracies

200
208
212
212
213

Chapter 6 Design of Pad Foundations


6.0
Notation
6.1
Analysis for bearing pressure on soil
6.1.1 Isolated single column pad
6.1.2 Single column pads connected by ground beams
6.1.3 Isolated multiple column pad
6.1.4 Multiple column pads connected by ground beams
6 .2
Analysis for ultimate load
6.2.1 Isolated single column pad
6.2.2 Single column pads connected by ground beams
6.2.3 Multiple column pads
6.3
Load combinations
6.4
Sign convention
6.5
Essentials of soil mechanics
6.5.1 Ultimate bearing capacity
6.5.2 Settlement of foundation
6.5.3 Sliding resistance
6.6
Bearing pressure calculations
6.6.1 Rectangular Pad - uniaxial bending - no loss of
contact
6.6.2 Rectangular Pad - uniaxial bending - loss of contact
6.6.3 Rectangular Pad - biaxial bending - no loss of contact
6.6.4 Rectangular Pad - biaxial bending - loss of contact
6.6.5 Multiple column - biaxial bending - no loss of contact
6.6.6 Circular pad - biaxial bending - no loss of contact
6. 7
Step-by-step design procedure for pads
6.8
Worked examples
Example 6.1: RC pad with single column
Example 6.2: RC pad with multiple columns
Example 6.3: Mass concrete pad - side bearing in cohesive
soils
Example 6.4: Mass concrete pad - side bearing in
cohesionless soils
6.9
Figures for Chapter 6
Figure 6.1: Values of Ne, Nq and Ny
Figure 6.2: Calculation of mean vertical stresses in soil
Figure 6.3: Plan on base showing different zones
Figure 6.4: Pressures under rectangular base - biaxial
bending

215
215
218
218
219
222
223
223
223
224
224
225
226
226
226
229
231
232

5.5

213
213

232
234
234
235
238
238
239
250
250
264
277
283
289
289
290
291
292

x Contents
Chapter 7 Design of Piled Foundations
7.0
Notation
7 .1
Vertical load - single pile capacity
7.2
Horizontal load - single pile capacity
7 .3
Pile group effects
7.4
Analysis of pile loads and pile caps
7.4.1 Rigid pile cap
7.4.2 Flexible pile cap
7.5
Load combinations
7.6
Step-by-step design procedure for piled foundations
7.7
Worked example
Example 7.1: Pile cap for an internal column of a building
7.8
Figures for Chapter 7
Figure 7 .1: Determination of pile efficiency
Figure 7.2: Bearing capacity factors for deep foundations

293
293
296
299
301
302
302
306
309
310
326
326
354
354
354

Chapter 8 Design of Walls


8.0
Notation
8.1
Analysis of walls
8.1.1 Walls and properties of walls
8.1.2 Modelling for structural analysis
8.2
Step-by-step design procedure for walls
8.3
Worked example
Example 8.1: Reinforced concrete cell

355
355
357
357
368
370
385
385

Chapter 9 Design of Flat Slabs


403
403
9.0
Notation
9.1
Definitions
403
9.2
Analysis of flat slabs
404
9.3
Design of flat slabs
406
9.4
Step-by-step design procedure for flat slabs
412
9.5
Worked example
413
Example 9.1: Flat slab construction for a sports hall
413
9.6
Tables and Graphs for Chapter 9
435
Tables 9.1 to 9.6: Bending moment coefficients for design
of flat slabs
438-43
Table 9.7: Bending moment coefficient for design of columns
in flat slab construction
444
Graphs 9.1 to 9.18: Correction factors for bending moments
in flat slabs
445-53
Graphs 9.19 to 9.26: Correction factors for bending moments
in columns
454- 7
Chapter 10 Design of Connections
10.0
Notation
10.1
Introduction
10.2
Contents: type of connections
10.3
Anchorage and bond

459
459
459
460
460

Contents

10.4

10.5

10.3.1 Basic rules of anchorage and laps


10.3.2 Design of tension laps
10.3.3 Design of compression laps
10.3.4 Curtailment and anchorage of bars
Building ties
10.4.1 Peripheral ties
10.4.2 Internal ties
10.4.3 Horizontal column and wall ties
10.4.4 Vertical ties
Connections

xi

461
463
464
465
467
467
468
469
470
470

Chapter 11 General Figures, Tables and Charts


487
Figure 11.1: Coefficient of moment of inertia of cracked sections
488
489
Figure 11.2: Values of Ve for fcu = 25 N/mm 2
Figure 11.3: Values of Ve for fcu = 30 N/mm 2
490
Figure 11.4: Values of Ve for fcu = 35 N/mm 2
491
Figure 11.5: Values of Ve for fcu = 40N/mm 2 and above
492
Table 11.1: Area of steel reinforcement for various spacings
493
Table 11.2: Sectional properties
494
Table 11.3: Basic span/effective depth ratios for rectangular and
flanged beams
495
Chart 11.4: Modification factor for compression reinforcement
496
496
Chart 11.5: Modification factor for tension reinforcement
Table 11.6: Nominal cover to all reinforcement including links to
497
meet durability requirements
Table 11.7: Nominal cover to all reinforcement including links to
meet specified periods of fire resistance
497
498-517
Tables 11.8 to 11.17: Design tables for rectangular columns
518-37
Tables 11.18 to 11.27: Design tables for circular columns

Index

538

Preface

I believe that the contents of this book will prove to be extremely valuable
to practising engineers, students and teachers in the field of reinforced
concrete design. There are many excellent books available dealing with the
design of reinforced concrete elements but, in my opinion, they lack
completeness in certain ways. The design of a reinforced concrete
member requires many checks in a systematic structured manner and the
step-by-step approach adopted in this book is intended to ensure that the
design process is complete in all respects. It is my view that the member
itself, when fully designed, does not constitute a complete design because
it ignores the connections to other members and to the foundation that are
needed to provide true completeness of design for the structure. I have
attempted here to elucidate the necessary global analysis. Also, most
books on reinforced concrete design do not deal with the aspects of soil
structure interaction problems and are hence incomplete.
The highly structured step-by-step methodology I have used makes the
book fully comprehensive and user-friendly. Accordingly, the task of quality
assurance becomes less arduous and the product or output of a design
office becomes fully standardised if this approach is strictly followed. For
students, the book should prove to be invaluable because the essential
elements of the theory of reinforced concrete are discussed, followed by a
structured approach to the design of all elements in a building, including
foundations and the connections of the reinforced concrete members to
each other to create a complete building. The numerous worked examples
should be very useful to students and practitioners alike. The book also
presents practical advice on designing reinforced concrete elements and
the student should benefit from learning the methods adopted in a design
consultancy.
My intention has been to illustrate the design principles at each stage by
using a profusion of sketches. The book includes many more illustrations
than a standard textbook on reinforced concrete because it was felt necessary
to clear all ambiguities in the codes of practice by the use of diagrams, an
approach which should appeal to both practising engineers and students.
The book includes a lot more new design aids than are usually found in
the available books. For instance, the tables and charts included in this
book for the design of solid slabs and flat slabs cannot be found in other
published textbooks on the subject. References to many published books
on the subject of reinforced concrete are also given.
I would like to thank the British Standards Institution for their kind
xiii

xiv

Preface

perm1ss1on to reproduce some of the essential tables from the codes of


practice. I also wish to thank the US Army Armament Research and
Development Centre, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ and Amman and Whitney,
Consulting Engineers, New York for granting permission to reproduce the
extremely useful charts on the yield-line design of slabs in Chapter 3.
Finally this undertaking could not have been successfully achieved without
the active encouragement of my wife.
S.S. Ray
Great Bookham
Surrey

The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author and the
correctness or otherwise of the text is the author's responsibility. Taylor
Woodrow and its Group of Companies are in no way associated with the
production of this book and they have not adopted the book or any part of it
as their in-house standard.

References

1.

British Standards Institution (1985) Structural use of concrete. Parts 1, 2


and 3. BSI, London, BS8110.

2.

British Standards Institution (1986) Foundations. BSI, London, BS8004.

3.

British Standards Institution (1979) Code of practice for design of composite


bridges. Part 5. BSI, London, BS 5400.

4.

American Concrete Institute (1983) Building code requirements for reinforced concrete. M83. ACI, Detroit, Michigan, USA, ACl318.

5.

Tomlinson, M.J. (1982) Foundation Design and Construction, 3rd edn.


Pitman Publishing, London.

6.

Bowles, J.E. (1982) Foundation Analysis and Design, 3rd edn. McGrawHill International, Tokyo.

7.

Tomlinson, M.J. (1987) Pile Design and Construction Practice, 3rd cdn. E.
& F.N. Spon, London.

8.

US Army Armament Research and Development Centre (1987) Structures


to resist the effects of accidental explosions, Volume IV: Reinforced concrete

design. US Army ARDEC, N.J., USA, US Army Standard ARLCD,


SP84001.
9.

Moody, W.T. Moments and Reactions for Rectangular Plates. US Department of the Interior, Engineering Monograph No. 27, Denver, Colorado,
USA.

10.

Reynolds, C.E. & Steedman, J.C. (1988) Reinforced Concrete Designer's


Handbook, 10th edn. E. & F.N. Spon, London.

11.

Wood, R.H. (1968) The reinforcement of slabs in accordance with a predetermined field of moments. Concrete, 2, No. 2, Feb. pp. 69- 76.

12.

Armer. G.S.T. (1968) Discussion of Reference 16. Concrete, 2, No. 8,


Aug. pp. 319-20.

13.

Cheng-Tzu Thomas Hsu (1986) Reinforced concrete members subject to


combined biaxial bending and tension. AC/ Journal, Jan./Feb. American
Concrete Institution, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

14.

British Standards Institution (1972) Wind loads. CP3: Chapter V: Part 2.


BSI, London.

xv

xvi

References

General references
Allen, A.H. (1983) Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 - Simply
Explained. E. & F.N. Spon, London.
Batchelor & Bee by ( l 983) Charts for the design of circular columns to
BS81 JO. British Cement Association, Slough, UK.
British Standards Institution ( 1987) Design of concrete structures to retain
aqueous liquids. BSI, London, BS 8007.
Park, R. & Paulay, T. ( 1975) Reinforced Concrete Structures. John Wiley
& Sons, New York.
Puchcr, A. (1977) lnjfuence Surfaces of Elastic Plates. Springer Verlag,
Vienna, Austria.
Roark, R.J. & Young, W.C. (1975) Formulae for Stress and Strain, 5th
cdn. McGraw-Hill International, Tokyo.

Chapter 1

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

1.0

NOTATION
au
Ac
A,
A~

A,b
A,c
Asv
b
hw
c0
C
d
d'

Ee
E,
fc

A
fm
f,
fy
fcu
h
ht
h0
hmax
hmin

I
M
M'

Mt
Mw
N
p
p

Deflection of column due to slenderness


Net area of concrete in a column cross-section
Area of steel in tension in a beam
Area of steel in compression in a beam
Area of hent shear reinforcement
Area of steel in column
Area of steel in vertical links
Width of reinforced concrete section
Width of web in a heam
Effective crack height at 'no slip at steel
Internal compressive force in reinforced concrete section
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of compressive reinforcement
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Service stress in concrete
Characteristic strength of material
Mean strength of material from test results
Service stress in steel
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Characteristic cuhc strength of concrete at 28 days
Overall depth of a concrete section
Thickness of flange in a T-bcam
Initial crack height in reinforced concrete member
Maximum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete section
Minimum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete section
Moment of inertia
Applied bending moment
Maximum moment of resistance of concrete section
Moment of resistance of concrete in flange
Moment of resistance of concrete in web
Ultimate axial load on column
Percentage of tensile reinforcement in a beam= lOOAJbd
Percentage of total reinforcement in a column= lOOAJbh
Shear flow (kN/m)
First moment of area above plane of interest
I

Reinforced Concrete
Curvature of a member in bending
Standard deviation
Spacing of shear reinforcement
Internal tensile force in steel reinforcement
Shear stress in concrete (N/mm~)
Design concrete shear stress (N /mm 2 )
Shear stress in concrete due to torsion (N/mm 2 )
Shear force in concrete section
Design concrete shear capacity
Design shear capacity of shear reinforcement
Depth of neutral axis from compression face
Distance from neutral axis
Depth of lever arm

s
T

x
\'

.,l l l l
/)

1.1

Angle of inclination to horizontal of shear reinforcement


Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in truss analogy
Empirical factor governing deflection of slender columns
Ratio of redistributed moment over elastic analvsis moment
Factor governing moment of resistance of concrete T-section
Material factor
Deflection of beam
Strain at yield of steel reinforcement

INTRODUCTION
The criteria which govern the design of a structure for a particular purpose
may he summarised as follows:
Fitness for purpose
Safety and reliability
Durability
Good value for money
External appearance
User comforts
Robustness.
FitnPss for purpose is generally covered by the overall geometry of the
structure and its components. It should be possible to have unrestricted
and unhindered use of the structure for the purpose for which it is built.
Safe!_\' and reliability arc assured hy following the Codes of Practice for

loading. materials. design. construction and fire-resistance.


D11rahili1_1' is taken care of by the choice of the right material for the
purpose and also by bearing in mind during the design process. the requirements for proper maintenance.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

Good value for money is perhaps the most important criterion. The designer
should take into account not only the cost of materials but also the
buildability. the time required to build, the cost of temporary structures,
the cost of maintenance over a period of time and in some cases the cost of
demolition/decommis~ioning.

External appearancl' uf structures changes over a period of time. The


designer should be aware of the effects of cracking. leaking, staining.
spalling. flaking. etc. of the materials in use. The designer should make
appropriate allowances to avoid the degradation of appearance.
User comfarts arc influenced by the vibration of the structure due to wind.
road/rail traftic or vibrating machinery. Large deflections under load also
cause alarm to the users. The designer should pay adequate attention to
alleviation of these anticipated discomforts.
Ro/Justness comes with the chosen structural form and is determined by
the additional inherent strength of the structure as a whole to withstand
accidental loadings. Collapse of one key member in the structure must not
initiate global collapse. The design must foresee the 'domino effect' in the
structure and avoid it by careful planning.

1.2

CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF MATERIALS


The characteristic strength of a material is defined as the strength below
which I in 20 test results arc likely to fall.
The value of the characteristic strength is detined statistically by the
following formula

where

f,
f

characteristic strength of material


mean strength of material from test results
111
1.64 is a factor which defines the I in 20 test results falling
below A
s is the standard deviation.
=
=

The characteristic strength of concrete. f~u. is the cube strength of concrete


at 28 days.
The characteristic strength of reinforcing steel, j~ is the strength at yield.

1.3

MATERIAL FACTORS
To obtain the design strength of materials a further factor called the
material factor y 111 is applied. The material factor takes into account the
tolerances associated with the geometry. the variability of materials on

Reinforced Concrete

site, the inconsistency in the manufacture and curing on site and the effects
of long-term degradation.
The values of Ym for the ultimate limit state are as follows:
reinforcement
concrete in flexure or axial load
concrete in shear
bond strength in concrete
bearing stress

1.15
1.50
1.25
1.40
1.50

For exceptional loads and for localised damage, Ym may be taken equal to
1.3 for concrete and 1.0 for reinforcement.

1.4

MATERIAL STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

1.4.1

Short-term design stress-strain curve for normal weight concrete

PARA BOU C CURVE

0.67fcu /llm

>

;;:; (f)
lJl (f)

WW

a: a:

Cl.. 1~ lJl

5. 5 Jf cu 18m kN/ m2

2.4xlo- ~

0.0035

STRAIN

SK 1/1 Short-term design stressstrain curve for normal weight


concrete.

The features of this design curve are as follows:


The initial elastic modulus of concrete may be defined as the initial
tangent to the parabolic curve which is given by:
k /
2
Ee = 5.5 (/cu)i
Ym
N mm

The ultimate stress in concrete for design purposes is defined as:


Ou

= 0.67 fcu
-

N / mm 2

Ym

The ultimate strain in concrete for design purposes is taken as 0.0035.


Beyond that strain level the concrete loses its compressive stiffness.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

The strain in concrete when the parabolic stress-strain relationship


reaches the ultimate stress level is given by:
I

Ey

Note:

1.4.2

= 2.4

1Q- 4 (~c~)2

Concrete can withstand compressive stresses only. The tensile stress in


concrete is ignored in the design.

Short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement

TENSION
fy //!111

STRESS
200 kN/111m'

STRAIN

SK 112 Short-term design stressstrain curve for reinforcement.

COMPRESSION

fy //!m

The features of this design curve are as follows:


The elastic modulus of steel reinforcement regardless of grade of steel
may be assumed as 200 kN/mm 2 , which is the slope of the curve up to
yield.
The yield stress of steel reinforcement is /y, but for design purposes it
will be taken as //Ym
The stress after yield remains constant and is represented by a constant
stress line.
The stress-strain relationship is identical in tension and compression.
Ey

= 0.87
=

iI__
200

2.0 x 10- 3

for fy

= 460 N/mm 2

Reinforced Concrete

1.5

I.5.1

DESIGN FORMULAE FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE SECTIONS

Singly reinforced rectangular section

SK 113 Stress-strain diagrams of a

reinforced concrete section subject


to bending moment.

Plane W'ction remains plane.


Applied moment on the section= M; Ym = 1.5 for concrete, 1.15 for steel.
C = compressive force in section

= ( -0.67) fcub(0.9x) = 0.402/cubx


1.5

T = force in steel reinforcement

As = area of tensile steel in section


d = effective depth from outer compressive fibre to centroid of
steel reinforcement.

where

By internal force equilibrium,

C=T
or

0.402/cubx = 0.87 /yAs

or

X =

2.164(/yAs)
!cub

= d - 0.45x =

or

~=

or

A =

d( l -

1 - 0.97(/yAs)
fcubd

(i _~) (
d

fcubd)
0.97/y

0.97(2u~~))

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 7

or

[ 0.5 + ( 0.25 _

0~/J

Maximum moment of resistant of concrete section is obtained for redistribution not exceeding 10%, when x = d/2.
or

=d

- 0.45x

= 0.775d

Moment of resistance of concrete (maximum), M', is given by


M'

= 0.402fcubxz
=

0.402fcub(~)(o. 775d)

= 0.156fcubd2
Where redistribution exceeds 10%,
x :s (t3b - 0.4)d

Similarly,
M'

= 0.402fcubxz
= 0.402fcub(t3b - 0.4)d[ d - 0.45(~b - 0.4)d]

=
or

[0.402(~b - 0.4) - 0.18(~b - 0.4)2]fcubd 2

K' = 0.402(~b - 0.4) - 0.18(~b - 0.4) 2

where

~b = (

(moment after redistribution)


.
. ) < 0.9
moment before red1stribut10n

1.5.2 The concept of balanced design and redistribution of moments


In a singly reinforced section, if the yield strain in steel Ey = 0.002 and the
ultimate strain in concrete ( = 0.0035) are simultaneously reached then a
balanced failure condition exists.

COMPRESSION
FAILURE
SK 114 Strain diagrams of

reinforced concrete section.

STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR


BALANCED FAILURE

COMPARATIVE
STRAIN DIAGRAM

Reinforced Concrete
From strain diagram,
x

0.0035
0.002

---= --- =

(d - x)

or

1.75 for fy = 460N/mm 2

x = 0.636d

The Code does not allow x to be larger than 0.5d ensuring that the steel
reaches its yield strain before the concrete reaches the ultimate strain. This
is designed to allow sufficient rotational capacity in the section.
The more redistribution of moment is allowed, the more rotational
capacity is needed from the section. The amount of rotation is dependent
on how under-reinforced the section is, or in other words, how quickly the
steel in the section reaches the yield strain before the concrete reaches the
ultimate strain. To make sure that the rotational capacity exists in the
section to allow redistribution, the depth of neutral axis for the design is
fixed corresponding to the ratio ~b of redistribution. The compression
failure is extremely brittle and must be avoided.
On the other hand, the Code has also put a limit to the minimum value
of x. It has done so by limiting z to a maximum value of 0.95d, which
limits x to O. lld. This limitation is to avoid a very thin stress block at the
ultimate state.

1.5.3 Doubly reinforced rectangular section

SECTION

STRAIN

SK 1/5 Stress-strain diagram for


doubly reinforced section.

STRESS

Plane section remains plane.


The design bending moment is greater than K'fcubd 2, which means the
concrete moment capacity is exceeded. The neutral axis is fixed by the
Code depending on the amount of redistribution or x = (~b - 0.4)d:::; 0.5d.
This in turn fixes the lever arm z to concrete compression.
C = compressive force in section
= compression in concrete and compression in steel

/cu)

0.67
=0.9x ( - - b

Ym

= ( K'fc;bd2)

A~fy

+Ym

+ 0.87 fyA~

= tensile force = 0.87 fyAs

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 9


Equating C = T,
2

(K'fcubd
0.87/yZ

=
s

+A~

Applied moment M is equal to the moment of the internal forces.


Taking moment about the centre of steel in tension,
M

A'

= K'fcubd 2 + 0.87/yA~(d
=

- d')

M - K''
Jcu bd
0.87/y(d - d')

( K - K') fcubd 2
0.87/y(d - d')

In the above formula it is assumed that the compressive steel will attain
yield. This is true provided d' is less than or equal to 0.43x or the strain in
the steel is at least 0.002 for fy = 460 N/mm 2 If d' Ix is greater than 0.43x,
the steel stress f ~ will be proportionately modified to account for the
reduced strain. Use f~ in the equation for A~ instead of 0.87/y

J~:~0.0035

SK 1/6 Doubly reinforced beam


strain diagram.

' bd 2
A' = ( K - K') Jcu
s
f~(d - d')
where

f~ = (x0.~7~')

EyEs

fy

E =-y

YmEs

1.5.4 Singly reinforced flanged beams


The formulation is exactly the same as in a rectangular beam with b equal
to the width of the flange provided 0.9 times the depth of the neutral axis x
is less than or equal to the depth of the flange.
When 0.9x is greater than the depth of flange, then the following
analysis will apply.

10 Reinforced Concrete
b

><rlE.
~~~l
h.J 12 I~. 671cu

I 8m

d-0.45

SK 1/7 Stress diagram for a


flanged beam section.

C1

= compressive
=

force in flange only without web

)
0.67 fcu) (
( - - b - bw hf
Ym

= 0.45fcu(b - bw)hf

C2

compressive force in web as in a singly reinforced beam

= 0.45fcubw(0.9x) = 0.402fcubwx
T

tension in steel

The maximum allowable value of x equals 0.5d when the concrete moment
of resistance reaches its maximum value.
Assume x = d/2.
Taking moment about the centre of tensile steel,

~)

M' = c 1 (d -

+ C2(d - 0.45x)

= 0.45fcu (b - bw)hf(d -

=fcubd

~)

+ 0.20lfcubwd(d - 0.225d)

[(o.4s~)(1 - bbw)(1-;~)

= '3dcubd

+ 0.157 bbw]

Values of (3f for different ratios of blbw and dlhf are found in Fig. 2.1
(Chapter 2).
If the applied moment exceeds '3t fcubd 2 , then compressive steel in the
flange will be required.
To find the tensile steel take moment about C 1 assuming x = d/2.

M= T(d - :f) - c2(0.45x - ~)


=

0.87fyAs( d -

~)

- O.lfcubwd(0.45d - ht)

M + 0.lfcubwd(0.45d - ht)

As = - - - - - - - - - -

0.87fy(d - 0.5ht)

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

11

Another approach to the design of flanged beams is presented below.


When x = htl0.9, the stress block is situated entirely in the flange.
C = compressive force = bht(0.67

lever arm

=d

~c~)

2ht

Mt = 0.45/cubht( d -

~)

This is the flange resistance and if the applied moment exceeds this value,
then the web comes into compression.
The moment to be carried by the web is Mw, when M is the applied
moment.
Mw

=M

- (compression in flange only outside web) x (lever arm of


flange)
M - 0.45/cu(b - bw)ht( d -

=M
=

~f)

- Mt (b - bw)
b

M- Mr( 1- b;)

Find Mt, and if Mt is less than M, then find Mw by the above formula.
Design for Mw as for a rectangular beam with width equal to bw. Find As 1
for Mt and As2 for Mw.
Total A,= As1 + As2
As1 =
A1
s

0.45/cu(b - bw)ht
0.87/y

= -Mw
-0.87fyZ

Mw
fcubwd2

when

K = --I

and
Note:

d[ 0.5 + ( 0.25 - o~rJ

The design against Mw may follow Section 1.5.3, which means that the
flanged section may be doubly reinforced, if required.

1.6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE - SHEAR


The horizontal shear stress in a homogeneous, isotropic, uncracked beam
is given by the classical expression:

12 Reinforced Concrete

SK 1/8 Calculation of shear stress


in a homogeneous section.

VQ
v = --N/mm2

lb

where

Q = first moment of area above line 1-1 = Ay


I = second moment of area of the section about x-x
b = width of section on line 1-1
v = shear stress at line 1-1
V = shear at the section
A = area of section above line 1-1
y = distance of the centroid of area A from the neutral axis.

Shear flow, q

VQ
I

= -

In a concrete beam where concrete is ignored, the horizontal shear stress


can be included in the expression below for horizontal equilibrium under
the neutral axis.

The shear flow in the tension zone of concrete will be constant because the
concrete is ignored.

STRESS

SHEAR FLOW

SK 1/9 Calculation of shear stress.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

13

dx

-N--

-----.-f -.----- - --A

,l..___l===========lT+dT

SK 1110 Shear stress in a


reinforced concrete section.

From the above expression,


v=

z
or
..

(blJ(:)

dM
-=dT

v =

C~)(D(:)

dM
V=dx

..

v
hwz

v=-

For convenience in the ultimate limit state the Code shear stress index is
taken as:

Effective shear in haunched beams


Veff

V - Csin8'
V - C' tan 8'

V- Mtan8'

SK 1111 Effective shear force in a


beam with variable depth.

14 Reinforced Concrete

CONTINUOUS BEAM

I
SIMPLY SUPPORTED END

I
SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

SK 1112 Effective shear force


diagrams for beams with variable
depth.

1.6.1 Principle of 'design concrete shear stress'


Shear is resisted in concrete beams by the combined action of the following:
Shear resistance of concrete in compression zone. Dowel force in tension
bars across a crack. Aggregate interlocking across the inclined crack in
tension zone.
The Code formula takes into account the dowel force of the tensile steel
and the formula is essentially of empirical nature arrived at from test
results.
Shear reinforcement - truss analogy
Vs = shear force to be resisted by reinforcement

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

3Cot

15

OF SUPPORT
Vs
SK 1/13 Truss analogy of shear
reinforcement.

From the force diagram,


Vs

where

C' sin 13 = T' sin <

C'
T'

= concrete strut
=

force
tensile force in shear reinforcement
resultant of all forces in shear reinforcement within the
spacing S.

From geometry:

= z(cot< +

T' .

-sm<
S
or

cotl3)

= -Vs =
S

Vs

z(cot<

T'

V,

z sin<(cot< + cot 13)

0.87/yAsb

or

Vs

Vs

z sin<(cot< +

or

+ cot13)

cot 13)

= 0 .87fyAsb( cos < + sin < cot 13)

The Code uses (d - d') in place of

~)

z in the formula.

When vertical stirrups are used and the concrete struts are assumed inclined
at 45 to horizontal then < = 90 and 13 = 45.
Vs =
Vs

0.87/yvAv(~)

v=-=
s

bz

0.87/yvAv
bS

16 Reinforced Concrete

bS(v - Ve)
--'----'"-0.87fyv
The assumptions in the above truss analogy are:

or
Note:

Asv

Bond forces are sustained along the length of the beam where shear
reinforcement is required.
The lever arm z is assumed constant over the section with variable
moment producing the shear to be resisted. The diagonal compressive
stress in concrete struts calculated from the analogy is equal to vs!
[sin 2 13(cot a:+ cot 13)) is sustainable.

1.6.2 Additional tensile steel in conjunction with shear reinforcement


Referring to SK 1113, assume that a diagonal crack forms in concrete
when the shear force exceeds the concrete shear capacity, Ve. Assume that
the ultimate shear force is Vu = Ve+ \!" where \!, is resisted by shear
reinforcement.
Sections 1-1 and 2- 2 are taken at two ends of a diagonal crack.
Consider the free body diagram of internal forces.
Assume that the tensile force requirement at section 2 is also divided in
two parts. When the shear becomes V the tensile force required is Tc,
and for V, it is Ts.
Assume that the moment at section 2 is M 2c corresponding to V0 and M 2s
corresponding to \!, .
0

.". Vu= Ve+ lf,


Tu= Tc+ Ts
M1u = M1c + M1s
T' is the tensile force in the shear reinforcement.

initially assume a shear of Ve on section.


Taking moment about the concrete compressive force Cat section 1-1,
Mic= llcX = M1c

Note:

+ Vczcot(3 =

Tcz

At this stage T' = 0.


Next assume a shear of Vs on section.
Taking moment about the concrete compressive force Cat section 1-1,
Mis = lfsX = M1s

or

Ts =

+ Vszcot 13 = Tsz +

~2 s + Vs cot 13 - (~)

T' sin a:

G)

T' sin a:

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

17

Substituting:

Vs

z(cot a:

Ts = ~28 + ( ~s) (cot f3 -

cot tX)

T' sin a:

and

+ cot (3)

we get:

Tu= Tc+ T,

=
=

2 (cotf3 (M2c +z Mzs) + Vccot(3 + (Vs)


Mu
(Vs)
~ + Ve cot f3 + 2 (cot f3 - cot a:)

cot a:)

This demonstrates quite clearly that when diagonal cracks form in concrete due to shear exceeding Ve, additional tensile steel will be required
over and above Mulz.
This requirement is not explicitly covered in the Code. The rules of
curtailment of reinforcement are deemed to satisfy this requirement.
Note:

At locations of very high shear this additional requirement should be


checked.

1.7 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE - CRACK WIDTH


The basic assumptions to find crack width for flexure are summarised
below:
(1) Plane section remains plane before and after bending.
(2) Concrete compressive stress diagram is linear and triangular. The
stress is directly proportional to strain.
(3) The short-term Young's modulus of concrete may be used.
(4) The steel reinforcement does not go beyond yield.
(5) The loading is at serviceability limit state.
(6) Effective crack height at 'no slip' is C0 , which is the minimum cover
to reinforcement.
(7) Mean crack spacing is 1.5 Co(8) Initial crack height h0 is up to the neutral axis and the maximum
crack width is a function of the ratio Cofh 0 to take into account slip
and internal cracks in concrete.
(9) Stiffening effect of tension in concrete is allowed for by an empirical
term.
(10) The equation for the determination of maximum crack width is
empirical and is a close fit of test results. It is anticipated that 1 in
5 results will exceed the prediction by the formula.
For the formula and its application, see Chapter 2.

18 Reinforced Concrete

1.8 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE - DEFLECTION


Calculate moments at service load without redistribution.
d'

-~___,AS __ ~s

--LI

d-d' N
~_

-Es= ~(d-x)

__,As

SECTION

SK 1/14 Doubly reinforced


section.

STRAIN DIAGRAM

The assumptions for the analysis of the section are similar to assumptions
(1) to (5) in Section 1.7.
Find the depth of neutral axis, x, and find the stresses in concrete, fc,
and the stress in steel, fs, by following Step 25 of worked example m
Chapter 2. This method ignores the concrete under the neutral axis.
Curvature = _!_ =
rb

xEc

f,

(d - x)E,

Alternatively, calculate x as previously and then allow a tensile stress in


concrete up to 1 N/mm 2 short-term and 0.55 N/mm 2 long-term.
Deflection, b

Kt2(~)

where K depends on the shape of the bending moment diagram.


BS 8110: Part 2: 1985 [1] in Table 3.1 gives different values of K for
various loadings and support conditions. The principle of superposition
may be used to combine different types of loading.

1.9 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE - TORSION

~3hmin/2
8~
h 111 j 0 /2

SK 1/15 Membrane analogy for


torsion.

By principles of membrane analogy it is known that 2 times the volume


included between the surface of a deflected membrane and the plane of its
outline is equal to the torque in a twisted member.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

19

Applying this analogy to a rectangular section gives a pyramidal deflected


membrane.
Volume of pyramid =

1h~in H + ! hm;

(hmax - hm;n)H

(hminH) (h max _ hmin)


3
2

By membrane theory it is known that the torsional shear stress is the slope
of the angle of the deflected membrane.
tane
T

=2

(hmin/2)

= h minH ( hmax

- -hmin)
3

= v1(hm; 0 /2),

= (vth~;n)(h max
2

or

v1

.
volume of pyramid

Substituting H
T

_ hmin)
3

2T
Vt=

h2min (h max - 3
hmin)

1.10 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE - COLUMNS

PARABOLJC
---CONCRETE

SK 1/16 Typical load-strain curve


of a column.

1.10.1

0.002

0.0035

- - ' - - STRAIN

Axial load capacity of columns


Taking creep and shrinkage of concrete into consideration it is difficult to
predict the actual stresses in a short concrete column subjected to service
axial load in the elastic range, because initial compressive stress from
concrete gets transferred to the steel due to creep of concrete. But at the
ultimate load stage it is easier to predict the ultimate load-carrying capacity
because the concrete ultimate strain of 0.0035 is much higher than steel

20

Reinforced Concrete
yield strain. Hence, the steel reaches its ultimate load-carrying capacity
long before concrete gets there.
The ultimate load-carrying capacity of a short reinforced column may be
written as,
Nuz

= (~~cu )Ac +
=

where

Ac

0.45/cuAc
=

Ase =

(~:)Ase

+ 0.87/yAsc

net concrete cross-sectional area


area of compressive steel reinforcement.

The Code equations allow for a nominal eccentricity and the formulae are
changed to one of the following depending on application:
N

= 0.4/cuAc + 0.75/yAsc

for a column with nominal eccentricity of load - meaning a column with


no design moments and eccentric loads. The eccentricity is allowed for the
constructional tolerances.
N = 0.35/cuAc

+ 0.67/yAsc

for a column supporting an approximately symmetrical arrangement of


beams. The spans of the beams on either side of the column should not
differ by more than 15%. To allow for a certain eccentricity of loading due
to the variations in spans and the location and disposition of live loadings
on spans, the equation has been modified.

1.10.2 Axial load capacity of slender columns


The strength of a slender column depends on:
(1) Effective height-to-width ratio, where the effective height depends on
the rotational end restraints and the lateral restraints by bracing.
(2) The flexural rigidity of the column section which determines the Euler
critical buckling load.
(3) The duration of loading which influences the strength and deflections
due to creep.
The Code uses the 'Moment Magnifier Method', whereby the effect of
slenderness is transferred into an equivalent deflection and an additional
moment given by the product of this deflection and the applied direct load.

where au =

~aKh

~a= 2~G~r
K=

Nuz - N)
(Nuz
Nbal

Theory of Reinforced Concrete


Nbal

21

= 0.25fcubd approximately (see Section 1.10.4.1).

h = dimension of column in the plane of bending considered

b' = shorter dimension of column for uniaxial bending, or


= dimension of column in the plane of bending considered for
significant biaxial bending
Le =effective length of column in the plane of bending considered.

(See Chapter 4 for further explanation.)

1.10.3 Axial load and moment on column


The assumptions for the analysis of the section are exactly the same as in
the case of beams and the analysis depends on strain compatibility. The
design is usually carried out by the use of published charts which have
been derived using the following assumptions:
(1) Plane section remains plane or the strain compatibility is assumed.
(2) The concrete stress block is assumed rectangular-parabolic.
(3) The stress-strain curve for steel is bilinear.
To use the charts to find the total area of steel required, the following
parameters are required: !cu fy, Nlbh, Mlbh 2 and the dlh ratio. (See
Chapter 4 for further explanation.)

1.10.4 Column interaction diagrams


1.10.4.1 Rectangular section
If column charts are not available and a hand calculation is required
or, where the column size and reinforcement are known and the column
load-carrying capacity with variable eccentricity is required for assessment
purposes, the following design procedure may be followed. The interaction
diagram of a column with known areas of steel will illustrate the ultimate

I
!

SK 1117 Elevation of a column.

Bending Moment
And Axial Load

I
Ii
I
Equivalent System
e= MIN

22

Reinforced Concrete
load-carrying capacity of the column section subjected to uniaxial bending
moment.
N = applied ultimate direct load
M = applied ultimate coacting bending moment
e = MIN = eccentricity of direct load

Cc = resistance of concrete in compression


C, = resistance of steel in compression
T = resistance of steel in tension

Column
Section

d'

.
G_L
Es~!11
ES

fs

Ee=
Q.OQJ5

Ultimate
Strain

Diagram

Stress
Diagram

Idealised
Stress

Diagram

SK 1/18 Stress and strain


diagrams.

Balanced failure
A balanced failure occurs when the tension steel just reaches yield at the
same time as the extreme compression fibre in concrete reaches the ultimate
strain of 0.0035.

fy

= characteristic

yield strength of steel


= 200 kN/mm2
depth of neutral axis at 'balanced failure'

E, = modulus of elasticity of steel


xb =

From the strain diagram:


0.0035 _ f/EsYm
Xb
(d - Xb)
assuming

/y

Ym

E, =

460 N/mm 2
1.15 for steel
200kN/mm 2

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 23

Strain Diagram
At Balanced

Failure.

Force Diagram.

SK 1/19 Strain and force diagram


at balanced failure.

the above equation reduces to:


0.0035
0.002
--=--or

Xb

(d -

xb

= 0.636d

Xb)

Nb = ultimate load at balanced failure

=Cs+ Cc - T
= As (0.87/y) + (0.67/cu)
-;;:::- 0.9xbb - As(0.87/y)
1

For a symmetrically reinforced section where As= A~, and the compression
reinforcement reaches yield strain, the terms for Cs and T cancel each
other out.
:.

Nb = 0.256fcubd

The strain in compression steel is governed by the value of d'.


The yield strain in compression steel is fyl EsYm
E, = 200kN/mm2 and Ym = 1.15.
For Grade 460 N/mm 2 steel, this yield strain= 0.002.
At 'balanced failure' condition:
~

0.0035
Xb

(xb -

d')

Assuming E~ = 0.002 and xb = 0.636d, the maximum value of d' to produce


yield strain in compression steel is given by:
d' = 0.273d

or

~=

0. 78 minimum to produce yield strain in compression reinforce-

24

Reinforced Concrete
ment at 'balanced failure'.
For a symmetrically reinforced section,

Mb

moment to produce balanced failure

dlh = k
p = lOOAslbh = percentage of reinforcement with respect to tension

reinforcement only
fy = 460N/mm 2
d' th = (1 - k)
d"/h = (k - 0.5)

Taking moment about the centroid of the section,

for k20.78
Mb = 0.402fcuxbb(0.5h - 0.45xb) + 0.87As/yh(k - 0.5)
+ 0.87As/yh(k - 0.5)
for k<0.78

Mb

0.45xb)

= 0.402fcuXbb(0.5h -

+ 0.87As/yh(k - 0.5)

Asfsh(k - 0.5)

and

Es

0.0035(xb - d')

-----~

Xb

fork 20.78

Mb

bh 2

0.256/cuk(0.5 - 0.286k) + 8p(k - 0.5)

fork< 0.78

Mb

bh 2

0.256/cuk(0.5 - 0.286k) + 4p(k - 0.5)

+ llp(l.636k - 1)
Note:

(k - 0.5)
k

In the above equations use 0.5p instead of p if p is the percentage of total


reinforcement in the column.
d
Tension Failure But Compression
Steel Does Not Reach Yield.
Typical Tension Failur~ :x:>:x:b.
I
Balanced Failure (:x: :x:b ).

-,-a.+j.!L_
=

..______::""-'2"'""=......:::.+..,,::.....,,_---1~---;

Compressiai Failure
Tensile Steel Does Not Reach Yield

(:x:> :x:b).

Ey- ~m Es

Ec=0.0035

SK 1120 Strain diagram of column


for various types of failure.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 25


Tension failure

When N <Nb and f~ = fylYm a tension failure condition will apply. The
column behaves more like a beam in this condition.
N =Cc+ Cs - T

Assuming symmetrical reinforcement and yield strain in both tension and


compression steel,
N = Cc = 0.402/cubx

N
0.402/cub

or

x=---

Check that
0.0035(x - d')

~ =

or

x
~

for fy = 460N/mm2

0.002

2.331h(l - k)

This ensures that the compression steel has reached yield.


For a symmetrically reinforced rectangular section,

~h = 2.4875(~)
fcubh
= 0.5[(B 2 +

x
for -

4C)! - B]

17.413(1 -

2.331(1 - k)

for

h<

2.331(1 - k)

2.4875(~)

where B = 7.463(]!_) /cu

c=

fcubh

k)(l!_)
fcu

Taking moment about the centroid of the section,


for

h~ 2.331(1 M

for

0.402fcuxb(0.5h - 0.45x) + 0.87Asfyh(k - 0.5)


+ 0.87Asfyh(k - 0.5)

h< 2.331(1 M

k)

k)

= 0.402fcuxb(0.5h

- 0.45x)

+ 0.87Asfyh(k - 0.5)

+ Asf.h(k - 0.5)
for

h~ 2.331(1 -

k)

~ = 0.402(~)(0.5

fcubh

0.45(~)) + 8p(k
h

- 0. )

fcu

26

Reinforced Concrete

for

x
1z<
2.331(1- k)

~ = 0.402(~)[0.5

h~

0.45(~)]
h

+ llp(k -

05
)

7p[(l - k)/(x/h)](k - 0.5)

fcu
Compression failure
When N >Nb, a compression failure condition applies.
N =Cc+ C, - T

Assuming symmetrical reinforcement and yield strain in both tension and


compression steel,

N
or

= 0.402fcubx

Cc

0.402fcubh

:h)

= 2.4875( fcu

For the tensile steel to be at yield,


Es 2:

for fy = 460N/mm 2

0.002

(d - x)

or

0.0035

or

x
-:::s0.636k
h

2:

0.002

For both tensile steel and compression steel to be at yield,


0.636k

2: - 2:

2.331(1 - k)

When compression steel does not yield,


x
for 0.636k 2: h< 2.331(1 - k ),

- =

where

0.5[(B 2

+ 4C)2 - B]

B = 7.463(L) - 2.4875(/c;h)

c=

17.413(1 - k)(.f!_)
fcu

When tension steel does not yield,


x
for 0.636k < h2: 2.331(1 - k),

Theory of Reinforced Concrete


X

h = 0.5[(B 2
where

27

+ 4C)2 - B]

B = 27.363(.!!_) - 2.4875(_!!__)
fcu
fcubh

c=

17.413k(.!!_)
fcu

When tension steel and compression steel do not yield,


x
for 0.636k < h< 2.331(1 - k ),
X

h=
where

0.5[(B 2 + 4C)2 - B]

B= 34.826(.!!_)
/cu
c=

2.4875(

:h)

/cu

17.413(.!!_)

/cu

Taking moment about the centroid of section.


For both tension and compression steel going into yield,
M = 0.402fcuxb(0.5h - 0.45x)
+ 0.87AJyh(k - 0.5)

0.87Asfyh(k - 0.5)

For tension steel only going into yield,


M

= 0.402fcuxb(0.5h
+

Asf~h(k -

- 0.45x)

0.81Asfyh(k - 0.5)

0.5)

For compression steel only going into yield,


M

= 0.402fcuxb(0.5h
+

- 0.45x)
0.87As/yh(k - 0.5)

Asfsh(k - 0.5)

For both tension and compression steel not going into yield,
M = 0.402fcuxb(0.5h - 0.45x)

Asfsh(k - 0.5)

Asf~h(k -

x
for 0.636k::::: h::::: 2.331(1 - k)

~ = 0.402(~)[0.5

fcubh

0.45(~)]
h

05

+ p(k - >
/cu

x
for 0.636k::::: h < 2.331(1 - k)

~ = 0.402(~)[0.5

h~

0.45(~)]
h

+ [llp(k -

_ {7p[(l - k)l(xlh)] (k - 0.5)}

/cu

05
)]

0.5)

28

Reinforced Concrete
x
for 0.636k < h;:::: 2.331(1- k)

___!!___2

fcubh

0.402(~) [o.5

0.45(~) J +
h

[ pk(k -

05
)]

(x/h)fcu

- [3p(k - 0.5)]
fcu

for 0.636k <

hx <

2.331 (1 - k).

~ = o.402(~)[0.5

fcubh

Note:

0.45(~)] + 7P(2k
h

- l)(k -

05
)

(x/h)fcu

In all above equations use 0.5p instead of p if p is the percentage of total

reinforcement in the column.


Symmetrical rectangular column - interaction tables for columns subject to
uniaxial bending and direct load
Tables 11.8 to 11.17 (Chapter 11) have been prepared by solving by

iteration the following equations. Assuming equal reinforcement in each


face of the rectangular section and assuming that all steel reinforcement is
in tension,
b = width of rectangular section
d 1 = depth of the top layer of reinforcement near the compression

face from the compression face


d = depth of the bottom layer of reinforcement near the tension face

i.e. the effective depth


depth of section
e = MIN = eccentricity of load from the centre of the rectangular
section, assuming that the concentrated load N always acts at the
centre of the rectangular section
f, 1 = stress in steel at depth d 1
f, = stress in steel at depth d
A 51 = A 5 12, i.e. equal reinforcement on each face
p = percentage of reinforcement in column = 100A 5 / bh
x = depth of neutral axis from compression face
k = dlh
dilh = 1- k
0.87/y = 0.87 x 460 = 400N/mm2
f,1 = EsEst = 200 x HY x 0.CX)35 x (d1 -x)lx=700 (d 1 -x)/x:s:14001 N/mm2
fs = 700 (d-x)/xs: l400IN/mm 2
Ac == area of concrete in compression== 0.9bx == 0.9bh(xlh)
N = (0.67 fcu/Ym)Ac - (As/2)(fsl + fs)
h

= overall

~ == 0.402/cuG)

C~)Us1

+ /,)

Taking moment about the centre of the rectangular section,

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 29

0.67/cu) Ac (h2 - 0.45x ) + (As)


T (h2 - (1 (--y:-

Ne=
=

0.45(~))

0.402/cuG)bh 2( 0.5 -

k)h (Is - /s1)

bh 2 ( 2~)(k -

0.5)(/5

/ 8

1)

Dividing Nelbh 2 by Nlbh we get Elh.

0.402/cuG)(0.5 -

e
h

0.45(~))

0.402/cu(~)

(ii;)(k - 0.5)(/s - /s1)

C~)(/s! + /s)

x
h

100(1- k or

/s1

~)
:S

j400j N/mm 2

100(k -

Is

~)

- - - - :S

j400j N/mm 2

For a range of values of /cu k and p, the above equations can be solved for
different values of elh. Tables 11.8 to 11.17 give Nlbh for different values
of e/h.
Note:

The above equations are valid up to x

= 1.lllh.

1.10.4.2 Circular section

SK 1121 Circular column - strain


diagram.
R = radius of circular section
Ac = area of equivalent uniform stressed section of concrete bounded by a

line at 0.9x from compression face


i = centroid of stressed section of concrete

30 Reinforced Concrete
x = depth of neutral axis from compression face

e = eccentricity of applied load = MIN


= applied direct load at centre of section
M = applied equivalent uniaxial moment
p = percentage of reinforcement = lOOA,/nR 2
k = h,lh
28 = angle to the corner of equivalent uniformly stressed area subtended
at the centre of section, or the angle subtended to the line at 0.9x
from compression face
A, = total area of steel in six bars
Ac = Rz(8 - sin 8 cos 8)
N

x=

R[l _

2sin 8
3(8 - sin8cos8)

First layer of steel is at di. second layer of steel is at dz, and third layer is
at d3.
Note:

If x is greater than di, dz, or d 3 then the corresponding steel is in

compression.

Rz = 0.45fcu(8 - sin8cos8) -

/,1

0.0035Es( d, :

or fs1 =

300

x) :s 14001 N/mmz

100(~ - ~)
x

(pn) Ust + fsz + fs3)

:s 14001 N/mmz

dz
700 ( R -

f s2

x)
R
:s 14001 N/mmz

x
R

d3

700 ( R fs3 =

x)
R

:s 14001 N/mmz

d,

x
R

1 - kcos30

1
-)(1 - cos8) = 1.11 (1 - cos0)
( -0.9

+ kcos30

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 31


.i
2sin3 0
-= 1 - - - - - - -

3(0 - sin 0cos8)

Taking moment about the centre of section assuming that the applied load
N is always at the centre of section,
Ne= 0.45R 2/cu(0 - sin 8cos0)(R - .i)

= 0.45R 3/cu(8 - sin 0cos0)( 1 -

+ ( ~8 )(kRsin60)(/83 - f,1)

(p;~ )(ksin60)(f.3 -

~)

(~)(ksin6D)(/83 -

f, 1)

Dividing Ne/R 3 by NIR 2 we get e/R.


e

0.45/cu(S - sin0cos0)( 1 -

~)

0.45/cu(0 - sin 0 cos 0) -

(;~)(/,1

/s1)

+ fs2 + /s3)

d
= l.08Q6k
R

z d .i
-=-R

For a range of values of !cu, k and p, the above equations can be solved for
different values of e/R. Tables 11.18 to 11.27 give NIR 2 and z/R for
different values of el R.
Note:

1.11

The above equations are valid up to x = 1.1 llh

= 2.22R.

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE - CORBELS

v
T

=-

Es

E=Q.0035

SK 1122 Concrete corbel.

Strut and Tie Diagram

The derivation of Fig. 5.1

v=bd

Stra.il Diagram

32 Reinforced Concrete
From the strut and tie diagram:

+ Fe cos~

F1 = T

= T

Vav

+-

0.67/cu)
Fe= ( - b 0.9xcosj3
1.5

= 0.402/cubxcos j3
V = Fe sin j3
= 0.402/cubxcos~sinj3

(.l

smf" =

(a~

z
1
+ z2)2

= - = 0.402/cuX
bd

~=

!cu

0 402(.) (

a~

Zllv

(av2 +

xav

+ z2

)d

Substituting x = (d - z)/0.45,
v

/cu

0.893(~)( ~)( 1 - ~)

(~)2 + (~)2

From the above equation the graphs in Fig. 5.1 have been drawn.

1.12 WOOD-ARMER COMBINATION OF MOMENT TRIADS

- Asy

Mxy

mt"

Mx

Mxy
SK 1123 Moment triad in a slab panel.

SK 1124 Direction of orthogonal reinforcement


in a slab panel.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 33

Orthogonal reinforcement
Bottom steel
M.~

= Mx + IMxyl
Mj = My + IMxyl

If M.~<0, then M_~=O

M: = My

and

+ M;v'
M~
I

If M~< 0, then M:= 0

MO:= Mx + MM;_v.v'

and

Top steel

M':
Mj

Mx - IMxvl
My - IMx:vl

'

If Mf>O, then Mf=O

and

M*
Y

M;v'
--
Mx

M Y

If Mj> 0, then Mj= 0

'
and

Mf

= Mx -

M;vl
M_~

Skew reinforcement
Asa

SK 1125 Direction of skew


reinforcement in a slab panel.

Bottom steel

Mf

= Mx

+ 2Mxycotex

M~ = 1:1.v +
sm 2 ex

+ Mycot 2 ex+ IMxy +.My cot ex I

'Mxy +_My cot ex'


sm ex

If Mf< 0, then Mf = 0

smex

34

Reinforced Concrete

M~

and

(-.-1-)(M.v +
sm 2 cx

(Mxv + Mvcotcx)
Mx + 2MxyCOtO'. + M.vcot 2 cx

j)

If M~<O, then M~=O


2

M:

and

Mx + 2MxyCOtO'. + M.vcot 2 cx + (Mxy +MM_vycot cx)

Top steel

M'; = Mx + 2Mxy cot ex + My cot 2 Q'.

IMxy +.Mycotcxl
StnQ'.

M~

IMxy +.My cot ex I

.My sm 2 cx

SlfiQ'.

If M';> 0, then M';= 0

and

M~

= (+)(M_v -

sm ex
If

M~

and

> 0, then
M';

M~ =

(Mxv + Mvcotcx)
Mx + 2MxyCOtG'. + Mycot 2 cx

j)

Mx + 2MxyCOt ex+ My cot 2 ex - l(Mxy +MM_vycot<l'.)21

1.13 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE - BENDING AND DIRECT LOADS


1.13.1

Serviceability limit state: uniaxial bending


C'

= compressive

force in bars in compression with allowance for area of


concrete occupied by bars
C = compressive force in concrete stress block assumed triangular

Ee

Es
Neutral
Axis

Es

As
SECTION
SK 1126 Serviceability uniaxial bending.

STRESS

STRAIN

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 35


T
M
x
fc

= tensile force in bars in tension


= applied bending moment
= depth of neutral axis from compressive face
= strain in extreme compressive fibre of concrete

~ =

strain in compressive steel

= strain in tensile steel

= EsfEc

From strain diagram,

~=-x or
~
x - d'

f::. _ Ec(_x- )
f~

~=-x or f::.
fs
X - d
f.

E, d - d'

Ec(_x_)
Es d-x

C = 0.5bxfc
C'

= f~A~
= (m -

d')

x -

- fcA~ ( - x -

x -

d')

1)/cA~ ( - X -

d -

x)

= fsAs = mfcAs ( - x -

Taking moment about the steel in tension,

c( d - ~) + C'(d or 0.5bxfc( d -

~)

d')

+ (m -

=M

1)/cA~( x ~ d')(d

- d') = M

Equating the loads on the section,


C+C'=T

or 0.5bxfc

+ (m -

l)fcA~(x ~ d')

mfcAs(d

x)

Eliminating fc and multiplying by 2xlbd 2 ,


x2

+ 2(m -

l)A~(x - d') _ 2mA.(d - x) =

bd2

d2

bd 2

Simplifying, and substituting p = A 5 /bd and p'

(sr

or

= AUbd,

2[(m - l)p' + mp1(S) - 2[ (m - l)p'( :) + mp]


s= {[mp+ (m - l)p'r + 2[mp+ (m - l)(:)p']}~
- [mp + (m - l)p']
+

36 Reinforced Concrete
Put p'

0, where compressive steel is not present.

Having found x using the above expression, find


M

le

= 0.5bx(d -

x/3) + (m -

l)A~(x

le

- d')(d - d')lx

where

k2 = (;d) ( 1 -

;d)

k 3 = (m - 1) ( 1 -

f,

~)

tensile stress in steel

mlc(~ - 1)

1.13.2 Serviceability limit state: uniaxial bending and compression

Ne

Ee

Es
d

Neutral
Axis

CENTROIOAL
AXIS THROUGH
STRESSED AREA

fs
As

STRESS

Es
STRAIN

SK 1/27 Serviceability uniaxial bending and thrust.

Using the same symbols as in Section 1.13.1 and Ne is the compressive


force, equating the loads on the section:
C'

and e

= -Ne

The output from a computer program will give an axial compression of a


member with a coacting moment. This axial compression theoretically for
a reinforced concrete section may be considered as acting at the centroid
of the stressed section. This will mean finding the centroid of the stressed
area ignoring concrete in tension. On the other hand, the line of application
of the compressive load may also be assumed to coincide with the centroid
of the full concrete section ignoring any reinforcement.

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

37

The distance of the centroid of the stressed area from the compressive
face of the rectangular section is called g and may be found by taking
moments of all transformed areas of steel about the compressive face of
the section

g=
g=

bx(x/2) + (m bx + (m -

2h

+ mA,d
+ mA,

l)A~d'

l)A~

where the load is assumed to act at the centroid of the full

concrete section ignoring steel.


(See Section 1.13.1 for expressions of C and C'.)
Taking moment about tension steel,

or

-Ne(e

-Ne(e

+ d - g) + (m -

~)

+ 0.5bxfe( d -

k3

1)(

= (m -

d - g)

C'(d - d')

c(d - ~)

= 0

l)feA~(x ~ d')(d -

=0

1 - :)

where ki. k 2 and k 3 are non-dimensional constants.

~)feA~ + k2bdfe =

k3( 1 '

~ k3
=

1-

dr

+ k1bd

C' + C - Ne

l)feA~(x ~ d')

or AJ, = (m = k3feA~

or fs =

A~

k1Ne

fc(k3A~

+ 0.5bxfc

- Ne

+ 0.5bx) - Ne
A

+ 0.5bxfc - Ne

d')

38

Reinforced Concrete
From strain diagram, see Section 1.13.1

f,
le

m(d - x)
X

or x = - - - (1

+A_)
mfe

The procedure is to assume x and then calculate le and f" and then check
x. Repeat this process until convergence is reached.

1.13.3 Serviceability limit state: uniaxial bending and tension

Ee

Es
d

As

----~-+---Neutral

Axis

STRESS

STRAIN

SK 1/28 Serviceability uniaxial bending and tension.

Using the same symbols as in Section 1.13.1 and N 1 is the tensile force,
equating the loads:

C' + C + N 1 = T and e

= -

N1

The expressions for e, g, k 2 and k 3 are exactly the same as in Section


1.13.2 and g may be taken equal to h/2 where the point of application of
the tensile load is at the centroid of the full concrete section ignoring steel.
(See Section 1.13.1 for expressions of C and C'.)
Taking moment about tensile steel,
-N1(e

g - d)

+ C'(d - d') + c(d -

~)

Theory of Reinforced Concrete 39

k3

or

= (m
le

~)

- 1)( 1 -

(
k3 1 -

d~)1N1

A~

Asfs = T = C'

or

k2bd

N1

+ 0.5bx) + N 1
ls = fc(k3A~
~----~-As

(1 + _b_)
mlc

as in Section 1.13.2. Check assumed value of x and repeat until convergence is


reached.

Chapter 2

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

2.0 NOTATION
a'
ab
acr

Ac

As
A~

Asv
b
be
b1

bw
c
cmin

C
d
d'

d1
Ee
Es

ls
fy

f~

/cu
fyv
F
Fbt

G
h

hr
hmax
hmin

I
l

Compression face to point on surface of concrete where crack width is


calculated
Centre-to-centre distance between bars or groups of bars
Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar
Gross area of concrete in a section
Area of steel in tension
Area of steel in compression
Area of steel in vertical links
Width of reinforced concrete section
Breadth of compression face of beam mid-way between restraints
Width of section at centroid of tensile steel
Average web width
Coefficient of torsional stiffness
Minimum cover to tensile reinforcement
Torsional stiffness
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of compressive reinforcement
From tension face of concrete section to centre of tensile
reinforcement
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Service stress in steel reinforcement
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Revised compressive stress in steel taking into account depth of neutral
axis
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement used as links
Coefficient for calculation of cracked section moment of inertia
Tensile force in a bar at start of a bend
Shear modulus
Overall depth of a concrete section
Thickness of flange in a T-beam
Maximum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete beam
Minimum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete beam
Moment of inertia
Clear span or span face-to-face of support
41

42

Reinforced Concrete

v
vb
Ve
Vs
Vmax
Vnom
Veone
Wmax

x
X1

Yi

Effective span
Centre-to-centre distance between supports
modular ratio = E,I Ee
Applied bending moment
Design bending moment modified to account for axial load
Moment of resistance of concrete in flanged beams
Axial load
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Percentage of compressive reinforcement
Internal radius of a bend in a bar
Spacings of bent bars used as shear reinforcement
Spacing of vertical links
Applied torsion
Proportion of total torsion carried by each rectangle of an I-, T- or
L-section
Shear stress in concrete (N/mm 2 )
Design concrete shear stress (N/mm2 )
Shear stress in concrete due to torsion (N/mm2 )
Ultimate permissible torsional shear stress (N/mm 2)
Design concrete torsional shear stress (N/mm 2 )
Shear force in concrete section
Shear force carried by bent bars
Shear force capacity of concrete section
Shear force carried by vertical links
Ultimate maximum shear forces allowed on section
Shear force capacity of concrete section with minimum vertical links
Design shear resistance of concrete
Maximum crack width (mm)
Depth of neutral axis from compression face
Centre-to-centre of two external vertical legs of a link
Centre-to-centre of two external horizontal legs of a link
Depth of lever arm
Angle of inclination to horizontal of shear reinforcement
Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in truss analogy
Ratio of redistributed moment over elastic analysis moment
Factor governing moment of resistance of concrete T-section
Material factor
Calculated strain in concrete at depth h
Strain with stiffening effect corrected
Strain at centre of steel reinforcement
Yield strain in steel reinforcement
Strain at centre of compressive reinforcement
Strain at depth h corrected for stiffening effect
Calculated strain in concrete ignoring stiffening effect
Poisson's ratio
Diameter of a reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a group of bars

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 43

2.1

ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

2.1.1

Effective spans

"
J
~

I}

ll!>

I
SK 2/2 Continuous beam.

SK 2/3 Cantilever beam.

SK 2/1 Simply supported


beam.

Simply supported or encastre

le = smaller of (/ + d) or 10

Continuous
Cantilever
where 10
le
l
d

le

= l + -2

= centre-to-centre distance
=

=
=

between supports
effective span
clear span or span to face of support
effective depth of tension reinforcement.

2.1.2 Effective width of compression flange

jA
SK 214 Effective width of
compression flange.

~ k.

[r-1'1
1:1

ZI

J~

SECTrON A - A

Simply supported T-beam

le
b=-+b
5
w

Simply supported L-beam

le
b = -+
10 b w

Continuous or encastre T-beams

le
b=-+b
7.14
w

Continuous or encastre L-beams

le
b=--+b
14.29
w

44 Reinforced Concrete
where

b = effective width of compression flange


bw = average width of web.

Note: Use actual b if it is less than the calculated b using the above formulae.
A typical example may be a precast T-beam.

2.1.3 Moment of inertia

Method 1 Gross concrete section only


Find moment of inertia of gross concrete section - see Table 11.2.
Method 2 Uncracked transformed concrete
If reinforcement quantities are known, find moment of inertia of transformed concrete section using Table 11.2.
Method 3 Average of gross concrete section and cracked section

SK 2/5 Doubly reinforced beam.

where

p
where

c~bh 3 + Fbh 3 )

= 0.5

I = moment of inertia of rectangular concrete section


b = width of rectangular concrete section
h = overall depth of rectangular concrete section
F = factor - see Fig. 11.1 for values of F.
=

A,

100 -

bd

A, = area of tensile reinforcement


d = effective depth to tensile reinforcement.

p' = 100

where

A~=

A'

--2

bd

area of compressive reinforcement.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 45

.
= modular ratio
= -Es

Ee

The graphs in Fig. 11.1 have been drawn for p' = 0 and p = p'. Intermediate
values may be interpolated.
Note:

2.1.4

The preferred method is Method 3 for rectangular sections. Where reinforcement quantities are not known, an assumption may be made of the percentage of reinforcement.
T-beams and L-beams in a frame or continuous beam structure should
be treated as rectangular beams for the purpose of determining moment of
inertia. The width of the beam will be taken equal to bw

Modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement steel
Es

200kN/mm 2

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ee, for short-term and long-term loadings


is given in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Modulus of elasticity of concrete: short-term and long-term loading.
Short-term loading, Ee
(kN/mm 2 )

Long-term loading, Ee
(kN/mm 2)

20

24

25
30

25

12
12.5
13
14
15
16

26
28

40

Note:

2.1.5

50

30

60

32

Wind load is short-term loading and dead load is long-term loading.

Torsional stiffness
For a rectangular section the torsional stiffness, C, is given by

c=
where c

ch~;nhmax

coefficient from Table 2.2


maximum overall dimension of rectangular section
= minimum overall dimension of rectangular section.

hmax =
hmin

46

Reinforced Concrete

.--=1hmin
hmin

-'=

t
SK 2/6 Component rectangles of a

hmax

beam to find torsional stiffness.

The torsional stiffness of a non-rectangular section may be obtained by


dividing the section into a series of rectangles and summing the torsional
stiffness of these rectangles.
Table 2.2 Values of coefficient c.

0.14

1.5

10

0.20

0.23

0.26

0.29

0.31

The coefficient c is given by the following formula:


4

1 [16
c = 16

3-

where

3.36k ( 1 - k
12) ]

hmin

hmax

2.1.6 Shear modulus


Shear modulus, G, is given by
G
where
Note:

= 2 (1 +

0.42Ec

for concrete

= Poisson's ratio.

In normal slab and beam or framed construction, torsional rigidity of RC


beams may be ignored in the analysis and the torsional stiffness may
be given a very small value in the computer analysis. Torsional rigidity
becomes important only where torsion is relied on to carry the load, as in
curved beams.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 47

2.1.7 Poisson's ratio


Poisson's ratio for concrete= 0.2

2.1.8 Shear area


Shear area of concrete= 0.8Ac
where Ac= gross cross-sectional area of concrete.

Note: The shear area of concrete is entered as input to some computer programs
when the analysis is required to take into account the deformations due to
shear.

2.1.9 Thermal strain


The coefficients of thermal expansion are given in Table 2.3 for different
types of aggregate used.
Table 2.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion.
Aggregate type
Flint, Quartzite
Granite, Basalt
Limestone

Note:

2.2
2.2.1

Coefficient ( x 10- 0 /c)


12

10
8

Normally for ultimate limit state no specific calculations are necessary for
thermal loads. Thermal calculations should be produced for structures in
contact with hot gases or liquid.

LOAD COMBINATIONS

General rules
The following load combinations and partial load factors should be used in
carrying out the analysis of beams:

LC1:
LC2 :
LC3 :
LC4 :
LC5 :

1.4
1.0
1.4
1.0
1.2

DL
DL
DL
DL
DL

+
+
+
+
+

1.6
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.2

LL + 1.4 EP + 1.4 WP
EP + 1.4 WP
WL + 1.4 EP + 1.4 WP
WL + 1.4 EP + 1.4 WP
LL + 1.2 WL + 1.2 EP + 1.2 WP

!Vote: Load combinations LC2 and LC4 should be considered when the effects of
dead load and live load are beneficial.

48

Reinforced Concrete
where

DL = dead load
LL = live load or imposed load
WL =wind load
WP = water pressure
EP = earth pressure.

The general principle of load combination is to leave out the loads which
have beneficial effect. If the load is of a permanent nature, like dead load,
earth load or water load, use the partial load factor of 1 for that load
which produces a beneficial rather than adverse effect. This rule of combination will be used for design as well as for the check of stability of a
structure.

2.2.2 Rules of load combination for continuous beams

LC1 ON ALL SPANS

LC1

LC,

LC1

FFfTfn
~1 ALTERNATE WITH LC2 FOR MAXIMUM

MIDSPAN MOMENT

SK 217 Continuous beam loading


sequences.

!.&.1 ON ADJACENT SPANS ALTERNATE WITH


LC2 FOR MAXIMUM SUPPORT MOMENT

(1) Load all spans with LC 1


(2) Load alternate spans with LC 1 and other spans with LC2
(3) Load beam in the repeated sequence of two adjacent spans loaded
with LC 1 and one span loaded with LC2 This sequence gives the
maximum support moment between adjacent spans. This is not a
normal requirement, as per clause 3.2.1.2.2 of BS 8110: Part 1: 1985.llJ

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 49

2.2.3 Redistribution of moments


2.2.3.1

Continuous beams

SK 2/8 Continuous beam - typical


moment redistribution.

Usually 10% redistribution of moments may be allowed from those


obtained by elastic analysis. Redraw bending moment diagram with redistributed moments. Calculate revised shear. Reduction of support moment
means a corresponding increase in span moment. For structural frames
over four stories high providing lateral stability, the redistribution of
moments should not exceed 10%. Resistance moment at any section must
be at least 70% of moment at that section obtained by elastic analysis.
2.2.3.2 Frame structures
No reduction or redistribution of moments is allowed from the columns.
2.2.3.3 Continuous one-way spanning slab panels
Usually 10% redistribution of moments may be allowed from those
obtained by elastic analysis.

2.2.4 Exceptional loads


Exceptional loads may be any of the following.
(1) Accidental loads of very low probability properly quantified. The
definition of low probability may vary from project to project and will
be agreed with the client.
(2) Probable misuse and its effect accurately quantified.
(3) Once in a lifetime very short-term loads which are accurately quantified.
Note:

With exceptional loads some rectification of local damage after the incident
may be necessary.
Load combination to be considered:
LC6 = 1.05DL

where

+ 1.05LL 1 + 1.05EL + 1.05WL 1

DL = full expected dead load


LL 1 = full expected live load if this is a storage building, otherwise, one-third of expected maximum live load
EL = exceptional load
WL 1 = one-third of expected maximum wind load.

SO

Reinforced Concrete

2.3 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR BEAMS


Step I

Analysis
Carry out analysis - follow Section 2.1.

Step 2 Moment envelope

Mmax (-ve)

SK 219 Typical moment envelope


of a continuous beam.

Draw maximum-minimum ultimate load bending moment envelope after


redistribution.
Step 3

Shear envelope

Ymax
SK 2/10 Typical shear envelope of
a continuous beam.

Draw maximum-minimum ultimate load shear force envelope after


redistribution.

Step 4 Axial loads


Determine coacting axial loads with maximum and mm1mum bending
moments respectively. Ignore axial load if less than O.lfcubh.
Step 5 Torsions
Determine coacting torsions with maximum and minimum shear forces
respectively.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Beams 51

uJ

SK 2/11 Dimensions to compute


axial load in beam.

W--J

Step 6 Cover to reinforcement


Determine cover required to reinforcement as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Find effective depth d, assuming reinforcement diameter.

SK 2/12 Rectangular beam effective depth.

Step 7 Effqctive span


Determine effective span - see Section 2.1.1.
Step 8 Effective width of compression jla.nge
Determine effective width of compression flange - see Section 2.1.2.
Step 9 Slenderness ratio

SK 2/14 Cantilever beam.


SK 2/13 Simply supported and continuous
beams.

Check slenderness of beam as per clause 3.4.1.6 of BS8110: Part 1:


1985.111

For simply supported and continuous beams,

I < 60bc or 250

b~
d

For cantilever beams,


I< 25bc or

100

52

Reinforced Concrete

where

d =
b =

J(

M
) or actual d, whichever is lesser
0.156/cub
effective width of the compression flange

design ultimate moment.

Step 10 Design for moment - rectangular beam


Select critical sections on beam for bending moment. Find the following
parameters at all critical sections, for rectangular beams and flanged beams.
,A~

(1

"''

'-o

c'
c

"''

0
I

SK 2/17 Rectangular beam stress diagram.

SK 2/16 Rectangular beam moment and axial load.


SK 2115 Rectangular beam doubly reinforced.

Md
Note:

N (0.5h - d 1)

for N

::S:

0.1/cubd

For N > 0.1/cubd, design as column (see Chapter 4). Md may also be taken
equal to M where N s: 0.1/cuhd and N may be totally ignored. (Sign
convention: N is +ve for compression.)

K=~
fcubd2

z = d[ 0.5 +
d -

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

::S:

0.95d

x=--

0.45

Md
N
A=----s
0.87/yZ
0.87/y
K' = 0.156

when redistribution does not exceed 10%

K' = 0.402(~b - 0.4) - 0.18(~b - 0.4) 2

exceeds 10%
Mz
~b = M' < 0.9

when redistribution

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 53


where

M2

= moment after redistribution;

M'

= moment before redis-

tribution
When K>K',

z=
x

d[o.5
d -

j(o.25 -:.~)]

= -- ~
0.45

0.5d

- K')f bd 2
A' = (K
Jcu
s
0.87/y (d - d')

= K'fJcu bd

A
s

0.87/yZ

N
+A' - - s
0.87/y

...

(Y)

0
x

C"-

L/1

SK 2/18 Strain diagram.

If d' Ix> 0.43x,

A' = (K - K')fcuhd
s
!~ (d - d')
A =
s

K'f bd 2
N
Jcu
+A'5 - - 0.87/yZ
0.87/y

d')

x !' = ( 5

where

0.57x

Ey

!_y_

Ym

because steel strain

d')

x = (-

0.57x

Ey

corresponds to steel stress //ym, as in Section 1.4.2.

54 Reinforced Concrete
Note:

The flanged beam becomes a rectangular beam if the bending moment


produces tension in the flange.
Design charts in BS8110: Part 3: 19851 11 may be used if design parameters
fall within the scope of the charts.

Step 11 Design for moment - flanged beam


b

SK 2/19 Flanged beam - singly


reinforced.

A flanged beam should be designed as a rectangular beam with width


equal to the effective width of flange in compression if x :s 1. lhf.
If x > 1. lhh find bl bw and di hf.
Obtain j)f from Fig. 2.1.
Mr= 13dcubd2

Calculate
If Mr2: Md,

As=

Md

+ O.lfcubwd(0.45d - hf)
0.87/y(d - 0.5hf)

N
- -0.87/y

If Mr< Md, follow Section 1.5.4 using the second approach to design of
flanged beams.

Step 12 Maximum allowable shear stress


Find maximum shear in beam from shear envelope at the face of support
or under a concentrated load.
Find v = V/bd.
Check

v :S 0.8

\! fcu :s 5 Nlmm 2

Change beam geometry if this condition is not satisfied.

]]

SK 2/20 Rectangular beam.

.J::.

A1

~J

SK 2/21 Flanged beam.

~n

__

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 55


Step 13 Design for shear

IA:

SK 2/22 Critical section for shear. Shear check


based on bottom reinforcement adequately
anchored.

>3d

SK 2/23 Critical section for shear. Shear check


based on top reinforcement adequately
anchored (A~ to continue at least 3d from face
of support).

Select critical sections on beam which are at a distance of 2d from the


face of support or concentrated load. Find the following parameters for
rectangular and flanged beams.

= design

= bd :S

ultimate shear force

0.8

Vieu

:S

5N/mm2

lOOAs

p=t;;t
Find vc from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.
When axial load in compression, N, is present,
v~

Note:

= Ve+

NVh)
0.6 ( AcM

:S

0.8

Vieu

:S

5N/mm 2

NIAe is average stress in the concrete section. Vh/M:S 1 and moment


and shear at the section under consideration must be for the same load
combination. N is +ve for compression and -ve for tension. To avoid
shear cracks at ultimate load, limit shear stress to

Replace
. d

Ve

Fm Asv
lyv

by

v~

where axial load is present .

0.4bSv
=--

:S

0.87/yv

460 N/mm 2

for links.

Provide minimum area of links, ASV> at a spacing of Sv for the zone where
shear is less or equal to Vnom From the shear force envelope determine
zones where V exceeds Vnom = (vc + 0.4)bd

56

Reinforced Concrete

SK 2/24 Elevation of beam


showing shear reinforcement.
SK 2125 Single system of bent-

up shear reinforcement.

SK 2/26 Multiple system of

bent-up shear reinforcement.

. A _ bSv(V - Ve)
Fmd sv .
.
0.87/yv
Replace Ve by v~ where axial load is present.
Provide area of links, Aw. at a spacing of Sv at the section of the beam in
consideration.
For a mixture of links and bent-up bars,
Vb
where

+ V,

2:

(v - Vc)bd

Vb= A,b(0.87/yv)(coscx
d
V, = Asv(0.87fyv) Sv

Replace Ve by

Note:

v~

2:

smcx cot~)

(d - d')

Sb

~ 2:

ex and

45

0.5( V - Vc)bd

where axial load in compression is present.

Step 14 below may be omitted if at Step 13 the critical section is selected at


a distance of d from the face of support or from the concentrated load. No
further checks will be necessary at the face of support or at the concentrated
load.

Step 14 Alternative design for shear


Find V max= 0.8 y!cu bd, or= 5bd, whichever is less.
Complete the table below:

Distance from face of


support or concentrated
load

Vnom = Vconc + 0.4bd

Vconc <

2.00d

(vc+OA)bd
(l.143vc + 0.4)bd
(l.333vc + OA)bd
(1.6vc + 0.4)bd
(2.0vc + OA)bd
(2.67vc + OA)bd
( 4vc + 0.4)bd
(Svc+ 0.4)bd

Vcbd
l.143vcbd
l.333vcbd
l.6vcbd
2.0vcbd

l.75d
l.50d
l.25d
l.OOd

0.75d
0.50d

0.25d

Vmax

2.67vcbd
4.0vcbd
8.0v,bd

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 57

Distance from face of


support or concentrated
load

V- Vconc

(actual shear force)

2.00d
l.75d
l.50d
l.25d
l.OOd
0.75d
0.50d
0.25d

Satisfy the following conditions:


when Vs Vnom
A

= 0.4bSv

sv

0.87fyv

when V> Vnom calculate


Vs

= Asv

(0.87fyv)Sv

2:

V - Vconc

The shear resistance may be provided by a combination of links and bentup bars.
Step 15 Minimum tension reinforcement
b

Effective width

A,
SK 2128 Rectangular beam.

SK 2/27 Flanged beam.

For flanged beam web in tension, find bwlb.


If bwfb <0.4
As

2:

0.0018bwh

460N/mm2

for /y

for fy

= 460 N/mm2

If bwfb2:0.4
A, 2: 0.00l3bwh

58

Reinforced Concrete
For flanged beam flange in tension,
for T-beam As20.0026bwh
for L-beam As

0.0020bwh

for fy=460N/mm 2
for fy = 460N/mm 2

For rectangular beams,


As

0.0013bh

for fy = 460N/mm 2

Step 16 Minimum compression reinforcement - when designed as doubly reinforced


For flanged beam flange in compression,
A~ 2

0.004bht

For flanged beam web in compression,


A~ 2

0.002bwh

For rectangular beam,


A~ 2

0.002bh

Minimum compression reinforcement in beams will be used only when


compression reinforcement is required.

Note:

Step 17 Minimum transverse reinforcement in flange

(effective width)
1 . 5ht mm 2 /m

SK 2/29 Minimum transverse


reinforcement in flange of flanged
beam.

For flanged beams over full effective flange width near top surface, use
1.5htmm2 /m reinforcement for the whole length of the beam. Normally
this amount of reinforcement is provided in the slab at the top surface over
the beam as part of slab reinforcement when the flanged beam forms part
of a beam-slab construction.
Step 18 Minimum reinforcement in side face of beams

d= dia. of bar J(St)


2

Sb ::s: 250mm

b = actual, or 500 mm, whichever is the lesser.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 59

SK 2/30 Minimum reinforcement


side face of beam.

A 5 ~0.0012Sbh

To control cracking on the side faces of beams use small diameter bars at
close spacings. The distribution of these bars should be over two-thirds of
beam's overall depth measured from tension face.

Note:

A,;:=: 0.00125bh

on each side face as shown.

Step 19 Deflection
b

Effectiw width

i_.

A'

A.

SK 2/31 Doubly reinforced


flanged beam.

M
effective span

SK 2/32 Simply supported or


continuous beam. M = moment
at midspan.

SK 2/33 Cantilever beam. M =


moment at support.

Find bwlb for flanged beams.


Find leld.
Find basic span/effective depth ratio from Table 11.3.
Note:

If bwlb is greater than 0.3, then interpolate between values in Table 11.3
assuming bwlb equal to 1 for rectangular beams and 0.3 for flanged beams.

Reinforced Concrete

60

. service
. stress
Fmd

!s

= fy ( A5

)(~)

8pb

where

As

prov

~b = Ml M'
M = moment after redistribution
M' = moment before redistribution

As reqct
As prov

= area of steel required from calculations


= area of steel actually provided.

Find Mlbd 2
Find modification factor for tension reinforcement from Chart 11.5.
Find

IOOA~lbd.

Find modification factor for compression reinforcement from Chart 11.4.


Find modified span/depth ratio by multiplying the basic span/depth ratio
by the modification factor of tension and compression reinforcement.
Check lcld <modified span/depth ratio
Note:

Table 11.3 can be used for up to a 10 m span. Beyond a 10 m span multiply


these values by 10/span except for cantilevers where deflection should be
calculated (see Section 1.8 for calculation of deflection.)

Step 20 Maximum areas of reinforcement


For all beams,
A, :s 0.04bwh
:s 0.04bwh

A~

Step 21

Containment of compression reinforcement


Designed compression reinforcement in a beam should be contained by
links.
Minimum diameter of links= 0.25 times diameter of largest compression
bar, or 6mm, whichever is greater.
Maximum spacing of links = 12 times diameter of smallest bar in
compression.

01

02

d
1

'd is greater of 025 01 or 6mm

SK 2/34 Containment of
compression reinforcement.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 61

Step 22 Bearing stress inside bend

Ix

Ix

,..____,1_1

_o_=-tb

SK 2/35 Bearing stress inside


bend.

... '

...SECTION X - X

Check bearing stress inside bend where it is required to extend the bar for
more than 4 x diameter beyond the bend because the anchorage requirement is not otherwise satisfied.
Satisfy that
.

beanng stress

= -Fbt ::S
r<P

where

Fbt

2lcu

-----

1+ 2(!)

= tension in bar at the start of bend


centre to centre of bar, or, cover plus diameter of bar.

ab =

Step 23 Curtailment of bars


Follow simplified detailing rules for beams where the load is predominantly
uniformly distributed and spans in a continuous beam are approximately
equal. Follow bending moment diagram for other cases.
Step 24 Spacing of bars
Minimum clear spacing horizontally= MSA
where

+ 5 ;:::: diameter of bar

MSA =maximum size of aggregate.

. .
l
.
2MSA
Mm1mum c ear spacing vertically between layers = - -3

.
. o f b ars m
. tension
.
c1ear spacmg
Maximum
. stress m
. bar
Service

Is

IY ( - 5 )(~)
8f3b

A,

prov

47

::S -000
- ::S

Is

300

62

Reinforced Concrete
(See Step 19 for explanation of

~b)

The distance between the corner of the beam and the nearest longitudinal
bar in tension should not be greater than half the maximum clear spacing.
Note:

In normal internal or external condition of exposure where the limitation


of crack widths to 0.3 mm is appropriate, Step 24 will deem to satisfy the
crack width criteria.

Step 25 Torsional shear stress

hmax.1

1
CD

"'ii
>C

Jhmin.1

Q)
hm1n.1

..c:

SK 2/'36 Rectangular section torsional shear


stress.

~]hmin.1

G)

h max.I

_J

SK 2/37 Division into rectangles of composite


section.

Check torsional shear stress.


Find ultimate torsion T from analysis.
For a rectangular section, torsional shear stress, vt, is given by
2T
Vt

hmin)
3

h min hmax - - -

For I,T or L-section, divide each section into component rectangles.


Proportion of total torsion carried by each rectangle = T,
Th~;nhmax
3

I: (hmin hmax)

=Ts

Torsional shear stress for each section


Vt=
2
(h max - -hmin)
hmin
3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 63


For hollow and other box sections, follow the method in Chapter 8.
If wall thickness in a rectangular hollow section exceeds one quarter of the

dimension in that direction, treat the hollow section as a solid rectangle.


Calculate
Vt.min

= 0.067

Vtu =

0.8

V/cu

Y/cu :5

< 0.4N/mm 2

5N/mm2

If vt <Vt.min no torsional reinforcement is required.

Spacing of
links =Sy

Sysx,, Y.12 and 200


A.v (area of two outside legs)

A. !longitudinal ~inforccmcnt I

SK 2/39 Elevation of torsional reinforcement in


beam.

SK 2/38 Torsional reinforcement in beam.

Vt<

If Vt.min<
Vtu provide torsional shear reinforcement by closed links
and longitudinal bars.

Check

( v + vt) <

where

v =flexural shear stress.

Check

Vt< Vtu(:S~)

Vtu

Asv

T
Sv - 0.8.xJ.Yi(0.87/yv)

->------

As

Asv/yv(X1

+ Y1)

2: - - - - ' - - - - -

Svfy

Note:

Add torsional reinforcement to already calculated shear reinforcement.


Sv <

x" or ~, or 200 mm, whichever is the least

Step 26 Crack width in ffexure


Serviceability limit state

Load combination LC7 = 1.0DL + 1.0LL + 1.0EP + 1.0WP +I.OWL


Note:

Omit loadings from LC7 which produce beneficial rather than adverse
effect.

64

Reinforced Concrete

SK 2/40 Critical dimensions for


crack width calculations.

ht ( h-x)(a'-x)
JE5 /4s(d-x)
h a

__
A_

ht I h-x )
3fsA 5 ( d-x)
STRAIN

SK 2/41 Strain diagram for crack


width calculations.

SECTION OF BEAM

A,

L_2___ _J

SK 2/42 Doubly reinforced


rectangular beam.

3acr Em
Wmax = - - - - - - l
2(acr - Cmin)

(h - x)
Em= E1 -

Note:

E1

b1(h - x)

(a' - x)

---~-

3EsA,(d - x)

is the strain due to load combination LC7

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 65


where b 1 is the width of the section at the centroid of tensile reinforcement.
For a rectangular section,
Note:

A flanged beam is a rectangular section if x :s: l. lht.

Es

m=-

Ec

d{[(mp + (m - l)p') 2 + 2(mp + (m -

l)(~')p')J

- (mp+ (m - l)p')}
(See Section 1.13 .1.)

A,

A'
bd

=~

p = -

p'

le

+ k 3 A s'(d - d')

bd

M
= k 2bd 2

k1 =

(;d) ( ;d)
1-

k3 = (m - 1) ( 1 - : )

Is

Note:

mlc

(~ -

1)

In normal internal or external condition of exposure where the limitation


of crack widths to 0.3mm is appropriate, Step 24 will deem to satisfy the
crack width criteria.

Step 27 Design of connections to other components


Follow Chapter 10.

2.4 WORKED EXAMPLES


Exampk 2.1

Simply supported rectangular beam


Clear span = 6.0 m

66

Reinforced Concrete
UDL

11111111111

I I

20Qi-1--

Ti'

1111111111111

5_o_oo___ J_hoo

SK 2/43 Simply supported beam.

Overall depth = 500 mm


Width = 300 mm
Width of supporting walls = 200 mm
All reinforcement to be used is high yield steel with /y = 460N/mm2
Note:

Steps 1-5 form part of the analysis and are excluded from the worked
example. For a typical analysis see Example 2.3.

Step 6 Determination of cover


Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Maximum bar size assumed = 32 mm
Maximum size of link assumed = 10 mm
Exposure condition = severe
Fire resistance required= 2 hours.

Refer to the following tables in Chapter 11:


Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11. 7

grade of concrete= C40 for severe exposure


minimum cement content= 325 kg/m 3
maximum free water/cement ratio= 0.55
nominal cover= 40 mm
nominal cover to beams for 2 hours fire resistance = 40 mm

For 2 hours fire resistance, minimum width of beam= 200mm, from Figure
3.2 of BS8110: Part 1: 1985.1 11

SK 2/44 Section of rectangular


beam.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 67


Effective depth, d, is given by:
d = overall depth - nominal cover - dia. of link - half dia. of bar

= 500 - 40 -

10 - 16

= 434mm

Step 7 Determination of effective span


l + d = 6.0 + 0.434 = 6.434m
10 = 6.2m

Therefore le

l0

= 6.2 m

Step 8 Determination of effective width


Not required.
Step 9 Check slenderness of beam
l = 6.0m
60bc

= 60

250 b~
d

300mm

= 18.0m

250 x 300
434

51.84 m

250b~

Satisfied l < 60bc < - d

Step 10 Design for moment - rectangular beam

1~-1

r1145fcu= 18N/mm2

09x :104

0
0
Ln

SK 2/45 Stress diagram of


rectangular beam.

Maximum ultimate bending moment = 216 kNm


Maximum shear at face of support= 140 kN
Shear at 2d from face of support = 96 kN
Shear at d from face of support= 116 kN
Direct load, N = 0 kN
Mct=M=216kNm
fcu = 40 N/mm 2

N
CD
(Y1

68

Reinforced Concrete

fcubd

216 x 106

Md

= - -2 =

40

300

d[
d[

o.5

J(
J(

0.88d

382 mm

0.5

d -

x = -- =

0.25 0.25 -

434 - 382

0.45

0.45

434 2

= 0.0956 < 0.156

0~9)]
0

~~: 6 ) J

= 116mm

Md
A=-s
0.87/yZ
216

x 1Q6

- - - - - - = 1413mm 2

0.87 x 460 x 382

Use 3 no. 25 mm dia. Grade 460 = 1472 mm 2

Step 11

Design for moment - flanged beam


Not required.

Step 12 Check maximum allowable shear

v = bd

at face of support

140 x 103
300

x 434

= 1.075 N/mm 2

< 0.8 \//cu

= 5 N/mm

Step 13 Design for shear


2d = 870mm
V

= 96kN

at 2d from support face

96 x 1a3
v=---300 x 434
= 0.74N/mm

< 0.8 V/cu

= 5N/mm

100 A,

= -----;;;J
100 x 1472
300 x 434
= 1.13%

0.65 x 1.17N/mm2
for Grade 40 concrete
= 0.76N/mm 2
from Fig. 11.5

Ve=

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 69


Vnom

= (Ve + 0.4) bd
= 151 kN > 140 kN

at face of support

V < V00m at all points in the beam.

0.4bsv
Nominal links Asv = - - 0.87/yv
Assume Sv = 300 mm
0.4 x 300 x 300

Asv

= --0-.8-7-X-460-= 90mm2

Use 8mm dia. single closed link= Asv = 100mm2 (/y = 460N/mm 2) at
300 mm centre to centre.
Step 14 Alternative design for shear
V00m > V at face of support so Step 14 is superfluous - use nominal links
everywhere on the beam.
Step 15 Minimum tensile reinforcement
Minimum tensile reinforcement = 0.0013bh
= 0.0013 x 300 x 500mm 2
= 195mm2 < 1472mm 2 provided

2 no. 12 diameter ( = 226 mm 2) provided at top of beam.


Step 16 Minimum compression reinforcement
Not required.
Step 17 Minimum transverse reinforcement in flange
Not required.
Step 18 Minimum reinforcement in side face of beams

300

----...-

0
0

If)

0
0
('J

'----'----'-3-s;l25

SK 2/46 Section through beam.

ALL REINFORCEMENT HIGH-YIELD

70

Reinforced Concrete
b =actual, or 500mm, whichever is the lesser.

Minimum dia. of bar in side face of beam =

J(Shb)
(assume Sb = 200mm)

(200

~300)

= ll.4mm

Use 12 dia. Grade 460 bars at approximately 200 centres on the side face
of beam.
Reinforcement on each side face of beam = 2 no. 12 dia.
2
= 716mm
A, = 0.00125bh
= 0.00125 x 300 x 500
= 188 mm 2 < 716 mm 2

Note:

+ 1 no. 25 dia.

OK

Strictly speaking these bars on the side face are not required for beams less
than 750 mm overall depth but it is good practice to use them in order to
avoid shrinkage cracks.

Step 19 Check deflection

~ = 6200 = 14.3
d

434

Basic span/depth ratio= 20

from Table 11.3

~b = 1,

J,

bd 2

rend)
fv ( -5) (As
---"--==
8

A,

prov

= 460 (5)
- (1413)
= 275N/mm 2
8 1472

216 x 106

- - - - = 3.8

300 x 434 2

Modification factor for tension reinforcement= 0.90


Modified span/depth ratio = 20 x 0.90 = 18 >
Hence deflection is OK.

Step 20 Maximum areas of reinforcement


A, is less than 4%.
Step 21

Containment of compression reinforcement


Not required.

Step 22

Check bearing stress inside bend


Not required.

~
d

from Table 11.5


14.3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 71


Step 23 Curtailment of bars
0.08/ = 0.08 x 6000 = 480 mm

The central 25 mm dia. bar will be stopped 250 mm from the face of the
support.
Step 24 Spacing of bars

2-25

2-12

I.

500

.I

SK 2/48 Arrangement of bars at the bottom of


beam.
SK 2/47 Elevation of beam near support.

Clear spacing between bars in tension = 64.5 mm


Minimum required spacing = 20 + 5 = 25 mm
.
.
47000
Maximum spacmg = - -

Is

47000
= - - = 170mm
275
where Is= 275N/mm2

(see Step 19)

Spacing of bars is OK.


Step 25 Check torsional shear stress
Not required.
Step 26 Crack width calculations
Service maximum moment= 144kNm
As= 1472 mm2
d' = 54 mm
A~ =226mm2
d=439mm

Es 200
Ee
20
Ee assumed halfway between long and short-term.

m=-=-=10

72 Reinforced Concrete
A~

~8rN<utral
A,

0
0

I/)

1[ T
~I ~
...
II

II

.Ii:

Axis

-0

l_b__J
SK 2/49 Doubly reinforced
rectangular beam.

SK 2/50 Strain diagram.

SK 2/51 Crack width calculations.

1472
0 0 11 2
bd = 300 x 439 = .

A,
=

d{

x =

(mp

p' =

A~

bd

0.0017

+ (m - l)p') + 2(mp + (m - 1)(~)p')


2

(mp+ (m - l)p'} = 160mm


k2 =

(;J ( ;J
1 -

c~~39)(

- 3

~~39)

~)

= 0.16

k3

(m - 1)( 1 -

(10 -

1)(1 -

:~)

5.96

fc = k 2

bd 2

+ k 3 A~(d - d')
144 x 106

0.16 x 300 x 439 2


=

14.74N/mm2

+ 5.96 x 226 x (439 - 54)

J1

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 73

s
Eh

10 x 14.74 x

257N/mm2

= f, =
Es

= (:

(~~ -

t.285 x 10-3

=:)Es = G~~)Es = 1.566 x 10-

b(h - x)2
3E8 A 5 (d - x)

1.566 x 10-3 -

mh -

h -

= 1.425 x 10- 3
ac 1 = 1.414 X 60.5 2
2
ac2 = y'(60.5 + 45 )

Wcr

257
200 x la3

1)

= l + [ 2( acr

300 x 340
3 x 200 x 103 x 1472 x 279

= 73.0mm
12.5 = 62.9mm

12.5
-

Cmin)

h-x
3 x 73.0 x 1.425 x 10- 3
1 + [2(73 - 48)]
340
= 0.27 mm < 0.3 mm
Example 2.2

OK

Three span continuous beam

SK 2152 Three-span continuous


beam.

r=i.

OOQQ_l l 0000

.!.
C

10000

J
D

Three equal spans of lOm centre-to-centre of columns.


Width of column = 0.4 m
clear span= 9.6m
slab depth = 150 mm
beam spacing= 4.0 m
beam overall depth = 550 mm
beam width = 300 mm
Redistribution of moments = 10%
Note:

Steps 1-5 form part of the analysis and have been excluded. For a typical
analysis see Example 2.3.

74

Reinforced Concrete
All reinforcement to be used will be high yield steel with fy = 460 N/mm 2
It is expected that the analysis will be carried out using a computer
program with the load combination shown in Section 2.2.
From moment and shear envelope,
MA=O
VAB=300kN
VA'B=250kN
MAB = +600 kNm
VAB =negligible
MB=-650kNm
VBA=370kN
VB'A=320kN
VBc = 325 kN
VB'c = 275 kN
MBc = + 370 kNm
or
-150 kNm
where VA'B = shear at a distance of d from face of support.

Step 6 Determination of cover


Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
maximum bar size = 32 mm
maximum size of link = 8 mm
exposure condition = severe
fire resistance required = 2 hours
grade of concrete = C40
maximum cement content= 325 kg/m 3
maximum free water cement ratio = 0.55
nominal cover = 40 mm
from Tables 11.6 and 11. 7
effective depth, d = 550 - 40 - 8 - 16 = 486 mm
Step 7 Effective span
le= 10 =10.0m
Step 8 Effective width of compression flange
Actual b = 4.0m
(centre-to-centre of beams)
le
Calculated b = - - + bw
7.14

10000
=--+300
7.14
= 1700mm

0
lf)
lf)

SK 2/53 Effective width of


compression flange.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 75


Step 9 Slenderness check
May be ignored.
Step JO Design for moment
MAs=600kNm
Flanged beam
Md= MAB= 600kNm
Md
K=-!cubd2

600 x

Hf

40 x 1700 x 486 2
= 0.0373

+ J(o.25 -

d[o.5

d[ o.5 +

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

~~;3 ) J

= 0.95d = 462mm

d-z

x=--

0.45
486 - 462
0.45

= 53mm

<he= 150mm

Neutral axis in the slab


Md
As= - - 0.87/yZ
600 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 462

------- =

3245 mm 2

Use 3 no. 32 dia. bars in bottom layer plus 2 no. 25 dia. bars in top layer.

2-25

8
40 cover to
links

SK 2/54 Arrangement of
reinforcement at bottom of beam
at midspan.

3-32

76

Reinforced Concrete
Total area of steel provided = 3394 mm 2
Check effective depth.
Centre of gravity of group of 5 bars
3

x 804 x 64 + 2 x 491 x 124.5

x =

3394

= 81.5mm

550 - 81.5

Rechec~

468.5 mm

reinforcement requirement with revised effective depth:

K = 0.040

z = 0.95 x 468.5 = 445mm


As= 3369mm 2

(required)

As provided = 3394 mm 2

OK

MB= -650kNm
Rectangular beam
Md= 650kNm
Effective depth, d = 550 - 40 - 32 - 16 - 8 = 454 mm
(assuming two layers of 32dia. bars)
6

K=

650xl0
40 x 300 x 454 2
0.263 > 0.156

Compression reinforcement required.


Redistribution is 10%
A' = (K - O.l56)fcubd
s
0.87/y(d - d')

(0.263 - 0.156) x 40 x 300 x 454 2


0.87 x 460 x (454 - 64)
=

1696mm2

Use 3 no. 32 dia. bars (2412 mm2 )

z=
=

bottom of beam.

d[ o.5J (o.2s - 0~~!6 ) J


0.775d = 352mm

d'
64
x = 0.5d = 227mm and - = = 0.28 < 0.43
x
227

A =
s

2
0.l56J'cubd
1
+A'5
'
0.87/yZ

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 77


0.156 x 40 x 300 x 454 2

- - - - - - - - - + 1696 = 4435 mm
0.87 x 460 x 352
Use 6 no. 32 dia. bars (4824 mm 2)

top of beam in two layers.

300
6-32

40cover to links

I()

8 +links
40 cover to links

SK 2/55 Arrangement of
reinforcement at top of beam over
support.

Msc= +370kNm

Flanged beam
b = 1700mm
d = 550 - 40 - 8 - 16 = 486mm

= -Md-2 = 0.023

fcubd

z=

0.95d

= 426mm

A=~
0.87fyZ

370 x 106
2
- - - - - - - = 2001 mm
0.87 x 460 x 462
Use 3 no. 32 dia. bar (2412 mm 2 )
Msc = -150kNm

Rectangular beam

= 300mm
= 486mm

150 x 106
300 x 4862 x 40

0.053

bottom of beam

78

Reinforced Concrete

z=

d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

0~9)]

= 0.94d = 456mm
150 x 106
= 822mm2
0.87 x 460 x 456

A =
s

Use 2 no. 32 dia. bar (1608 mm2 )

top of beam.

2-32

SK 2/56 Section through


midspan BC.

3-32

Step 11

Design for moment - flanged beam


Not required.

Step 12 Maximum shear stress


Vmax

v = - - = 2.716N/mm <SN/mm
bd

Step 13 Design for shear


Maximum shear= 370 kN = V8 A

v 370 x 103
v =-=
bd
300 x 454
= 2.716N/mm2 < 0.8

V/cu

= 5N/mm2

Check shear stress at d from face of column.


VA'B

= 250kN

d = 468.Smm

v =

for span AB

250 x 1D3
300 x 468.5

= 1.78N/mm2
lOOA,

p =

bd =
=

100 x 3394
300 x 468.5
2.41

OK

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 79

= 0.85 x 1.17

Ve

from Fig. 11.5

= 0.99N/mm2
Vnom = (ve + 0.4)bd
= 195kN

+ 0.4 = 1.39N/mm2

v >

Ve

= ---'------"-

sv

bSv( V - Ve)
0.87/y

(assume Sv = 150 mm)


300 x 150 x (1.78 - 0.99)
0.87 x 460
= 89mm2
Use 8mm dia. links= 100mm2 (two legs) at 150 centre-to-centre up to
the point where shear falls to 195 kN. High yield reinforcement
(fy = 460N/mm2).
.
0.4bSv
Nommal Asv = - 0.87 fy
0.4 x 300 x 300
0.87 x 460

= 90mm2

Use 8 mm dia. links = 100 mm2 (two legs) at 300 centre-to-centre as


nominal links (/y = 460 N/mm2).
VB'A

v=

= 320kN

320 x 1D3
300 x 454

(d

= 454mm

at B)

= 2.35N/mm2
lOOAs

p =
Ve

bd =

= 0.91

= bSv(v

sv

100 x 4435
300 x 454 = 3 25
1.17 = 1.065N/mm2 from Fig. 11.5
- vc)

0.87/y
300 x 150 x (2.35 - 1.063)
0.87 x 460
= 144.5mm2

Use 8mm dia. links= 150mm2 (3 legs) at 150 centre to centre up to the
point where shear falls to 195 kN.
Step 14 Alternative design for shear
Omitted.
Step 15 Minimum tension reinforcement

80

Reinforced Concrete
Flanged beam

bw
300
- = = 0.176 < 0.4
b
1700
For web in tension
A, > 0.00l8bwh = 297 mm 2
For flange in tension
A, > 0.0026bwh = 429 mm 2
Both conditions satisfied.
Step 16 Minimum compression reinforcement
A~ > 0.002bwh = 330mm2

Provided A~= 2412mm 2


Condition satisfied.
Step 17 Transverse reinforcement in flange
Minimum transverse reinforcement in flange= l.5hrmm 2 /m
= 1.5 x 150 mm 2 /m
=225mm 2 /m

Reinforcement in the slab over the beam will be a lot more than this
quantity.
Step 18 Reinforcement in side face of beam
For a 550 mm overall depth of beam with 150 mm slab, side reinforcement
will not be required.
Step 19 Check deflection
le
10000
- = - - = 21.3
d
468.5

d = 468.5mm
bw
b

for span AB

= 0.176 < 0.3

Basic span/effective depth ratio from Table 11.3 = 20.8


Since the ultimate moment at midspan is greater after redistribution than
the ultimate elastic moment, the service elastic stress may be taken as
(5/8)fy
Service stress, fs =

~fy
8

(assumed)

5
x 460
8

= -

= 288N/mm2

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beains 81


A,
A,

rcqd
prov

bd 2

= 3369 = 1.0
3394
600 x 106
- - - - - = 1.6
1700 x 468.5 2

Modification factor= 1.19

from Chart 11.5

Modified span/effective depth ratio= 20.8 x 1.19


= 24.75 > 21.3

OK

Step 20 Maximum areas of reinforcement


A, :s 0.04bwh = 6600 mm 2

Maximum tensile reinforcement used= 4824 mm 2


Step 21

Containment of compression reinforcement


Minimum dia. of links= 0.25 x max. dia. of bar
= 0.25 x 32 = 8 mm
OK

Maximum spacing of links = 12 x dia. of bar


= 12 x 32mm = 384mm
Note:

OK

OK

At least one link at the centre of columns B and C will be required for
containment.

Step 22 Check bearing stress inside bend


Not required.
Step 23 Curtailment of bars

0.15/ = 1500 mm
0.10/ = 1000 mm
0.25/ = 2500 mm
Span AB
Continue 3 no. 32dia. + 2 no. 32dia. up to lOOOmm from A (end support).

Stop 1 no. 32 dia. and 2 no. 32 dia. at 1000 mm from A.


(See Step 26: reinforcement in span AB increased.)
Over support B (top bars)

Continue 6 no. 32 dia. bar top up to 1500 mm on either side of B.


Stop 2 no. 32dia. bar at 1500 from B.
Stop 2 no. 32dia. bar at 2500 from B.
Continue 2 no. 32 dia. through span.
Step 24 Spacing of bars
Minimum clear spacing= MSA

+ 5 = 25 mm

82 Reinforced Concrete
Clear spacing of bars in tension = 54 mm> 25 mm
.
.
Maximum clear spacmg

47 000
47 000
h
=
=
288

163 mm

(See Step 19 for Is)


At span BC top tension reinforcement
Clear spacing of bars (2 no. 32dia.) = 140mm
Note:

Step 25

OK

Under normal circumstances this step will deem to satisfy the 0.3 crack
width limitation criteria, but, as Step 26 will prove, when crack width
calculations are actually carried out this may not be the case. In span AB
the maximum clear spacing criterion is satisfied but the calculations show
that the crack widths may be exceeded.
Check torsional shear stress

Not required.
Step 26 Crack width calculations
Span AB

Maximum service moment= 400 kNm


d = 468.5mm

Cmin

= 48mm

b = 1700mm

As= 3394mm2
A~= 1608mm 2

= -Es =
Ee

x =

J[

(ignored in the computation)

10

(m:s)2

mAs
b

+ 2m:sd]

= 118mm <hr(= 150mm)

z=

x
d - - = 429 mm

f, =

400 x Hf
= 274 N/mm 2
429 x 3394

Is
274
Es = - =
= 1.37
Es 200 x lW

10- 3

h - d)., = ( 550 - 118 ) x 1.37 x 10-3


Eh = ( d - X ..,,,
468.5 - 118
= 1.69 x 10- 3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 83

Emh

b(h - x) 2
3EsAs(d - x)

Eh -

1.69 x 10- 3

1.61 x 10- 3

llc2

= \/(64 2 + 642)
= \/(642 + 432 )

llcr

= 74.5mm

ac1

300
4322
-----------

3 x 200 x 1Q3 x 350.5 x 3394

= 74.5 mm
16 = 61.lmm
16

at the comer of the beam


3 x 74.5 x 1.61 x 10- 3
2(74.5 - 48)
1
+ (550 - 118)
= 0.32 mm

> 0.3 mm

The calculated crack width is greater than allowable. Increase reinforcement


to 5 no. 32dia. bar instead of 3 no. 32dia. plus 2 no. 25dia. No more
checks are necessary.
Over support B

SK 2/57 Arrangement of bars over


support.

I.so.I..

At face of column,
maximum service moment = 390 kNm
d
b

= 454mm
= 300mm

As= 4824mm 2
A~

= 2412mm2

d'

64mm

140

..

J..ao.J

84

Reinforced Concrete
48mm

Cmin =

10

See Step 26 of Example 2.1 for explanation of symbols and the equations.
x = 225mm

K2 = 0.2068
K3 = 6.44

f. =
c

f,

K 2bd

+ K3 A s'(d - d')

211.6N/mm2

Es =

1.058

10- 3

Eh =

1.502

10- 3

ac 1 = 74.5mm

Wcr

= 20.69 N/mm2

at the top corner

0.297 mm < 0.3 mm

OK

Step 27 Design of connections to other elements


See Chapter 10.

2-cp2

2-t32

3-+32
2-t32(sq:cond layer)

SK 2/58A Detail of beam at A.

SK 2/588 Detail of beam at B.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 85

Example 2.3 Design of beam with torsion


B

SK 2/59 Two-span edge beam with


nib.

9m

.1.

9m

:r

Edge beam to carry precast floor slabs on nibs.


Clear gap between beams= 4.5 m
Effective span of beam= 9.0m
See Example 5.2 for details of precast floor slabs and nib geometry
computations.
Two-span beam is fully restrained at the rigid supports.

Step 1 Analysis of beam


Properties of section

m
N

SK 2/60 Section of beam with


nibs.

Area of section = 500 x 290 + 2 x 110 x 105


= 168100mm2
Self-weight of beam= 0.1681x24kN/m3 = 4kN/m
-

x =

500 x 290 x 145 + 2 x 110 x 105 x (290 + 55)


168100

= 172.Smm
fxx

1
= 12
=

400

5003

3.943 x 109 mm4

1
12

110

2903

(gross section)

0
0

lJ1

86

Reinforced Concrete
p'
p

Assume - = 0
Assume p = 1%

E,

Assume m = - = 10
Ee
From Fig. 11.1,
F

=6x

10- 2

Cracked moment of inertia = Fbd 3


= 6 x 10- 2 x (400 x 5003 -110 x 2903 )
= 2.839 x 109 mm4
Average moment of inertia,

fxx

= 0.5(3.943 + 2.839) x 109 mm4


= 3.391 x 109 mm 4

.____ -

SK 2/61 Beam geometry to find


shear centre e.

b 2h 2t
Shear centre, e = - 4fxx

b = 400 - 145 = 255


2

h = 500 - 105 = 395

t = 105

255 x 395 x 105


e = 4 x 3.391 x 109 = ?S.5mm
Loading

Dead load from slab= 5 kN/m 2 x 2.25 m = 11.25 kN/m.


Self-weight of beam= 0.1681 x 24 kN/m 3 = 4.0 kN/m
Total dead load on beam including self-weight= 15.25 kN/m
Live load from slab @ 5 kN/m 2 = 5 x 2.25 = 11.25 kN/m

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 87


Ultimate limit state,

LC 1 = l.4DL + l.6LL = 1.4 x 15.25 + 1.6 x 11.25 = 22kN/m + 18kN/m


LC2 = l.ODL = 15.25kN/m
Load both spans with LC1 to get maximum support moment at B.
Load span AB with LC 1 and span BC with LC2 to get maximum support
moment A and maximum span moment at AB.
Steps 2 and 3 Draw moment and shear envelope
Non-linear analysis with 10% redistribution.

Boundary
condition

Loading

A and C fully LC1 on both


spans
restrained

Force Support
A
BM
-270
Shear 180

l.4DL on AB BM
-159.8
l.ODL on BC Shear
102.8

Plastic hinge
at A, C fully
restrained

Span
AB
+135
+79.9

Support
B

Span
BC

Support

+270
180 180

+135

-270
180

kNm
kN

-125.9
95.2 72.6

+46.0

-92.0
65.1

kNm
kN

-186.7
166.1

+28.0

-70.6

kNm
kN

LC1 on AB
LC2 on BC

BM
-311.7
Shear 193.9

l.OkN/m LL
on AB

BM
Shear

-8.44
5.06

+4.22

-3.38
3.94

-1.0

+l.19 kNm
kN

l.OkN/m LL
on AB

BM
Shear

0
3.86

+7.23

-5.78
5.14

-1.45

+2.89 kNm
kN

+ 155.9

Assume 10% redistribution. Support moment at A is fixed at 0.9 x 311.7 =


280 kNm. The support moment at A reaches 280 kNm elastically with live
load on span AB equal to (280 - 159.8)/8.44 = 14.24 kNm. At that point a
plastic hinge forms at A and the boundary condition of the structure
changes. The remaining live load to go on the span with changed boundary
condition is (18kN/m-14.24kN/m) = 3.76kN/m.
Design bending moment at support A= 280 kNm
Design bending moment at midspan AB at centre of span= 79.9 + 14.24 x
4.22 + 3.76x7.23=167.2 kNm
A conservative design span moment= 175 kNm
allowing for the maximum span moment to occur away from the centre of
span.
Design bending moment at support B = 270 kNm
(LC 1 on both spans)

from elastic analysis

Design shear at support A= 102.8 + 5.06 x 14.24 + 3.86 x 3.76


= 189.5kN say 190kN

88

Reinforced Concrete
Design shear at support B = 180 kN

(LC 1 on both spans)

Step 4 Determine axial loads


Not required.
Step 5 Determine torsion
Ultimate load from slab = 1.4 x 11.25
= 34kN/m

+ 1.6 x 11.25

Load assumed to act on edge of nib.


Eccentricity of load from shear centre of beam = 110 - 15(chamfer)

290

+ 78.5

(e = 78.5 = shear
centre)
= 318.5mm
Torsion per unit length

= 34 x 0.3185
= 10.83 kNm/m

Ultimate self-weight of beam

= 5.6kN/m

Eccentricity of self-weight from shear centre

= i'

Torsion per unit length

= 5.6 x 0.106
= 0.59kNm/m

Total ultimate torsion in beam

= (10.83 + 0.59) x 4.5


= 51.4 kNm
at the
supports restraining
rotation

290
+e
2
= 172.5 - 145 + 78.5
= 106mm

Step 6 Cover to reinforcement


Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Maximum size of bar = 25 mm assumed
Maximum size of link = 10 mm
Exposure condition = mild
Fire resistance required= 1 hour
Grade of concrete = C40
Minimum cement content= 325 kg/m3
Maximum free water/cement ratio= 0.55
Nominal cover = 20 mm
Effective depth, d = 500 - 20 - 10 - 12.5 = 457 .5 mm
Step 7 Effective span
Effective span= 9.0m
Step 8 Effective width of flange
Not required.

- -

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 89


Step 9 Slenderness ratio
I= 8.5 m =clear span
be = 400 mm

d = (

0.156/cub

60bc = 60 x 400 = 24 000 mm > 8500 mm

)! = ( 0.156280 x 106 400 )! = 335 mm


X 40 X

250b2 250 x 4002


_ _c =
= 119402mm > 8500mm
d
335
Slenderness check is satisfied.
Step 10 Design for flexure

As

lil

lil
0

('...
lil

II
"--

11
""O

.t::.

I.

SK 2/62 Calculation of tensile


steel at support.

Support bending moments at A or C = 280 kNm


M
K=--

fcubd2
280 x 106
40 x 400 x 457.5 2
= 0.0836 < 0.156
No compressive reinforcement required.

z=

d[o.s + J(o.25 - 0~9) J

= 457.5[ o.5 +
= 410mm

d-z

x=--

0.45
457.5 - 410
0.45

J(

0.25 -

i~:6 ) J

A
01

= 400mm

90 Reinforced Concrete

105mm =ht

:. Neutral axis is in the flange.


M
0.87fyZ

A=-s

280 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 410

------- =

1706mm

Use 4 no. 25mm dia. bars (1964mm2).


Midspan bending moment = 175 kNm

K=-fcubd2

175 x 106
40 x 400 x 457.5 2
0.052

z = 0.94d
=

430mm
d -

x=-0.45
= 61mm < 105mm =ht
M
A=--

'

0.87/yZ
175 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 430

1017mm2

Use 2 no. 25 mm dia. bars (982 mm 2 ) + 1 no. 12 mm dia. bar (113 mm2).
Step 11

Flanged beam
Not required.

Step 12 Check maximum shear stress at support

v = bd

190 x 1cr
290 x 457.5
= 1.43N/mm2

0.8Vfcu

= 0.8

y40

= 5N/mm 2

Step 13 Check flexural shear stress


d = 457.5mm
VA = 190 - 40 x 0.457
= 172 kN
at effective depth away from support

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 91

v =-

bd

112 x 1w
290 x 457.5

l.30N/mm2
lOOA,
bd

p=--

100 x 1964
290 x 457.5

= 1.48
2
Ve = 0.72 X 1.7 = 0.84N/mm
Vnom = (ve + 0.4)bd
= (0.84
=

+ 0.4) x 290 x 457.5 x 10-3

164.5kN

V >Ve+

From Fig. 11.5

0.4

bSv( V - Ve)
0.87/y

=-~-~
SV

290 x 200 x (1.30 - 0.84)


0.87 x 460
= 66.7mm 2

at 200 mm c/c (2 legs)

66.7
- --x- = 0.17 for each leg
2
200
A,v
Nominal -
Sv

0.4b
=-

0.87/y
0.4 x 290
0.87 x 460

= 0.29
= 0.145

(2 legs)
(for each leg)

Area of tension reinforcement required to carry weight of slab on the nib


34kN/m
0.87 x 460

= 85mm2 /m
85
-s = -=
1000

As

0.085

for each leg

Step 14 Alternative design for shear


Not required since design shear is calculated at d from support.
Step 15 Minimum tension reinforcement
Assume channel section as L-beam.

92

Reinforced Concrete
A, > 0.0020bwh = 0.0020 x 290 x 500
= 290mm 2 < 1964mm2 provided

Step 16 Minimum compression reinforcement


Not required.
Step 17 Transverse reinforcement in flange
A. = 1.5hfmm/ 2 m
= 1.5 x 105 = 158 mm 2 /m minimum

(See Example 5.2.)


Reinforcement in nib= 201 mm 2 /m provided.
Step 18 Minimum reinforcement in side face of beams
Not required.
Step 19 Check deflection
bw
290
- = = 0.725 > 0.3
b
400
From Table 11.3,
Basic span/effective depth ratio

for bwlb = 1.0


for rectangular section = 26
for bwlb = 0.3
for flanged beams = 20.8
Interpolated basic ratio = 20.8 + (

i3b

26 - 20.8)
x (0.725 - 0.3) = 24
0.7

M
167.2
= M' = 155.9

Midspan service stress =

(_2._)t
8j3b

(~)
8

(~)
As prov

x (155.9) x 460 x ( 1011 )


167.2

= 249N/mm
6

bd

1095

175 x 10
-----=
2.09
400 x 457.5 2

Modification factor for tension reinforcement from Table 11.5 = 1.20


Modified span/depth ratio= 24 x 1.20 = 28.8
le
d

9000
457.5

= 19.67 < 28.80 OK


Step 20 Maximum areas of reinforcement
As< 0.04bwh = 5800mm2

Satisfied.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 93


Step 21

Containment of compression reinforcement


Not required.

Step 22 Check bearing stress inside bend


Not required.
Step 23 Curtailment of bars
45 x bar dia. = 45 x 25 = 1125 mm

0.15/ = 0.15 x 9000 = 1350mm


0.25/=0.25 x 9000 = 2250mm
2 no. 25 mm dia. top and bottom throughout.
2 no. 25 m dia. extra top at A, B and C - 5000 long at B, 2500 mm into
span at A and C and properly anchored at A and C.
1 no. 12 mm dia. bottom in spans AB and BC.
Follow simplified detailing rules for beams as in Fig. 2.2.
Step 24 Spacing of bars
Minimum clear spacing = MSA

+ 5 = 20 + 5 = 25 mm

Actual minimum clear spacing used= 43 mm

(support)

Actual maximum clear spacing used= 84 mm (midspan)


47 000
47 000
.
Maximum clear spacing allowed =
=
= 189 mm > 84 mm
249

ls

where

ls

= 249N/mm 2

Step 25 Check torsional shear stress


Ultimate torsion= 51.4 kNm

(see Step 19.)

(see Step 5)

Divide section into 3 rectangles of maximum total torsional stiffness.


First choice

(i)

FIRST CHO ICE


SK 2/63 Calculation of torsional
shear stress.

(i)

SECOND CHOICE
SK 2/64 Calculation of torsional
shear stress.

94

Reinforced Concrete
500 X 290 - stiffness = h~inhmax = 2903 X 500 = 1.22 X 10 10
2 x 110 x 105 - stiffness = 2 x 105 3 x 110 = 0.025 x 10 10
TOT AL = 1.245 x 10 10
Second choice
290 x 290 - stiffness = 290 3 x 290 = 0.707 x 10 10
2 x 400 x 105 - stiffness = 2 x 105 3 x 400 = 0.0926 x 10 10
TOT AL = 0. 7996 x 10 10
Hence the first choice is critical.
Proportion of torsional moment carried by the web =

x 1.22 x 10 10
1.245 x 10 10

51.4 x 1.22
1.245
= 50.4kNm
Torsion carried by flanges = 0.5(51.4 - 50.4) = 0.5 kNm
2T
Torsional shear stress v1 in web = - - - - - - 2 ( hmax hmin

-hmin)
3

2 x 50.4 x 106
2

290 ( 500 -

~)

= 2.97N/mm 2
Torsional shear stress v1 in flange =

x 0.5 x 106

(
)
105
105 2 110 - 3

= l.21N/mm 2
Vi.min

Vtu

= 0.067Vfcu
= o.o67y4o
= 0.4N/mm 2

= o.sy!cu = 5 N/mm 2

ViuYI

550

= 5 X 450
550
= 4.1N/mm 2

v1

> v1 ,

min'

torsional reinforcement required.

Torsional shear stress+ flexural shear stress= 2.97 + 1.30


(see Step 13)
= 4.27N/mm 2
< 5N/mm2 OK
Torsional reinforcement in web (vertical)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 95


Asv

T
0.8.x,y,0.87 fy

Sv

50.4 x 106
0.8 x 238 x 448 x 0.87 x 460

= 1.48
= 0.74

(for 2 legs)
(for each leg)

Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion"


As=

(~:v)(i)(x1 +Yi)

= 1.48 x 1 x (238

1012mm

+ 448)

Use 10 no. bars at 101 mm 2 each in the longitudinal direction evenly


placed on the perimeter of web cross-section (fy = 460N/mm 2).

Aswsv =0145 I FLEXURAL SHEAR)

--1tf.
z

Asv/sv =
_
0085
__
IN I_
B DIRECT
___
TE NS
_
ION
_l _ _

~----=..:..;_;:,,;_

If)

I~

!TORSION) Asv/sv

010 ~
:J
UJ

a:

~1----<!'
0

!COMBINED) Asv/sv

12at110 - - a-t-- --..__ _ _~


12 130
12 at 175
=10

660

SK 2/65 A,JSv diagram for


Example 2.3.

Torsional reinforcement in flange


Asv
Sv

0.8xIJ10.87 fy

087

1300

065

175

12 at 200
057

11-

UJ

96

Reinforced Concrete
0.5 x 106
0.8 x (105 - 48) x (400 - 48) x 0.87 x 460
= 0.078
Maximum spacing = xh or Yi, or 200 mm
2
= 57mm
Use 8mm dia. li~ks at 50mm centres (1006mm 2/m) (/y = 460N/mm 2)
Could also use 6mm dia. mild steel links at 50mm centres (566mm 2 /m)
(/y = 250N/mm 2 ).
See Example 5.2, Step 4.
= 131 mm 2/m
(for flexure) = 241 mm 2 /m
A,

(460 grade steel)


(mild steel Grade 250)

reqd

A,v = 0.078
Sv

for torsion (Grade 460)

A,v = 0.078 X 1000 X

= 144mm 2 /m
2

= 72 mm /m

460
250

(Grade 250)

(for 2 legs of mild steel)


(for each leg - horizontal)

Total requirement= 241+72 = 313 mm 2 /m < 566 mm 2 /m


Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion in flange
A =
s

(Asv)
(fyv)(
S
f

X1

+Yi

Jy

460
= 0.078 x x (57 + 352)
250
= 59mm 2

(4 no. 6mm dia. mild steel: fy = 250N/mm2 )

See Step 10.


At support, A, required= 1706 mm 2
Torsional A, required at corners (2 bars) = 202 mm 2

(Step 25)

Total top reinforcement required= 1706 + 202 = 1908 mm2


Provided= 4 no. 25 mm dia. = 1964 mm2 OK
Step 26 Flexural crack width calculations
By elastic analysis: no redistribution.

(serviceability limit
Maximum support moment at A or C = 201 kNm
state)
d = 500 - 20 - 12 - 12.5 = 455.5
b = 400mm
As= 1964mm2
p = 0.0108

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 97

6 CMSJ

SK 2166 Typical section at


support.

gSOmmc/c

A~= 982mm 2

2-25

p' = 0.0054

m = 10
ht= 105mm
h = 500mm
b 1 = 290mm
d' = 42.5mm
I

= d{[(mp +
- (mp
=

(m - l)p')

+ 2 (mp+ (m - 1)

+ (m - l)p') }

156.3 mm > ht = 105 mm

Using Reference 10, Table 117,

x=

+ 0.5bhf
+ bhf
10 x 455.5 x 1964 + 0.5 x 400 x 105 2
10 x 1964 + 400 x 105

mdA,

mAs

181mm

hf(3x - 2ht)
z=d----3(2x - ht)
=

455.5 - 105(3 x 181 - 2 x 105)


3(2 x 181 - 105)

= 410mm

(~)p')T

98

Reinforced Concrete

f,

M
=A-

,z

201 x 106
1964 x 410
=

E
s

250N/mm2

f,

= -

E,

250
= 1.25
200 x 103

= ( 500 - 181 )

10-3

x 1.25 x 10-3

455.5 - 181
= 1.45 x 10- 3
b1 (h - x)2
Emh

Eh -

= i.
=
llcr

45

3EsA,(d - x)

10

290 x (500 - 181) 2


- 3 x 200 x 103 x 1964 x (455.5 - 181)

1.36 x 10- 3

= V(44.5 2 + 44.5 2 )

12.5 = 50.4mm

3acr Emh
Wcr = ----'-----"'-2( llcr - Cmin)

1+---(h - x)

3 x 50.4 x 1.36 x 10- 3


1

+ 2(50.4 - 32)
(500 - 181)

0.18mm < 0.3mm

Step 27 Design of connections to other components


Follow Chapter 10.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 99

2.5 FIGURES FOR CHAPTER 2


15

-0

\ .
\\ \ \ \ \
\_-blbw
2
\' \ \ \ \ \
\ \\ \ ' \ \
\ vblbw 3
4
' \\ \ \ \ \ i.,.----- n
\ \\' \ \ ~
I~ __./blbw 5
'\.~ 0..\ \
'v v x v /blbw

14

13

blbw = 1 '..___

12

~blbw =

_/

11

--

10

'\

7-

\. "< v
~""
~ ~ ~ "\, v

~~
~

I
= 6
I
I

vblbw = ~

ex: ><
- ~><

~
~
--..;;
~ ~ .........

__./

l.---0/b w = 10

V'

1--..,/
..............

...................... !'-...

....... ~_..........

--

t:--........

--

0. 03

---

_,,----blbw = 7

b/bw

0. 04

0. OS

0. 06

0. 07

0. 08

0. 09

0. 10

0. 11

0. 12

0. 13

0. 14

0. 1S
~f

Fig. 2.1 Values of ~ 1

100 Reinforced Concrete


015L

1001.

100"/.

015L

015 L
010 L for

end support

Effectiw S an L

Effectiw S

n L

CONTINUOUS BEAM : CURTAILMENT OF REINFORCEMENT

05L

45

1001.

so1.

CANTILEVER BEAM: CURTAILMENT OF REINFORCEMENT

Fig. 2.2 Simplified detailing rules for beams.

Chapter 3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

3.0 NOTATION
a'
ab

acr

Ac
As
A~

Asb
Ast

As.<
Asy
Asbx

Asby
Asv
Asvx
Asv_v

b
b1
Cmin

d'
d1

Ee
Es
fy

f~

!cu
/yv

F
G
h
H

I
I

Compression face to point on surface of concrete where crack width is


calculated
Centre-to-centre distance between bars or groups of bars
Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar
Gross area of concrete in a section
Area of steel in tension
Area of steel in compression
Minimum area of reinforcement at bottom of slab
Minimum area of reinforcement at top of slab
Reinforcement in y-direction to resist Mx about x-axis
Reinforcement in x-direction to resist My about Y-axis
Area of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vx
Area of inclined shear reinforcement to resist V:v
Area of vertical shear reinforcement
Area of vertical shear reinforcement to resist Vx
Area of vertical shear reinforcement to resist Vv
Width of reinforced concrete section
Width of section at centroid of tensile steel
Minimum cover to tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of compressive reil}forcement
Distance from tension face of concrete section to centre of tensile
reinforcement
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Revised compressive stress in steel taking into account depth of neutral
axis
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement used as links
Coefficient for calculation of cracked section moment of inertia
Shear modulus
Overall depth of slab
Shorter dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for use of yield-line
charts
Moment of inertia using b as unit width for slab
Clear span or span face-to-face of support
101

102

Reinforced Concrete

Mx
My
Mxy
Mx1
M_<t,
My,
Mvb
MHN

MvN
Mvr

Nx
Nv
p
p'

Px
Pv
r

u"
U"
Ve

v"
Vx
Vy
Vex
Vey

Effective span
Centre-to-centre distance between supports
Longer dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for yield line
calculations
Modular ratio = EJ Ee
Design bending moment per unit width of slab modified to account for
axial load
Moment per unit width about x-axis
Moment per unit width about y-axis
Torsional moment per unit width
Wood-Armer design moment for top reinforcement in y-direction
Wood-Armer design moment for bottom reinforcement in y-direction
Wood-Armer design moment for top reinforcement in x-direction
Wood-Armer design moment for bottom reinforcement in x-direction
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Axial load per unit width of slab in x-direction to be combined with My
Axial load per unit width of slab in y-direction to be combined with Mx
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Percentage of compressive reinforcement
Percentage of tensile steel to resist Mx about x-axis
Percentage of tensile steel to resist M v about y-axis
Loading per unit area used in yield-line analysis (kN/m 2 )
Ultimate loading per unit area
Restraint factor for computation of early thermal cracking
Ultimate total load 0!1 panel of slab
Spacing of vertical links
Spacing of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vx per unit width
Spacing of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vy per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist Vx per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist Vv per unit width
Differential temperature in a concrete pour for calculation of early thermal
cracking
Perimeter of concentrated load on slab at prescribed multiples of effective
depth
Perimeter of concentrated load footprint on slab
Design concrete shear strength
Calculated punching shear stress at perimeter U11
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to Vx
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to V:v
Design concrete shear stress to compare with Vx for bending about x-axis
Design concrete shear stress to compare with V:v for bending about y-axis

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs


Calculated punching shear stress at perimeter U 1
Shear force per unit width for bending about x-axis
Shear force per unit width for bending about y-axis
Maximum crack width (mm)
Depth of neutral axis from compression face
Distance from edge in L-direction to start of a yield line
Distance from edge in H direction to start of a yield line
Depth of lever arm

Es

E~
Emh

E1
Peril

3.1

103

Angle of inclination to horizontal of shear reinforcement


Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete
Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in truss analogy
Ratio of redistributed moment over elastic analysis moment
Material factor
Calculated strain in concrete at depth h
Strain with stiffening effect corrected
Tensile strain in concrete due to temperature differential causing early
thermal cracking
Strain at centre of steel reinforcement
Strain at centre of compressive reinforcement
Strain at depth h corrected for stiffening effect
Calculated strain in concrete ignoring stiffening effect
Critical percentage of steel required to distribute early thermal cracking

ANALYSIS OF SLABS

3.1.1 Slabs: properties


3.1.1.1

Effective spans
Simply supported or encastre

le = smaller of ( l + d) or /0

Continuous
Cantilever

le = l

+ -2

where 10 = centre-to-centre distance between supports


le = effective span
I = clear span or span to face of support
d = effective depth of tension reinforcement.
3.1.1.2 Moment of inertia
Method 1 Gross concrete section only
See Section 2.1.3 - use Table 11.2 with b equal to unity.
Method 2 Uncracked transformed concrete
See Section 2.1.3 - use Table 11.2 with b equal to unity and As and

A~

104 Reinforced Concrete


are for unit width. Convert A, and A~ into equivalent concrete areas
by multiplying by m = E.f Ee. Moment of inertia increment due to
steel= mA,(x')2 where x' is the distance of the steel from the centroidal
axis of the section. The shift of the centroidal axis due to the presence of
reinforcing steel may be neglected.
Method 3

Average of gross concrete section and cracked section

I= 0.5

where

I
b
h
F

=
=
=
=

G2 bh

+ Fbh 3 )

moment of inertia of rectangular concrete section


unit width of slab
overall depth of slab
factor - see Fig. 11.1 for values of F

lOOA,
p=~

where

As = area of tensile reinforcement per unit width of slab


lOOA~

p'--bd

where

A~

= area of compressive reinforcement per unit width of slab

m = modular ratio =

Note:

E,
___c_

Ee

For slabs, b is taken equal to unity.


The preferred method is Method 3 for rectangular sections. Where reinforcement quantities are not known, an assumption may be made of the percentage of reinforcement.

3.1.1.3 Modulus of elasticity


See Section 2.1.4.
3.1.1.4 Shear modulus
Shear modulus G = 0.42Ec for concrete.
3.1.1.5 Poisson's ratio
Poisson's ratio for concrete is 0.2
3.1.1.6

Thermal strain
See Section 2.1.9.

3.1.2 Analysis of slabs


The objective is to find the following internal forces by analysis:
(1) Moments

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 105


(2) Shears
(3) Wood-Armer moments
(4) In-plane loads

Vx

and

Vy

Mxt Mxb Myt

Nx

and

and

Myb

Ny

Method I
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clauses 3.5.2 and 3.5.3, Table 3.15.PI
Method 2
Yield-line method: non-linear - use Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Method 3
Finite difference: linear elastic - Moody's table.1 91
Method 4
Finite element analysis: linear elastic - use general purpose computer
program or Figs 3.1 to 3.17.
Commentary

Method 1 is a non-conservative approach. If cracking has to be avoided,


an elastic method of analysis, i.e. finite element or finite difference, will be
more appropriate. For complicated loadings and complex layout of slab
panels and supporting arrangements, it is always recommended to use
finite element analysis. Finite element analysis will give Wood-Armer
design moments for top and bottom reinforcement in a panel of slab.
Method 2 (yield-lines) may be successfully used for uniformly loaded slab
panels with different boundary conditions. Method 2 gives a better representation of internal forces in a slab panel than Method 1.
Recommendations

Use Method 2 or Method 3 generally. Use Method 4 (finite element


analysis) only where complicated loadings and geometry render the other
methods unusable. Use elastic analysis charts if boundary conditions and
loadings are appropriate.

3.1.3 Distribution of loads on beams

SK 3/1 Distribution of load on


beams (Method 2).

106

Reinforced Concrete
Method 1
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clause 3.5.3.7.llJ
Method 2
Triangular and trapezoidal distribution of uniform load.
Method 3
Finite difference - Moody's Table.l9 l Use the coefficients Rx and Ry to
calculate distribution of loads on the edge beams.
Method 4
Finite element analysis. Use the support reactions as loading on the beam.
Recommendations
Method 2 may be used for all applications. Method 3 and Method 4 may
be used when similar methods are used for the analysis of the slab panels.

3.1.4 Concentrated load on slab

SECTION THROUGH SLAB


Concfi!ntrated load

v
~

PLAN OF SLAB

SK 3/2 Effective width of slab to


be considered for spread of a
concentrated load on a simply
supported one-way slab.

Simply supported slabs spanning in one direction only the width B on each
side of load over which the load may be assumed to spread is given by:

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 107

where x =distance of load from support closest to load


I= effective span.
For slabs spanning in both directions published tables and charts should
be used to find bending moment and shear per unit width of slab. A
finite element model may be created to analyse a complicated loading
arrangement.

3.2 LOAD COMBINATIONS


3.2.1

General rules

See Section 2.2.1.

3.2.2 Rules of load combination for continuous one-way spanning slab


panels
See Section 2.2.2.
3.2.3 Redistribution of moments
3.2.3.1

See Section 2.2.3.

Two-way spanning slab panels


No redistribution is allowed when Method 1 or Method 2 of analysis in
Section 3.1.2 is followed. Redistribution of 10% may be allowed when
Method 3 or Method 4 is adopted. Note that reduction of support moments
means a corresponding increase in span moment.

3.2.4 Exceptional loads

See Section 2.2.4.

3.3 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SLABS


Step 1 Analysis
Carry out analysis (follow Section 3.1.2).
Note:

One-way spanning slabs should be treated as beams of unit width and


Chapter 2 should be followed except for minimum shear reinforcement.

Step 2 Design forces


Draw panel of slab and indicate maximum design moments, shears and inplane loads, if any, per unit width of slab.
Step 3 Cover to reinforcement
Determine cover required to reinforcement as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Find effective depth d, assuming reinforcement diameter. Use actual effective depth in each direction.

108

Reinforced Concrete
Step 4 Design of slab for flexure

SK 3/3 Section through slab


showing stress due to moment.

As

Find the following parameters for design moments in Step 2 per unit width
of slab.
Md =
Note:

M+ NG - d,)

for N

O.lfcubd

For N > O. lfcubd, design as wall (see Chapter 8). Md may also be taken
equal to M where N:sO.lfcubd and N may be ignored. (Sign convention:
N is +ve for compression.)
Md
K=--

fcubd2

z = d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

0.95d

d-z
x=-0.45

A=~-_!!_
0.87 fyZ

K'

= 0.156

K'

= 0.402(~b

0.87 fy

when redistribution does not exceed 10%


- 0.4) - 0.18(~b - 0.4) 2
when redistribution exceeds

10%
M

~b = -

M'

where

< 0.9

M = moment after redistribution


M' = moment before redistribution.

Note:

If K is greater than K', increase depth of slab and start from Step 1 unless

links are provided in the zone where steel in compression is used. The
links are required to provide lateral restraint to bars in compression. Links
in slab should normally be avoided.
When K > K',

z = d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

:~) J

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 109

SK 3/4 Section through doubly


reinforced slab.

d-z

x = - - :s: 0.5d
0.45
bd 2
A' = ( K - K')'
Jcu
s
f~(d - d')

= K''Jcu bd

0.87 fyZ

N
+A' - - s
0.87 fy

If d' Ix> 0.43x,


bd2
A' = ( K - K')'
Jcu
s
f~(d - d')

A
s

K'' bd 2
Jcu
0.87 fyZ

d')

N
A, - - s

-
x'-fs - ( 0.57x Y s

where

0.87 fy
because steel strain

~ = (

x -

d')

0.57x

corresponds to steel stress f/Ym as in Section 1.4.2.

Note: Follow detailing rules in clause 3.5.3.5 of BS 8110: Part 1: 1985['1 if


analysis has been carried out using Table 3.15 of BS 8110. Design charts in
BS 8110: Part 3: 1985 may be used.
Step 5 Detailing
Convert areas of steel per unit width found in Step 4 to diameter and
spacing of bars.
Step 6 Check shear
y

Asx

-=--==== . -

ctorMx_A___

SK 3/5 Plan of a panel of slab


showing direction of
reinforcement.

!fors~yl

My.Vy

110 Reinforced Concrete


Find the following parameters at critical sections for shear.

= b~

Vx

Vfeu

0.8

:S:

5N/mm

:S:

5 NI mm 2

1f,
- -Vv
< -0. 8 'Veu<
Vy
bd

Find
If

Vex

and

Vx <Vex

Vey

and

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5, depending on strength of concrete.


no shear reinforcement is required.

Vy< Ver

Vx :s: (Vex+ 0.4) or Vey< Vy :s: (Vey+ 0.4), nominal links are required
in the zone where vx or vy is greater than Vex or Vey respectively.

If Vex<

Find nominal links:

ISvy ISvy ISvr ISvxl

Asvy (Total area)

SK 3/6 Plan of unit area of slab


showing shear reinforcement by
links.

UNIT WIDTH

Note:

0.4bSvx

>--svx -

or

0.87fy

0.4bSvv

>----

svy -

0.87 fy

Single vertical bars may be used instead of closed links provided proper
anchorage bond length is available.
If

Vex< Vx

and

Vey

<

<
Vy

0.4)

(vex+

<

(Vey

+ 0.4)

nominal links in both directions are required.


Assume Svx = Svy = Sv,
0.8b Sv
A=-sv

0.87fy

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 111


Asv !Total areal

>

Ill

UNIT WIDTH

=b

SK 317 Plan of unit area and


section showing shear
reinforcement by single vertical
bars.

Provide single vertical bars with proper anchorage over the whole zone at
a grid spacing of Sv.

+ 0.4) <
or ( v9 + 0.4) <
If

(Vex

0.8 V/cu :S 5 N/mm2


:s 0.8 V/cu :s 5 N/mm2

Vx :S
Vy

use links or bent-up bars.


Asbx (total area) )per unit width

~byltotal areat../"'per unit wi th


I
I

SK 3/8 Plan of slab showing


bent-up bars as shear
reinforcement.

> bSvx( Vx svx -

SK 3/9 Section through slab showing bent-up


shear reinforcement.

Vex)

0.87/y
bSvy(Vv -

Vey)

> --"---'"'---'svy -

0.87/v

when using links for Vx, or


when using links for ~v or

112 Reinforced Concrete


bdSbx(vx - Ver)
0.87fy(cosa: + sina:cot[3)(d - d')

Asbx 2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -

when using bent-up bars for Vx, or

Ailiv;::::

bdSbv( Vv - Vcv)
- 0.87 fy( cos a: + sin a: cot [3)( d - d')

when using bent-up bars for V_v


If (Vex + 0.4) < Vx ::::: 0.8\/ fcu ::::: 5 N/mm 2
and ( Vc_v + 0.4) < V_v ::::: 0.8\//cu ::::: 5 N/mm 2

use bent-up bars in two orthogonal directions.


bdSbx(vx - Vex)
0.87fy (cos a:+ sina:cotf3) (d - d')

Asbx 2:

and A
Note:

bdSbv(Vv - Vcv)

0.87fy (cosa: + sina:cot[3) (d - d')

>
sb_v -

and Asbv are the areas of bent-up bar required per unit width of slab
equal to b.

Asbx

Recommendation
A void using links or bent-up bars in slabs to resist shear. No shear
reinforcement should be used in slabs up to 200 mm thick.

SK 3/10 Lacing system of shear


reinforcement in slab.

A lacing system of shear reinforcement in slabs provided by bent-up


bars at 45 to the tensile reinforcement works well where shear reinforcement
and general increase of ductility are required. In this system, angles a: and
f3 may both be taken equal to 45. In the formula for calculating the area
of the bent-up bars, Sbx and Sb_v may be limited to l.5d.
Step 7 Check punching shear

Check punching shear stress.


Vmax

= -

:::=:

0.8

Vfcu

:::=:

5 N/mm 2

Uod

where

U0

2( a + b) for rectangular load, or


= perimeter of loaded area.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 113


~

uI u2

ru

r:-"'
0
"'6

't:J

..... 't:J

075 075 1-Sd


d d

1-Sd

't:J

"'

~:

075 075
d

SK 3/11 Plan of slab around a


concentrated load showing
successive perimeters for punching
shear check.

where

..... 't:J
"'

"'

..... 't:J
0

+ b + 6d) for rectangular loaded area, or


perimeter at l.5d from face of loaded area.

U 1 = 2(a
=

= design concrete shear stress

Ve

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.

V = concentrated load on slab

SK 3/12 Section through slab


showing effective depths.

= 100 Asf bd under concentrated

Calculate p
Note:

load to find

Ve.

Take p as the average of Px and Py where Px = lOOAsxlbdx and Py=


lOOA,yf bd_v.
Shear reinforcement in first failure wne
If v 1 :s Ve, no shear reinforcement is required and no further checks are

necessary.
If

V1 :S

Asv

1.6

Ve,

(v, - Ve) U,d

.
SlD<X 2:

If l.6ve <

V1 :S

0.87fy
2

0.4U1d
2: - - -

0.87/y

Ve,

.
5(0.7v1 - ve) U1d 0.4U 1d
Asv smo::::::
::::: - - 0.87/y
0.87fy

114 Reinforced Concrete


FACE OF LOAD

PERIMETER

U3

RElflFORCEMENT
COMMON TO

BOTH FAILURE
ZONES 2 AND 3.

---+---t----+-----11---+-- SHEAR
REINFORCEMENT
COMMON TO

BOTH FAILURE
ZONES I AND 2.

SK 3/13 Typical shear reinforcement for concentrated load on slab.

where Asv is summation of areas of all shear reinforcement in a failure


zone and ex is the angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of
the slab. If vis greater than 2ve then redesign slab with increased thickness
or increased tensile steel or a combination of these parameters. It has been
observed in tests that shear reinforcement in slabs does not work effectively
if v>2ve.
Shear reinforcement in second failure zone
V2

= --

U2d

+ b + 9d) for rectangular loaded area, or


perimeter at 2.25d from face of loaded area.
If v2 ::S Ve, no shear reinforcement is required and no further checks are
necessary.
where

U2 = 2 (a

If V2

::S

1.6 Ve,

(v2 - vc)U2d

Asv sm ex

2::

5(0.7v2 - Ve)U2d

Asv sm ex

0.87 fy

0.4U2d
2:: - - -

2::

0.87 fy

0.87 fy

0.4U2d
2:: - - -

0.87 fy

Similarly check successive failure zones 0.75d apart till v ::S Ve is satisfied.
Reinforcement to resist shear will be provided on at least two perimeters
within a failure zone. Spacing of shear reinforcement on the perimeter
should not exceed l.5d.
Steps to be followed for the determination of punching shear rein/orcement in
slabs

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 115


(1) The first failure zone is from the face of the loaded area to the
perimeter 1.5d away.
(2) The first perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at d/2
from the face of the loaded area.
(3) The second perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at
0.75d from the first perimeter of shear reinforcement.
(4) Asv is the sum of areas of all the legs of shear reinforcement in a
failure zone in the first and second perimeter.
(5) The second failure zone is 1.5d wide and starts at 0.75d from the face
of the loaded area.
(6) The successive failure zones are 1.5d wide and are 0.75d apart.
(7) The first perimeter reinforcement in the second failure zone is the
same as the second perimeter reinforcement in the first failure zone.
Step 8 Modification due to holes
<6d
OPENING

IN SLAB

SK 3/14 Modification of shear


perimeter due to presence of holes.

Carry out modification of U in Step 7 to allow for holes and proximity to


edge.
The perimeter under consideration, U, in Step 7 will be reduced.

Perimeter U,
Perimeter U1

075d

075d
---t-Third perimeter of
shear reinforcement

1~-t---+-Second

perimeter of
shear reinforcement
perimeter of
shear reinforcement

-~--+----+--First

SK 3/15 Plan of slab near a concentrated load showing distribution of shear


reinforcement.

116 Reinforced Concrete


Step 9 Minimum tension reinforcement
As 2: 0.0013bh
in both directions
At end support of slabs where simple support has been assumed, provide
in the top of slab half the area of bottom steel at midspan or 0.0013bh,
whichever is greater.
Step JO

Torsional reinforcement
Special torsional reinforcement will be required at the corners of slab
panels when the method of analysis follows clause 3.5.3.4 of BS 8110:
Part 1: 1985. Follow clause 3.5.3.5 to determine the amount of torsional
reinforcement.

Step 11

Check span/effective depth


Find lcf d, where le is the effective span in the shorter direction. Find basic
span/effective depth ratio from Table 11.3.

Fmd service stress,


where

~b =

M
M'

=
=

( 5)(As
- -reqd)
- fy

f, = -

8~b

A,

prov

MIM'

moment after redistribution


moment before redistribution.

Find Mlbd 2
Find modification factor for tension reinforcement from Chart 11.5 and
modification factor for compression reinforcement from Chart 11.4.
Find modified span/depth ratio by multiplying the basic span/depth ratio
with the modification factor for tensile reinforcement and compression
reinforcement, if used.
Check

lcld <modified span/depth ratio.

Step 12 Curtailment of bars in tension


Follow simplified detailing rules for slabs as in Fig. 3.34.
Step 13 Spacing of bars in tension
Clear spacing of bars should not exceed 3d or 750 mm.

Percentage of reinforcement,
100 Aslbd (%)

Maximum clear spacing of


bars in slabs (mm)

1 or over
0.75
0.5
0.3
less than 0.3

160
210
320
530
3d or 750, whichever is less

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

117

As is the area required at the ultimate limit state. The clear spacings as
given above may be multiplied by ~b to account for redistribution of
moments. ~b is the ratio of moment after redistribution to moment before
redistribution. These clear spacings deem to satisfy 0.3 mm crack width at
serviceability limit state.
Step 14 Check early thermal cracking
Early thermal cracking should be checked for the following pour
configurations:

(1) Thin wall cast on massive base: R = 0.6 to 0.8 at base, R = 0.1to0.2 at
top.
(2) Massive pour cast on blinding: R = 0.1 to 0.2.
(3) Massive pour cast on existing mass concrete: R = 0.3 to 0.4 at base,
R = 0.1 to 0.2 at top.
(4) Suspended slabs: R = 0.2 to 0.4.
(5) Infill panels i.e. rigid restraint: R = 0.8 to 1.0.
where

R = restraint factor

Typical values of T 1 for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete are:


Section thickness (mm) Steel formwork Plywood formwork Cast on ground
13C
22C
32C
42C

300
500
700
1000

25C
35C
42C
47C

l7C
28C
28C
28C

These figures are based on average cement content of 350 kg/m 3 .


Calculate:
Er

= 0.8

obtain
2.1.9.

Ti

(X

(coefficient of thermal expansion) from Table 2.3 m Section

<X

.
SK 3/16 Section of slab for crack

width calculation.

Cm in

w:max

3acr

Er

= ----"'-----'----

+ 2( llcr

Cmin)

h-x
Assume x

h/2

118 Reinforced Concrete


Note:

Wmax is greater than design crack width, which is normally taken equal
to 0.3mm, then suggest means for reducing T 1

If

Step 15 Check minimum reinforcement to distribute early thermal cracking

Peril= 0.0035

for Grade 460 steel reinforcement

As =AcPcrit

For suspended slabs and walls,


bh
A c = -2

or 250b

whichever is smaller

near each face in each direction of slab and wall


For ground slabs and foundation bases,
up to 300 mm thickness:
A,1 =0.00175bh

near top surface in each direction

from 300 mm to 500 mm thickness:


A,1 = 0.00175bh

Asb = 0.35b

near top surface in each direction


near bottom surface in each direction

over 500 mm thickness:


A,1 =0.875b

Asb= 0.35b

near top surface in each direction


near bottom surface in each direction

Step 16 Check flexural crack width


Serviceability limit state
LC7 = 1.0DL + 1.0LL + 1.0EP + 1.0WP + 1.0WL
Note:

Omit loadings from LC7 which produce beneficial rather than adverse
effect.

b
:: unit width

SK 3/17 Section through slab for


the calculation of flexural crack
width.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 119

Wmax

Note:

mh -

3a,,,

Em

= ------l + 2( llcr - Cmin)


h-x

E h

b(h - x) 2
3EsAs(d - x)

is the strain due to load combination LC7 at depth h from compression


face, b is the unit width of slab, and As is the area of tensile steel per unit
width of slab.
Eh

For slab, b is taken equal to unit width.


Unit width
' (steel in compression zoM
r unit width)

d'
x
Neutral a1<=is_ _

h d

SK 3/18 Section of slab with steel


in compression zone.

E,
Ee

m=x

As
p=bd

,
A~
p =bd

ct{[ (mp + (m - l)p')2 + 2(mp + (m - l)(~)p') ]!


- (mp+ (m -

l)p')}

k2 = (;)(1 - ;d)
k3

= (m

- 1) ( 1 - : )

120

Reinforced Concrete
b(h Emh =

Note:

3.4

Eh -

x)2

3E,A,(d - x)

In normal internal or external condition of exposure where the limitation


of crack widths to 0.3 mm is appropriate, Step 13 will deem to satisfy the
crack width criteria.

WORKED EXAMPLE

Example 3.1

Design of a two-way slab panel

0
0
0
...-

SK 3/19 Plan of a panel of slab


continuous on all sides.

Clear panel size is 6 m X 4 m


Thickness of slab = 150 mm
Imposed loading= 20 kN/m 2
Finishes= 2 kN/m 2
Panel of slab continuous on all four sides
Width of beam = 300 mm
Step 1 Analysis of slab panel
Effective span, le = / 0
Ix= 4.3m
Ly= 6.3m
lxfly =

0.68

Elastic analysis

Read coefficients from Fig. 3.12:


= 0.035
= 0.021
m~ 2 = 0.075
m_~ 2 = 0.060

mx1

my 1

Characteristic dead load= 0.15 m x 25 kN/m 3 x 1.4 + 2 x 1.4


= 8.0kN/m2

Design of Reinforced Concrete Sfabs

121

Characteristic imposed load= 1.6 x 20 = 32 kN/m 2


n
Mxi

= ultimate
= mx 1nt;

load on slab

= 8 + 32 = 40kN/m2

= 0.035 x 40 x 4.3 2
= 25.9kNm/m

My1

= 0.021 x 40 x 4.3 2
= 15.5kNm/m

M~3 = 0.075 x 40 x 4.3 2

= -55.5 kNm/m
M_~ 2 = 0.060

x 40 x 4.3 2

= -44.4 kNm/m
Allowing for 10% redistribution of moments,
Design moments:
Mx1

= 31.4 kNm/m

My 1

= 19.9 kNm/m

M~ 3

M_~ 2

= -50.0kNm/m
= -40.0 kNm/m

SK 3/20 Plan of panel of slab


showing bending moments and
shears.

Note:

63 0

These moments do not take into account the Wood-Armer effect due to
the presence of Mxy and may be unconservative locally. In ultimate load
design local plastic hinge formation may be tolerated when there is a
possibility of redistribution of loads.
Analysis following BS 8110: Part J: 198s11
Coefficients from Table 3.15.

Interior panel l_vf lx = 1.46


msxl
fflsyl

m~x3
m~x2

= 0.039
= 0.024
= 0.052
= 0.032

= 28.8kNm/m
= 17.8kNm/m
M~ 3 = 38.5 kNm/m
M_~ 2 = 23.7kNm/m
Mx1

My 1

122

Reinforced Concrete
Note:

These moments are considerably less than the redistributed design moments
found from elastic analysis. Elastic analysis gives peak values, whereas the
BS 8110 coefficients tend to smear them across a long stretch of slab.
It is desirable and practical to use the elastic analysis results and allow
10% redistribution with a view to minimising the appearance of unsightly
cracks in the slab. This is a conservative approach.
Check by yield-lines analysis
Assume that the elastic analysis moments are ultimate capacity moments
in the panel of slab.

MvN
Mvp
MHN
MHP

(Vertical Negative)
(Vertical Positive)
(Horizontal Negative)
(Horizontal Positive)

50kNm/m

= 31.4 kNm/m
=
=

40kNm/m
19.9 kNm/m

Assume that the elastic analysis results will be the maximum plastic
moments in the panel of slab.
I

+ Mvp)2
H MHN + MHP
L (MvN

+ 31.4)2
4.3 40 + 19.9

= 6.3 (50

1.70

Assume symmetrical yield-lines - see Table 3.2.


Refer to appropriate diagram from Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Refer to Fig. 3.22 and find xi L
x

0.35

x = 0.35 x 6.3 = 2.20m

.
.
Umt resistance, r

5(MHN + MHP)
x2
5 x 59.9
2.22

from Table 3.2

= 61.9kN/m 2 >

40kN/m 2

Alternatively,
r=

8(MVN + Mvp)(3L - x)
H 2 (3L - 4x)
8(50

from Table 3.2

+ 31.4)(3 x 6.3 - 2.2)


2

4.3 (3 x 6.3 - 4 x 2.2)


= 58.23 kN/m 2
Noll!:

> 40 kN/m 2

The values of MvN, Mvr. MHN and MHr could be readjusted to arrive at r
as close to 40kN/m 2 as possible.
Designed by the results of elastic analysis the slab panel has a large reserve
of strength because the failure loading is 58.23 kN/m 2 against design ultimate
loading of 40kN/m2 Similarly, designed by the results of the BS8110

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 123


method of analysis, the panel of slab has a small reserve of strength
because the calculated collapse loading is 46.3 kN/m 2
To check crack widths and deflection due to service load the BS 8110
coefficients may not be used. Always use the elastic analysis results.
Determination of shear at supports
Use BS 8110: Part 1: 1985, Table 3.16.Pl

Shear coefficients 0.44

and 0.33

Vx = 0.44 x 40 x 4.3

= 75.7kN/m
~v =

0.33

40

4.3

= 56.8kN/m
Refer to Table 3.4.
By yield-line principle: assuming r = 40 kN/m2 ,

=3rH

V
x

(1 - x/L)
2(3 - x/L)

3 x 40 x 4.3 x (1 - 0.35)
2(3 - 0.35)

= 63.3kN/m
3rx
3 x 40 x 2.2
I
V = -- =
= 52.8 kN m
y

Step 2 Draw diagram of panel of slab


See diagram with moments and shears marked on the panel (in Step 1).
Step 3

Determination of cover
Assume diameter of main reinforcement = 12 mm
Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Condition of exposure = mild
Grade of concrete = C40
Minimum cement content= 325 kg/m3
Maximum free water/cement ratio= 0.55
Fire resistance required = 1 hour
Nominal cover, as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7 = 20mm
Effective depth, dx = 150 - 20 - 6 = 124 mm
Effective depth, dy = 150 - 20 - 12 - 6 = 112 mm

SK 3/21 Section through slab


showing effective depths.

124 Reinforced Concrete


Step 4 Design of slab
Over continuous long edge, M = 50 kNm/m

50 x 106

= - -2 =
=

fcubdx

40

d[

J(

0.5 +

d -

1000

0.25 -

124 2

= 0.081

0~9 ) J =

0.9d = lll.6mm

x = - - = 27.5mm
0.45
M

A,= - - .
0.87fyZ

50 x 106
.
0.87 X 460 X 111.6

= 1120mm2 /m

Over continuous short edge, M = 40 kNm/m

40x106

M
K = --=
fcubd~
40

1000

= 0.9d = 100.8 mm

= 24.9mm

112 2

0.08

A, = 992 mm 2/m

Positive midspan moment in short direction


M = 31.4kNm/m
K

0.051

z = 116.5mm
A, = 673 mm 2 /m

Positive midspan moment in long direction


M

19.9kNm/m

K = 0.04

z=
A,

0.95d = 106.4mm

= 467 mm 2 /m

Step 5 Diameter and spacing of bars


Use:

12dia. at 100 centre-to-centre (top)

(1131mm 2 /m)

Over short edge 12dia. at 100 centre-to-centre (top)

(1131 mm2 /m)

Over long edge

Short direction at midspan


(754mm 2/m)

12 dia. at 150 centre-to-centre (bottom)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 125

SK 3/22 Plan of panel of slab


showing design steel requirement.

Long direction at midspan


(565mm 2 /m)
Step 6 Check shear stress
Vx
75.7 x 103
v - x - bdx - 1000 X 124

Vv

12 dia. at 200 centre-to-centre (bottom)

= 0.61N/mm2

56.8 x 103

v = - = - - - - = 0.51 N/mm 2
y
bdy
1000 x 112

= lOOAsx = 100 x 1131


Px

bdx

lOOA,v

P.v

1000

124

0.

9li<0

100 x 1131

bd.v. = 1000 x 112 = LO%

From Fig. 11.5,


Vex

0.97N/mm 2 >

Vx

0.61 N/mm 2

No shear reinforcement required.


Step 7 Check punching shear stress
Not required.
Step 8 Modification due to holes
Not required.
Step 9 Minimum tension reinforcement
A, = 0.0013bh
= 0.0013 x 1000 x 150
= 195 mm 2 /m
satisfied
Step JO

Torsional reinforcement
Not required.

126 Reinforced Concrete


Step 11 Check span/effective depth

4.3

lex
dx

103

124

= 34.7
Basic span/effective depth ratio= 26
~

M'

31.4

= -M = -25.9

from Table 11.3

1.21

where M' =moment after redistribution; M =moment before redistribution

5
f, = -fy
.

(As- reqd)(
- -1)

8
As prov ~b
5
673
1
=-x460x-x8
754
1.21
= 212N/mm2

M
bd 2

31.4 x 10
1000 x 1242

2.0

From Chart 11.5,


modification factor = 1.33
Modified span/effective depth ratio= 26 x 1.33 = 34.58 < 34. 7
Code deflection limits have been exceeded slightly.
May be ignored.
Step 12 Curtailment of bars

r - - - r - r--r---r

~ 12 @ 4oo1T1
4>12@400(T)[4200)
cp12@200(T) (2200)

-+--o---+--

--{BEAM

<P12@400IBI (36001
4>12@400IBI

SK 3/23 Plan of panel of slab showing arrangement of reinforcement.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 127


45 x dia. of bars = 45 x 12 = 540 mm
0.15
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.30
0.20

lex=0.15 X 4.3 =645mm


lex= 0.30 X 4.3 = 1290 mm
lex= 0.20 x 4.3 = 860 mm
fey= 0.15 X 6.3 = 945 mm
fey= 0.30 X 6.3 = 1890 mm
fey= 0.20 X 6.3 = 1260 mm

Direction Ix - top reinforcement


12dia. @ 100 c/c to 800mm from centre of beam (top)
12dia. @ 200 c/c to 1500mm from centre of beam (top)
Direction ly - top reinforcement
12dia. @ 100 c/c to llOOmm from centre of beam (top)
12dia.@ 200 c/c to 2100mm from centre of beam (top)
Elsewhere use 12dia. @ 400 c/c (top) both directions (282mm 2)
Direction Ix - bottom reinforcement
12 dia. @ 150 c/c up to 800 mm from centre of beam (bottom)
12dia. @ 300 c/c over beam (bottom)
Direction ly - bottom reinforcement
12dia. @ 200 c/c up to 1200mm from centre of beam (bottom)
12 dia. @ 400 c/c over beam (bottom)
Step 13 Spacing of bars
Percentage of reinforcement in slab = 1%

Maximum clear spacing allowed = 160 mm


Actual spacing used= lOOmm

OK

Maximum spacing of bars in tension = 3d = 3 x 112 = 336 mm


Maximum spacing used for designed bars in tension= 200 mm

OK

Maximum spacing of nominal reinforcement to control early thermal


cracking = 400 mm
Step 14 Check thermal cracking
For suspended slab, R = 0.3 assumed
T 1 = 12C assumed for 150 mm thick slab
O'.

= 12 x 10- 6 per degree C


0.8 T, Q'. R
= 0.8 x 12 x 12 x 10- 6 x 0.3
= 34.56 x 10- 6

Er=

128

Reinforced Concrete
Cmin

20mm + 12mm
(dia. of bar)
32mm (direction ly)

x = d/2 assumed = 112/2 = 56 mm (direction l_v)

acr = \/(200 2 + 382)


Wmax

6 = 197.6mm

3acr Er

== - - - - - - -

l + 2( acr - Cm in)
(h - x)

3 x 197.6 x 34.56 x 106


1

+ 2(197.6 - 32)
(150 - 56)

0.0045 mm < 0.3 mm

OK

Step 15 Check minimum reinforcement to distribute cracking


bh
1000 x 150
A = - =
= 75000mm 2

A, = 0.0035 Ac = 262.5 mm 2/m


As provided= 12dia.@ 400 c/c (282mm 2 /m)
Step 16 Assessment of crack width in flexure
100

,,
II

SK 3/24 Section through slab over


beam for crack width calculations.

Service load on slab= 25.75 kN/m2


By elastic analysis,
maximum bending moment over long support
= 0.075 x 25.75 x 4.32
= 35.7kNm/m
As = 1131 mm 2 /m

b = lOOOmm
m = 10
A~ =

Asf bd = 9.12 X 10- 3

124mm

EslEc

neglected

= d[((mp) 2 +

2 mp)t - mp] = 43mm

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

z=

d -

43

3 = 124 - 3

129

109.7mm

M
35.7 x 106
=
= 288N/mm2
Asz
1131 X 109.7

Is= Es

= fs =
Es

288
200 x la3

Eh

(dh -- xX)

Emh

Eh -

Es

=(

b(h -

1.44

3
150
- : )
124 - 3

x)2

3E5 As(d - x)

10-3

1.44

10-J

= 1.90

10-3

1.90

3 x 200 x 103 x 1131 x (124 - 43)


1.69 x 10- 3

Cmin = 20mm

Wcr

= y'(26 2 +

502 )

50 mm

3acr Em
= --- - - - = 0.16mm < 0.3mm

2( acr - Cmin)
(h - x)

10- 3

1000(150 - 43)2
=

acr

OK

130 Reinforced Concrete

3.5 FIGURES AND TABLES FOR CHAPTER 3

Edge conditions and loading diagrams

Elastic
resistance, rc

Elasto-plastic
resistance, rer>

cnrrn~ 3

t.

L/2

L/2

.t

~-

.!.

L12

L/2

L/2

.1

L/2

~
.I

1~
I

f
L

f'2

L/3

Ru

8MN

-L1

ru

--

3L

Ru

12MN

--

L2

ru

8MN

--

Ru

ru

Ru

-1

16MN

~
~
L
I
~

ru

tn

I l/3 I L/3

-1
f

Ru

Fig. 3.1 Elastic and elasto-plastic unit resistances for one-way elements.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Edge conditions and loading diagrams

i -.

LQ?CY"t-.

Lt2

f.

:t

Ltz

L/2

L/2

l
L/2

Lt2

~
.p
~,_

rr

..t

~
I
L
-I
~,...

Yu L
-

Ru

~~
~~

Support reactions, V,

.1

tl13:- ,Lt3.:.L13:t

5ruL

L. reaction

-8

L. reaction

--

llRu
16

3ruL

R. reaction

--

R. reaction

5Ru
16

ruL

Ru
2

ruL

Ru

Ru

Fig. 3.2 Support shears for one-way elements (to be read in conjunction with
Fig. 3.1).

131

....
r...i
N

Fig. 3.3 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges fixed and two edges free.1 8 1

lO

05

03

[7

OI

07

03

.;_

02

01

OfYI

005

003

c::::

002

JI

'i

II

v v Ij
v

II

0005

-0003
0002

-0001

0'3

r:S

02

07

J ~

$
c::::

/j ...

JI

Vri1
/1

vI

1.

j
10 7-0 50 30 20

007

1-007 0 5

HIL

L
03 02

JI

005

~[b

003
002

'

07

I/f-:::-

05

I 1-!2..
flvmo.j

02

I/ I

007

005
003

002

I;

01
J

IJ
,

Ti

{/

001

001
OI

/I

03

Nfvmax

lf1H max
[.......--' .....

l~

01

'-

fn~:J

01

M = fJrH 2
XO= yrH 4

/}

02

J.....

02

II

03

);:

0'3

1n2/

01

05
~

>=:

c::::

Vflvmax

/
,_L
r:xx:n ~ma L//'11

IJ;i

fJrH 42
yrH

07

05

001

1-0

07

I flH mo

i..-

'\. ,......

/,~

...

I n2 //n3 I /!J

c::::

M = f1rH
XO= yrH 4

lO

JL._

I/

05

M
XO=

Y1

10 70 5-0

30 20

10 07 05

HIL

03 02

c..

(D

82

02

I -

i]g

1JD~
I
.1

..........._

.....

~
O'

Q
::i

....._
f13

07

Fig. 3.5 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges simply supported and two
edges free.1 8 1

Fig. 3.4 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with one edge
fixed, an adjacent edge simply
supported and two edges free.1 8 1

OI

10 70 50

30 20

lO 0705 0-3 02

HJL

OI

Fig. 3. 7 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two opposite
edges fixed, one edge simply
supported and one edge free.f 81

Fig. 3.6 Moment and deflection


coeffieients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
fixed and one edge free.f 81

lO

lO

q;;J
I

07
05
03
02

fJ3

05
_A

OI

02

...
~
...
~

c::

02

01

005

001
OOCY1
0005

I )

I //01

,.......
0-3

Ir-

----\

'

,.;,

c:;

c::

Iv

01

005
003

001
OOC/1

0005

I/I/

J
Hll

03 02

OI

01

01

~ 007

7j
..____

l
I

\
\01

rJ>

s.

s
O'

'

0.

-,
7

OOC/1

0005
-0003

...+

VJ

;-

0002

J
30 20

I/

)(

I.

001

i-. lo..
I/

~ ~

oos

10 70 50

,.___,
-!tr

02

002

/J

);::

I
I

II I/

0001
100705

03

'

17

05

J'--

[/~

C11

02

M = fJrH 2
XO= yrH 4

003

0002

10 70 50 lO 20

1JQ

OI

0003

0002

02

7 Yi

I/ I

002

7
I

/1

I I
I II

007

03

TI

-1 /01

02

05

I .I

'ii;f J

03

07

11 J VJ

05

rl

II

07

l-0

v ,v-

11 = Orff
XO= yrH4

OI

I/, ~

02

0003

0001

{Q

r1

di

V;)
/ VJ

003

I
I

~ If

007

002

'{/

/!J

03
~

J/ II

05

1V
,/ ~

M = fJrH 2
XO= yrH 4

CY1

07

Fig. 3.8 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two opposite
edges simply supported, one edge
fixed and one edge free.1 81

Hll

03 02

01

oOOOI

100'7 05

10 70 50

3-0 20--lO 07 05

Hll

03 04

0-1

.....

......
~
Fig. 3.11 Moment and deflection
coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges simply supported, one edge
fixed and one edge free.1 8 1

Fig. 3.10 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two edges
fixed, one edge simply supported
and one edge free.1 8 1

Fig. 3.9 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
simply supported and one edge
free.1 8 1

O'
@
c.

Q
::i

('l

1-0

07
0'5
03

OI

H = fJrH
XO = yrH''

I/
I

03

02

03
0'2

07

0003

I\

\1

I rrl

J '

17

I/
0007

OOOS

0003

IJ

0002

0002

0001
10 70 5'0

30 2-0

0001

lO 0-7 0-5

H/L

03 02

0-1

n1

001

0007
0005

I/ I

oo2

001

f12

003

H.__J

OOS

003

01
007

r1

005

I II

'02

I
10 70 50

l.01

07

OS

OS

03

03

02

02

01

OI

{lg

07

OOS

OS

003

03

002

02

0007

>--"

I Jn,

11

I I

0003

003

0002

002

0001

001

7
77
I

07
OS

03
.02

Of

I007

005
003

r1 I

002

I II
,7

007
005

117 7

Of

0005

....

I .

f12

...

v.i/ 7

r:::::::r:=7 17

cf

'

0-1

M = OrH 2
XO= YrH 4

007

001

I/

I//)

03

007

/,

OS

ri

01

M = fJrH 2
XO= YrH 4

OI

"j::.

~bd ,,
~ -v "j

In, I

,,

11 / /

OS

.,. l
I

05

002

'-4'

07

I
I/
J

CXI

I/

1J01I

1-0

l O r I O
2
07
TO
I

001

0007

0005

0003

0002

rr

0001

00007

0007

00007

00005

0005

00005

00003

0003

00002

0002

.0000!
Oof

0001

00003

00002

l'O 20

100705

HIL

03 02

10

" so

30 20

lO 0-7 05

HIL

0"3 0-2

OOOOf
OI

;::i

.....
(1)

lo()

OI

01

07

-05

03

VJ;

003

I I/ I

002

I/
~
r1,

OOI

>
~ -0007

'/

0005
'OOCll
ooo:i

n,H

I0002

00007

00005

00005

'

10 70 6'0

30 20

{rn
H = flrH 2
XO= yrH 4

10 0.7 0-6

H/L

O.J 0-2

'/'

rS;;
'>.:::
~

005

00002

002

000007
000005
000003
000002

'-..,.._

)
J

{]0'.1

1..

0-1

000001

0001
10 70 6'0

3'0 20

1.0
0.1

005

0.5

.003

0.J

002

0-2

001

OI

0007

07

0005

05

0003

03

0002

02

OI

r!;
>

00005

005

iQ
M = flrH
XO= rrff4

00003

003

00002

002

001

000007

0007

000005

0005

000001

0003

000002

0002

000001

0001

rn-

v
J

-"'

/. r; J

II
fl2 ,, I

n3

fla

1--- 001
0003

!"\

0001

00007

I 0
.....,

00005

1 OOOOI

00002

I/
I

O'
...,
n

(1)

0.
00001

000007

000005

JII

Q
::s

...,
.....
(1)
(')
(1)

000003

10 7"0

);:

(1)

I/. 'I J
~ r~

000002

Vi

(1)

"'
~

fl1HI

'/

0002

"-

VJ! 1;

'b

I002

~10005

YI r /or

-'--I

005

0007

I _,-r

If/

01

007

003

I/

01

i;::. cS' .001

lO 07 05 03 0'2

HIL

00007

00001

H = flrH 2
XO= yrH 4

f1

.01

.007

.0001

0005

coefficients for uniformly loaded


two-way element with three edges
fixed and one edge simply
supported.f8 1

fl1H

'I

0007

0003

B1v

J /J

.001

-0002

fl2

II I
'IV

007

00003

I 00001

'

01

003

/1. ~'

02

~-

0001

IV

03

0003

I
/

05

I0005

07

0007
'

./

I
I

01

001

'Yi

,,,, --

02

002

0001

00001

..._

J J
I I
,/
I

00007

00002

03

003

1 ,

I/

C?:l

00003

IV/Yi

05

E[J

II II
I '/ II

005

007

007

~'

_,....-

I~ If/ v

01

.-112

0'7

005

'I I~ ll.. v

02

tB

11
'83

Fig. 3.14 Moment and deflection

Fig. 3.13 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two opposite
edges fixed and two edges simply
supported. rs1

Fig. 3.12 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with all edges
fixed.1 8 1

VJ

6i"

O'

6'Q

3'0 20

lO 0.7 05

HIL

03 0-2

OI 000001

"'

....

....

04

lO

07

07

0,

05

05

0'5

03

03

0:

~[J]
I.

0'2

02

0'2

07

JI

05

02
~-

01

~ 007

001

vI

0007
0005

0003

I
10 'l'O 6-0

-03

002

-02

3-0 2'0

0'1 05

Hll

03 02

.
~

c';;

:i::

82 I j

0-1

"001

00007

0007

00005

0005

00003

0003

00002

0002

00001

0001

os

I,003

03

002

0'2

I- 001

OI

\.._~

0001

00007

1.00005

I\

'

I I
I
I/

10 07 0-5

03

rf.

O<I 02

>- ~:z:

01

~ 007

r - -L/ I/

821

005

00003

003

I-00002

002

00001

vJ

005

t. ...

003

02

1/Jrv,82 -01
'171 / B1v l...,-- .007

/j

02

,,

....-

002

001

- 0007

0005
0003

VIJIH

001

000007

0007

000005

0005

000003

0003

000002

0002

000001
0.1

0001

0002

IV

Ir,

0001
00007
00005

B1v /
I
I()

l/
70 50

I
30 20

10 C>-7 0-5

HI l

0-3 02

00003
00002

00001
OI

0.
(')
0

03

Ir.

ri
('!>

(")

05

H = IJrH 2
XD = rrH 4

O'

07

~g

::0
('!>

I O

>"

~.81H

Hll

07
-05

0002

3-0 20

0007
0005
I0003

~ v I I/
r1

005

ii. I

10 7'0 5-0

007

0'1

.!d-

I/ Vfi

10

82

YI I
,r/ /, r-..

005

0002

er

'V I
007 H~L/.

002

0001

I/

.Viv;

01

r+t/J3

I
I//

003

1'f = /JrH 4
XC = YrH

'"

0003

1JDI

0002

0001

003

05

0005

-07

005

0007

I I ri I

1007

001

I JI

003
002

II

I I

005

/J1H

Vj

>

01

01

!'....

//.

03

Brv

.1 v

1'f = IJrH 2
XD = rrH 4

:1'1
OI

Fig. 3.17 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
simply supported and one edge
fixed.1 8 1

Fig. 3.16 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges fixed and two edges simply
supported.1 8 1

Fig. 3.15 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with all edges
simply supported.1 8 1

>="

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

137
10

0-9
OB

0-7
0-6
05

x/L

0 ..4
03
02
OI
o~

rLMHNMVPMHPJ'/2

Fig. 3.18 Location of yield lines for two-way element with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (values of x).1 8 1

OI

o~~~~--1.~~_._~-'-~~-'-~-'--'-~~~~--'-~~~~~~~~~~

OI

C>2

03

06

08

1-0

..!:... rMVN+Mvp] 112


H

L"

MHP

Fig. 3.19 Location of yield lines for two-way element with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (values of y).1 8 1

10

138 Reinforced Concrete

_!a=
X1

MHN3 .,.MHP
!,10
MHNI .+ MHPff'2

H[

1I @ \'
I

L
I<>

OI

07
MVP

06

MvN2

><I-' o5
I

!"-.~ ~1000~
2000IL
"~ ~ ~<>OO
0~25--f"....

"

0-250~

no-soo-

~,..~aoool
~ i::::::;:::
....

~ r---..::t-~
----J..rCO I

O I
0

-- :::::

0-1

02

05

OI lO

~---..i.-

10

20

SO IO0

50

Fig. 3.20 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 ==1.0).1 81

lO
09

01

0'7
06

y/H

05

O'
03

02
OI
0
OI

IO

Fig. 3.21 Location of symmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three edges
supported and one edge free (value of v).1 8 1

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 139

I .Values of f_IH

05

04

03

Y/H

02

OI

01

()-2

I Values of x/L

vI\

ti

'
''
%1 I/'>----<,,

""' ~
0-6

05

04

Pt

03

X/L

"'-

02

"~'

OI

0-8 lO

10

Fig. 3.22 Location of symmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four edges
supported.18 1

r;.

X2 = MHN3
X1
MHN1

+ MHPff'2=01

+ MHP

Aj
7

'
/ @ \

Myp

1-0

MvH2

'

\ \\ \~

1-1000

08

.!:-:-i
\ \ \ \.~
\ \ \ \'\ ~eo~l
\ \ \' 0-.~~J
\. '\' \.""'"- "'-~ '
2000

....... 4000

06

-0~25~ '\

03

0250

(0.500-

02

~~"-0 ~~
~~ t'0~ ~
~ ~ r::: ~ ~

OI

0
0-1

02

05

08 1-0

-::::~ 1:::-~

r:

MvP

10

20

50

80 IOO

112

ii LMHNI +M . .J
Fig. 3.23 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =0.1).1 81

140 Reinforced Concrete

~
!=bMHN3 + MHPJ/2 =
X1
MHNI + MHI>

03

'{~~

Q)1
I

/ @

Myp
MvN2
OB

'

07

0125
[\' ~ ,___

f\ ~~ o:s~

V"

\ .. , "X ~
'
"\.'\ ~~.~
'\....." ,'\.....""'~ ~~~

><I-' o5

2000

"

o~

03

~ ::::: ~
'"'~~
~ ~ r:::: ~ ~

OI

02

os

oe

-i-.;:

~~

20

1-0

IO

SO

BO IOO

Fig. 3.24 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0.3).1 8 1

r2

X2 = MHN3+ MHP
X1
MHNI + MHP

Hr

= 05

1@
/
I
/ @ \
\,
I

Mvp
MvN2

~125

L,

"~
'\S ~~L
"\. ). C\.

\. \. \..

06

500

><I ..... o-s

"' "'"-<

04

~oooL

""'""t'~""'....""""'~~

03

2-000'1

~oooh,
naooo

~ i::: r:A~ ~ ....._ ~ ~

02
OI

CD

~-

--"

~ ~ t;:::::::::-..---~

0
()'I

0-2

05

OI 1-0

10

20

--

50

BO 100

l [ MvP
_1'12
H ~HNI MH~

Fig. 3.25 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 = 0.5).1 81

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 141

u r {
2

~ = MHN3 + MHP
X1
MHNI + MHP

=O?S

f'-1 A

'
/ @ \

t
I

'

0'9

OI

Myp
MvN2
<>6

'\.. I'

'~

[~250250
-~

~ lX\) ~~
1-000

~ :;:-J.2~l

""'-"'' ~~ ~

02

4oooL
.n-80~

s~ ~

~~

--..; ~ 8S
0

OI

10

50

20

80100

Fig. 3.26 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =0.75).1 81

!)=
X1

~M

:l2 S

HN3 MHP
+
MHNI +MHP

HD

~ t1L
JI/ @ \~
\
I

08

Myp

0'6

MvN2

" '" r0.~


~~

o-.

~~o
1-000

~-2-000._

~ r0.._~ ~::::,.. U--eooo


L-4000 -

~~
~

0
0-1

02

05

08 lO

!-.:" ~l_,rcf
1-.... ~~~

10

:--...:'
20

50

80 IOO

Fig. 3.27 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2/X1 =1-25).1 81

142

Reinforced Concrete

~=~MHm+
MHP J/2=15
X1 MHNI + MHP
.

~~

[CD1 "~\

@ \

1-0

O9

,,

0'6

Myp
MvN2

><J....o 0 -s
0

..

0-500
--f'-..~ ~ ~~000

0 J

-......... ~~~:;;;;L_

0 -2

~ r:::::
~~
0250

0 I
0

OI

()'2

o5

<>a

~o

~9'()0.;> co

-- -

8 10

L [

r--.;~

20

50

80IOO

1'12

Myp

HLMHN1+MHi!j

Fig. 3.28 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 = 1.5).181

X2 a MHN3 +MHP
=175
r2
X1
MHNI +MHP

t!4

IQ),

,'@

H
I

\~
\~

10
09

08

06

Myp

MvN2
0"4

L012S-~~
~0250

03

,...-0~ ~

0-2

""'-""'-~

~~~ ~ :::-- -......;:

O I

2000

.......

0
0-1

0-2

L [

MvP

...
~~

10

20

50

80 100

112

H~HN1+MHr3

Fig. 3.29 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =1.75).1 81

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

!i= ~Mu~+M.,.~1/2= 2 .0
X1

LMHNI t MHP

143

[f;Y/@ '\J\_

1-

1-0

OI

'

MvP
MvN2

',,

03

....._

....._...._~

2-000

L~I~~"~ ~4~
~-f'-.
~
......... ~~,,,.

04

0500~

OI

0
OI

0'5

0 .. lO

..L_[
H

MVP
]
MHN1+MHPj

r-.

8 10

.. ,

=--------.;:
so

20

80100

112

Fig. 3.30 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =2.0).18 1

r2 H[ rK-1

MHNl-tMHP

-=
L

CD:~

~+MHP

1-t~MHNI +MHPJ 1/2


MHN2-tMHI>

08

OI
01

02

-------

/
v

/~',,J

jY

____L___j

Fig. 3.31 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (values of y).1 8 1

lO

144 Reinforced Concrete

0-5

04
X1

MvN1+Mvp
MvN2+MvP

' --;:===;:;::=1+

MvNl \MVP

MvN2+MvP

03

02

Ol

02

Ol

lo()

678910

~ [JMvNI + Myp+ ~PJ


J5 IMHN1. MHP)
Fig. 3.32 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four
edges supported (values of X 1).1 8 1

07
)j

06

05

0'4

HNl-+MHP
MHN2+MH~

Y11H

l
03

/MHN1+MHP
<MHN2+MHP

02

OI

02

03

04 05 0-6
L

07

lO

sJMv1 +Mvp

Fig. 3.33 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four
edges supported (values of Y1).1 8 1

IO

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 145


0.15 l

0-15 ,f

0-151

~45~.

0-15 1

100"/o

0.2 .l
Effective S

n 1

Continuous Slab : Approximate equal spans

Effective Span P

Simply Supported Slab

fOOlo

I ;;?45 ~

I.
Cantilever Slab
Fig. 3.34 Simplified detailing rules for slabs.

_I

146

Reinforced Concrete
Table 3.1 Graphical summary of two-way elements to be used in conjunction
with Figures 3 .3 to 3 .17

1 81
18
rg .{d
{101 {lg 1Jd
zIJrn rm
{EB zIJI f
z

{lC]'

Fig. 3.3

Fig. 3.6

I.

.I

.I

Fig. 3.12

Fig. 3.5

Fig. 3.7

Fig. 3.9

ZDI
I.

Fig. 3.4

Fig. 3.8

Fig. 3.10.

Fig. 3.11

Fig. 3.13

Fig. 3.14

11

Fig. 3.15

Fig. 3.16

Legend: Edge conditions

f ' i=i
Free

Fig. 3.17

E~

r://21

Simple

Fixed

Table 3.2 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.23).
Edge
conditions

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

Yield line locations

r!-1

EJ

Ultimate unit resistance

Limits

:S

y :SH

5(MHN

Mttp)

x2

5(MVN

Mvp)

y2

or
or

6L MVN + (5Mvp - MVN)x


H 2 (3L - 2x)
6H MHN

AA

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

(5MttP - MttN)Y

L (3H - 2y)

HIL:.:::J~
I..-

+
2

L
x:S-

y :SH

rL1

+ Mttp)

5(MHN

5(MVN

Mvp)

y2

HIL;7i;J11
I
.1

or
or

2MvN(3L - x)

H 2 (3L
4(MHN

10 x Mvp

- 4x)

Mttp)(6H - y)

L 2 (3H - 2y)

Four edges
supported

~
,

Y1

.:::r

HI~
y~
I
.I
L

00

"'
c'

5(MHN

:S -

H
2

:S -

+
y2

5(MVN

MHP)

Mvp)

or
or

8(MvN

Mvp)(3L - x)

H (3L - 4x)
8(MHN

+
2

Mttp)(3H - y)

L (3H - 4y)

~
O'
~Q.

g
i'l

@
0

Cf.l

lo""

Table 3.3 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.33).

Edge conditions

Yield line locations

Limits

a~

Ultimate unit resistance

P--1

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

'.5,

'.5,

O'
ri(1)
0..
(j
0

Same as in Table 3.2

:::

HI021
I.

A~

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

t:;,;,,:;I-

5(MHNI

MHPd

X1

x'.5,-

or

(5Mvp - MvN2)(X 1
2

'.5,

MHp)(6H -

Y)

X (3H - 2Y)

or

5(MvN3

or

MHP)

X2

+ X2) +

H (3L - 2X1
(MHNI

5(MHN3

or

6MvN2L

2X2)

(MHN2

MHp)(6H - Y)

(L - X) 2 (3H - 2Y)

Mvp)

y2

+ Mvp)(6L - X, - X2) (MvN2 + Mvp)(6L - X 1 - X2)


or
2
Y (3L - 2X 1 - 2X2 )
(H - Y) 2 (3L - 2X 1 - 2X2 )

(MVNt

Four edges
supported

f~t:3~TI
~~

{~~
1.
.1
L

L
x

'.5,-

5(MHNI

MHP)

2
X1

5(MvN1 + Mvp)

'.5,-

Yy
(MHNI

Mttp)(6H -

X 2 (3H - 2Y1

Y1 - Y2)
2Y2)

5(MHN2

or
or
or

Mttp)

X2

5(MVN2 + Mvp)
y~

(MHN2

MHP)(6H - Y, - Y2)

(L - X) 2 (3H - 2Y1

2Y2)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

149

Table 3.4 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in
conjunction with Table

3.2).

Edge conditions

Yield line locations

Limits Horizontal shear,

r41

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

EJ
Hl],s;;,;j ~
1-

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

x$L

.1

fl f1
k:,,,:~1

L
x$-

t-X-i

H
It;,~,~l:u
1.

f1 f-1

Four edges
supported

t~~~TI

~
t:ZJY
HI

:::::r
:::r

.1

VsH

3rux

3ruL(2- ~)
(6 - ~)
3ruX
5

3ruL(2-~)
y

L
x$-

2(6- ~)
3rux

3ruL(l- ~)
2 2(3 - ~)

$-

Vertical shear, Ysv

3ruH(2 - ~)
(6 - ~)
3ruy

3ruH( 1 -

~)

(3 - ~)
3ruy

3ruH( 1- ~)
2(3 - ~)
3ruy

Table 3.5 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Table 3.3).

Edge
conditions

Yield line locations

limits

Horizontal shear,

v.H

Vertical shear, V,v

O'
....
n

EJ

Same as in Table 3.4

HI[;-;,:,J]
r11 r1
t~: ,2,,::1
...... 3 .......

x
r'-J

Y1

[@n=r
H
=r
I

_4

3xiru
5

L
x2 <
- 2-

3x2ru
-5

$H

.1Y2

3ruX(2H - y)
6H - y

3ruH(2L - Xi - X2)
6L - Xi - X2
3ruY
5

3rux (L - x)(2H - y)
6H - y
L

~E:t3=rr
~

=
(")

~
...,.

$2

0..
("")
0

(1)

Xi

Same as in Table 3.4

y$H

.I

1-

(1)

x$L

Hmmtl
Four edges
supported

:;:i:::i
(1)

1.

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

Ul

~
Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

Xi$ 2
L

X2

$Z

H
Yi$2
H
Y2
2

$-

3ruXi
5
3ruX2
5

3rux (2H - Yi - Y2)


6H - Yi - Y2
3ru(L - x)(2H - Yi - Y2)
6H - Yi - Y2

3ruy(2L - Xi - Xz)
6L - Xi - X2
3ru(H - y)(2L - Xi - X2)
6L - Xi - Xz
3ruYi
5

3ruY2
5

Chapter 4

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

4.0 NOTATION
ax
ay

Ac
Ase
Asx
Asy

b
b'

c
C
d

Ee
Es

fy

!cu
F
G
h

h'

h,
hmax
hmin

I
K

le
10
lex
ley

m
M

Deflection in column due to slenderness producing additional moment


about x-axis
Deflection in column due to slenderness producing additional moment
about y-axis
Net area of concrete in a column cross-section
Total area of steel in a column cross-section
Area of steel in tension to resist bending about x-axis
Area of steel in tension to resist bending about y-axis
Width of rectangular column section - dimension perpendicular to
y-axis
Effective depth of tensile steel reinforcement resisting moment about
y-axis
Coefficient of torsional stiffness
Torsional stiffness
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Coefficient for calculation of cracked section moment of inertia
Shear modulus
Overall depth of rectangular column section - dimension
perpendicular to x-axis
Effective depth to tensile steel reinforcement resisting moment about
x-axis
Diameter to centreline of reinforcement in a circular column
Maximum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete section
Minimum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete section
Moment of inertia
Factor governing deflection of column due to slenderness
Effective height of column
Clear height of column
Effective height for consideration of slenderness about x-axis
Effective height for consideration of slenderness about y-axis
Modular ratio = E,I Ee
Applied bending moment on a section
151

152 Reinforced Concrete


Applied bending moment about x-axis
Applied bending moment about y-axis
Modified bending moment about x-axis to account for biaxial bending
Modified bending moment about y-axis to account for biaxial bending
Additional moment about x-axis due to slenderness
Additional moment about the y-axis due to slenderness
Axial load on column
Design ultimate capacity of a section subjected to axial load only
Design axial load capacity of a balanced section ( = 0 .25 fcubd)
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Percentage of compressive reinforcement
Percentage of tensile reinforcement to resist moment about x-axis
Percentage of tensile reinforcement to resist moment about y-axis
Applied torsion
Shear stress in concrete due to bending about x-axis
Shear stress in concrete due to bending about y-axis
Design concrete shear stress in concrete due to bending about x-axis
(N/mm2 )
Design concrete shear stress in concrete due to bending about y-axis
(N/mm 2)
Shear force in concrete column due to bending about x-axis
Shear force in concrete column due to bending about y-axis

Mx

My
M~
M_~
Maddx
Maddy

N
Nuz
Nba1

p
p'
Px
Py
T

Coefficient to determine effective height of a column


Coefficient to determine modified bending moments in biaxial bending
Diameter of reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a group of bars

4.1

ANALYSIS OF COLUMNS

4.1.1

Moment of inertia

4.1.2

Modulus of elasticity

4.1.3 Shear modulus


Note:

See Section 2.1.3.


See Section 2.1.4.
See Section 2.1.6.

In normal framed construction Torsional Rigidity of RC columns may


be ignored in the analysis and the torsional stiffness may be given a
very small value in the computer analysis. Torsional rigidity becomes
important only where torsion is relied on to carry the load as in curved
beams.

4.1.4

Poisson's ratio

4.1.5

Shear area

4.1.6

Thermal strain

See Section 2.1.7.


See Section 2.1.8.
See Section 2.1.9.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

153

4.1. 7 Effective heights

SK 4/1 Effective height of column.

Braced:
All horizontal loads carried by shear walls or bracing system.
Unbraced: Horizontal loads carried by columns as parts of frame structure.

le = 1310

where

le
10

= effective height

= clear height

13 = values given in Tables 4.1 and 4.2.


column
Cantilewr

CD
@Beam Simply
Supported
H1

CD
Monolithic
Conne:ction

D1~H1

~o,
D1<H2

H2

CD
Monolithic
Connect ion

SK 4/2 Column end conditions.

CD

D2~H3

154 Reinforced Concrete


Table 4.1 Values

of~

for braced columns.

End condition
at top

0.75
0.80
0.90

Table 4.2 Values of

Note:

4.1.8

0.80
0.85
0.95

0.90
0.95
1.00

for unbraced columns.

End condition
at top

1
2
3

End condition at bottom

End condition at bottom


1

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.5
1.8

1.6
1.8

1.6
2.2

Foundations of columns designed to carry moments may be considered as


end condition 1 for the column.

Analysis of columns
Find the following internal forces by analysis:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Bending moments about principal axes: Mx and My


Shear forces about principal axes: Vx and ~v
Deflections at critical points: 6
Rotations at joints (if required): e
Torsions (if relevant): T
Direct axial loads: N

Use a general-purpose 2-D or 3-D skeletal member suite of a computer


software for the analysis, if required.

4.2
4.2.1

LOAD COMBINATIONS
General rules
The following load combinations and partial load factors should be used in
carrying out the analysis of columns:

LC 1:
LC2 :
LC3 :
LC4 :
LC5 :

l.4DL + l.6LL + l.4EP + l.4WP


l.OD L + l.4EP + 1.4WP
l.4DL + l.4WL + l.4EP + l.4WP
l.ODL + l.4WL + l.4EP + l.4WP
l.2DL + l.2LL + l.2WL + l.2EP + l.2WP

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

Note:

155

Load combinations LC2 and LC4 should be considered only when the
effect of dead and live load are considered to be beneficial.
where

DL
LL
WL

= dead

load

= wind

load

= live load or imposed load

WP = water pressure
EP = earth pressure.

The general principle of load combination is to leave out the loads which
have beneficial effect. If the load is of a permanent nature, like dead load,
earth load or water load, use the partial load factor of 1 for that load
which produces a beneficial rather than adverse effect. This rule of combination will be used for design as well as for the check of stability of
structure.

Note:

No reduction or redistribution of loads is allowed from the columns.

4.2.2 Exceptional loads

See Section 2.2.4.

4.3 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COLUMNS


4.3.1

Rectangular columns
Step I

Analysis
Moments, shear forces and axial forces should be determined manually or
using computer software. Additional moments induced by deflection of
slender columns are found in Step 5. For braced columns which are
assumed to carry vertical loads only, a nominal eccentricity of vertical
loads equal to 0.05 times the overall dimension in the plane of bending not
exceeding 20mm should be considered. For biaxial bending, minimum
eccentricity should be considered about one axis at a time.

Step 2 Check slenderness of column

SK 4/3 Section through a column.

See Section 4.1.7 for the determination of effective heights

lex

and

fer

156

Reinforced Concrete
Note:

For short columns both ratios should be less than 15 for braced and 10 for
unbraced.
For columns generally, 10

:S

For cantilever columns, 10


Step 3

60b

:S

100b 2 /h :S 60b

Determination of cover
Determine cover required to reinforcement, as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.

Step 4 Design of short columns

11
SK 414 Symmetrically reinforced
column.
(I) No moment from analysis

Select reinforcement size and number.


Find N = 0.4/cuAc

0.75Ascfy

where

Ac = net area of concrete = bh -

Check

N > applied direct load

Ase

(2) Column supporting continuous beams where analysis does not allow for
framing into columns (no moment in column)

Find N = 0.35/cuAc

0.67Ascfy

N > applied direct load

Check

(3) Column subjected to uniaxial moment and direct load


Determine dlh corresponding to cover found in step 3.

Find e

MIN and then elh.

Select appropriate Table from Tables 11.8 to 11.17 corresponding to /cu


and d/h.
Calculate Nlbh.
Find from appropriate Table the value of p which satisfies the calculated
N/bh against the e/h due to applied moment. From p calculate Ase.
Find Ase
Note:

For symmetrically reinforced columns as designed above, the total area of


steel should be divided by 2 and placed at the two opposite faces of the
column in relation to the axis about which the moment is applied. More
reinforcement may be necessary at the other two faces from other considerations. The total percentage of reinforcement should be below 6%.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

157

Step 5 Design of slender columns


Table 4.3 Summary of column additional moments.

Column type

Bending about
major axis only

Bending about
minor axis only

Bending about
both axes

Braced
lex
15 < h

20

20

fey

15 < b

Maddx = Naux
Mx = Mxi

K=

-<3
b

+ *Maddx

Nuz - N
:s;

Nuz - Nbal

My

My;

+ *Maddy

Unbraced
lex
10 < h

20

Icy

10<-s20
b

Nuz = 0.45 /cu Ac + 0.87/yAsc


1
l3ay = 2000

Nbal

(fey)
b

0.25/cubd

-<3
b

My = My; + *Maddy

Braced and
unbraced
lex
20 <-and/or
h

aux= 13axKh
2

l3ax

= 2000

(lex)

fey

20 <-and/or
b

h
- :=: 3
b
Maddy = Nauy

Maddy = Nauy

My= Maddy

My

My;

+ *Maddy

Maddy

Nauy

My = My;

+ *Maddy

*The addition of Madd will be done following sketches SK4/5 and SK4/6 as appropriate. Mx; is
the initial moment and Mx is the final moment about x-axis. Maddx is the additional moment due
to slenderness.
'
For unbraced columns at any storey find au for all columns in any orthogonal direction and then
find auav given by
Lau
auav = where n = number of columns.
n
Find additional moment for all columns using auav as deflection.
If any value of au for any individual column at a level is twice auav then discard that column from

the calculation of auav

158 Reinforced Concrete

~~

BRACED COLUMN FREE TO ROTATE


AT EACH END

T
BRACED COLUMN FREE TO ROTATE
AT ONE END

+Madd Mi

Maddl2 +smaller
inita\ moment Mi

BRACED COLUMN RESTRAINED AT


BOTH ENDS
Mi = Initial moment from analysis

SK 4/5 Braced column - additional moments.

Column free to rotate at one end

,.,. l.,~ ~:
M; = Initial mommt from analysis

SK 4/6 Unbraced column - additional moments.

Braced column restrained at both ends:


the initial moment at mid height Mi= 0.4 M 1 + 0.6 M2 ~ 0.4 M2
where M 1 = smaller end moment
M2 =larger end moment
Unbraced column restrained at both ends:
the full additional moment may be combined with the initial end moment
of stiffer joint. Madd for the other end may be reduced proportional to the
joint stiffness.
Determine d/h corresponding to cover found in Step 3.
Find e =MIN and then e/h.
Select appropriate Table from Tables 11.8 to 11.17 corresponding to !cu
and dlh.
Calculate N/bh.
Find from the appropriate Table the value of p which satisfies the calculated
N/bh against the e/h due to applied moment. From p calculate Ase.
.
See note in Step 4.
Step 6 Design of column to biaxial bending and direct load
Select diameter of reinforcement:

Find h' and b'.


Find Mxlh' and Mylb'.
If Mxlh' > Myfb',

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

159

SK 417 Column subject to biaxial


bending.

MxI

Mx

+ (~h')
-b' Mv.

If M_Jb' > Mxlh',


Mvr = Mv
.
-

+ (~b')
-h' Mx

Find Nlfcubh.
Values of ~ are given in the table below.

0
1.00

Note:

0.1
0.88

0.2
0. 77

0.3
0.65

0.4
0.53

0.5
0.42

>0.6
0.30

Biaxial bending is reduced to uniaxial bending by the multiplier

Design as uniaxial bending, depending on which directional bending is


predominant.
Find Ase following the method in Step 5.
See note in Step 4.
Step 7 Check shear stress
Find design shear forces Vx and
Find MxlN and MylN.
(1) If MxlN :s; 0.60h

and

~v

from analysis.

and MylN :s; 0.60b

Vxlbh' :s;0.8Vfcu :s;SN/mm2


~vlb'h :s; 0.8"\/fcu :s; 5 N/mm 2

No shear check is necessary.

160 Reinforced Concrete


(2) If Mx/N > 0.60h and/or MylN > 0.60b

Find

Vx =
Vy=

Vxlbh'
Vvfb'h

lOOAsx

px

= ---,;;;:-

Py

= ----;;;;:-

100A,v

-- Asx

SK 4/8 Areas of steel for shear


check of column.

From Figs 11.2 to 11.6, find Vex and Vey i.e. the design concrete shear
stresses corresponding to Px and Pr
Modify Vex and Vey to take into account axial loading.

Note:

N is +ve for compression and -ve for tension. Vxhl Mx and Y_vbl My should
not be greater than 1. Check: (vxlv'cx)+(v_Jv'ey)~l.
If this condition is not satisfied, then shear reinforcement in the form of
links is required.
Design of shear reinforcement for columns
,,
Vex=

v"c_v =

where

v~x =

v"cy

V~xVx
Vx

Vy

Vx

Vy

available concrete shear strength for calculation of shear


reinforcement for bending about x-axis
available concrete shear strength for calculation of shear
reinforcement for bending about y-axis.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns


Note:

161

To avoid shear cracking prior to ultimate limit state, modification of the


design concrete shear stress to account for direct
load should be according
I
to the following formula: v~ = vc[l + Nl(Acvc)P.

"-

...

Asb

'
-

..

Ash

SK 419 Shear reinforcement in


column section.

V~x = V~xbh'
V~y = V~yb'h

V:
sx

= 0.87fyvAs1zh'

Vsy =

0.87 fyvAsbb'
S

where fyv = characteristic yield strength of link reinforcement


A,,, = area of all legs of link reinforcement in one set resisting
shear due to bending about x-axis
Asb = area of all legs of link reinforcement in one set resisting
shear due to bending about y-axis
S = spacing of a set of link in the column.
Check

V,x : : : Vx -

V~

and

V,.v : : : Vy -

4.3.2 Circular columns

SK 4/10 Circular column - typical


section with minimum of six bars.

V~y

162

Reinforced Concrete
Step I

Analysis
Carry out analysis.

Step 2

Check slenderness of column


Find lei h, when h = diameter.
See Section 4.1. 7 for the determination of effective height le.

Note:

For short columns, the ratio lelh should be less than 15 for braced and 10
for unbraced.

Step 3 Determination of cover


Determine cover required to reinforcement, as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Step 4 Design of short columns
(I) No significant moment from analysis

Select reinforcement size and at least six bars.


Find Ac= 0.25 it h 2 -Ase
Find N = 0.4/cuAc + 0. 75Asc/y
Check N 2:: applied direct load
(2) Column supporting continuous beams or flat slab where analysis does not
allow for distribution of moment to the column

N = 0.35/cuAc + 0.67Ascfy

Find
Check

2::

applied direct load

(3) Column subjected to moment and direct load

Determine hslh corresponding to cover found in Step 3.


Find e = MIN and then el R, where R = radius of column.
Select appropriate table from Tables 11.18 to 11.27 corresponding to /cu
and h5 1h.
Calculate NIR 2
Find, from the appropriate table, the value of p which satisfies the calculated NI R 2 against the el R due to applied moment M.
Find Ase from p and use at least six bars.
Step 5

Design of slender columns


l~
a=--

2000h

Madd =

NaK

Combine this additional moment, Madd with the moments obtained from
analysis following the figures of Step 5 (Section 4.3.1), assuming K = 1 for
conservatism.
Otherwise

Nbal = 0.15/cuh 2

Nuz = 0.45/cuAc

0.87/yAsc

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns


K =

and

Nuz Nuz -

163

Nbal

which may be found by iteration using successive assumptions of Ase


Design the column for the combined moment M and direct load N following
Step 4.

Step 6 Biaxial moment and direct load


If biaxial moments are present by analysis on the column, combine these
two orthogonal moments by taking the square root of the sum of the
squares and then adding M add to the combined moment.
Design the column for the combined moment M and the direct load N
following Step 4. M = y'(M; + M~)
Step 7 Check shear stress
Find design shear forces Vx and Vv from analysis.
Find MIN, where M = y'(M~ + M~).
Find V= y'(v; + V~)
(I) If MIN ::s: 0.60h

VI0.75Aes0.8 Yfeus5Nlmm2
No shear check is necessary.

(2) If MIN > 0.60h, check shear stress

= - - ::S:
0.75Ac

0.8 Yfcu

5Nlmm2

50Asc
66. 7Ase
p=--=-0.75Ac
Ac
Assuming only 50% of the total reinforcement is effective in tension.
Find

Ve

corresponding top and /cu from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.

v~ =Ve+

If vs

v~,

0.6NVh
AM
c

no shear reinforcement is necessary.

When v > v~. find Ve= 0.75v.;Ac.


Vs= 0.87/yvAv(zlS) from truss analogy (see Section 1.6.1).
Find zlR from appropriate table from Tables 11.18 to 11.27 corresponding
to fem hslh, p, NIR 2 and e!R.

2As =Av
where fyv = characteristic yield strength of link reinforcement
As = area of the link reinforcement in the form of hoop
S = spacing of link.
Check

Vs 2: V - Ve

See note in Step 7 of Section 4.3.1

164 Reinforced Concrete

4.3.3 Rectangular and circular columns


Step 8 Minimum reinforcement
For rectangular and circular columns,
lOOAsc

--2".:

0.4

Ac

Step 9 Maximum reinforcement


For rectangular and circular columns,
lOOA,c s

vertically cast columns

Ac

lOOA,c

---s8

horizontally cast columns

Ac

at laps of columns

Step 10 Containment of reinforcement

Maximum yertical
spacing =12 ct2
4> =025 ct 1<!': 6mm

~I> ~2
SK 4/11 Typical arrangement of
bars in a column section.

Minimum diameter of links= 0.25 times largest bar diameter 2".: 6 mm


Maximum spacing of links = 12 times smallest diameter of bar
Typical arrangement of bars is shown in SK4/11.

Step 11

4.4

Check crack width (optional)


No checks are necessary if applied ultimate load 2".: 0.2fcuAc

WORKED EXAMPLES

Example 4.1

Design of a biaxially loaded slender column


The column is braced in the X- X direction, i.e. for bending about Y-Y
axis, and unbraced in the Y-Y direction, i.e. for bending about X- X
axis.
Size of column: 400 x 600
Clear height of column= 8 m.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

165

0
0

(Y")

x
0
0

(Y")

SK 4/12 Biaxially loaded column


section.

Beam size in the major direction = 400 x 500 at each floor.


Beam size in the minor direction = 300 x 350 at each floor.
Direct load on column = 2500 kN = N
Bending moment, Mx = 150 kNm
Vx = 150 kN
~v = 80 kN
Bending moment, My= 80 kNm
All columns are of same size at each floor level.
Step 1 Analysis
Not required.
Step 2 Check slenderness of column (see Tables 4.1 and 4.2)
Effective height, lex = 1.80 X / 0
= 1.80 x 8
= 14.4m for unbraced column

Assume end condition 2 at bottom and 3 at top for bending about x axis.
Effective height,

fey

= 1.0
=

X 8
8 m for braced column

Assume end condition 3 at both top and bottom for bending about y axis.
lex
-

14.4
0.6

= -- =

lcv
8.0
-'- = b
0.4

24 > 10 for unbraced

= 20

> 15 for braced

Hence the column should be designed as slender about both axes.


Step 3 Determination of cover
Grade of concrete = 40 N/mm 2
Exposure = moderate
Fire resistance = 2 hours
MSA=20mm
Minimum nominal cover= 30mm, from Tables 11.6 and 11.7
Diameter of link = 10 mm assumed
Diameter of main bars = 40 mm assumed

166 Reinforced Concrete


h' = h - cover - dia. of link - ~dia. of bar

= 600

- 30 - 10 - 20
540mm

b'

400 - 30 - 10 - 20
340mm

Step 4 Design of short columns


Not required.
Step 5 Design of slender columns
Assume lOOA,Jbh = 5
Ac = net concrete area = (1 - 0.05)bh = 0.95bh
Nuz = 0.45fcuAc + 0.87fyAsc
= (0.95 x 0.45 x 40 + 0.87 x 460 x 0.05) x 400 x 600 x 10- 3
= 8906kN
Nbal

= 0.25fcubh

= 0.25
=

x 40 x 400 x 600 x 10- 3


2400kN

8906 - 2500
8906 - 2400
0.98 for assumed 5% reinforcement

Nuz - N
K=---Nu, - Nbal
=

1 (lcx)
b hK
2000
2

ax=

14400 2
1
) x 600 x 0.98
- x (
600
2000

= -

= 169.3mm

ay

1
2000

(fev)
h bK
2

1
8000 2
- x (
) x 400 x 0.98
2000
400

= =

78.4mm

Maddx = NaxK
= 2500 x 0.1693
= 423kNm
Maddy= NayK
= 2500 x 0.0784
= 196kNm
Step 6 Biaxial moment and direct load
Mx = 150 + 423 = 573 kNm (see SK 4/6 - column free to rotate one end.)
My= 80 + 196

= 276kNm (see SK 4/5

- column free to rotate both ends.)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

167

-----------.-~

SK 4/13 Equivalent uniaxial


bending of columns.

Mx

h'

573
0.54

=-

My
b'

276

0.34

N
bhfcu
~

1061kN

= 812kN

-= -

-- =

2500 x 103
400 X 600 X 40

= 0.70

0.26

from table in Step 6 of Section 4.3.1.

Biaxial bending: Mxfh' > Mylb'

M~ =

Mx

= 573
=

~(h')Mv
b'
.

+ 0.70 x ( 534400) x 276

880kNm

h'
540
k = - = - = 0.90
h
600

h=

0.352
0.600 == 0.59
2500 x 103
400 x 600

N
bh

M
880
e == - == - - == 0.352m
N
2500

---- =

10.4N/mm 2

Select Table 11.12 for /cu==40N/mm 2 and k==0.90.


From Table 11.12: for e/h = 0.6 and p = 2.0, N/bh == 9.05, and for p
Nlbh = 10.95.
By linear interpolation, p == 2.69 for e/h = 0.59, and N/bh == 10.4.
2.69

Ase =

= 3.0,

x 400 x 600
100

== 6456mm2
Use 4 no. 32dia. bars on each face 400 wide (6434mm2).
See Step 5: revised Nuz == 6705 kN and corresponding K == 0.98; no change.

168

Reinforced Concrete
60

60

0
0

2-q, 20 (era.ck control)

<D

q, 8 links a.t 350 CIC

- - - + - - 4 - ~ 32

400

SK 4/14 Designed column section.

Step 7 Shear check


Mx
150
N
2500
= 0.06 m < 0.60h

My=~
N

2500
= 0.032 m < 0.60b
3

Vx
150 X 10
2
, I
2
=
= 0.69N/mm < 0.8vfcu < 5N/mm
bh'
400 x 540

Vv
b'h

80 x 103
- - - - = 0.39 N/mm 2
600 x 340

No shear check is necessary.

Step 8 Minimum reinforcement


Minimum reinforcement= 0.4%
Step 9 Maximum reinforcement
Maximum reinforcement = 6%

satisfied

satisfied

Step JO Containment of reinforcement


Minimum diameter of link = 0.25 x 32
= 8mm
Maximum spacing of links = 12 x smallest bar diameter
= 12 x 32 = 384 mm

Step 11 Check crack width


N = 2500 kN > 0.2fcuAc = 1920 kN
So no check necessary.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 169


Example 4.2 Design of a column with predominant moment about the major axis
Vx

rx

Mux

--~

II

I
SK 4/15 Column with moment
about X- X axis.

14

400=b

0
0

UJ

Rectangular section.

h=600mm b=400mm
Ultimate bending moment, Mux = 640 kNm
Ultimate direct load, Nu= 1280 kN
Ultimate shear force, Vx = 320 kN
Service bending moment, Msx = 400kNm
Service direct load, N 8 = 800 kN
Clear height of column = 4 m between floors
End condition (1) at both ends of column in both directions of bending.
Unbraced column in both directions of bending.
Step 1 Analysis
Not required.
Note:

Minimum eccentricity= 20 mm
Muy

= 20

X 1280kNmm
= 25.6kNm

By inspection this moment in isolation will not cause a more onerous


design than the predominant moment Mux
Step 2 Check slenderness of column (see Table 4.2)
Effective height, lex = 1.2 X 4 = 4.8 m
fey = 1.2 X 4 = 4.8 m
lex
4.8
-=-=8<10
h
0.6
fev

4.8
0.4

-.:... = b

= 12 > 10

The column is slender about minor axis.

170 Reinforced Concrete

Step 3 Determination of cover


Grade of concrete= 40N/mm2
Exposure = severe
Fire resistance = 2 hours
Maximum size of aggregates = 20 mm
Minimum nominal cover= 30 mm
Diameter of link = 10 mm assumed
Diameter of main bars = 25 mm assumed
d = h' = h - cover - dia. of link - ~dia. of bar
= 600 - 40 - 10 - 12.5
= 537.5mm
b' = 400 - 40 - 10 - 12.5
= 337.5mm

Step 4 Design of short columns


Not required.
Step 5 Design of slender columns
h

-=15<3
b
.
lex=8<20
h

Additional moment about minor axis can be ignored (see Table 4.3).
a
x

= _1_ (lex) 2hK


2000 b
2

1 x (4800) X600Xl
2000
400

(assume K = 1 for conservatism)

= 43.2mm
Maddx

Nax
= 1280 x 0.0432
= 55.3kNm

Mx = 640 + 55.3
= 695.3kNm

(see SK 416 - column restrained at both ends)

Design as a beam following Step 10 of Section 2.3.


Md= M

= 695.3

(~ - d1)

+ 1280

( ~6

- 0.0625)

= 999.3kNm
Md

999.3 x 106
40 X 400 X 537 .5 2

K = -- = -------

fcubd2

= 0.216 > 0.156

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns


Compression reinforcement is required.
z = 0.775d

= 444mm
( K - 0.156)fcubd2

AI =

-'-----~-'---

0.87fy(d - d')

(0.216 - 0.156) x 40 x 400 x 537.5 2


0.87 x 460 x (537.5 - 62.5)

1459mm2

A= (
s

0.156fcubd

0.87fyZ

x 40
= ( 0.1560.87
x

N
+A' - - s
0.87/y

x 400 x 537.52 )
(1280 x 103)
+ 1459 460 x 444
0.87 x 460

= 2319mm2
Use 3 no. 32mm dia. bars each face (2412mm 2)
Design by using Table 11.12.
e

= MIN=

=h=

h'

0.543

537.5
600

e/h

= 0.905

= 0.90

1280 x 103 _
2
400 x 600 - 5.33 N/mm

bh

From Table 11.12 by linear interpolation, p = 2%.


A SC

2 x 400 x 600
100

4800mm 2

Use 3 no. 32dia. bars on each face (2412mm2).


Note:

The two different design methods produce exactly the same result.

0
0

(0

SK 4/16 Designed column section.

3-32

171

172 Reinforced Concrete


Step 6 Biaxial moment and direct load
Not required.
Step 7 Check shear stress
Mx 640
-= = 0.5 > 0.60h = 0.36 m
N
1280

Shear check is required.


Vx

= -=

h'b
=

320 x 103
400 x 536
l.49N/mm 2 < 5N/mm2

h' = 600 - 40 - 8 - 16 = 536mm

lOOAs
p = --,;;;;-

100 x 2412
400 x 536
=

1.125

From Fig. 11.5,


Ve =

0.77N/mm2

320 x 103 x 600


640 x 106
= 0.30 < 1

Vh
M

v' = 0.77
e

0.60 x 1280 x 103 x 0.3


400 X 600

+ ----------

l.73N/mm2 > l.49N/mm2

No shear reinforcement is necessary.


To avoid shear cracks at ultimate load, use the following modification
formula:
v~ =Ve ( 1

)!

+ -NAeVe

1280 x 10
= 0.77 ( 1 + - - - - - 400 x 600 x 0.77
=

)!

2.167N/mm2 > l.73N/mm 2

This modified higher value of design concrete shear strength may not be
used.
Step 8 Minimum reinforcement
Minimum reinforcement= 0.4%

satisfied

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns


Step 9 Maximum reinforcement
Maximum reinforcement= 6%

173

satisfied

Step JO Containment of reinforcement


Minimum diameter of link = 0.25 x 32
= 8mm

Maximum spacing of links = 12 x dia. of bar


= 12 x 32
= 384mm > 350mm OK
Centre-to-centre spacing of bars = 136 mm< 150 mm
Central 32 mm diameter bar need not be restrained.
Use 2-legged links 8 mm diameter at 350 mm centres.

2-~20(anti-crack)

CD

,___--t-+-4>6 at 240 CIC

3- .. 32
~----+---~

SK 4/17 Final column section.

Step 11

Check crack width (optional)


As= A~ = 2412mm2
d = 536mm

Es
m = - = 10
Ee
d'

64mm

Service bending moment,

Msx =

400kNm

Service direct load, Ns = 800 kN


The formulae used below are for a triangular concrete stress block (see
Section 1.13.2).
Assume value of x = d/2 = 260mm, say.
First trial

q1

bx = 400 x 260 = 104000mm2

(See Section 1.13.2 for explanation of symbols.)

174

Reinforced Concrete

Js
STRESS
DIAGRAM

STRAIN
DIAGRAM

SK 4/18 Calculation of crack


width.

0.5q 1x + mA,d + (m - l)A~d'


q 1 + mA, + (m - l)A~
0.5 x 104000 x 260 + (10 x 2412 x 536) + (9 x 2412 x 64)
104000 + (10 x 2412) + (9 x 2412)

g=

185.8mm

M 400
e = - = = 0.5m = 500mm
N
800

g) +

e k1 = ( - d -

500 - 185.8)
536
1.586

= (
=

k = ;d (1 - ;J
2

k3

~~36)( 1 - 3 ~~36)

(2

0.203

= (m
=

- 1)( 1 -

~')

9(1 - 2~)

= 6.785

!o

~
k 2 bd

Nk,( d')
k3A~ 1 -

800 x 1Q3 x 1.586


0.203 x 400 x 536 + 6.785 x 2412 x ( 1 -

5~6)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 175

= 21.90 N/mm 2
f, = fc(0.5q, + k3A;) - N
As

21.90 x (0.5 x 104000 + 6.785 x 2412) - 800 x 103


2412

= 289.1N/mm2
d

Check: x = - - - 1

+(.A..)
mfc

536

=------

289.1

+ 10 x 21.9

= 231 mm

< 260 mm assumed

Second trial
Assume x = (260 + 231)/2 = 240mm
q1
g

say

= 96000mm
= 182.2mm
= 1.593
= 0.190

kr
k1
k3 = 6.60

fc = 23.27 N/mm 2

fs

= 285.0 N/mm 2

x = 240.8mm
Es =

fs

E.
Eh=

285
200 x lW

600 - 240)

= 1.733
Emh = Eh -

llc2

1.425

240 mm, hence OK

10-3

x 1.425 x 10-3

x 10- 3
b(h - x) 2
3EsAs(d - x)

1.733 x 10-3 -

= 1.612 x
ac1

e=:)Es

= ( 536 - 240

assumed x

400 x (600 - 240)2


3 x 200 x 1D3 x 2412 x (536 - 240)

10- 3

= \1(642 + 642)

= 74.5mm
2
2
= \1(64 + 68 )
= 77.4mm

16

16

176

Reinforced Concrete
acr = 77.4mm
Wcr = l

acr - Cmin )

h-x

3 x 77.4 x 1.612 x 10- 3


1
=

77.4 - 48)
+ 2 ( 600 - 240

0.32mm > 0.3mm

Crack width slightly exceeded and may be allowed.


Example 4.3 Design of a member with uniaxial moment and tension
Rectangular section.
Size: 600 mm x 400 mm
Ultimate direct load in tension = 250 kN
Ultimate bending moment, Mx = 250 kNm
Ultimate shear force, Vx = 250 kN
N = 250kN

ELEVATION

Vx

Mx

("\
I

y
400
SECTION

Step 1 Analysis
Not required.

SK 4/19 Member subject to


uniaxial bending and tension.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 177


Step 2 Check slenderness of member
Not required.
Step 3 Determination of cover
Grade of concrete= 40N/mm2
Exposure = moderate
Fire resistance required = 1 hour
Maximum size of aggregates = 20 mm
Minimum nominal cover = 30 mm from Tables 11.6 and 11. 7
Diameter of link = 10 mm assumed
Diameter of main bar = 40 mm assumed
h' = h - cover - dia. of link - !dia. of bar
= 600 - 30 - 10 - 20
= 540mm
b' = 400 - 30 - 10 - 20
= 340mm
Step 4 Design of short columns
Method I

Design as RC beam (see Step 10 of Section 2.3)


rb-400.
-,----,,----

II

"'O

ID

.J:.

II

SK 4/20 Design of column section.

Mx = 250kNm
N = -250kN

Md

= Mx

NG - di)

= 250 - 250. x (0.3 - 0.06)


= 190kNm
K =

Md =
190 x 10
fcubd 2
40 X 400 X 54a2

= 0.04 < 0.156

z=

h'[o.5 +

no compressive reinforcement

j(o.25 - 0~)]

1~d'=60

178 Reinforced Concrete

= 540[ o.5 +

J(

~~) J ~ o.95d

0.25 -

= 0.95 x 540 = 513mm


M
N

A=--+-0.87fyZ

0.87/y

190 x 106
0.87 x 513 x 460

-------+
=

250 x 103
0.87 x 460

1550mm2

Use 2 no. 32 dia. (1608 mm 2) bars on each short face.


Method 2 Simple steel beam theory

SK 4/21 Design by steel beam


theory.

(1) Assume compression and tension steel in equal amount to form a


couple to resist the moment.
(2) Assume axial tension carried equally by steel on compression and
tension side.
Lever arm of steel (centre-to-centre distance)= a= h' -60 = 480mm
Steel required for bending moment =

0.87/ya
x 106
- -250
---0.87 x 460 x 480

1301mm 2

0.5N
Steel required for axial tension on each face = - 0.87 fy
o.5 x 250 x 1D3
0.87 x 460
=

312mm2

Total steel required on each face= 1301 + 312 = 1613 mm 2


Again, 2 no. 32dia. (1608mm 2) on each face will be adequate.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

179

SK 4/22 Designed concrete


section.

Note:

Step 5

Both methods produce the same result but Method 2 is very conservative
usually.
Design of slender columns
Not required.

Step 6 Biaxial bending and direct load


Not required.
Step 7 Check shear stress

Vx

250 x 1a3

h'b

540 x 400

v=-=

= l.16N/mm 2 <
lOOAs

p=--=
=

100 x 1608
540

bh'

5N/mm2

x 400

0.74%

From Fig. 11.5,


Ve =

0.67N/mm2

, _
Ve -

Vh
M
v~

0.6NVh
Ve+ - - -

AeM

250 x 103 x 600

- - - - -6 - = 0.60 <
250 x 10

= 0.67

0.6 x 0.6 x 250 x 1a3


- --------400 x 600

= 0.295N/mm2 < l.16N/mm2


Note:

N is -ve in tension.

Shear reinforcement is required.


V~

= 0.295

x 540 x 400 x 10-3

= 63.7kN

180 Reinforced Concrete


Assume 8mm diameter links (fy =460N/mm 2 ) at lOOmm centres.

v.s = 0.87/yvAshh'
s

-~---

10- 3 x (0.87 x 460 x 100 x 540)


100

V, > V -

V~

=2~kN

= 250 - 63.7 = 186.3kN okay

Step 8 Minimum reinforcement


Minimum reinforcement= 0.4%
Reinforcement provide = 3216 mm 2
3216 x 100
400 x 600
= 1.34%

okay

Step 9 Maximum reinforcement


Maximum reinforcement= 6% satisfied
Step 10 Containment of reinforcement
Minimum diameter of link = 0.25 x 32 = 8 mm

satisfied

Maximum spacing of links = 12 x dia. of bar


12 x 32 = 384 mm

satisfied

Step 11

Check crack width

54
1

292
1

ID
II

"ti

d'=54

f,

p~

in

!~4,

x-
2-+J2

As

::E

140

11

tll

Eh
STRESS
STRAIN
llAGRAM DIAGRAM

SK 4/23 Crack width calculations.

Service bending moment= 160 kNm


Service tension= 160kN
Assume depth of neutral axis x = h/2 = 300 mm

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

181

The formulae used below assume a triangular concrete stress block (see
Section 1.13.2).
Assume eccentricity e from centre of stressed area, i.e. at g from extreme
compressive fibre.
First trial

M
N

=- =

d' = 30

160 x HY
160

+ 8 + 16

1000 mm

54 mm

d = 600 - 30 - 8 - 16 = 546mm

300
546

- =d

A.
qi

= 0.55

= A~ = 1608 mm2
= bx = 400 x 300 = 12 x 104 mm2
Es

m = - = 10
Ee

g=
=

k1

0.5q1x

mA 5 d

(m - l)A~d'

q 1 + mA 5 + (m 183mm

(e ~ g) -

1.167

k1 = ;d

l)A~

(1 - ;J

= 0.224

k3 = (m - 1)( 1 -

~)

= 7.38
f.,

~
k1bd
=

Nk,( d')

k 3 A~ 1 -

3.13N/mm 2

f, = fc(0.5q1 + k3A~) + N
s

As

= 239.4N/mm2
d

Check x = - - - -

1+

(~)
mfc

= 62.8 mm <

300 mm assumed

182

Reinforced Concrete
Second trial

Assume x = 130 mm
q 1 = 52000mm 2
g = 157mm

k, = 1.119
k2 = 0.11
k3 = 5.26

le= 5.66N/mm2
= 221 N/mm 2

ls

near enough to 130 mm

x = lllmm

No more trials are required.


Tension in steel= 221 N/mm 2
x = 115mm

say

I,

221

= -

E,

Eh

200 x 103

= 1.105 x 10- 3

(;=:)ts

= (600 - 115) x 1.105 x 10-3


546 - 115
= 1.243 x 10- 3
b(h

mh -

x)2

3EsAs(d - x)

= 1.016 x 10- 3
acr = \!(542 + 1462 )
= 140mm
Wcr =

l + 2 (acr - Cmin
h-x

16

= 0.29mm < 0.3mm OK


Step 12 Spacing of bars (required for members in tension)
See Step 24 of Section 2.3.

MSA+5=25mm
Dia. of bar= 32 mm
Clear distance between bars= 260 mm> 32 mm OK
Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension :s 47 000/Is :s 300 mm

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 183

ls= 221 N/mm2

from Step 10.

Maximum spacing:::::: 47 000/221 :::::: 213 mm


Note:

Actual clear spacing is 260mm which does not satisfy this condition. Since
crack width calculations show that the crack of 0.3 mm may not be exceeded,
this spacing of bars need not be changed.

Example 4.4 Design of a member with biaxial moment and tension

v 200

200

~~---

..,00

Mx

Vy

0
0

..,

,My

SK 4/24 Section subject to biaxial


bending and tension.

Rectangular section.
Size: 600 mm x 400 mm
Ultimate direct load in tension = 250 kN
Ultimate bending moment, Mx = 250kNm
Ultimate bending moment, My= 150kNm
Ultimate shear force, Vx = 250 kN
Ultimate shear force,

~v =

150kN

Step 1 Analysis
Not required.
Step 2 Check slenderness of member
Not required because the member is in tension.
Step 3 Determination of cover
Grade of concrete = 40 N/mm 2
Exposure = moderate
Fire resistance required = 1 hour
Maximum size of aggregates = 20 mm
Minimum nominal cover = 30 mm
from Tables 11.6 and 11. 7
Diameter of link = 10 mm assumed
Diameter of main bar = 40 mm assumed

184 Reinforced Concrete


h' = h - cover - dia. of link - 1dia. of bar
= 600 - 30 - 10 - 20
= 540mm

b' = 400 - 30 - 10 - 20
= 340mm
Step 4 Design of short columns
Not required.
Step 5 Design of slender columns
Not required.

d'

SK 4/25 Design as steel beam with


transferred tension.

Step 6 Biaxial bending and direct load


Method 1 Design as steel beam with transfe"ed tension

Mx
N

-250kN

M'x

250kNm

Mx - N('!:_2 -

250 - 250(0.3 - 0.06)


190kNm

= My
=
=

Note:

d')

M'y

(tension)

N(~2 - d')

150 - 250(0.2 - 0.6)


115kNm

This operation means that the tension (250kN) has been transferred to
one corner of the rectangular section.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 185


Taking the steel beam approach, assume that the lever arm to resist
bending moment about each axis is the distance between the centre of
steel reinforcement on each face.

N= 250kN

rE---
- (CJ+

XD--~

M' -190kNm

3x330

-+-

JxJJO
(T)

L3x342

Jx342j
ITI

Astx

ICI

Asty

0
H/OB7fy

As

SK 4/26 Design as steel beam with transferred tension.

ax = 600 - 2 X 60 = 480 mm
ay = 400 - 2 x 60 = 280 mm
A

tx

M'

0.87/yax

190 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 480

= 989mm2
Assume 3 no. bars of 330 mm2 each on each short face.
Astv =

M'
y

0.87/yay
115 x 106

0.87 x 460 x 280


= 1026mm2
Assume 3 no. bars of 342 mm 2 each on each long face.
Area of bar required at a corner of the member due to the transferred
tension
N

0.87/y
250 x HP
----=625mm2
0.87 x 460
Total area of bar required in one corner = 330 + 342 + 625
= 1297mm2

186 Reinforced Concrete


One no. 40 diameter bar at each corner (1257 mm 2 ) with 1 no. 25 diameter
bar at the centre of each face (491 mm 2 each bar) will be adequate because
491 mm 2 is greater than 330 mm 2 or 342 mm 2 found before.
Method 2 Design as steel beam without transfe"ed tension

m"'l._1.$
t:.;y=lSOkNm

Jxl~~4m2E-~~ +
Mx AkNm

3xf?,4m2

+! '

. I .

ITI

Astx

I i 1r~ 4461t-----1]
+ +446
. .
. .
m+--_.N~ ---;-"
!Tl

8 ~

1-lru

3x446m2T

- L3x446m2

;!

ICI

Asty

ii!~~

Ht0871y

As

SK 4/27 Design as steel beam without transferred tension.

ax= 480mm

as before

280mm

as before

ay =

Mx
A1.x=--s
0.87/yax
250 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 480
=

1301mm 2

Assume 3 no. bars of 434 mm 2 each on each short face.


Astv =

Mv
0.87/yay
150 x 106
0.87 x 460 x 280
1338.5mm 2

Assume 3 no. bars of 446mm2 each on each long face.


Area of steel required for tension = 625 mm 2 as before
This area can be divided over the total number of 4 no. corner bars in the
member. Hence, use 4 no. bars of 156mm2 each.
Area of comer bars

434 + 446 + 156


= 1036mm2
(use 40mm dia. bars = 1257mm2 )

The arrangement of reinforcement is exactly the same as before. Use 4 no.


40mm dia. bars in the corners and 1 no. 25mm dia. bar at the centre of
each face because 1 no. 25 mm bar equal to 491 mm 2 is bigger than
434 mm 2 or 446 mm2 found before.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

t-40

+-40

t-40

in

Reinforcement required for Mx only.


250kNm

= 540mm
fcu = 40N/mm2
d

K = - - 2=
fcubd
40

250 x 106
X

400

540 2

d[o.5 + J(o.25 - 0~9 ) J

d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

= 0.05

~~) J

= 0.94d = 508mm
M
250 x 106
- --- - ------- 0.87 fyZ - 0.87 X 460 X 508

A
st

1230mm2

Reinforcement required for My only

My= 150kNm
d

= 340mm

z=
A

150 x 106
40

0.94d

st -

600

340 2

= 0.05

320mm

150 x 106
0.87 X 460 X 320

1171mm 2

Area of steel required for tension only

t-40
t-25

Method 3 Interaction curve method


(See Reference 13.)

Mx

------.--

+-25

SK 4128 Section designed by


Methods 1 and 2.

= ___!!__ = 625 mm 2
0.87/y

187

188 Reinforced Concrete


Total reinforcement requirement= 2 x (1230 + 1171) + 625 = 5427 mm 2
Try 1 no. 32 mm dia. bar at each corner and 1 no. 25 mm dia. bar at centre
of each side.
Total As = 5180 mm 2
PN = applied ultimate tension = 250 kN
P0 = capacity of section in tension alone

= As(0.87/y)
= 5180 x 0.87 x 460 x 10- 3
= 2073kN
Mux

= ultimate moment in x direction = 250kNm

Mpx

= ultimate moment capacity in x direction when tension and


are zero

Asx = 2 no. <j> 32


= 2099mm 2

+ 1 no.

My

<j> 25

(see Section 1.5.1)

Compression in concrete = tension in steel


or 0.402fcubx = 0.87/yAs
or x = 0.87 fyAs
0.402/cub
0.87 x 460 x 2099
0.402 x 40 x 400
= 130 mm < 0.5d = 270 mm OK

z=

d - 0.45x = 540 - 0.45


Mpx

Muy

x 130 = 481.5 mm

= 0.87/yAsz = 0.87 X 460


= 404kNm

2099

481.5

10-6

= ultimate moment in y direction = 150kNm

Mpy =

ultimate moment capacity in y direction when tension and


are zero

A sy = 2099mm2

x=

0.87 x 460 x 2099


- - - - - - - = 87mm < d/2 = 170mm OK
0.402 x 40 x 600

0.87/yAs
0.402/cuh

z=

d - 0.45x = 340 - 0.45

Mpy

= 0.87/yAsz

x 87 = 301 mm

0.87

1.5

+ (Muy) 1.5

460

2099 x 301

10-6 = 252.6kNm

Unity equation
PN

Po

or

250
2073

(Mux)
Mpx

:S

+ (250) 1. + ( 150 ) 1.
404

Mpy

252.6

1.065 > 1

unacceptable

Mx

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns

189

Increase reinforcement to 8 no. 32 dia. bars instead of 4 no. 32 dia. and


4 no. 25dia. No more checking is necessary.
Area provided by this method is 6432 mm 2 compared with 6992 mm 2 by
the other two methods. This gives an 8% saving in reinforcement when the
interaction formula is used. The interaction formula is not yet codified.
The exponential changes from 1.5 for rectangular sections to 1. 75 for
square sections.

J-+32
0

2-+J2
J-t32

SK 4129 Section designed by


interaction curve.

Step 7 Check shear stress


Following ACI 318 - M83, Clause 11.3.2.3,[41 members subject to
significant axial tension have a concrete shear resistance given by:

= 0.11( 1 -

Vex

= 0.17 x

0.3

(1 -

::)vnbd

0.3 x 250 x 103)


x \/(0.8 x 40) x 400 x 540 x 10- 3
400 x 600

142.8kN

Similarly,
Vev
.

= 0.17
=

0.3 x 250 x 103 )


400 x 600

(1 -

\/(32)

600

340

10- 3

134.9kN

<j> Vex = 0.85 X 142.8 = 121.4kN < Vux = 250kN


<j> Vey = 0.85 x 134.9 = 114.7kN < Vuy = 150kN

Shear reinforcement required for both orthogonal directions of shear.


It is assumed that concrete shear resistance will be effective in the x

direction only. In the y direction the total shear force will be carried by
shear reinforcement.
Assume Svx

= Svy

100 mm

Vsx "'= V ux - <j> Vex = 250 - 121.4 = 128.6 kN

A
SVX

VsxSvx
0.85fyd

190 Reinforced Concrete


128.6 x 103 x 100
0.85 x 400 x 540
= 70mm 2

V,_v

2: Vuy

= 150 kN

V,_vSv_v
0.85/yd

svy

150 x 103 x 100


0.85 x 400 x 340
= 130mm2
Asv is the larger of Asvx and Asvv, i.e. 130 mm 2 at 100 mm spacing or
(Asvf Sv) = 1.3
.
Use lOmm dia. links at 120mm centres (A 5vlSv

1.30).

Note: ACI 318[4] restricts stress in shear reinforcement to a maximum of


400N/mm2
Design of Shear reinforcement using BS 8110: Part 1: 1985.llJ
Vx
250 x 103
v = - =
= l.14N/mm 2
x
bh'
400 x 540
Asx

= 3 no. 32dia. bar= 2412mm2

lOOAsx
100 X 2412
Px = ----,.;;;-- = 400 x 540 = l. l 2
Vex=

Asy

0.76N/mm 2

from Fig. 11.5

= 3 no. 32dia. bar= 2412mm2

100A 5 v 100 X 2412


P.v = --;;:;:-- = 340 x 600 = 1.l 8
Vey=

0.82N/mm 2

Vv
150 x 103
v =-'- =
= 0.74N/mm 2
y
bd
600 x 340

Modify
, -

Vex -

Vex

Vex

and

Vey

to take into account axial tension.

+ (0.6NVxh)
AeMx

Vxh = 0.6 < 1


Mx
3

- (0.6 x 250 x 10 x 0.6)


0 76
400 x 600
-
= 0.385N/mm 2
V~y = Vey

Vvb

--- =

My

0.4 < 1

Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 191

= 0.82 - (

0.6 x 250 x 103 x 0.4)


400 x 600

= 0.57N/mm2
0.385 x 1.14
1.14 + 0.74

v"ex

= 0.23N/mm 2
v'.' = V~yVy
cy Vx + Vy

0.57 X 0.74
1.14 + 0.74

= 0.22N/mm2
V~x = V~xbh' = 0.23 X 400 X 540 X 10- 3 = 49.7kN
V~y = V~yb'h = 0.22 x 340 x 600 x 10- 3 = 44.9kN

Assume lOmm dia. bar (/y = 460N/mm2) used as links at a spacing of


150mm. Area of two legs is 157mm2
0.87fyvAshh'
Vsx =

0.87 x 460 x 157 x 540 x 10- 3


= 226.2 kN
150
0.87fyvAsbb'
S

Vsy =

0.87 x 460 x 157 x 340 x 10- 3


= 142.4kN
150
Check:

Vsx:::: Vx- V~x = 250-49.7 = 200.3kN <226.2kN

Vsy:::: V'_v Note:

V~y

OK
= 150- 44.9 = 105.1kN<142.4kN OK

Slightly less shear reinforcement required when designed to BS 8110:


Part 1: 1985.lll

Step 8 Minimum reinforcement


Reinforcement provided= 6432mm2 = 2.68% > 0.4%
Step 9 Maximum reinforcement
Maximum reinforcement= 6% not exceeded.
Step JO Containment of reinforcement
All reinforcement in tension. Containment rules do not apply.
Rules for minimum shear reinforcement in beams, as in Section 2.3 Step
13, should apply.

Asv
0.4b
. .
Mm1mum - = - - Sv

0.87fyv

0.4 x 600
157
- - - - = 0.6 < = 1.04 OK
0.87 x 460
150

192 Reinforced Concrete


Step 11

Check spacing of bars for crack width


See Section 2.3, Step 24.

MSA=20mm
Dia. of bar= 32 mm
Minimum clear distance between bars = 112 mm > 32 mm
Maximum clear distance between bars= 212 mm with 3 no. 32 dia. on the
long side
.
5
Service stress, fs = Sfy
=

85 x

assumed
460 = 287.5N/mm 2

Maximum allowable clear spacing =

47000
. = 163 mm < 212 mm
287 5

provided

This means that to reduce the probability of the crack width exceeding
0.3mm, 4 bars should be used on the long face, i.e. 2 no. 32dia. and 2 no.
25 dia. (total 6 no. 32 dia. and 4 no. 25 dia. in the member).

--+---6-::m:~-+ 3 - ~ 32

-+is

2-+2S
i----~...i--+--

+10 at 150 etc

3-+32

SK 4/30 Final designed section.

Chapter 5

Design of Corbels and Nibs

5.0 NOTATION
av
av

A,
Ash

b
d
db

f,
fy

!cu
Fe

F1
Fbt

M
p

r
Sh
T

v
Ve

v~

V
x

z
~
5

<j>

5.1
5.1.l

Distance from centre of load to nearest face of column for a corbel


Distance from free edge of nib to nearest link in beam
Area of steel reinforcement in tension to resist bending
Area of horizontal steel reinforcement to resist shear in corbel
Width of corbel
Effective depth from bottom of corbel to centre of tensile
reinforcement
Depth of corbel at edge of loaded area
Tensile stress in steel
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Concrete strut force in compression
Steel tensile force
Tensile force in reinforcement at start of a bend
Overall depth of corbel
Applied moment on a section
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Internal radius of a bend in a bar
Spacing of horizontal links in a corbel
Tension force applied to corbel along with vertical load
Shear stress in concrete (N/mm2 )
Design shear stress in concrete (N/mm 2)
Modified design shear stress to account for av
Vertical load on corbel
Distance of neutral axis from bottom of corbel
Depth of lever arm
Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in a corbel
Strain in steel reinforcement
Diameter of reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a group of bars

LOAD COMBINATIONS
General rules

See Section 2.2.1.

193

194

Reinforced Concrete

5.1.2 Exceptional loads

See Section 2.2.4.

5.2 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR CORBELS


Step I

Determine ultimate loads on the corbel


Follow load combination rules of Section 2.2.

Step 2 Determination of corbel geometry

Outside edge of bearing


to be kept clear of bend in
main reinforcement {minimum
clearance = 1 bar diameter l

.c

""CJ

SK 5/1 Corbel geometry.

Bar welded to
main bar

hy< OSh.
SK 5/2 Alternative corbel
geometry.

Check the following:


(1) Bearing stress on concrete under bearing plate~ 0.8/cu
(2) Distance from end of loaded area to face of corbel should be as
shown.
(3) Depth at root of corbel should be such that shear stress VI bd is less
than 0.8y/cu or 5 N/mm 2 , whichever is the lesser.

Design of Corbels and Nibs

195

(4) Depth at outer edge of loaded area should be at least half the depth at
the root.
(5) If av is greater than d, the corbel should be designed as a cantilever
beam.
Step 3

Evaluation of internal fore es

FORCE DIAGRAM
STRAIN DIAGRAM
b= WIDTH OF CORBEL

SK 5/3 Strut and tie diagram of a


reinforced concrete corbel.

STRESS DIAGRAM

Draw strut and tie diagram as shown and find the following parameters.

v =bd

Find vlfcu and avid.


Find z/d from Fig. 5.1.
Find z and x = (d- z)/0.45
Find F1 = T+ Vavfz
F1 = tension in steel reinforcement
T= applied horizontal load along with V
z = depth of lever arm; x = depth of neutral axis
F1

0.5V

0.87/y

0.87/y

0.87/y

As=--~--+--

Alternatively,

0.67/cu)
Fe= ( - - b 0.9xcosl) = 0.402/cubxcosl)
1.5
V = Fcsinl)
z

=d

- 0.45x

By iteration, find x after assuming x in first trial. With final value of x, find
z and F1 From F1 , find A 5

196 Reinforced Concrete


Step 4 Check ~hear
lOOA,
p=-bd

Find

Ve

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5 and multiply by 2dlav to get

v~

for corbel.

If v < v;, provide nominal shear reinforcement

Nominal reinforcement area= O.SA,


A, is obtained in Step 3. Provide nominal links in upper two-thirds of
effective depth d.

If v > v;, design shear reinforcement

Ash (Area of all legs of I in ks)

SK 5/4 Typical reinforcement


arrangement in a corbel.

Ash ;:::

bSh(v - vc)
0.87fy

Provide Ash in upper two-thirds of d at a spacing of Sh.


Note:

Total area of all legs of links in a vertical plane should be more than or
equal to O.SA,.

Step 5 Minimum tension reinforcement


A,;:::0.004bh

Step 6 Maximum tension reinforcement


A, :s 0.040bh
Step 7 Check bearing stress inside bend
The following must be satisfied:

bearing stress = Fb1r<j> :s

2fcu

--~--

1+ 2(!)

See step 22 of Section 2.3 for notation

Design of Corbels and Nibs

197

Residual tension in steel at bend.


llti2 Ob)

SK 515 Bearing stress inside bend.

CHOOSE SMALLEST ab

SECTION 1- 1

Step 8 Spacing of bars


Minimum clear spacing horizontally= MSA + 5 ~ dia. of bar

where MSA = maximum size of aggregate.


M"mtmum
.
. verhca
. ll y
clear spacmg

2 MSA
= -3

.
.
.
.
47000
Maximum clear spacmg of bars m tension ::::: - - ::::: 300

f,

f, = service stress in bar


5.3 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR NIBS

Vertical wa 11
reinforcement

SK 516 Typical arrangement of


nibs.

NIB FROM WALL

NIB FROM BEAM

Step 1 Determine cover to reinforcement


Determine cover required to reinforcement as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Step 2 Determine uUimate loads on nib
Follow load combination rules of Section 2.2.

198 Reinforced Concrete


Step 3 Determine nib geometry
(1) Bearing stress under load :s 0.4fcu
:s0.6fcu

for dry bearing


for bedded bearing.

(2) Find effective bearing length which is the least of:


(a) bearing length
(b) one-half of bearing length plus 100 mm
(c) 600mm.
.

(3) Fmd net bearmg width =

design ultimate support reaction


(effective bearing length) x 0.4/cu

40 mm

(4) Find allowance for spalling, as per Tables 5.1 and 5.2.
(5) Find allowance for inaccuracies, as per Table 5.3.
(6) Nominal bearing width= (net bearing width)+ (allowances for
spalling) + (allowances for inaccuracies)
(7) Nib projection= (nominal bearing width)+ 25 mm
Allow chamfer minimum 15 mm.
(8) Overall depth of nib should be less than 300 mm.
(9) Select diameter of reinforcement and find

Net bearin

S allin allowance
for slab
Constructional
inaccuracy of slab

S allih
for nib

av

and d.

width

allowance

Slab
Theoretical I ine
of nib
Theoretical bearin
width
Nib

Wall

..I I..

Constructional
inaccuracy of wal I

Step 4 Design of nib


M = Vav
V = ultimate load per metre

M
K=--

bd2fcu

b = 1 metre

SK 517 Typical calculation for net


bearing width of nib.

Design of Corbels and Nibs

z = d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

0~9)]

199

s 0.95d

M
As = - - - per metre
0.87fyZ
Step 5 Determine minimum reinforcement
Minimum reinforcement= 0.0013bh
Step 6 Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum allowable spacing= 3 x (effective depth)+ (diameter of bar) s
750mm
47000

Clear spacing s - - s 300 mm

f.

where Is= service stress.


Step 7 Check shear
V = ultimate load per metre

v=-

bd

b = 1 metre

lOOAs

p=--

bd

Find

Ve

Fmd v~

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.

(2d)
llv

Ve

Check that v s

v~

If not, increase depth of nib.

Note: If tensile reinforcement found in Step 3 is kept straight and exposed at


end, shear stress v should be less than v~/2.
Step 8 Extra vertical rein/orcement in beam

Asv = I'
per metre length of beam
0 .87,y
Step 9 Isolated loads on continuous nib
To find effective width of load dispersal, assume a 45 angle of line of
failure crack as shown.
le = effective width for isolated load on continuous nibs

200

Reinforced Concrete

la
b

2 la +b = le

la

Wall

SK 5/8 Plan of wall and nib


showing effective length of nib for
a line load of width b.

,q.

.- f>.'

~ :D

C>

..
~

.,..

.,,

le= 2la+ 2b+s

~_,,.,:,

....

----- .
Wall

.~ .~:.
~

;. ,

5.4

'

.
..

Nib

SK 519 Plan of wall and nib


showing effective length with
multiple line loads.

WORKED EXAMPLES

Example 5.1

Design of a corbel

SK 5/10 Elevation of corbel.

Step 1 Determine ultimate loads on the corbel


Ultimate vertical load = V = 800 kN
Ultimate horizontal load = T = 80 kN

Design of Corbels and Nibs 201


(Ignore small eccentricity of horizontal load from tension steel.)
Line of action of load at 400 mm from face of column.
Size of column = 600 mm x 400 mm
Corbel about the major axis of column.
Width of corbel = 400 mm
Step 2 Determination of corbel geometry
/cu= 40N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm 2

Minimum cover to reinforcement = 30 mm


Assumed diameter of main reinforcement = 32 mm
Assumed diameter of horizontal links = 10 mm
Bearing plate used.
Maximum bearing stress= 0.8/cu = 32N/mm2
Length of bearing plate = 300 mm
Minimum bearing width =

32

300

800 x 103
x
= 83 mm
32
300

Actual width of bearing plate = 100 mm = lw > 83 mm


I = length of corbel = av

OK

+ ~ lw + length of bend of bar + min. cover +

dia. of link + min. cover


= 400 + 50 + 5 x 32 + 30
= 680 mm say 700 mm

+ 10 + 30

Use h = 750mm at column face.


d = 750 - 30 - 16 = 704 mm

Maximum allowable shear stress at column face= 5 N/mm 2

d>-=

5b

800 x 103

x 400

=400mm

= bd
=

800
400

1Q3

x 704

, I

= 2.84N/mm < 0.8v'fcu = 5.05N/mm

Step 3 Evaluation of forces


First trial
From strut and tie diagram (Step 3 in Section 5.2),

202 Reinforced Concrete

Fi

Fe cos 13

Vav

=-

0.67/cu)

Fe= ( - - b 0.9xcosl3 = 0.402/cubxcosl3


1.5

V = Fe sin 13

z = d - 0.45x
Assume x = 0.4d= 282mm, say.

z = d - 0.45x
=

704 - (0.45 x 282)

= 577mm
av
400
cotj3 = - = = 0.6932
z 577

cos 13 = 0.5697

sin 13 = 0.8218
Fe

v
= 7[.i = 973.5 kN
SIIlp

Fe

x=----0 .402/cub COS 13


973.5 x HP
0.402 x 40 x 400 x 0.5697
= 265.7mm
Second trial
x = 265mm

z = 584.7mm
cot 13 = 0.6841
sin 13 = 0.8254
cos 13 = 0.5646
Fe= 969.2kN

x = 266.9mm OK
Final

z = 585 mm
Vav

Fi=-+ T

103 x
= ( 800 x 585
Es

400) + 80 x 10

704 - 265)
265
3
= 5.798 x 10- > 0.002
= 0.0035

= 627 x

103 N

Design of Corbels and Nibs 203


So the steel will be at the yield stress level

fy = 460 N/mm 2
F
As=--~
1

0.5V)
-

0.87 fy

0.87 fy

+ ( -T-)
0.87 fy

= 1200mm 2

627 x Hf
0.87 x 460
1567 mm 2 > 1200 mm2 OK

Use 2 no. 32dia. bars as main tension reinforcement (1608mm2 ).


Alternatively by use of the chart in Fig. 5.1,
2.84
40

v
fcu

=-

av

400

704

- =-

= 0.071

= 0.568

From Fig. 5.1,

~ = 0.83
d

z=
Note:

704 X 0.83

584mm

The chart gives the same z as is obtained by iteration. Having found z


from the chart, find F1 and A.

Step 4 Check shear


lOOA.

p=-bd

100 x 1608
400 x 704
0.57

From Fig. 11.5,


Ve=

0.608 N/mm2
2d)

2 x 704 x 0.608
= 2 . 14N/mm2 < 2 .84N/mm2
400

v'c=a( -v e
v =

Shear reinforcement is required.


Horizontal links are provided. Assume Sh = 200 mm.
v~)

bSh(v -

Ash ~

0.87fy

400 x 200 x (2.84 - 2.14)


0.87 x 460

140mm2

Required: 2-legged 10 mm diameter links at 200 centres for the upper twothirds of d.

-d
3

= -

x 704

470 mm

204 Reinforced Concrete


Required: 3 sets of links of 10 mm diameter at 200 mm centres.
Total area of legs= 471mm 2 <0.5 x 1567 = 783.5 mm2
Main tension steel required= 1567 mm 2
Use 5 sets of links lOmm diameter at 100 mm centres (785 mm 2).

232
5 10 LINKS

100
100
100
100

100
250
SK 5/11 Elevation of designed
corbel.

Step 5 Minimum tension reinforcement


A,> 0.004bh = 1200 mm 2
satisfied
Step 6 Maximum tension reinforcement
A, < 0. 040bh = 12 000 mm2

Not exceeded.
Step 7 Check bearing stress inside bend

88

72

SIDE

ELEVATION

32

~
FRONT ELEVATION

SK 5/12 Bearing stress inside


bend.

Design of Corbels and Nibs 205

Fi
) ( As req )
( no. of bars As prov
627
1567
=-x-2
1608

Fb1=

= 305.5kN
Ultimate anchorage bond stress

fbu

= 0.5 V!cu
(for Type 2 deformed bar as obtained from Table 3.28
of BS 8110: Part 1)

2
= 0.5Y40 = 3.16N/mm
.

Fb1

Anchorage bond length required = - rc<j>fbu

305.5 x HY
l't x 32 x 3.16
=

962mm

In the column, the straight length of bar before start of bend is taken as
approximately equal to 350 mm which is say one-third of the required
anchorage length. Hence

.
.
2
Tension m bar at start of bend = 3

Fbi

2
x 305.5
3

= -

203.7kN

r = internal radius of bend


= 4 x 32 (minimum)
= 128 mm standard
<j> = 32mm
ab

= cover + bar diameter for corner bar


= 72 + 32 = 104mm

Centre-to-centre distance of bars = 224 mm > 104 mm


:.

= 104mm

ab

Fbt

- =
r<j>

203.7 x HY
128 x 32

2/cu
1+

(~~)

= 49.73N/mm2

2 x 40
- - - - - = 49.52N/mm 2 < 49.73N/mm 2
1 + 2(::4)

Standard radius bend will be adequate.


Calculation of anchorage bond length:
Anchorage value standard bend= 12 x 32 = 384 mm
straight)
Straight before bend = 350 mm

(includes 4 diameter

206 Reinforced Concrete


Bar should project vertically into column after standard bend by minimum of

+ (4 x 32) = 356mm

962 - 384 - 350

Step 8 Spacing of bars


Minimum horizontal spacing = 20 + 5 = 25 mm
47 OOO
.
. o f bars m
. tension
. < Max1mum
cIear spacmg
- < 300

ls

ls

= service stress
= 226.4N/mm2

(from crack width calculations in Step 9)

47000
47000
- - = - - = 208mm
ls
226.4
Actual clear spacing= 224 - 32 = 192 mm< 208 mm OK
Clear distance between the corner of corbel and the nearest tension bar
should not be greater than 80mm as per clause 3.12.11.2.5 of BS8110:
Part 1: 1985. Actual clear distance is 72mm.

Note:

No crack width calculation is required if maximum spacing of bars in


tension does not exceed the recommendations of clause 3.12.11.2 of
BS 8110: Part 1.

Step 9 Crack width calculations


Note:

This step is optional and is included to show the method of calculation of


crack width for a corbel.

END ELEVATION

OF CORBEL

STRAIN DIAGRAM

SK 5/13 Crack width calculations.

Design of Corbels and Nibs 207


Service horizontal load = 50 kN
Service vertical load = 500 kN
Moment at face of column= 500 x av = 200 kNm
See Section 1.13 and assume

A~ =

m;s [(1 + z:.~y _1J


I

x =

10 x 1608 [(1
400

+ 2 x 400 x 704)! - 1]
1608 x 10

= 201mm

z=d-3

201
=704-3

= 637mm
fsb

=A-

,z

200 x Hf
1608 x 637

f"

Jsh

195.3N/mm2 due to flexure

50 x 103
2
1608 = 31 1 N/mm due to horizontal load

fs = fsb +/sh
= 195.3 + 31.1
= 226.4N/mm2
fs
-

Es =

Es

226.4
3
= 1.132 x 10200 x lW

c=:)Es

Eh=

(750 - 201) x 1.132 x 10-3


704 - 201

= 1.235 x 10- 3
Emh

= Eh

b(h - x) 2
3E,As (d - x)

= 1.235 x 10-3 -

400(750 - 201)2
3 x 200 x 103 x 1608 x (704 - 201)

= 0.9866 x 10- 3
acl

= y'(882 + 462 )

16 = 83.3 mm

208

Reinforced Concrete
y'(112 2

ac2 =
acr
Wcr

462 )

16 = 105 mm

= 105mm
3acr Em
= --------

l + 2

(acr - Cmin)
h-x

x 105 x 0.9866 x 10- 3

2
+ ( 750 - 201

105 - 30)

= 0.244mm < 0.3mm


Crack width criterion is satisfied.
Example 5.2 Design of concrete nib

..

. ,_ .....
-~

...

~'

. ..........

,,, .
Precast concrete slab

SK 5/14 General arrangement of


nib.

Reinforced concrete in-situ floor beams with nibs to carry precast floor
units.
Clear gap between beams = 4.5 m
Width of floor units = 400 mm
Depth of floor units = 100 mm
False floor+ finish on units= 2.5 kN/m 2
Imposed load on floor= 5.0 kN/m 2
Grade of concrete for beam = C40
Assume dry bearing.
Step I

Determine cover to reinforcement


Exposure = mild
Fire resistance = 1 hour
Grade of concrete = C40
Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Minimum thickness of floor = 95 mm
Nominal cover = 20 mm

Design of Corbels and Nibs 209


Step 2 Determine loading
Self-weight of precast unit = 2.5 kN/m 2

False floor+ finish= 2.5 kN/m 2


Total dead load = 5 kN/m2
Imposed load = 5 kN/m2
Ultimate load= 1.4 x 5 + 1.6 x 5 = 15 kN/m2
Reaction at either end of precast floor unit (400 mm) = 4.5 x 15 x 0.5 x 0.4
= 13.5kN
Step 3 Determine nib geometry
Allowable bearing stress= 0.4fcu = 0.4 x 40 = 16 N/mm2

Effective bearing length is the least of:


(a) bearing length =400mm
(b) one-half bearing length + 100 = 300 mm
(c) 600mm.
Effective bearing length = 300 mm
.
.
Net bearmg width =

ultimate support reaction


(effective bearing length) x 0.4fcu
13.5 x 1D3
=
= 2.8mm
300 x 16

40

Net bearing width= 40 mm


Allowance for spalling (from Tables 5.1 and 5.2) = 20 + 0 = 20mm
Allowance for inaccuracies (from Table 5.3) = 25 mm
Nominal bearing width = 40 + 20 + 25 = 85 mm
Nib projection = 85 mm + 15 mm (chamfer) + 10 mm( clearance) = 110 mm
Nominal length of precast units= 4.5 m - 2 x 10 mm (clearance)
=4.48m
Minimum depth of nib= 2 x (minimum cover)+ 8 x (diameter of bar)
=2 x 20+8x 8= 104mm<300mm
Minimum depth of nib 105mm, say.
Note:

The depth of the nib can be reduced if 6mm diameter mild steel bars are
used or welded anchor bars are used at straight ends of flexural bars.

Step 4 Design of nib


av = 110 - 15 (chamfer) + 20 (cover) + 5 (half dia. of link)
= 120mm
d = 105 - 20 - 4 = 81 mm

210

Reinforced Concrete
M = bending moment per metre
= (load per metre run)
=

av

43.5 x 0.5 x 15 x 0.12


4.05kNm/m

M
K=-fcubd2

4.05 x 106
40 x 1000 x 81 2
=

0.0154

J(

= d[ o.5

= 77mm

0.95d

0.25 -

M
A = --- =
s

0.87/yZ

0~) J: :;

o.95d

4.05 x 106
= 131 mm 2 /m
0.87 X 460 X 77

Step 5 Determine minimum reinforcement


Minimum reinforcement = 0.0013bh
= 0.0013 x 1000 x 105
137mm2 /m
Step 6 Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing = 3 x effective depth + bar dia.
= 3 x 81 + 8
= 251 mm centres

Use 8mm dia. bars at 250 centres (201 mm 2 /m).


(See Example 2.3, Step 25 for refinement.)
120
4110 Link in beam

95

15

U"I

418 Hairpins at 2SOC/c

SK 5/15 Typical reinforcement in


nib.

Design of Corbels and Nibs 211


Step 7 Check shear
V = ultimate load per metre length
= 4.5 x 0.5 x 15
= 33.75kN/m

v 33.75 x 103
v =-=
bd
1000 x 81
=

0.42N/mm2
lOOAs
bd
100 x 201
1000 x 81

p=--

= 0.25
From Fig. 11.5,
Ve

= 0.62N/mm2

0.62 x 2 x 81
120
=

0.84 N/mm 2 > 0.42 N/mm 2

Step 8 Extra vertical rein/orcement in beam


In addition to links, an area of reinforcement is required in the beam to
carry the load from the nib.

A=-sv

0.87/y

33.75 x 103
= 0.87 x 460
= 84mm2 /m

212

Reinforced Concrete

5.5

FIGURES AND TABLES FOR CHAPTER 5

VALUES OF z/d

0.25

-
n

0.2

-....

Jv

-~"' In

0.15

J
I

:s
,._u

--

>

I J

v
JV

I I I 'v

I/

z d

o.~o

0.05

//J/, v v
Vh v: II v I / v
v
'(//, ~ v
v
~ v v .....
IJ' 'I'
)
)

--

~"

0
0

_i..--

0.2

.....

']'.

z d=

v.

r-.... .......
r--

IV

'"

---

o.~o

zra IV.

~ti

I-

0.4

I'..

--

........

I/' ....

-- -

,......

""r--.

................

-i-.

---

~,-

__..!.- i.-

!".....

....... r-

,,,,.., v

I.---'

r--.

-r- ..._

z~d o.~5

lJ"

I"'-..

'/I I I JV
V"
IJ I I )v v
/'/ / J 'I' v

["'..

- r- r-

--

v v
vv
'
vv
i I I I v
I I I v v"

0. 1

o.ao
0. 35

z d

I/

'r-...

r-- r-- ,.....,,_


z d

I v //
I I/

oc

I/

'I'

0.6

Fig. 5.1 Chart for determining z/d.

0.8

Design of Corbels and Nibs

213

l in metres

Table 5.1 Allowance for effects of spalling at supports.

Distance y (mm)

Material of support
Steel
Concrete Grade 30 or over
Brickwork or masonry
Concrete below Grade 30
Reinforced concrete nib less than
300mm deep
Reinforced concrete nib less than
300 mm deep with vertical loop
reinforcement exceeding 12 mm in
diameter

15
25
25
Nominal cover to reinforcement
Nominal cover plus inner radius of
bend

Table 5.2 Allowance for effects of spalling at supported members.

Distance x (mm)

Reinforcement at bearing of
supported member
Straight bars, horizontal loop or
vertical loop reinforcement not
exceeding 12 mm diameter
Tendons or straight bars exposed at
end of member
Vertical loop reinforcement of bar
diameter exceeding 12 mm

10 or end cover, whichever is


greater

0
End cover plus inner radius of bend
of bar

Table 5.3 Allowance for construction inaccuracies.

Material of support

Construction inaccuracy (mm)

Steel or precast concrete support


Masonry supports
In-situ concrete supports

15 or 3L, whichever is greater


20 or 4L, whichever is greater
25 or SL, whichever is greater

Chapter 6

Design of Pad Foundations

6.0 NOTATION
acr

As
Asx
As_v
b
B
c
Cmin

Cx
C_v
ckd

d
dx

dy
D
ex

e_v
exg

e_vg

Ee
Es

f,
fy

/cu
F
h
H
Ha
Hp

Hu
Hx

Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar


Length of a side of a rectangular pad foundation
Area of tensile reinforcement
Area of tensile reinforcement to resist bending about x-axis
Area of tensile reinforcement to resist bending about y-axis
Width of reinforced concrete section
Width of a side of a rectangular pad foundation (least dimension)
Soil cohesion (kN/m2)
Minimum cover to tensile reinforcement
Size of column in x-direction
Size of column in y-direction
Cone resistance by static cone penetration tests (kg/cm 2)
Effective depth to tensile reinforcement of a concrete section
Effective depth to tensile reinforcement resisting moment about x-axis
Effective depth to tensile reinforcement resisting moment about y-axis
Depth of foundation below ground level
Resultant eccentricity of all column vertical loads in x-direction
Resultant eccentricity of all column vertical loads in y-direction
Eccentricity of vertical end reaction from ground beams in the
x-direction
Eccentricity of vertical end reaction from ground beams in the
y-direction
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Tensile stress in steel reinforcement
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Frictional resistance to horizontal movement under pad foundation
Overall depth of concrete section/thickness of pad
Effective depth of soil under foundation for computation of settlement
Active pressure on side of a foundation (kN)
Passive resistance on side of a foundation (kN)
Ultimate factored horizontal load at underside of a foundation
Unfactored horizontal shear from column on foundation in the
x-direction
215

Reinforced Concrete

216

Hxu
H_vu

Ka
Kh

KP
Ix
ly

M*y

Mxu
Mxx
M_vg

M_~u

M_v_vu
nh

N
Ne
Nq
Nu

Ny
p
Po
Px
P_v
p

Unfactored horizontal shear from column on foundation in the


y-direction
Factored horizontal shear from column on foundation in x-direction
Factored horizontal shear from column on foundation in y-direction
Active pressure coefficient of soil
Modulus of subgrade reaction for horizontal movement in soil
Rankine passive pressure coefficient of soil
Dimension of a rectangular pad footing in x-direction
Dimension of a rectangular pad footing in y-direction
Modular ratio EJ Ee
Coefficient of volume compressibility of soil (m 2 /MN)
Unfactored moment from column on foundation about x-axis
Unfactored moment from column on foundation about y-axis
Unfactored moment on foundation about x-axis due to eccentric
surcharge
Unfactored moment on foundation about y-axis due to eccentric
surcharge
Unfactored fixed end moment from ground beams on foundation
about x-axis
Factored moment from column on foundation about x-axis
Combined unfactored total moment on foundation about x-axis
Unfactored fixed end moment from ground beams on foundation
about y-axis
Factored moment from column on foundation about y-axis
Combined unfactored total moment on foundation about y-axis
Factored moment on foundation about x-axis due to eccentric
surcharge
Factored moment on foundation about y-axis due to eccentric
surcharge
Factored fixed-end moment from ground beams on foundation about
x-axis
Combined factored total moment on foundation about x-axis
Factored fixed-end moment from ground beams on foundation about
y-axis
Combined factored total moment on foundation about y-axis
Coefficient to determine horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction
Unfactored vertical load from column on foundation
Soil bearing capacity coefficient as per Terzaghi
Soil bearing capacity coefficient as per Terzaghi
Factored vertical load from column on foundation
Soil bearing capacity coefficient as per Terzaghi
Total overburden pressure at foundation level
Effective overburden pressure at foundation level/centre of layer
Percentage of tensile reinforcement to resist moment about x-axis
Percentage of tensile reinforcement to resist moment about y-axis
Unfactored combined total vertical load on soil under a pad
foundation
Sliding resistance of concrete pad foundation on soil

Design of Pad Foundations 217


Pu

Pv

Pttx
PHy

qn
qu
quit
r or R

Wmax

Yw
b
Li

Es

Emh

Peril

Factored combined total vertical load on soil under a pad foundation


Allowable vertical load on soil under a pad foundation
Sliding resistance of base in x-direction
Sliding resistance of base in y-direction
Net pressure on soil for settlement computation (MN/m 2)
Unconfined compressive strength (kN/m 2)
Ultimate bearing capacity of soil under a pad foundation
Radius of circular footing
Restraint factor for computation of early thermal cracking
Shear strength of soil
Shear strength from unconfined tests ( = qu/2)
Differential temperature in a concrete pour for calculation of early
thermal cracking
Perimeter of column at prescribed multiples of effective depth of pad
Perimeter of column footprint on pad foundation
Design concrete shear stress
Shear stress in concrete at perimeter defined by U,,
Shear force across critical section in a pad foundation
Shear force in a critical perimeter defined by U11
Factored end shear of ground beam
Maximum crack width (mm)
Depth of neutral axis in a concrete section from compression face
Depth of lever arm
Depth of top of pad foundation below ground level
Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete/C
Unit weight of soil (kN/m 3)
Unit weight of water (kN/m3 )
Angle of friction between soil and concrete
Horizontal movement of foundation
Maximum allowable horizontal movement of foundation
Calculated strain in concrete at a depth h from compression face
Strain corrected for stiffening effect
Tensile strain in concrete due to temperature gradient causing early
thermal cracking
Strain at centre of steel reinforcement
Strain at depth h corrected for stiffening effect
Critical percentage of steel required to distribute early thermal
cracking
Vertical stress at centre of a layer of soil due to net foundation
pressure
Angle of internal friction

218 Reinforced Concrete

6.1
6.1.1

ANALYSIS FOR BEARING PRESSURE ON SOIL


Isolated single column pad (bearing pressure calculations)

----COLUMN

PEDESTAL
PAD

min

SK 6/1 Typical column foundation in reinforced


concrete.

SK 6/2 Typical mass concrete


foundation.

Loads from column


N

combined vertical load unfactored

Mx
My

=
=

combined moment about x- x unfactored


combined moment about y-y unfactored

Hx
Hy

combined horizontal shear in x direction unfactored

= combined horizontal shear in y direction unfactored


ex = eccentricity in x direction of vertical load N from CG

of base

ey = eccentricity in y direction of vertical load N from CG of base

Point of application of
load'N'

Hy
I
I~

SK 6/3 Typical loads from


column on foundation shown on
plan.

Design of Pad Foundations 219


Loads at underside of pad on soil

P = vertical load = N + weight of foundation + weight of backfill +


surcharge on backfill
Mxx =moment about x-x = Mx +Ney+ Hyh + M:
Myy =moment about y-y =My+ Nex + Hxh + Mj
where M: and M_~ are moments with respect to CG of base due to
eccentric surcharge on backfill.
Note:

In finding the load on the soil at the underside of the pad footing the
directions of the loads, eccentricities and moments must be taken into
account. With reversible horizontal loads and moments, all possible combinations should be examined. Eccentric heavy surcharge on part of the
backfill on foundation may in certain cases produce higher bearing pressure
and should be investigated.

6.1.2 Single column pads connected by ground beams (bearing pressure calculations)

Ground beam

SK 6/5 Plan of foundations connected by


ground beams.

Pad foundation
SK 6/4 Typical arrangement of ground beams
to column foundation.

Assumptions

(1) The pad foundation is assumed rigid and its rotation is very small.
(2) The ground beam may be designed as fixed to the foundation with
zero rotation at the ends.
(3) The horizontal loads in any orthogonal direction from all columns with
connected foundations will be algebraically added and then divided by
the number of columns. The total horizontal load in any direction will
be shared equally between connected foundations.
(4) Because of the very high rotational stiffness of the pad foundations
relative to the ground beam, it is assumed that the horizontal loads,
moments and load eccentricities at the top of the foundation will cause

220 Reinforced Concrete


cantilever moment on the soil-pad foundation interface and the ground
beam will be unaffected.
(5) The pad foundation will be designed to resist the fixed-end moments
from the connected ground beams. The ground beams may also be
designed and detailed as pin-jointed to the foundation when there will
be no fixed-end moments on the foundation.
(6) The pad foundation should be designed to resist the fixed-end moments
from ground beams due to differential settlements, if any, of connected
foundations. The ground beams may also be designed and detailed as
pin-jointed to the foundation when the fixed-end moments due to
differential settlements will be negligible.
Note:

To avoid excessive stresses and serious damage, ground beams should


preferably be cast on a compressible or rapidly degradable layer of material
such that some free vertical movement is allowed to cater for vertical
ground movements and differential settlements.
Loads from columns

r--- M+Hh

SK 6/6 Horizontal shear causing


additional moment.

N = combined vertical load - unfactored

Mx = combined moment about x-x - unfactored

My = combined moment about y-y - unfactored


Hx

= combined

horizontal shear in x direction - unfactored

ex = eccentricity in x direction of vertical load N from CG of base


= eccentricity in y direction of vertical load N from CG of base

ey

Loads from ground beams


1:V = combined end shear (vertical) unfactored of all beams
1:Mxg =combined fixed-end moment about x-x unfactored (beams running
y-y direction)

Design of Pad Foundations 221

SK 6/8 Fixed-end moments due to differential


settlement.

SK 617 Fixed-end moments from ground


beams.

MxgE

C OF G
M\jg

SK 6/9 Bending moment and


eccentricity of load from ground
beams.

J:.Myg

= combined fixed-end moment about y-y unfactored (beams running


x-x direction)

Note:

exg

= eccentricity of vertical

eyg

= eccentricity of vertical shear

shear V from CG of foundation


V from CG of foundation

Mxg and Myg should include the effects of dead load, live load and differential settlements on the ground beam - unfactored.
Loads at underside of pad on soil

P = vertical load = N + 'J:. V + weight of foundation


backfill + surcharge on backfill
Mxx
Myy
H

= Mx + 'J:.Mxg +
= moment on y-y = My + J:.Myg +
= horizontal shears = Hx and Hy
moment on x-x

+ weight of

Ney

+ 'J:.(Veyg) + Hyh + M:

Nex

+ 'J:.( Vexg) + Hxh + Mj

where M: and M.~ are moments with respect to CG of base due to


eccentric surcharge on backfill.
Note:

In finding the load on the soil at the underside of the pad footing the
directions of the loads, eccentricities and moments must be taken into
account. With reversible horizontal loads and moments, all possible combinations should be examined. Eccentric heavy surcharge on part of the

222

Reinforced Concrete

-~~

e~gr _ -e~g

P- >-

- - - ---

exg

SK 6/10 Eccentricity of

surcharge on plan of pad


foundation.

SK 6/11 Eccentricity of load from simply


supported end of ground beam.

backfill on the foundation may in certain cases produce higher bearing


pressure on the soil and should be investigated.

6.1.3 Isolated multiple column pad (bearing pressure calculation)


Loads from columns
':.N = summation of all column vertical loads - unfactored

':i.Mx = algebraic summation of all column moments about x- x unfactored


I.My = algebraic summation of all column moments about y-y unfactored
I.Hx =algebraic summation of all column horizontal shears in x-direction unfactored
I.Hy = algebraic summation of all column horizontal shears in y-direction unfactored
ex = distance in the x-direction of CG of all column vertical loads from
CG of base
ey = distance in the y-direction of CG of all column vertical loads from
CG of base
Loads at underside of pad on soil

P = vertical load = I.N + weight of foundation + weight of backfill +


surcharge on backfill
Mxx =moment about x-x = I.Mx +I.Ney+ I.Hyh + M;
Myy =moment about y-y =I.My+ I.Nex + I.Hxh + M_t

Design of Pad Foundations

223

H = horizontal shears = 'LHx . and 'LH_v


where Mt and Mf are due to eccentric surcharge.

6.1.4 Multiple column pads connected by ground beams (bearing pressure calculations)
Assumptions

See Section 6.1.2.

Loads from columns

See Section 6.1.3.


See Section 6.1.2.

Loads from ground beams

Loads at underside of pad foundation

P = vertical load = 'J:.N + 'J:. V + weight of foundation + weight of


backfill + surcharge on backfill

+ 'J:.(Veyg) + 'LH_vh +Mt


+ 'J:.Nex + 'LM_vg + 'J:.(Vexg) + 'LHxh + M_~

Mxx =moment on x-x = 'LMx + 'J:.Ne_v + 'LMxg


M_v_v =moment on y-y = 'LMy

H = horizontal shear = 'LHx and 'LHy


where M: and Mj are due to eccentric surcharge on backfill.

6.2

6.2.1

ANALYSIS FOR ULTIMATE LOAD

Isolated single column pad


Note:

Use load factors and combinations as stated in Section 6.3.


Load from column
Nu = combined vertical load - factored

Mxu = combined moment about x-x - factored


Myu = combined moment about x-x - factored
Hxu = combined horizontal shear x-direction - factored
H_vu = combined horizontal shear y-direction - factored
ex

= eccentricity of Nu

in x-direction

ey = eccentricity of Nu in y-direction
Loads at underside of pad foundation

+ 1.4 (weight of foundation


(surcharge on backfill)

Pu = Nu

+ weight of backfill) + 1.6

224 Reinforced Concrete


Myyu = Myu + Nuex + Hxuh + Mju

Hu = Hxu

and

Hyu

where M'.:u and Mju are ultimate moments on base due to eccentric
surcharge on backfill.

6.2.2 Single column pads connected by ground beams


Note:

Use load factors and combinations as stated in Section 6.3. For assumptions,
see Section 6.1.2.
Load from columns

See Section 6.2.1.

Load from ground beams

LVu = combined factored end shear of all beams


LMxgu =combined factored end moment about x-x (beams running y-y)
LMygu =combined factored end moment about y-y (beams running x-x)
exg = eccentricity of Vu from CG of base in x-direction (beams x-x)
eyg = eccentricity of Vu from CG of base in y-direction (beams y-y)
Note:

Mxgu and Mygu should include the effects of dead load, live load and
differential settlements on the ground beam.
Loads at underside of pads foundation on soil

Pu =Nu+ LVu + 1.4 (weight of foundation+ weight of backfill)


(surcharge on backfill)
Mxxu = Mxu + LMxgu + Nuey

+ L( Vueyg) + Hyuh + M'.:u

Myyu = Myu + LMxgu + Nuex + L( Vuexg) + Hxuh

Hu

= Hxu

+ 1.6

+ Mju

and H_vu

where M'fu and Mju are ultimate moments on base due to eccentric
surcharge on backfill.

6.2.3

Multiple column pads


Note:

For multiple column pad foundations with or without ground beams, use
the same philosophy as in Sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 but with the following
loads from all columns on the base summed up, algebraically.
LNu
LMxu

= summation of all
= summation of all

ultimate vertical loads from columns


ultimate moments about x-x axis

Design of Pad Foundations 225

I.Myu = summation of all ultimate moments about y-y axis


I.Hxu = summation of all horizontal shears in x-direction
I.Hyu = summation of all horizontal shears in y-direction
ex = resultant eccentricity of all column vertical loads in x-direction
ey = resultant eccentricity of all column vertical loads in y-direction

6.3 LOAD COMBINATIONS


Loads from the columns will be combined using the following principles.

6.3.1

Bearing pressure calculations


LC 1:
l.ODL + I.OIL + l.OEP + l.OCL V + l.OCLH
No increase in allowable bearing capacity.
LC2 :
l.ODL + 1.0EP + l.OCLV + l.OCLH + I.OWL (or l.OEL)
25% increase in allowable bearing capacity.
LC3 :
l.ODL + LOIL + l.OEP + l.OWL (or l.OEL)
25% increase in allowable bearing capacity.
LC4 :
l.ODL + 1.0WL (or 1.0EL)
25% increase in allowable bearing capacity.
where

DL
IL
EP
CL V
CLH
WL
EL

=dead load
= imposed load
= earth pressure and water pressure
= crane vertical loads
= crane horizontal loads
= wind load
= earthquake load

6.3.2 Bending moment and shear calculations


LC5 :
LC6 :
LC7 :
LC8 :
LC9:
LC 10 :
LC 11 :
LC 12 :

l.4DL
l.2DL
l.4DL
l.ODL
l.4DL
l.4DL
l.4DL
l.2DL

6.3.3 Settlement computation

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

l.6IL + l.4EP
l.2IL + l.2EP + l.2WL (or l.2EL)
l.4WL (or l.4EL) + l.4EP
l.4WL (or 1.4EL) + 1.4EP (if adverse)
1.4CL V + 1.4CLH + 1.4EP
l.6CL V + 1.4EP
l.6CLH + l.4EP
l.2CLV + 1.2CLH + 1.2EP + 1.2 WL (or l.2EL)

226

Reinforced Concrete
1.0DL + 0.5/L
(vertical direct loads only)

6.4 SIGN CONVENTION

Hy

SK 6/12 Sign convention showing


positive loads and eccentricity.

To avoid mistakes the following sign convention should be followed:


Vertical loads: downwards positive
Moments on base: clockwise positive
Horizontal shears: left to right positive: +vex-direction
bottom to top positive: +ve y-direction
Eccentricities: +ve for +ve x and +ve for +ve y

6.5

ESSENTIALS OF SOIL MECHANICS

6.5.1

Ultimate bearing capacity

D
h

I.

Borr

B = Least plan dimension af pad foundation


r = Radius of circular foundation

SK 6/13 Typical parameters for


the calculation of bearing capacity.

Design of Pad Foundations 227


From soil investigation and laboratory tests the following parameters should
be available:
c = soil cohesion (kPa)
<j>

angle of internal friction (degrees or radians)

= unit weight of soil

(kN/m3 )

p = total overburden pressure at foundation level

Po= P - Ywh
h = height of water above foundation level

Yw
quit

= unit weight of water (kN/m3 )


= ultimate

bearing capacity as per Terzaghi (conservative approach)

Bearing capacity calculations for cohesionless and (c-t/J) soils.

For continuous foundation


quit

= cNe + Po(Nq - 1) + 0.5yBNy + p

For square foundation


quit =

1.3cNc

+ p (Nq - 1) + 0.4yBNy + p
0

For circular foundation


quit =

a =

1.3cNc

e(0.75:n: -

+ p (Nq 0

1)

+ 0.3yBNy + p

<j>/2)tan <1>

a2

N -------q - 2cos2 (45 + <j>/2)

Ne

= (Nq

- l)cot<j>

Ny= 0.5tan<j> ( - Kp_v


cos2<I>
Table 6.1 Values of
<I>
Kpy

Kpy

1)
(as per Reference 6).

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
10.8 12.2 14.7 18.6 25.0 35.0 52.0 82.0

Nq, Ne and Ny may be obtained from Fig. 6.1.


Allowable bearing capacity = qu 1113
Bearing capacity calculations for cohesive soils
quit=

cNe

Ne may be obtained from Table 6.2.


Allowable bearing capacity = qu 11 /3

40
141.0

45
298.0

50
800.0

228

Reinforced Concrete
Table 6.2 Values of Ne for cohesive soils (as per Reference 6).

DI B or D/2r

Values of Ne

Circular or
square footing

0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

6.2
7.3
8.2
9.1
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3

Strip footing

0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

5.2
6.2
7.1
7.7
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2

Types of footing

D = depth below ground to underside of pad foundation


B = least plan dimension of pad foundation
r

Note:

=radius of circular pad foundation

There are many different ways of calculating ultimate bearing capacity


which take into account depth, water tables, load inclinations, various
shapes of foundations, soil layers, etc. It is normal practice to have the
allowable bearing capacities for various sizes of foundations determined by
specialists carrying out the site investigation.
In the absence of laboratory tests for finding c, y and <j>, values from
Tables 6.3 and 6.4 may be used to determine allowable bearing capacity if
the description of the soil is known.
Table 6.3 Typical values of angle of internal friction, <j>.

Soil type

Angle of internal friction,


<j> (degrees)

Medium gravel
Sandy gravel
Loose dry sand
Loose saturated sand
Dense dry sand
Dense saturated sand
Loose silty sand
Dense silty sand
Saturated clay

40-55
45-50
28-34
28-34
35-46
33-44
20-22
25-30
0

Design of Pad Foundations

229

Table 6.4 Typical values of cohesive strength, c.

Soil type

Cohesive strength, c (kN/m 2 )

Hard boulder clays


Hard fissured clays
Deep London and gault clays
Hard weathered shales
Hard weathered mudstones
Very stiff boulder clay
Very stiff blue London clay
Very stiff weathered Keuper Marl
Stiff boulder clay
Stiff blue London clay
Stiff weathered Keuper Marl
Firm normally consolidated clay
Upper weathered 'brown' London clay
Soft normally consolidated clay

Note:

6.5.2

>300
>300
>300
>300
>300
150-300
150-300
150-300
75-150
75-150
75-150
40-75
40-75
20-40

Presumed allowable bearing capacities for various types of soil and grades
of chalk and Keuper Marl may be obtained from Tables 2 and 3 of
BS 8004: 1986.12l

Settlement of foundation
Method 1 Quick approximate method
Soil parameter: Coefficient of volume compressibility (in m 2/MN) = mv
Values of mv should be available after soil investigation tests. Approximate
values of mv for clays may be obtained from Table 6.5.

Table 6.5 Typical values of coefficient of volume compressibility, mv.

Soil type

Heavily overconsolidated boulder clays


Stiff weathered rocks
Hard London clays
Boulder clays
Very stiff London clays
Upper blue London clays
Weathered boulder clay
Weathered Keuper Marl
Normally consolidated alluvial clays
Estuarine clays
Organic alluvial clays and peats

Coefficient of volume
compressibility, mv
(m 2 /MN)
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
0.05-0.1
0.05-0.1
0.10-0.3
0.10-0.3
0.10-0.3
0.30-1.5
0.30-1.5
>1.5

230 Reinforced Concrete

'

SK 6/14 Pressure distribution for


settlement computation.

Consolidation settlement = mv a, H
where

Note:

mv = average mv of all layers up to a depth of l.5B


B = width of foundation (least dimension)
a 2 = 0.55qn (average pressure in centre of layers)
qn = net pressure on the soil (MN/m 2)
H = l.5B (metres)

Immediate settlement is ignored in these calculations.


Method 2 Settlement from static cone penetration tests

Soil parameter: Cone resistance (in kg/cm 2 ) = Ckct


147Ckct

Constant of compressibility = C = - - Po
where p 0 = effective pressure at the centre of layer = p - Ywh
(in kN/m 2)
p = total overburden pressure at the centre of layer (kN/m 2)
h = height of water to the centre of layer (metres)
Yw = unit weight of water (kN/m 3)
Settlement of layer = S = H log,,(p +
C
Po
where

Gz)

metres

a, = vertical stress at centre of layer (kN/m 2 ) as a result of net


foundation pressure (qn)
H = thickness of the layer of soil (metres)

a, may be obtained from Fig. 6.2 (see Reference 5).


Total estimated settlement= summation of settlement of each layer

Design of Pad Foundations 231


Note:

The cone penetrometer curve should be broken down into separate layers,
each having approximately the same value of cone resistance within the
layer. Even if the cone penetrometer curve does not indicate any layering
of soil, the settlement should be computed in layers because the value of
Oz falls off rapidly with depth.

6.5.3 Sliding resistance


6.5.3.J

Sliding of concrete on soil


H

'i

/!

Hp~

SK 6/15 Sliding resistance of pad


foundation.

...

....

.,

.\

...

:. :.
_:

~"
1

..

'

Sliding resistance of concrete foundation on soil, P, = F+ HP - Ha


where

F = frictional resistance under base


Hp = passive resistance due to horizontal movement of foundation

= active pressure due

Ha

= Ptano
= horizontal

..1.

Llmax =

For cohesive sod

= n,,I B

= k ;f l .5B
5

movement of foundation into soil (metres)

maximum allowable horizontal movement on the basis of soil


shear strength (metres)

For cohesionless soil

K,,

to horizontal movement of foundation

Llmax

..1.max

(~:)

yD + 2c
= ---K,,

for cohesionless soil


for cohesive soil

(See Table 6.7 for typical values of

n,, and k

5 ;.)

h = thickness of concrete pad foundation


o = friction angle between concrete and soil (see Table 6.6).
<I> = angle of internal friction of backfill material (see Table 6.3)
Kp = tan 2 ( 45 + <!>12)

232

Reinforced Concrete
y = unit weight of backfill material (kN/m 3 )
B = width of foundation over which horizontal soil pressure is active

(metres)

Hp

0.5tlBhK1r (Z + D)
for cohesionless soil
K1rtl.Bh
for cohesive soil

Ka = active pressure coefficient of the backfill material


= tan 2 (45 - <j>/2)
for cohesionless soil
= negligible for cohesive soils
Ha = 0.5Ka (Z

+ D) Bhy

for cohesionless soil

P = total vertical load on the soil including the weight of foundation and

backfill
D = depth of soil to underside of pad foundation

Z
Note:

depth of soil to top of pad foundation

In practice it is very difficult to decide how much horizontal movement


may be allowed without causing excessive stresses in other parts of the
structure. It is good practice to provide total sliding resistance by frictional
resistance only. The Rankine passive pressure coefficient, KP, should not
be used in these computations because a large movement is necessary to
generate the full passive resistance. A factor of safety of 1.5 should be
allowed against sliding.
Check: P,?: l.5H

6.5.3.2 Horizantal bearing capacity of soil

Allowable horizontal bearing capacity of soil,

<I> =

Check:

6.6.1

angle of internal friction of foundation soil

PH?:

BEARING PRESSURE CALCULATIONS


Rectangular pad - uniaxial .bending - no loss of contact

ex

qA tan

(_1_)
+ ~ cA
1.5
3

c = cohesion of foundation soil (kN/m 2 )


A = area of foundation
q = average unit pressure under foundation (kN/m 2)

where

6.6

PH =

Mvv

=---

ey = 0

P )
Pt= ( AB

+ A2~

(6Mvv)

Pl=

P) - (6My_v)
(AB
A B
2

Design of Pad Foundations

233

Table 6.6 Typical values of friction angle between concrete and soil, l>.
Concrete on the following
soil types

Friction angle,

o (degrees)
35

Clean sound rock


Clean gravel, gravel-sand mixtures
Coarse sand
Clean fine-to-medium sand
Silty medium-to-coarse sand
Clayey gravel
Clean fine sand
Silty-to-clayey fine-to-medium sand
Fine sandy silt
Very stiff and hard residual clay
Medium stiff and stiff clay
Bituminous or water-proofing membrane

29-31
29-31
24-29
24-29
24-29
19-24
19-24
17-19
22-26
17-19
0-5

~I

1~
I

x-~---4----- x
-PMy

p,~p,
PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR NO LOSS OF CONTACT

P1

SK 6/16 Pressure diagrams for


uniaxial bending and direct load on
base.

PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR LOSS OF CONTACT

234

Reinforced Concrete
Table 6. 7 Typical coefficients of horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction.
Values of
(MN/m 3 )
Loose
Dry or moist sand
Submerged sand

2.2
1.26

nh

(cohesionless)

Medium
6.6
4.4

Dense
17.6
10.7

Values of k,; (cohesive)


(MN/m 3 )
Types of clay

Stiff

Very stiff

7.2

14.4

Hard
28.8

6.6.2 Rectangular pad - uniaxial bending - loss of contact


2P
Pi = (l.SA - 3ex)B

l.5A - 3ex

6.6.3 Rectangular pad - biaxial bending - no loss of contact

SK 6/17 Typical pressure diagram


for biaxial bending and no loss of
contact.

+ (6Mxx)
(;B) + (6Myy)
A B
AB
(6Mxx)
P2 = (;B) + (6M.v.v)
A B
AB
(6Mxx)
(;B) (6Myy)
A B
AB

P1

p3

Design of Pad Foundations 235

P4

6.6.4

P) - (6M
vv) (6Mxx)
(AB
A 2 ~ + AB
2

Rectangular pad - biaxial bending - loss of contact


Partial contact of soil/foundation (see Fig. 6.3}.
The resultant of soil pressure diagram under base has co-ordinates ex and
ey.

6.6.4.1 Resultant in Zone 1 of base (see Fig. 6.3}


Factor of safety for overturning is less than 1.5. Redesign size of base.
6.6.4.2 Resultant in Zone 2 of base (see Fig. 6.3}
No loss of contact of base. Calculate pressures as in Section 6.6.3.
6.6.4.3 Resultant in Zone 3 of base (see Fig. 6.3)

SK 6/18 Biaxial bending - loss of


contact. Zero pressure on line
p3-p4.

Mvv
ex =-p

s = -B[B-+
12 ey

Mxx

eY =p-

(B2 - )i]
2

12

ey

3(A - 2ex)
tan<=---2(S + ey)
12P ) ( B + 2S )
Pi= ( Btan<X
B 2 + 12S 2

236 Reinforced Concrete


B

s-2
P2

= --B-

Pt

s+-2

p3 = p4 = 0
Xi

= (S +

~)tan ex

6.6.4.4 Resultant in Zone 4 of base (see Fig. 6.3)

L_A'j_J
A[A + (A2

t = 12 ex
tan ~

Pt = (

- 12)~]

ex

3(B - 2ev)
2( t + ex)

+ 2t )
A 2 + 12t 2

12P ) ( A

A tan ~
A
t - -

p4

2
--A- Pt
t

+-

P2

= p3 = 0

Yi

= ( t + ~)tan~

SK 6/19 Biaxial bending - loss of


contact. Zero pressure on line
P2-p3.

Design of Pad Foundations 237

6.6.4.5 Resultant in Zone 5 of base (see Fig. 6.3)

SK 6/20 Biaxial bending - loss


of contact. Zero pressure on line
p3-p3.

ex
A

ev
B

k=-+-'-

Pt

= (:S)k[l2

- 3.9(6k - 1)(1 - 2k)(2.3 - 2k)]

S and t are as in Sections 6.6.4.3 and 6.6.4.4.

P2

p3

s--B2

--B- Pi

s+-2

=0
A
t - -

2
--A- Pi
t +2

p4 =

+-

2
B
s+-2
Note:

To find maximum pressure at a comer the design chart in Fig. 6.4 may be
used. At the initial design stage when the size of the foundation is being
determined, this design chart becomes very useful.
Find exlA and eylB.
Read from Fig. 6.4 the value of K.

Maximum pressure

PK

= AB

238

Reinforced Concrete

6.6.5 Multiple column - biaxial bending - no loss of contact

....--X-+- _

~FI

G_ _

Q_ _

X3

[]
SK 6/21 Typical unsymmetrical

pad foundation and co-ordinates of


comers to find bearing pressure.

,\:J

(1) Find area of foundation, A.


(2) Find centre of gravity of plan area of foundation.
(3) Find second moments of area about two orthogonal axes going through
CG of area of foundation Uxx and lyy)
(4) Find maximum ordinates X and Y of corner points of foundation with
respect to CG of area of foundation.
(5) Find eccentricities of all vertical loads from CG of area of foundation.
(6) Find total vertical load through CG of foundation and total moments
about orthogonal axes passing through CG of area of foundation ( P,
Mxx and Myy)
(7) Find maximum and minimum pressures at various points on foundation
using the equation below.

P
MxxY11
MvvX11
p =-+--+-"

fxx

fyy

Note: This method is valid only when there is no loss of contact between the
foundation and the soil. Use a consistent sign convention as in Section 6.4.

6.6.6 Circular pad - biaxial bending - no loss of contact


nD 2

A= - 4

2
= 07854D
.

SK 6/22 Circular pad foundation.

Design of Pad Foundations 239

Z
M

nD3

=-

32

= 0.0982D3

2
= (Mxx
+

M_vy)i

e=-::;-

Pmax

=A+

Design forces in pad foundation


Maximum shear force across diameter D

= V = l.285pR 2 + l.571qR 2

Maximum bending moment across diameter D = M 1 =0.595pR 3 + 0.667qR 3


where

R = radius of circular pad = Dl2


q = minimum pressure = (PIA) - (MIZ)
p + q = maximum pressure = (PIA) + (MIZ)
p

= 2MIZ.

6. 7 Step-by-step design procedure for pads


Step 1

Select type and depth of foundation


The types of foundations are as follows:

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Note:

Reinforced concrete pad with single column.


Reinforced concrete pad with multiple column.
Reinforced concrete pad with single column and ground beams.
Reinforced concrete pad with multiple column and ground beams.
Mass concrete pad with single column.

Type E may be used for light single-storey structures only.


The depth of the foundation is governed by the following:

Step 2

Shrinking and swelling of clay.


Frost attacks.
Holding-down bolt arrangement of columns.
Suitable bearing stratum.
Water table and soluble sulphates.
Width of foundation which is normally kept more than depths for
shallow foundations.

Select approximate size


From the ground investigation report and from Tables 1-3 of BS 8004:
1986,121 find the presumed allowable bearing capacity.
Find total maximum unfactored vertical load from column.
Find maximum unfactored moments Mx and M_v from column.

240 Reinforced Concrete

__ .r~ le"_

B X

I.

SK 6/23 Equivalent eccentricity of


direct load on pad foundation.

Mvv

Find eccentricities ex = --
p and eY
Assume A

6ex

and

Mxx

= -p

6ey

For biaxial bending,


find exlA and eylB, and from Fig. 6.4 find the value of K.
.

PK
AB

Maximum approximate pressure = -

Check whether the maximum pressure is lower than presumed allowable


bearing capacity.
Note:

At this stage some of the loads from the self-weight of the foundation,
ground beams, backfill, eccentricities of surcharges, etc. have not been
included and hence a margin has to be left in the bearing pressure to
account for these. Moreover, the actual bearing pressure computations
and settlement computations may further enhance the size of the foundation.

SK 6/24 Dimensions of column or pedestal on


pad foundation.

SK 6/25 Effective depth of pad.

Determine minimum thickness of pad:


Find Vmax = 0.8'\/!cu or 5 N/mm 2 whichever is lesser
Find column perimeter= U0 = 2( Cx + Cy)Find total ultimate vertical load from column= Nu
Find d ~Nu/( Vmax U0 )
also d ~ 0.5[ (Cr + 4C2) 0 5 - Ci]
whichever gives larger d.

Design of Pad Foundations 241


C1 = U0 !6

C2

= Nul12vc

(assume
reinforcement)

Ve,

which is dependent on percentage of tensile

Choose overall depth of pad allowing for cover.


Note:

Consideration need not be given to anchorage length of column bars in


pad foundation if all column bars are in compression.

Step 3 Calculate bearing capacity of soil


Follow Section 6.5.
Step 4 Calculate column load combinations
Follow Section 6.3.
Step 5 Calculate approximate settlement
Follow Methcx:I 1 of Section 6.5.2.
Note:

The approximate settlement computation will help to determine the level


of differential settlement for which the building should be designed.

Step 6 Carry out analysis for bearing pressure


Follow Section 6.1.
Step 7 Calculate bearing pressures under foundation
Follow Section 6.6.
Step 8 Calculate sliding resistance of foundation
Follow Section 6.5.3.
Step 9 Check combined sliding and bearing

Check:

+ (Hv)
-
(-p) + (Hx)
Pv

Pttx

PHy

<

P = total vertical load unfactored


Pv = area of base x allowable bearing capacity
Hn Hy = total horizontal load unfactored in x- and y-directions
PHx, Ptty = sliding resistance of base (Step 8) in x- and y-directions (see
Section 6.5.3.)

where

Step 10 Carry out analysis of bearing pressure for bending moment and shear
Follow Section 6.2.
Step 11 Calculate bearing pressure for bending moment and shear
Follow Section 6.6.
Step 12 Calculate bearing moments and shears in pad
Critical sections for bending moments and shears:

242 Reinforced Concrete


3

+-~~~~--lf------1-~

3
Le/2

SK 6/26 Critical section for checking bending


moments and shears in pad foundation.

Note:

Le/2

SK 6/27 Critical section for bending moment.

Sections 1, 4 - design bending moment.


Section 1 - shear.
Section 2 - shear.
Section 3 - shear.

When calculating bending moments and shears the downward loads on the
pad will be considered with the upwards loads.
In a complicated unsymmetrical combined column foundation the bending
moment and shear force diagram based on the pressure distribution should
be drawn and critical sections determined from these diagrams.

Step 13 Determine cover to reinforcement


From the soil investigations report, find the concentration of sulphates
expressed as S03
From Table 17 of BS8004: 1986,121 find the appropriate type of concrete.

Class of
exposure

Total S03

<0.2
0.2-0.5
0.5-1.0
1.0-2.0
>2.0

2
3
4
5

Note:

(%)

Minimum cover on
blinding concrete
(mm)

Minimum cover
elsewhere (mm)

35
50

75
80
90

60
60

100
100

40

Concrete in 'class of exposure 5' needs protective coating.

Step 14 Calculate area of tension reinforcement and distribution


M = bending moment due to ultimate loads in pad

Find effective depth, d.

Design of Pad Foundations 243


b

= total width of section

= - -2 s

0.156

fcubd

z = d[o.5 +

J(o.25 - 0~9 ) J s o.95d

As=--0.87/yZ

Lx

t
1. Sd

"

'-...

Cx

===~=~~--t
/I
I

II

I'\
I

I I I
I
I

~ ~~-~
L-~x+3dx __j

SK 6/28 Rules for distribution of reinforcement


in pad foundation.

PLAN

ly,

le/2

t -------t
...............

.......... CJq

--J&i--...
YI

.............

-----------

le/2

Y2

ly2

_......-

_,--' I

SK 6/29 Detailing rules for pad foundation with


two columns.

L~

'\

'

Cx +3dx

le

ly

244

Reinforced Concrete
Note:

Increase depth of pad foundation if K is greater than 0.156.


Distribution of tension rein/orcement

Case I
If Ix> 1.5 ( Cx + 3dx), distribute two-thirds of total reinforcement in
y-direction in the zone (Cx + 3dx)

Case 2
If l_v > 1.5 (Cy+ 3dy), distribute two-thirds of total reinforcement in
x-direction in the zone (Cy + 3dy)
Case 3
If Ix> 1.5 ( Cx 1 + 3dx) or 1.5( Cx2 + 3dx), whichever is the lesser, distribute
two-thirds of total reinforcement (top) in y-direction in the zone ( Cx 1 +
3dx) or ( Cx2 + 3dx), whichever is the lesser.
Case 4
For bottom reinforcement in the combined foundation, follow the rules in
Case 1 and Case 2, assuming individual foundations to the centre of column
spacing (/J2).
Note:

dx relates to effective depth for resistance against moment Mx which is


about the orthogonal axis x. Similarly, d_v relates to effective depth for
resistance against moment My which is about the orthogonal axis y, or, in
other words, the reinforcement in the x-direction is to resist moment about
the y axis and the effective depth is dy.

Step 15 Check shear stress


See Step 12.
Shear at Section 1

Check shear stress:


v1

Vi
= bd

where

::S

Vi

0.8y/cu or 5 N/mm 2
=

total shear at Section 1

b = total width of Section 1


d = effective depth of Section 1.

Shear at Section 2

Check shear stress:

v2

V2
bd

= -

::S

2vc

The value of Ve is obtained from Figs 11.2 to 11.5, depending on IOOA,lbd


where A, is the total area of tensile reinforcement in the section.

Design of Pad Foundations 245


Shear at Section 3

Check shear stress:

Note:

Change the thickness of the pad if the shear stress at any section exceeds
the allowable limit. It is not cost-effective to provide shear reinforcement
in the pad foundation.

Step 16 Check punching shear

"tJ

15d

-~

Cx

,_

Uo

SK 6/30 Punching shear


perimeters in pad foundation.

Nu = maximum ultimate vertical load from column


Find perimeters U0 , U1 and U2
d = 0.5(dx

dy)

Uo = 2(Cx + Cy)
U1 = (U0 + 12d)

Check:

Nu
,
v0 = - - :s: 0.8y1fcu
U0 d
V1

A1

Nu - P1A1
U1d

= ( Cx

or 5N/mm

:S: Ve

+ 3.0d)( Cy +

3.0d)

where p 1 =average upwards pressure over area A 1 enclosed by perimeter


U1.
The value of Ve is obtained from Figs 11.2 to 11.5 corresponding to Px or
P.v whichever is the lesser.
lOOAsx
Px=ld
x x

246 Reinforced Concrete

--

,,

'-

Ly
.I

'

-~

SK 6/31 Typical tensile

reinforcement plan for pad


foundation.

Asy

Change the thickness of the pad if the punching shear stress exceeds
Ve, otherwise shear reinforcement will be required as per Step 7 of
Section 3.3.
Note:

Apply the same principle individually to each column for a combined


foundation.

Step 17 Check minimum reinforcement for flexure


Minimum tensile reinforcement = 0.0013bh
460N/mm 2)
Note:

in both directions (fy =

Provide this mm1mum reinforcement also at the top of the foundation


where top reinforcement is required for flexure.

Step 18 Check spacing of reinforcement


Clear spacing of bars should not exceed 3d or 750mm.

Percentage of reinforcement
lOOAJbd in pad(%)
1 or over

0.75
0.5

0.3
less than 0.3
Note:

Maximum clear spacing of


bars for fy=460N/mm 2 (mm)
160
210
320
530
3d or 750

The above rules for spacing of bars in tension will in most cases ensure
adequate control of crack widths to 0.3 mm where the cover does not
exceed 50mm.

Step 19 Check early thermal cracking


Determine pour configuration:

Design of Pad Foundations 247


(1) Massive pour cast on blinding concrete: R = 0.1 to 0.2
(2) Massive pour cast on existing mass concrete: R = 0.3 to 0.4 at base
R = 0.1 to 0.2 at top

R = restraint factor.

where

Determine the value of temperature, Ti. for OPC concrete cast on ground
from the table.

Section thickness (mm)


300
500
700
1000

Calculate
where

W.
max

= 0.8T1cxR
ex = 12 x 10-6 /C,

T 1(C)
17
28
28
28

E,

or values from Table 2.3 may be used

3acr Er

l +

(llcr - Cmin)
2
h-x

Note:

The design crack width is 0.3 mm. If this is exceeded, closer spacings of
bars may be used.

)I

:h/2
h

Cm in

SK 6/32 Early thermal crack width


calculation.

DETAIL 1

DETAIL 1,

248

Reinforced Concrete
Step 20 Check minimum reinforcement to distribute thermal cracking

for fy = 460 N/mm 2

Pcrit = 0.0035

Up to 300 mm thickness of pad foundation


near top surface in each direction

Ast= 0.00175bh

From 300 mm to 500 mm thickness of pad foundation


A,1 = 0.001 75bh mm 2 near top surface in each direction

= 0.35b mm2

A,b

near bottom surface in each direction

Over 500 mm thickness of pad foundation


A,1

= 0.875b mm 2

A,b = 0.35b mm

where

near top surface in each direction


near bottom surface in each direction

b = width of pad perpendicular to the direction of reinforcement

(mm)
h = overall thickness of pad (mm).
Step 21

Check crack width due to flexure


Serviceability limit state
Loading conditions LC 1 to LC4 in Section 6.3.
Find bending moment M across a critical section, as in Step 12.

E,

m = - = 15
Ee

for long-term loading

x
z=d-3
M
A,z

f,=-

Eh=(~)
d - x
b(h - x)

Emh = Eh - 3EsAs(d -

Es

x)

3acr Cmin
2( ac, - Cm;n)
h - x

Wmax = - - - - - - - -

Note:

In extremely severe exposure conditions it is prudent to check crack widths


and provide adequate reinforcement to limit it to an allowable value.

Design of Pad Foundations 249

Step 22 Design mass concrete f ountlation

,/

'~s"min.

~---

SK 6/34 Critical sections in mass


concrete foundation.

a:i

~I.

A- Cx

.I

2D

SK 6/33 Typical plan and


elevation of mass concrete pad
foundation.

The size and depth will be determined based on a 45 dispersion of load


from column through mass concrete on to soil.
D =depth of foundation.
At critical section 1, find the bending moment and shear from the soil
pressure diagram for unfactored loads: serviceability limit state.
M = bending moment across critical section
V = shear across critical section

Check:

fib = stress in concrete in bending tension


6M

= --2

or

BD

vd

AD

s 0.37y!cu

= shear stress in concrete


v
v
BD

6M
--2

or AD

Punchmg shear stress

= (

2 Cx

0.037/cu

v )

+ C.v D

s 0.037!cu

Bearing stress under column base plate = - C s 0.275/cu


Cx .v

250 Reinforced Concrete


Step 23 Calculate settlement
Follow Method 2 of Section 6.5.2.
Use load combination LC13 of Section 6.3.
Note:

The settlement calculations should be carried out to give a better understanding of the global effects on the structure. It may be necessary to alter
the sizes of some of the pad foundations in a structure in order to even out
the differential settlements. It is also important in certain cases to feed
back these settlements in the analysis of the structure.

6.8 WORKED EXAMPLES


Example 6.1

RC pad with single column


Internal column.

Column size
=400 mm x 400 mm
Column spacing = 6 m x 6 m on plan
The unfactored column loads are given in the following table:
Dead

Imposed

610

480

Vertical load N (kN)


Horizontal shear Hx (kN)
Horizontal shear Hy (kN)
Moment Mx (kNm)
Moment My (kNm)

Wind

42

38
95
105

Suitable bearing stratum at 1000 mm below ground level. Medium dense


silty sand.
Step 1 Select type and depth offoundation
Type: Reinforced concrete pad with single RC column
Depth: lOOOmm below finished ground level

1150 mm below finished floor level.


Depth selected from considerations of:
Frost attack.
Swelling of soil.
Suitable bearing stratum.
Step 2 Select approximate size

Presumed allowable bearing capacity from BS 8004: 19861 21= 150 kN/m 2
Maximum Vertical load V = 610 + 480 = 1090 kN
Maximum eccentricity= ex= My! V = 105/1090 = 0.1 m

11 T031985 0011339 203 II


Design of Pad Foundations 251

v
-=7.3m2
150
Assume a 3 m x 3 m foundati0n pad with area of 9 m2 : A = 3 m and
B=3m.
Determine minimum thickness of pad
Assume grade of concrete = C30
Vmax

= 0.8\j/cu or 5 N/mm 2 (whichever is lesser)= 4.38 N/mm 2

V0 = 2(Cx + Cy) = 2(400 + 400) = 1600mm


Total factored load from column
Nu = 1.4 x 610 + 1.6 x 480 = 1622 kN
Nu

d::: - - - =
VmaxVo

1622 x 103
= 231mm
4.38 X 1600

or d::: 2[(Cy + 4C2)2


where

Ci]= 430mm

V0
1600
C 1 = - = - - = 267 mm

Nu
1622 x llf
C2 = - - =
= 300370mm2
12vc
12 X 0.45
Assumed Ve= 0.45 N/mm2 which corresponds to about 0.3% tension reinforcement for/cu= 30N/mm2 Choose overall depth of pad equal to 500mm
allowing for adequate cover.
Step 3

Note:

Calculate bearing capacity of soil


(See Section 6.5.1.)

This step may not be necessary if the allowable bearing capacity for the
selected size of foundation is already available from the soils investigation
report. However, for completeness of a foundation design problem, this
step is included.
From field and laboratory tests the following soil parameters of the bearing
stratum are known:
ground water table = 2.0 m below ground level
h = 0, i.e. height of water table above foundation level is zero.
y = unit weight of soil = 18 kN/m 3

p = total overburden pressure at the foundation level.


= 18 x 1 (below ground)
= 18kN/m2

252 Reinforced Concrete


Po= p - Ywh = 18kN/m2

Yw = unit weight of water

c = soil cohesion

10kN/m2

<j>

= angle of internal friction = 22 = 0.384 radian

= e(0.75:;c = e(0.75rr = 2.3974

4>/2) tan 4>


0.192) tan 22

a2

Nq

=
2cos2 ( 45 +

) = 9.19

Ne= (Nq - l)cot<j> = 20.3


Kpy

= 29.0

from Table 6.1 in Section 6.5.1

Ny= tan<j>( Kpy 2 cos2<j>

1)

6.6

quit = l.3cNc + p 0 (Nq - 1) + 0.4yBNy + p


= 1.3 x 10 x 20.3 + 18 x (9.19 - 1) + 0.4 x 18 x 3 x 6.6
= 572kN/m2

Allowable bearing capacity

quit

= -

= -572
3

190kN/m

+ 18

Step 4 Calculate column load combinations


(See Section 6.3.)
Bearing pressure calculations

LC 1
LC3
LC 1:

=
=

I.ODL + I.OIL
1.0DL + 1.0/L + 1.0WL

Combined vertical column load, N = 610 + 480 = 1090kN


Hx = 0
Hy = 0
Mx = 0
My = 0

LC3 : N = vertical load = 1090 kN


Hx = 42kN
My= 105kNm
Note:

Mx = 0

By inspection, wind in one direction only may be checked for a square


foundation.
Bending moment and shear calculations
LC5 = 1.4DL
LC6 = 1.2DL
LC7 = 1.4DL
LC5 :

+ 1.6/L
+ 1.2/L + 1.2WL
+ 1.4WL

Nu = 1.4 x 610 + 1.6 x 480 = 1622 kN


Hxu = 0
Hyu = 0
Mxu = 0
M.vu

=0

Design of Pad Foundations 253


LC6 :

LC1:

Nu = 1.2 x 610 + 1.2 x 480 = 1308kN


Hxu = 1.2 X 42 = 50.4kN
Ryu = 0
Mxu = 0
Myu = 1.2 X 105 = 126kNm

= 1.4 x 610 = 854kN

Nu
Hxu

Myu

1.4 x 42 = 58.8kN
X 105 = 147kNm

Hyu

= 1.4

=0

Step 5 Calculate approximate settlement


This step may be ignored since the foundations are not connected by
ground beams and the differential settlements will have little effect on the
design of this foundation.
Step 6 Carry out analysis for bearing pressure

400x400 Column

Floor slab

[.

3000 x 3000

SK 6/35 Section through pad


foundation.

y
SK 6/36 Eccentric surcharge on
pad foundation on plan.

Weight of foundation

= 9m2
=

x 0.50m x 24kN/m3
108kN

Weight of backfill + ground slab

Surcharge on ground slab

9m2 x 0.50m x 18kN/m3 + 9m2


x 0.15m x 24kN/m3
113.4kN

= 5 kN/m2

Weight of surcharge on half foundation


Eccentricity of surcharge

= 0. 75 m

Weight of surcharge on full foundation


LC1: p

= total
=

= 4.5 m2

vertical load
1090 + 108 + 113.4
1356.4kN

+ 45

= 45 kN

5 kN/m 2

= 22.5 kN

254 Reinforced Concrete

Hx
LC3:

Hv

1090 + 108 + 113.4 + 22.5

= 1333.9kN

Hx = 42kN
My= 105kNm
Hy= 0
Mx.x = 0
M_v_v = 105 + 42 x 0.45 + 22.5 x 0.75 = 140.8kNm
Step 7 CalculaJe bearing pressure under foundation
(See Section 6.6.)
LC1:

1356.4
9

=- -

ex

= ---

= 150.7kN/m2 < 190kN/m2

Mvv
p

= 0.104m
p
Pl=

AB

1333.9

< A/6

= 0.50m

6Mvv

--

A 2B

6 x 140.8

=--+---9
9 x 3
= 179.5 kN/m 2 < 190 x 1.25
Note:

= 237 .5 kN/m 2

25% overstress on allowable bearing capacity may be allowed for combinations including wind.
Bearing pressures are within allowable limits.

Step 8 CalculaJe sliding resistance offoundation


Ignore passive resistance because horizontal movement of the foundation
should be avoided.
(See Section 6.5.3.)
Assume b = 17 from Table 6.6.

= 610 + 108 + 113.4 (dead load only) =


P = Ptanb = 831.4 X tan 17 = 254kN >
PH = qA tan <j> + cA

=
=

831.4 x tan22 + 10 x 9
426kN > P, = 254kN

Step 9 Check combined sliding and bearing


P = 1356.4kN

= 190kN/m2
Hx = 42kN
PH.x = 426kN

Pv

9m2

1710kN

831.4kN
l.5H

1.5

42

= 63kN

Design of Pad Foundations 255


P
Hx
1356.4
42
-+-=--+Pv
PHx
1710
426
= 0.89 < 1 OK

Step JO Carry out analysis of bearing pressure for bending moment and shear
LC5 : Nu = 1622 kN
Pu = Nu + 1.4 (foundation +backfill) + 1.6 (surcharge on backfill)
= 1622 + 1.4 x (108 + 113.4) + 1.6 x 45
= 2004kN
Hxu = 0
Hyu = 0
Mxxu = 0
Myyu = 0
LC6 :

Pu

Nu + 1.2 (foundation + backfill + surcharge)

= 1308 + 1.2 (108 + 113.4 + 22.5)


= 1601kN

Mxxu = 0
Myyu = My~ + Hxuh + Mju
= 126 + 50.4 x 0.45 + 1.2 x 22.5 x 0.75
= 168.9kNm
LC7 :

Pu = Nu + 1.4 (foundation + backfill)


= 854 + 1.4 (108 + 113.4)
= 1164kN
Mxxu = 0
Myyu = Myu + Hxuh
= 147 + 58.8 x 0.45
= 173.5kNm

Step 11 Cakulate bearing pressure for bending moment and shear

tr

400 x 400 Column

I
I

f tt ft ttf tf f tt

SK 6/37 Uniform bearing pressure


for load combination LC5

LCs:

2227kN/m2

Pu
2004
p =AB= - - = 222.7kN/m 2
9

Pu
6Mvyu
LC6: P1 =AB+ AzB

1601 6 x 168.9
=--+---9
27
=

177.9 + 37.5

3000 x 3000

I~
I

215.4kN/m2

256

Reinforced Concrete

nO<hlO Colu~
, _ _ I_

1.

11400 x 400 Column

[JI

I!-----~[JI
I.
.I

3000

_,

3000

u,404
kN/m2

SK 6/38 Bearing pressure for load combination


LC6

p2

SK 6/39 Bearing pressure for load combination


LC7.

_ ~ _ 6M.v.vu
AB
A 2B

140.4 kN/m2

Pu
6Mvvu
LC1: Pt =AB+ A;~

p2

1164
9

6 x 173.5
27

--+----

=
=

129.3

+ 38.5 = 167.8kN/m2

129.3 - 38.5

90.8 kN/m 2

Step 12 Calculate bending moments and shears in pad


LC5 : Downward load on pad= Pd
Pd =self-weight of pad +backfill + surcharge
Upward load on pad =Pu
Pu = pressure of ground on pad
(see Step 10).
3000
, .. 3. 2

400x400
Column

g
0

425 425

SK 6/40 Critical sections for


bending moment and shears on
plan of pad foundation.

Design of Pad Foundations 257

,..........., ' ' ,5,kN I rT],2

[.~rcharge
Floor slab

~??i4~~m~~i=::+o15

<;~;:~~iitKt~V;t:~:m;ii;;~/\:

sackti11

oso

050

SK 6/41 Calculation of Pd for


downward load on overhang.

Concrete of
pad foundation

Pd = (0.50 x 24

= 42.4kN/m

+ 0.50 x 18 + 0.15 x 24) x 1.4 + (5 kN/m 2 ) x 1.6

Pu = 222.7kN/m 2 constant

SK 6/42 Typical loading on pad


foundation overhang at section
1-1.

Cantilever overhang at section 1-1


.

Bendmg moment at sect10n 1

M1

1500 - 200

(Pu - Pd)B/2

Shear at section 1

1300 mm

=l

2
180.3 x 3 x 1.32
2
457.1 kNm

= V1 = (Pu - Pd)Bl
=

180.3 x 3 x 1.3

= 703.2kN

Assume d

425 mm

=
Shear at section 3 = V3 =
Shear at section 2

V2

(Pu - Pd)B(l - 0.425)

= 473.3kN

(Pu - Pd)B(l - 2 x 0.425)

= 243.4kN

258

Reinforced Concrete

02
2154

1404

SK 6/43 Loading on overhang of


pad foundation due to LC6

LC6 : Pressure at section 1-1


Pd

= 177.9 +

37.5 x 0.2
1.5

= 182.9kN/m

= 1.2(0.50 x 24 + 0.50 x 18 + 0.15 x 24 + 5) = 35.5kN/m2

1 32
Bending moment = M 1 = (182.9 - 35.5) x 3 x ~

+ (215.4 - 182.9) x 0.5 x 1.3 x 3 x

32 x

1.3

= 428.6kNm

The shears at sections 1, 2 and 3 need not be checked. By inspection they


will be less critical than LC5
LC7 need not be checked. By inspection it will not be critical.
Step 13 Determine cover to reinforcement
From SI report, total S03 = 0.5%
Class of exposure = 3
(See write-up of Step 13 in Section 6.7.)
75 mm blinding concrete will be used.
Minimum cover on blinding concrete = 50 mm
Assume 16 mm diameter HT Type 2 deformed bars.
Effective depth of top layer (symmetrical reinforcement in both directions),
d = 500 - 50 - 16 - 8 = 426 mm
Step 14 Calculate area of tensik reinforcement
Maximum bending moment on section 1-1 = 457 .1 kNm

457.1 x 10

= - -2 =
fcubd

z = d[ o.5 +

30

J(

3000

0.25 -

426 2

0~) Js

= 0.028
o.95d

( LC5 )

Design of Pad Foundations 259

d[ 0.5 +

=
A

J(

0.25 -

0~~!8 ) J = 0.95

x 426 = 405 mm

M
457.1 x 106
- --- - ------st -

0.87 fyZ

0.87

= 2820mm

460

405

Use 15 no. 16 dia. Type 2 HT bars in each direction (3015 mm 2).


Distribution of tension reinforcement
(See write-up of Step 14 in Section 6.7.)
Cx = Cy= 400mm
dx = 500 - 50 - 8 = 442mm
dy = 500 - 50 - 16 - 8 = 426 mm

1.5(Cy + 3dy) = 2517mm <Ly = 3000mm


1.5(Cx + 3dx) = 2589mm <Ix= 3000mm

- A.1 = - x 2820 = 1880 mm2

Reinforcement over central Cy

+ 3dy(1678 mm) and Cx + 3dx(l 726 mm)

1880
= - - = 1120mm2 /m
1.678

2-cj>16 equally
spaced

2t16 equally

spaced

SK 6/44 Distribution of
reinforcement in pad foundation.

Use 11 no. 16mm dia. bars at 175mm centres (1149mm 2 /m) over the
central zone in each direction.
Use 2 no. 16mm dia. bars on each side outside the central zone.
Total number of 16 mm bars used= 15(3015 mm 2 )
All bars are HT Type 2.

260 Reinforced Concrete


Step 15 Check shear stress
(See Step 12 - LC5 .)

Check

V1

V1
= bd
::;

0.8 y1/cu or

703.2 x 103
X 426

= 3000
Check

5 N/mm
I

O , !+"

= .55N mm < .8 YJcu

V2

bd ::; 2vc

V2 =

473.3 x 103
3000 x 426

0.37 N/mm

A,1 = 15 no. 16mm dia. bars = 3015mm2

Use larger d (442mm) for calculation of p.


100As1
bd

p=--

= 100 x 3015 = 0.23%


3000 x 442
From Fig. 11.3 for fcu

= 30N/mm2 ,

0.42 N/mm 2 > v2

Ve =

No more shear checks are necessary.


Step 16 Check punching shear
(See write-up of Step 14 in Section 6.7.)
dx

= 442mm

d = 0.5 (442

V 0 = 2 (Cx
V1

dy

= 426mm

+ 426)

434mm

+ Cy) = 2(400 + 400) = 1600mm

= (V + 12d) = 1600 + 12
0

434 = 6808mm

or 5N/mm 2
(See Step 4 - LC5 .)

Nu = 1622kN
V0

1622 x 103
1600 x 434

2.34N/mm < 0.8yfcu

(see Step 12)


= 180.3 kN/m 2
A I = (ex + 3.0dx)( c. + 3.0d.)
= (400 + 3.o x 4Z6)(4oo -i- 3.o x 442) x 10- 6

Pt

= Pu -

Pd

= 2.90m 2

Design of Pad Foundations 261

Vi=

Ve

Nu - P1A1
Uid
(1622 - 180.3 x 2.9) x 103
6808 x 434
0.37N/mm2 OK

=
= 0.42N/mm2

(from Step 15)

Step 17 Check minimum reinforcement for .fkxure


Minimum tensile reinforcement = 0.0013bh

= 0.0013

x 3000 x 500
= 1950mm2 < 3015mm2
provided

No top tension in pad foundation.


Step 18 Check spacing of reinforcement
Percentage reinforcement p = 0.23%
(see Step 15)
Maximum spacing = 750 mm not exceeded
Step 19 Check early thermal cracking
(See write-up of Step 19 in Section 6.7.)

= 0.15,

say

Ti= 28C

ex = 12 x 10-6 ;oc

= 0.8TicxR
= 0.8 x 28 x 12 x 10- 6 x 0.15
= 4.032 x 10- 5
x = h/2 = 250 mm (assumed)
2
2
acr = y'(74 + 137.5 ) - 8 = 148mm
Er

Wmax =

l + ( 2( acr

Cmin) )

h-x
3 x 148 x 4.032 x 10-5
1

2(148 - 66))

+ ( 500 - 250

= 0.01 mm <

0.3 mm

Step 20 Check minimum reinforcement to distribute thermal cracking


(See write-up of Step 20 in Section 6. 7.)

Top reinforcement

= 0.00175bh

= 0.00175
=

x 3000 x 500
2625 mm 2 over 3000 mm

262

Reinforced Concrete
Bottom reinforcement

=
=

=
Note:

0.35b
0.35 x 3000
1050mm 2

If thermal cracking has to be avoided, then a top mesh of 16 dia. bars at

200 c/c should be provided. This may seem unnecessary in the present
circumstances since the pad will be fully buried in the ground.
Step 21

Check crack width due to jkxure


A

Fl!= 296 kN/m2

,
~ =18kN/m3

13m

AxB
3000 x 3000

SK 6/45 Pressure diagram for serviceability


limit state.

SK 6/46 Calculation of net foundation pressure


at serviceability limit state.

Serviceability limit state


Loading condition LC 1 (See Step 7.)

Pu

Pd

150.7kN/m2
0.5 x 24 + 0.5 x 18 + 0.15 x 24 + 5

M = (Pu - Pd)B/

= 29.6kN/m2

(150.7 - 29.6) x 3 x 1.32


2
As= 3015mm 2

m = 15

= [(

307kNm

b = 3000mm

m:sr + 2m:sd]t _m:s


2

[(
=

z=

d = 426mm

15 x 3015) + 2 x 15 x 3015 x 426]! - 15 x 3015


3000
3000
3000

99mm
x
3

99
= 393 mm
3

d - - = 426 - -

M
307 x 106
f,5 = - =
= 259N/mm2
zAs
393 X 3015

Design of Pad Foundations 263

E
s

fh

fmh

fs
E,

259
200

x HP

1.295

10-3

x) Es = (500
- 99) x 1.295 x 10- 3 = 1.588 x 10- 3
426 - 99

h -= (-

d- x

Eh -

b(h - x) 2
3EsAs(d - x)

= 1.588 x 10- 3 Cmin =

llcr =

3000

3 x 200 x 103 x 3015 x (426 - 99)

50 + 16 = 66 mm

148mm

x (500 - 99) 2

= 0.773 x 10- 3

for second layer

(see Step 19)

3acr Emh
Wmax = - - - - - - 2( llcr - Cmin)

~---~

h-x
3 x 148 x 0.773 x 10- 3
2(148 - 66)
1
+ 500 - 99
= 0.24 mm

Note:

< 0.3 mm OK

The crack width should be checked if the foundation level is below the
water table and the total S03 is higher than 1% .

Step 22 Design mass concrete foundation


Not required.
Step 23 Calculate settlement
Load combination LC 13 : (See Section 6.3.)
LC 13
P

1.0DL

= 610 + 0.5

+ 0.5/L

(vertical loads only)

x 480 + 108 + 113.4 + 22.5

= 1093.9kN

SK 6/47 Calculation of settlement.

Layer 1
-,Z
Layer 2 Wat r Table--;
Layer 3

-1'.

264 Reinforced Concrete

Gross foundation pressure

p
AB

= 121.5 kN/m 2

Weight of soil removed = ABDy = 3 x 3 x 1 x 18 = 162 kN

qn = net foundation pressure = 121.5 A


B

A= B

162
9

= 103.5 kN/m2

3m

Complete the settlement computation table up to Z = 2.5B.


Ground water table at 2.0 m below ground level
Total settlement = 24.53 mm
ckd = cone resistance (kg/cm 2)
C = 147 Ckd/Po

o, = vertical stress at centre of layer (kN/m 2 )


Z = depth to centre of layer
h = height of ground water above centre of layer
Po= P - Ywh
o, is obtained from Fig. 6.2.
Note:

Check whether this long-term predicted settlement is going to cause any


problem elsewhere in the structural system.

Step 24 Design connection of pad to column (see Chapter 10)


Example 6.2 RC pad with multiple columns
Foundation for the braced columns.

Unfactored loads from the columns.

600

356x171x51UB

I
+

--
--::
+
1000

6000
SK 6/48 Combined pad foundation for a braced
bay.

ROOF LEG

+
2 x4-32+

H.D. BOLTS

CRANE LEG

SK 6/49 Typical arrangement of steel columns


at braced bay.

-------

------

Design of Pad Foundations

265

Settlement computation table for Example 6.1


H

ZIB

Ozfqn

a,

ckd

Po

S (mm)

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5

0.167
0.5
0.833
1.167
1.5
1.8333
2.167
2.5

0.8
0.52
0.35
0.22
0.16
0.10
0.08
0.075

82.8
53.82
36.22
22.77
16.56
10.35
8.28
7.76

35
35
35
65
65
90
90
120

0
0.5

27
40
48
56

190
129
107
170
149
184
165
200

7.38
6.61
5.25
2.00
1.54
0.73
0.60
0.42

1.5

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5

64
72

80
88

Loading table for Example 6.2


Columns

DL

v
Al
A2
Bl
B2

+80
+80
+50
+50

IL

+40
+40
+20
+20

WL 1 =transverse wind

CLV
H

+900

CLH

WL 1

WL 2
H

+200 12 +105 9 +50 25


+105 9 50 25
200 12 105 9 +50 25
105 9 50 25

WL 2 = longitudinal wind

600 mm x 300 mm wide ground beam to carry 230 mm brickwork 3 m high.


Suitable bearing stratum at 1200 mm below ground level.
Finished floor level is 150 mm above finished ground level.
Stiff to very stiff clay layer.

Step I

Select type and depth of foundation


Type: Reinforced concrete pad foundation - combined 2 sets of columns.
Length of 32 mm diameter HD bolts anchorage assembly= 400 mm.
The bottom of grout under base plate will be 500 mm below finished floor
level.
It is easier for construction if the HD bolt is in the pedestal.
Height of pedestal = 1000 mm say
Thickness of pad = 650 mm assumed
Underside of base at 1650mm below floor level which is 1500mm below
finished ground level.

Step 2 Select approximate size


Size of pedestal = 1400 mm x 2500 mm
Presumed allowable bearing capacity from BS 8004: 1986121= 200 kN/m 2
Assume a projection of 1750mm around the pedestals. The trial size

266 Reinforced Concrete


1

200

200
B

~--

+
I
I

f-

I
I

60()
+

L _ f-

lt

200
200

+
A

-- -

--

f-

I
I

i
!

+
I
I

600

+
200

- ,I

'

:f

Finished floor

0
0

0
...,
I ...,0

0
0

0
0

300

LGr=d
beam

SK 6/50 Typical detail of column


base and pedestal on plan.

STIFFENER

l~el

{S
-0-500

PEDESTAL

SK 6/51 Typical section through


pedestal column connection.

becomes 11000 x 6000. This is based on experience and may need some
revision after all the calculations are carried out.
Determine minimum thickness of pad.
Ultimate vertical load on pad through one pedestal =
Nu = 1.4 x (80 + 80 + 50 + 50) + 1.6 x (900)
= 1850 kN
including weight of pedestal
U0

= 2(Cx +

Cy)

=2

C, = U0 !6 = 1300mm
C2 = Nulvc = 1850/0.4

(1400

+ 2500) = 7800mm

= 4265 mm2

Design of Pad Foundations 267


1400

Finished floor level

-------1

0
0

1--------1

52

I 8

-!--!!.' j

r-------

1-

600 deep
Ground beam

.I

6000
SK 6/52 Elevation of pad foundation.

2
0

In

CD

I.

SK 6/53 Section through pad


foundation.

Ve

= 0.4N/mm2 assumed for

d = 0.5(( CI

+ 4C2)" 5

/cu

6000x11000

= 30N/mm 2

Ci) = 3.5 mm

Punching shear will not be critical.


Step 3 Calculate bearing capacity of soil
Note:

This step may not be necessary if the soils investigation report includes the
allowable bearing capacity calculations for different sizes of foundation.
From field and laboratory tests the following soil parameters of the bearing
stratum are known.

y =unit weight of soil= 19 kN/m 3


Ground water table= 2.0m below ground level
h = 0

(ground water table below the level of foundation)

Purely cohesive bearing stratum.


Quu

= cNc + p

p = overburden pressure = yD = 19 x 1.5 m = 28.5 kN/m2

c = cohesive strength = 75 kN/m 2

268

Reinforced Concrete

B = 6.0m

D = l.5m
Ne= 6.7
quit

= 0.25

from Table 6.2 in Section 6.5.1

= 75 X 6.7 + 28.5 = 531 kN/m

Allowable bearing capacity =

Step 4

q;u =

177kN/m2

Calculate column load combinations


LC 1 = l.ODL + I.OIL + l.OEP + l.OCLV + l.OCLH

Ecc.,
Load Combination no. Column no. Vertical Ecc.,
case
load, V ex (m) ey (m)
(kN)
no.
LC1

1
DL+ IL+ CLV
+CLH

Al
A2
Bl
B2

Totals

-80
120
1170
70

-3.0
3.0
-3.0
3.0

-0.5
-0.5
+0.5
+0.5

1280

LC 1 2
DL+IL + CLV
-CLH

Al
A2
Bl
B2

Totals

320
120
770
70

-3.0
3.0
-3.0
3.0

-0.5
-0.5
0.5
0.5

1280

Vex
(kNm)

Vey
(kNm)

+240
+360
-3510
+210

+40
-60
+585
+35

+12

-2700

+600

+24

-960
+360
-2310
+210

-160
-60
+385
+35

-12

-2700

+200

-24

Hx
(kN)

Hy
(kN)

+12

-12

LC2 = l.ODL + l.OEP + l.OCL V + l.OCLH + l.OWL 1 (or l.OWL 2 )


(total 8 possible combinations)

Load Combination no. Column no. Vertical Ecc.,


Ecc.,
case
load, V ex (m) ey (m)
no.
(kN)

Vex
(kNm)

Vey
(kNm)

Al
A2
Bl
B2

+675
-75
-3765
+465

+113
+13
+628
+78

+21
+9
+21
+9

-2700

+832

60

+210
+90
-3600

+35
-15
+600

-25
-25
-25
-25

-3300

+620

-100

LC2
DL+CLV
+CLH+ WL 1

Totals
LC2

2
DL+CLV
+CLH-WL 2
Totals

-225
-25
1255
155

-3.0
3.0
-3.0
3.0

-0.5
-0.5
0.5
0.5

1160
Al
A2
Bl
B2

-70
+30
1200
0
1160

-3.0
3.0
-3.0
3.0

-0.5
-0.5
0.5
0.5

Hx
(kN)

Hy
(kN)

+12
+12

+24

270

Reinforced Concrete
Weight of backfill = (6 x 11 - 1.4 x 2.5) x 0.85m x 18kN/m3
= 956kN
Weight of ground slab (150mm) = (4 x 11) x 0.15 x 25kN/m 3
= 165kN
Eccentricity, ey =

+ 1.0 m

SK 6/55 Plan of foundation showing areas of superimposed loads.

Surcharge on ground slab@ 25kN/m2 = 4 x 11 x 25 = llOOkN


Eccentricity, ey = 1.0m
Weight of ground beams + brickwork = (12 - 2.8) m x 0.3 m x 0.6 m x
25 kN/m 3 (ground beams)
+3m x 0.23m x 22kN/m 3
(brickwork)
= 224kN
Eccentricity, e_v = -1.15 m
Differential settlement = lOmm
60/
M = - - = 126kNm
y

t2

E = 14 x 106 kN/m2

Beam size

= 300 mm

assumed (see Step 5)

for each beam

long-term Young's modulus

x 600 mm

12oE/ 2Mv
Beam end reactions = - -3 = --/
l
252
= = 42kN
6
Moment on the foundation= 2 x (-126) + (-42 x 6) = -504kNm
Note:

There are many possible alternatives of the differential settlement. The


worst, from the point of view of bearing pressure considering other loadings,
is found by inspection.

Design of Pad Foundations 269


Note:

Most of the other combinations can be ignored by inspection. Also by


inspection it is clear that load cases LC3 and LC4 will not produce more
onerous design.

Step 5 Calculate approximate seukment


(See Method 1 in Section 6.5.2.)

Soil parameter required from soil investigation report


Assume this is not available.
From Table 6.5 of Section 6.5.2, assume
mv

= mv

m2 /MN

= 0.15 m2/MN

Consolidation settlement

= mvOzH

q" = average pressure = 50kN/m2 assumed

= 0.55qn = 27.5 kN/m 2


= width of foundation = 6 m

Oz

l.5B

= 9.0m

0.15
Settlement = mvOzH = - - x 27.5 x 9.0 x 1000 = 37mm
1000
Assume quarter of this predicted settlement as differential settlement. This
is because the predicted maximum settlement is 40mm, say, the minimum
settlement is half (i.e. 20mm) and the average settlement is 30mm, so the
average differential settlement is 10 mm (40 - 30).
Differential settlement = 10 mm

42kNi 42kNi

42kNi
c!skNm

10mm differllntial
settlllmllnt

10mro diffllrllntial
settlllment

SK 6154 Loads and moments due to differential settlement of pad foundation.

Step 6 Carry out analysis for bearing pressure

Self-weight of foundation

=2 x
=

1.4 x 2.5 x 1.0 X 25 kN/m 3 (pedestal) +


6 x 11 x 0.65 x 25kN/m3 (base)
1248kN

Design of Pad Foundations

Load case

Load type

LC 1
Combination 1

LC1

Column vertical
Column horizontal
Foundation self-weight
Backfill
Ground slab
Surcharge on slab
Ground beam
Differential settlement
Totals

Load case

LC2

1280
1248
956
165
1100
224

Column vertical
Column horizontal
Foundation self-weight
Backfill
Ground slab
Surcharge on slab
Ground beam
Differential settlement
Totals

Mx

My

Hx

Hy

(kNm)

(kNm)

(kN)

(kN)

+600
+28

-2700
+24

+165
+1100
-258
-504

4973

Load type

LC2
Combination 2

Vertical,
V(kN)

271

Vertical,
V(kN)
1160
1248
956
165
1100
224

+1635

-3204

Mx

My

Hx

Hy

(kNm)

(kNm)

(kN)

(kN)

+620
+28

-3300
-115

-100

+24

-100

+24

+24

+165
+1100
-258
-504

4853

+1655

-3919

llOm

1
~t
x

Mx
SK 6156 Sign convention of
positive forces on foundation.

Note:

y
-Hx

-B-)-B

1
E

x <;>
U)

The foundations are connected by ground beams in the x-direction. The


horizontal force Hx may be distributed equally among all connected foundations. For the sake of conservatism this has not been done.

272

Reinforced Concrete
Step 7 Calculate bearing pressures

p4

Pi

II

A= 11

p3

P2

SK 6/57 Footprint of foundation.

SK 6/58 Bearing pressure locations.

LCt:

p )
p = ( AB
Pt

= (

4973 ) + (6 x 1635) + (6 x 3204)


6 x 11
11 x 62
11 2 x 6

= 75
=

(6Mx)
(6Mv)
AB2
Az~

+ 25 + 26

126kN/m2 < 177kN/m2

(see Step 3)

Similarly,

P2
p3
p4

- 25 + 26 = 76kN/m2
2
= 75 - 25 - 26 = 24kN/m
= 75 + 25 - 26 = 74kN/m2

= 75

LC2: Pt = 74 + 25 +32 = 131 kN/m 2


P2 = 81kN/m2
p 3 = 17kN/m2
p4 = 67kN/m 2
All bearing pressures are within allowable limit.
Step 8 Calculate sliding resistance of foundation
Check sliding between concrete and soil: ignore passive resistance.
Assume very aggressive soil and membrane tanking is used.
Assume b = 5

tanb

= 0.09

Hx

lOOkN

Hy= 24kN

Load case LC2


Frictional resistance

= Ptan b = 4853 x 0.09 = 437 kN > Hx and Hy

.
. =
F actor o f saf ety agamst
s11dmg

437
2
y'(Hx2 + Hv)

= 4.2

OK

Check horizontal bearing capacity of soil:


For cohesive soil,
PHu = cA = 75 X 6 X 11 = 4950 kN

437

Design of Pad Foundations

Pttx

Pttv

273

PHu

= -1.5 = 3300kN

Step 9 Check combined sliding and bearing


Load case LC2

= 4853kN
Pv = allowable

Hx = lOOkN

Hy= 24kN

bearing capacity x area = 177 x 66 = 11682 kN


4853
100
24
-+-+- =--+--+-Pv
Pttx
Ptty
11682
3300
3300
= 0.45 < 1 okay
P

Hx

Hv

Step 10 Carry out analysis of bearing pressure for bending moment and shear
Ultimate column load combinations
Load Combination no. Column no. Vertical Ecc.,
case
load,
ex
no.
V(kN)
(m)
Al
A2
Bl
B2

LC9
l.4DL
+1.4CLV
+l.4CLH

Totals

-168
+112
+1610
+70

-3.0
3.0
-3.0
3.0

Ecc.,

Vex

Vey

Hx

Hy

(m)

(kNm)

(kNm)

(kN)

(kN)

-0.5
-0.5
+0.5
+0.5

+504
+336
-4830
+210

+84
-56
+805
+35

-3780

+868

ey

+1624

+16.8
+16.8

+33.6

Ultimate loads on foundation

Load case Combination

LC9

1.4DL
+l.4CLV
+l.4CLH

Load type

Column vertical
Column horizontal
Foundation self-weight
Backfill
Ground slab
Ground beam
Differential settlement
Totals

Note:

Vertical, V
(kN)
1624
1747
1338
231
314

Mx

My

Hx

Hy

(kNm)

(kNm)

(kN)

(kN)

+868
+38.6

-3780
33.6

+231
-361
-706

5254

+776.6

-4486

33.6

It is most important that a complicated loading system on a multiple


column foundation should be investigated in a structured manner using
tables as shown. Otherwise mistakes will creep in.
Only one load case has been analysed to show the method. All other
load cases should be similarly investigated.

274

Reinforced Concrete
Step 11

CalculoJe bearing pressure for bending moment and shear


Load case LC9
Pi =

P2

Note:

129 [

(5254) +
66

= 80 +
= 80 -

p3 =

p4

P) + (6Mx)
(6Mv)
(AB
AB
+ A ~

(6 x 776.6) + (6 x 4486)
11 x 62

12 + 37

=
=

11 2 x 6

129kN/m2

12 + 37
105kN/m2
80 - 12 - 37 = 31kN/m 2
80 + 12 - 37 = 55kN/m2

Pressures for load case LC9 only have been calculated to show the method. In
an actual design, other load cases should also be investigated.

t i TI:r=i 55

~-_,_ _ _ ,.,.a. ._! --.1- ~


31

105

1OS

[fI__J_.l..--'c..---::J 31

SK 6/59 Bearing pressure


diagrams for load case LC9

Step 12 CalculoJe bending moments and shears in pad


Load case LC9
Find pressures at critical sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 as shown. They are p.,
p 2 , p3, p4, etc.

Average pressures at section 1 = Pt


Assume d = 550 mm
Distance from y-y axis = 4.8m = x 1

Pt.av = (;B) + (1~~:t)


12 x 4486 x 4.8
=80+----113 x 6
=

112kN/m2

Similarly,

Design of Pad Foundations 275


110m
y
P,

P4
700

3000

' rt4- ' 4-

........

E
9 x
ID

3000

+-

P2

SSm
1 2 3

d:SSO
SK 6/(i() Bearing pressure
locations on plan and critical
sections for bending moment and
shear.

P2.av
P3,av
P4.av

Ps.av
P6,av
P7.av

d:

. .+ -

48m

P3

y
5
y

700

'

= 109kN/m2

= 105 kN/m 2
= 96kN/m2
= 80 kN/m2
= 64 kN/m2

= 55 kN/m2

Average pressures at edges are 117kN/m2 and 43kN/m2


Pd

= downward load on pad (ultimate)


= self-weight of foundation + backfill
= (0.65 m x 25 kN/m3 + 0.85 m x 18 kN/m 3)
=

x 1.4

44 kN/m2 uniform excluding ground slab

Equivalent weight of ground slab acting on half the foundation width


= 0.5 x 0.15m x 25kN/m3 x 1.4
= 3kN/m2
Total downward load

47 kN/m2

Draw net pressure diagram.

276 Reinforced Concrete


2300

2300
y

12'

Critical sections

~d4
t

ro~
49

33

SK 6/61 Net bearing pressure


diagram to find bending moments
and shears - load case LC.J.
2

58 x 1.82 + (70 - 58)1.8


2
3
642kNm

Bending moment at section 3 = 6 x [

=
LC9 :

Column loads on A 1

Weight of pedestal
123 kN (factored)

+ B1

= (1610 - 168) = 1442kN (factored)

1.4 x 1.4 m x 2.5 m x 1.0 m x 25 kN/m 3 =

.
Bendmg moment at section 5

= 6m

[33 x 5.5
2

(70 - 33) x 5.5


3

- (1442 + 123) x 3m
= 538kNm (no top tension)
.
.
Bendmg moment at section 7

6m

(8 x 1.8
12 x 1.8
2
3

= OkNm
Shear at section 1

0.7]
6 m x [ (70 + 65) x 2

= 284kN
. 2
Shear at sectmn

6m x [ (62

1.25]
+ 70) x 2

= 495kN

Shear at section 3

Shear at section 4

= 6m

x [ (70

691kN

6 m x [ (70

-423kN

18

+ 58) x ; ]

32

+ 49) x ; ] - (1442 + 123)

Design of Pad Foundations 277


Note:

It is useful to draw the bending moment diagram for the load case.

Similarly bending moments and shears should be calculated for all load
cases and all critical sections parallel to the x-x and y-y axes following
the recommendations in Step 12 of Section 6. 7.
Step 13 Determine cover to reinforcement
Follow Step 13 of Section 6.7.
Step 14 Calculate area of tension reinforcement and distribution
Follow Step 14 of Section 6.7.
Step 15 to Step 23
Similar to Example 6.1.
Note:

The numerous other checks required in Step 15 to Step 23 in this example


are not shown for brevity. They have already been shown in Example 6.1.

Example 6.3 Mass concrete pad - side bearing in cohesive soils


Foundation for roadside signpost.
32m

"'
E
0

Pi

SK 6/62 Roadside signpost.

Vertical load = 18 kN
Horizontal wind shear = 4.5 kN
Bending moment due to wind = 25 kNm
Size of columns = 203 x 203 x 46 kg/m UC
Size of base plate = 400 x 400
Size of foundation bolts = 4 no. M24
Bolt spacing = 300 mm
Soil condition is stiff to very stiff clay.
Step 1 Select type and depth of foundation

278

Reinforced Concrete

50 Grout

SK 6/63 Details of column base

plate.
0
0

en

600 x 600
SK 6/64 First trial of a side

bearing mass concrete foundation.

Step 2 Select approximate size


Assume 100 mm projection on all sides of base plate.
The foundation size selected is 600 x 600 x 900 deep.
Note:

This foundation will be designed as side bearing for the horizontal load
and the applied moment. The vertical load will be carried by the direct
bearing on the soil. It is very important that this foundation is cast against
the soil.

Step 3 Calculate bearing capacity of soil

19 kN/m 3

unit weight of soil

total overburden pressure at foundation level

= yD = 19 x 0.9 = 17.lkN/m2
h

= height

Po=
c

D
B

of water above foundation level

= 0m

= 17.lkN/m2

= minimum undrained soil cohesion = 150 kN /m 2


0.9
0.6

Ne= 9.1

1.5
from Table 6.2 in Section 6.5.1

Design of Pad Foundations 279


quit= 9.1

150

+ 17.1 = 1382.lkN/m2
11

Allowable vertical bearing capacity = q~ = 460kN/m 2


Maximum horizontal bearing capacity is the ultimate passive resistance of
soil given by the following equation:
q,. = Po tan 2 ( 45 + <j>/2) + 2c tan (45 + <j>/2)
= 2c at ground level for <I> = 0 and p 0 = 0
= 300kN/m2
Step 4 Calculate column load combination
(See Section 6.3.)
For bearing pressure calculations:
LC3

l.ODL

N = 18kN

+ 1.0/L + l.OWL
Hx = 4.5kN

Mx = 25kNm

My= 0

For bending moment and shear calculations:


LC1

l.4DL

N = 25.2kN

+ 1.4WL
Hx = 6.3kN

Mx = 35kNm

Step 5 Calculate approximate settlement


This step can be ignored.
Step 6 Carry out analysis for bearing pressure
Self-weight of foundation= 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.9m x 25kN/m3 = 8.lkN

P = 18 + 8.1 = 26.lkN

Hx = 4.5kN

Mx

= 25kNm

Step 7 Calculate bearing pressures


Soil is stiff to very stiff clay.
Determine horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction.
Assume

ks; =

14MN/m3

(see Table 6.7 in Section 6.5.1)

B = width of foundation = 0.6 m


K

h -

Note:

k
14
1.5B - 1.5 x 0.6

_si_ -

15.5 MN/m3

Horizontal load and vertical load are treated separately to find the bearing
pressures. It is assumed that the vertical load will be carried uniformly on
the base; size 600mm x 600mm. The horizontal load and moment will be
carried by side bearing in the manner shown.
Assumptions:
(1) Foundation block is fully rigid.

280

Reinforced Concrete

)(

><
I

.c
d(h-x)

155MN/m3
155 d (h-x) MN/m2
MODULUS OF
x
SUBGRADE REACTION
PRESSURE

DISPLACEMENT

SK 6/65 Displacement and pressure diagrams of side-bearing foundation in


cohesive soil.

(2) Displacement d at top of foundation when subjected to bending moment


Mx and horizontal shear Hx.
(3) Conservatively, that there is no net horizontal movement of whole
foundation block. Moment and horizontal force are resisted by rotation
only. The pressure diagram will be as shown if x is depth from ground
level of point of rotation.
(4) Neglect friction on sides of foundation block.
(5) Neglect contribution from non-uniform pressure distribution on bottom
surface of foundation.
P

= 0.5KhBxd =

= 0.5KhB(h

4.65dx MN

- x) 2

f:_

= 4.65(h

- x) 2 q_MN
x

h = 0.9m

H = applied horizontal load = 4.5 kN = 0.0045 MN

Considering horizontal load equilibrium:


P

H + Q

or 4.65d [ x -

or

P - Q

(0 9 - x)
x

=
]

= 4.5

x 10- 3

Taking moment about the foundation level:

P( h -

~)

- Q(h

3- x) -

or 4.65dx(h - :_) 3

M - Hh =

3
4 65
d(h - x)
3x

0
= 25

x 10- 3 + 4.5 x 10-3 x 0.9

Design of Pad Foundations 281

Solving for the two unknowns d and x using a computer-assisted equation


solver.
Displacement = d = 22 mm
Point of rotation, x = 460 mm
Maximum allowable shear stress in mass concrete
0.925N/mm 2
P

= 0.037!cu

= 4.65dx = 47 .3 kN

x) 2 (~)

Q = 4.65(h -

42.SkN

Maximum horizontal pressure on the soil = 15.5dMN/m2


22
= 15.5 x 1000 x - - kN/m2
1000
2
= 341kN/m
This pressure is higher than the unconfined compressive strength of soil,
which is 300kN/m2 To prevent local heave of soil, revise size of foundation
to 900 mm x 900 mm x 1300 mm.
14

K--'-'h - 1.5B - _1._5_x-0.-9


P

= 0.5KhBxd

0.5KhB(h - x) 2

10.4MN/m3

d
-

P-Q=H
h = 1.3m

25kNm

= 4.5kN

B = 0.9m

By solving the above equations,

P = 34.5kN
d = 11.0mm
x = 673mm
Q = 30.0kN
p = 114kN/m2 maximum pressure< 300kN/m2 ultimate pressure
Factor of safety on ultimate =
Note:

300
= 2.63
114

The displacement of 11 mm at ground level will mean 130 mm displacement


at top of an 8000mm high structure. This should be checked for clearances
or other obstructions.
Revised weight of foundation= 26.3 kN

282 Reinforced Concrete

----

M=25kNm

H= 45kN
114kN/m2

45kN

25kNm

....

tO

30kN

....

tO

x
900
~
DIAGRAM

106 kN/m2
PRESSURE
DIAGRAM

SHEAR
DIA!;lRAM

MOMENT
DIAGRAM

SK 6/66 Diagrams at serviceability limit state.

.
.
Vertical Bearmg Pressure

= -p =
A

44.3
0.9 x 0.9

= 54.7kN/m2 <

460kN/m

Step 8 Calculate sliding resistance


Not required.
Step 9 Check combined sliding and bearing
Not required.
Step 10 Carry out analysis of bearing pressure for bending moment and shear
Not required.
Step 11 to Step 21
Not required.
Step 22 Design mass concrete foundation
Use C25 concrete !cu = 25 N/mm 2

Maximum allowable tension in bending


l.85N/mm 2
Maximum bending moment
Maximum shear

= 25 kNm

= 0.37\I!cu = 0.37 x
approximately

= 30.0 kN

Section modulus, Z =

G) x 900

= 1.215

Bending tensile stress in mass concrete

x 108 mm 3

25x106

1.215 x 10

= - = - - - - -8
=

0.20N/mm 2

Allowable bending tensile stress = 1.85 N/mm 2 OK

(25)2

Design of Pad Foundations 283

Shear stress=

30 x 1()3
900 x 900

= 0.037N/mm 2 < 0.925N/mm2 OK

Example 6.4 Mass concrete pad - side bearing in cohesionless soils


Same loading and example as in Example 6.3. Soil is dense sandy gravel
with <I>= 35.
Step 1 Select type and depth of foundation
Similar to Step 1 in Example 6.3.
Step 2 Select approximate size
Choose 1000 x 1000 x 1500 deep foundation.
Note:

In cohesionless soil the size of the foundation will be larger than in


cohesive soil because the allowable horizontal bearing capacity at higher
levels is lower. It will be very difficult to cast this foundation against the
soil because the sides of the excavation may not stay vertical. It will be
necessary to have well compacted granular backfill using mechanical
compactors.

Step 3 Calculate bearing capacity of soil


B = lm
y = unit weight of soil = 18kN/m3

p = total overburden pressure at foundation level = 18 x 1.5 m =

27kN/m 2
Po = p - Ywh = 27kN/m 2

ash= 0

c=O
<I>

= angle

of internal friction

= 35

a = e(0.751t-<j>/2) tan <I> = 4.20


a2

Nq =

2
2cos ( 45 +
Kp.v = 82.0

from Table 6.1 in Section 6.5.1

Ny = 0.5 tan <1>(

quit

K~v

cos <j>

= 1.3cNc + p

- 1) = 42.4

+ 0.4yBNy + p
+ 0.4 x 18 x 1 x 42.4 + 27

(Nq - 1)

27 (41.4 - 1)
= 1423kN/m2

~)

= 41.4

Allowable vertical bearing capacity = q;

11

474 kN/m2

284 Reinforced Concrete


Maximum horizontal bearing capacity is ultimate passive resistance of soil
given by the following equation:
qh = Po tan

45

~)

+ 2c tan( 45 +

~)

= yh tan

45

~)

= 66hkN/m2
Step 4 Calculate column load combination
See Step 4 of Example 6.3.
Step 5 Calculate approximate settlement
Can be ignored.
Step 6 Carry out analysis for bearing pressure
Self-weight of foundation = 1 x 1 x 1.5 x 25 kN/m 3
P = 37.5

Hx

+ 18

37.5 kN

55.5kN

Mx

4.5kN

25kNm

Step 7 Calculate bearing pressures


Assumptions:
(1) Foundation is rigid.
(2) Foundation carries part of moment and total horizontal shear by side
bearing up to ultimate horizontal bearing pressure of 66Z kN/m2 (see
Step 3).
(3) Residual moment is carried by bottom surface of foundation as a
variable pressure on surface. Factor of safety against overturning will
be 1.5 or more.
(4) Rotational deformation of foundation is proportional to distance from
point of rotation.
(5) There is no net horizontal movement.
(6) Point of rotation is assumed at depth x from ground level.

Modulus of subgrade reaction


B

nh =

1.0m
6.6MN/m3

= Kh =

nh -

assumed

(See Table 6.7 in Section 6.5.3.)

Kh = 6.6ZMN/m3
Z = depth from ground level (metres)
P

1.65dx 2

B
-

for idealised triangular pressure distribution


2

Q = 6.6hdB (h - x)
2x

for idealised triangular pressure distribution

Design of Pad Foundations 285

d(h-x)

66h

x
DISPLACEMENT

MODULUS OF
PRESSURE (IDEALISED)
SUBQRADE REACTION

SK 6/67 Displacement and pressure diagrams of side-bearing foundation in


cohesionless soil.

P=Q+H
M

+ Hh + Q(h -

~)

- P(h -

~) = 0

for idealised triangular

distribution

4.5kN

Maximum pressure

= p =

also p

l.65dx
66x

2000

from pressure diagram

MN/m 2

(from Step 3)

Equating the two gives


l.65dx = 2:0
d = 20mm

Ultimate horizontal passive pressure on side of foundation is reached at a


depth x/2 when horizontal deformation at top reaches 20 mm. It is assumed
that moment-carrying capacity of foundation through side bearing will
have a limiting value when deformation reaches 20mm at top.
Find
h =
d =
H =
B =
or
and

M when

1.5m
20 x 10- 3 m
4.5 x 10- 3 MN
1.0m

= 0.0165x2

Q = 0.099(1.5 - x) 2 /x
P=Q+ H
Q(l.5 - x)
P(l.5 - 0.5x) - Hh (MNm)
3

Solving the equations:

286 Reinforced Concrete


P = 19.4

x 10- 3 MN

x = l.092m
Q = 14.9 x 10- 3 MN
M = 9.7kNm
(maximum allowed by side bearing)

Residual moment = 25 - 9.7

15.3kNm

By rigorous analysis:
d' = displacement at bottom
d = displacement at top
X = depth of neutral axis
Y = bottom of foundation to neutral axis
Y = point of application of Q from bottom of foundation
P

1:

= 6.6 Bd(~ )

(X; x) dB6.6x dx

Q = 6.6d'Bf: y(X: y) dy = 6.6d'B[

=
x + y

= 1.5

d'

+ 4.5 x 1.5 + QY -

P(

(~y)

1.1 BdX2

~]
2

l.ld'B(3XY + 2Y2)

h -

~) = 0

J y (X + y) dy
_o_ _ _ __
2

y -

J y(X + y)dy
0

= Y[l _ (X/3 + Y/4)]


(X/2 + Y/3)
Solving the above equations:
X = l.0317m

= 8.9 mm

d'

Y = 0.4683m

pressure

= 88.1 kN/m 2

d = 19.7mm

Q = 18.57kN

= 23.07kN

= 13.25kNm

Y = 0.314Y
This gives a higher value of M and hence is less conservative.
Vertical load on foundation = P = 55.5 kN
e

M
p

15.3
A
= 0.276m > - = 0.167m
55.5
6

= - =-

(See Section 6.6.2.)

(see Step 6)

Design of Pad Foundations 287


2P

(l.5A - 3e)B
2 x 55.5
(1.5 x 1 - 3 x 0.276) x 1

= 165 kN/m 2 < 474 kN/m 2 (see Step 3) OK


x = l.5A - 3e

0.672m

Restraining moment

55.5 x 2

55.5 x 0.5

= 27.75kNm
Overturning moment

= 15.3 kNm

27.75
Factor of safety against overturning = - 15.3

1.8 > 1.5 OK

----t-4.SkN
T2SkNm

JS.SkN/m

, ....
.

. . . ~1 ..

<~

. i;.. '_:.;.:

~-.

':

' .(-:_
,

v: ..~ ...

.. h""'"it
...

'.
. .

_.} -.
~

. . . '..

..

~"

.. _. ' .

~- . Iii"
c..
~ ...
'>.
_

. ,

MASS

SK 6/68 Soil pressure diagram on


mass concrete side-bearing
foundation in cohesionless soil.

Note:

672

. o'..

.'

...,.

..

165kN/m 2

CONCRETE

This is a very conservative estimate of factor of safety against overturning


because in practice the value of moment resisted by side bearing will not
be restricted to 9.7 kNm but will increase till the pressure diagram becomes
rectangular and not triangular as assumed in the analysis.

288

Reinforced Concrete
Maximum pressure at x/2 from ground level = 1.65dx MN/m 2
= 1.65 x 20 x 10- 3 x 1.092
x 103 kN/m 2
= 36kN/m2
Maximum passive pressure that can be generated at x/2 = 66 x 1.092/2 =
36kN/m2
Step 8 to Step 21
Not required.
Step 22 Design mass concrete foundation
Use C25 mass concrete !cu= 25 N/mm 2

Bending about vertical plane:


follow same principle as in Example 6.3.
Bending about horizontal plane:
Overhang = 200 mm
Maximum shear assuming uniform pressure of 165 kN/m 2 less weight of
foundation= 1.5 x 25 = 37.5 kN/m 2
Net pressure upwards= 165 - 37.5 = 127.5 kN/m 2
Shear= 127 .5 x 0.3 x 1.0 = 38.2 kN
Shear stress=

38.2 x 103
x
= 0.025N/mm 2 negligible
1500
1000

Bending stress need not be checked.

OK

Design of Pad Foundations 289

6.9 FIGURES FOR CHAPTER 6

j:)OOI

oos

OOtr

00

\ \
\~

-i
"C

'\

c:

<e

~""

ooz

ca
>
....

a>~

~~

ooz
001

>-

' \.
\

'

<1.)

IC

=ii
1;;

""'

08

OL
09

~OS

.....
()

Otr

II)

Cl.I

;:,
._

'

'

Otr

\'

"'::s

OS

'

''

'

'

oz

'

01

'

6
8

"\. '

'
\

"

L
9

~\

"

'

\ ''
~

,.,
11'1

0,.,

11'1
N

" "
........

.....()

Cl.I

-.

c::

lb
t:r~

II)

~ ........

01

"'t:J

;:,

\...

oz

OI

--

....

UO/.PfJJ 1euJajU/ JO san1eA

11'1

60

8()
LO
90
SO

290

Reinforced Concrete
Ozlqn
O0 01 0-2 03 04 05 06 07 OB 09 10
01

Ol

YA
VJ; 'fl/

03
04

~ ~ ti'

05

06

/ /J r1)
/j r// '/

OB
z;B 09

10

I Ii

1-1
1-l

74
A

15

16
17
18

1-9

lO

V1 r!J

V1 11/J I

07

13

rt

JI
J

I
I

1
15
l

I I II H-

~5

-00

I '/ J r

Values AIB

J / J If

I If II
/1 II 'I

II II I
I II

Ij

If

I I
I

l1

ZZ
23

24

l5
Fig. 6.2 Calculation of mean vertical stress (o,) at depth z beneath rectangular area
a x b on surface, loaded at uniform pressure q""

Fig. 6.3 Plan on base showing different zones.

A
OUTLINE OF BASE

$1
~
Q:i

XI

Q:i

sA-

&5

Q:i

~~

IX

CXl

I0
~

~111111~11111~1

"'

I~-

a
"'C

'T1

At6

_I

A;6

_I

A;6

Ir

A14

A14

_/

I~
0

::s

"'
~
.....

Fig. 6.4 Chart for calculation of maximum pressure under a rectangular base
subject to moments in two directions.

05t--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

s
O'

0..

NOTES
1. If the resultant load is outside the
elliptical brrder of the chart the stability
of the foundation is less than 15.

04

Q
::i

2. Intermediate values of the coefficient K


may be found by linear interpolation.

03

l<lJ::...

I'...,...

=1'......

I ......... . . ._ I --......... ...,... I

la:i
0-2 I

''1

"k:

t
011

I "'

01

"

'XU

....
"'"~ ~---

"'I

.,..,

02

"-1

ex
A

" 1'
L

''"" .

"

03

.....

1- :~ 1

BE~

--11

04

05

Chapter 7

Design of Piled Foundations

7.0

NOTATION
a

av

ax
ay

Ac

AP
As
Av

Ase
A 81
A,v
Asx
Asy

b
b

b'
B
B

c
CH

Cv
d
D

Dr
ex

ey
ehx

ehy

Ef
E,
fc

ls
ft

ly
lei

Deflection due to slenderness of a circular pile


Distance of shear plane from nearest support
Deflection due to slenderness producing additional moment about x-axis
Deflection due to slenderness producing additional moment about y-axis
Net area of concrete in a pile cross-section
Cross-sectional area of pile (m2 )
Surface area of pile in contact with soil
Total area of link bars perpendicular to longitudinal bars
Total area of steel reinforcement in a pile
Area of tensile reinforcement in pile cap
Area of steel effective in resisting shear in a pile
Area of tensile steel in a pile section resisting moment about b-axis
Area of tensile steel in a pile section resisting moment about h-axis
Width of reinforced concrete section
Overall dimension of rectangular pile section
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement in b direction
Width or diameter of pile
Overall width of a group of piles
Soil cohesion for a stratum (kN/m 2)
Horizontal load-carrying capacity of a single pile
Vertical load-carrying capacity of a single pile
Effective depth to tensile reinforcement in a concrete section
Depth of a group of piles below ground
Relative density
Eccentricity of combined unfactored vertical load on pile cap in x-direction
Eccentricity of combined unfactored vertical load on pile cap in y-direction
Eccentricity in x-direction of combined unfactored horizontal load Hy
Eccentricity in y-direction of combined unfactored horizontal load Hx
Stress-strain modulus of pile material (kN/m 2)
Stress-strain modulus of soil (kN/m 2)
Stress in concrete due to prestress alone
Skin resistance at soil/pile interface
Maximum design principal tensile stress in concrete
Characteristic yield strength of steel reinforcement
Cube strength of concrete at transfer of prestress

293

294

Reinforced Concrete
fcp

!cu
fpe
fpu

fyv
h

h
h

h'
H
Hx
H_v

Hpx
Hp_v

Hxu
Hyu

Hpxu

H p_vu

Ir
/ 2

lxx
ly_v

k,
K,
K1

le
10
11
L
L

Lb
m
mv
M
M0

MP
Mx
My
M~
M_~

M:
Mj
Mpx
Mp_v
Mxx
M_vy

Average concrete stress in a pre stressed concrete section after losses


Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Average tensile stress in steel tendons after all losses
Characteristic ultimate strength of steel tendons
Characteristic yield strength of shear reinforcement
Overall depth of pile cap
Overall dimension of a rectangular pile
Overall diameter of a circular pile
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement in a rectangular pile in h-direction
Unfactored horizontal load on a single circular pile
Unfactored combined horizontal loads on pile cap in x-direction
Unfactored combined horizontal loads on pile cap in y-direction
Unfactored horizontal load on a single pile in x-direction
Unfactored horizontal load on a single pile in y-direction
Ultimate horizontal load on pile cap in x-direction
Ultimate horizontal load on pile cap in y-direction
Ultimate horizontal load on a single pile in x-direction
Ultimate horizontal load on a single pile in y-direction
Moment of inertia of pile (m 4 )
Polar moment of inertia of a group of piles about z-axis through CG
Moment of inertia of a group of piles about x-x axis through CG of group
Moment of inertia of a group of piles about y-y axis through CG of group
Modulus of subgrade reaction of soil (kN/m3 )
Coefficient of friction
Factor used to determine transmission length of prestressing wires or
strand
Effective length of pile for calculation of slenderness ratio
Unsupported length of pile
Transmission length of prestressing wires or strands
Depth of penetration of pile
Overall length of a group of piles
Average depth of pile in ground
Modular ratio E5 1Ee
Coefficient of volume compressibility (m2 /kN)
Factored bending moment in a circular pile section
Moment to produce zero stress at tension fibre of a prestressed section
with 0.8fcp (average uniform prestress)
Unfactored bending moment in a single circular pile
Unfactored combined moment on pile cap about x-axis
Unfactored combined moment on pile cap about y-axis
Modified bending moment about x-axis to account for biaxial bending
Modified bending moment about y-axis to account for biaxial bending
Unfactored moment about x-axis due to eccentric surcharge on pile cap
Unfactored moment about y-axis due to eccentric surcharge on pile cap
Unfactored bending moment in a single pile about x-axis due to Hp_v
Unfactored bending moment in a single pile about y-axis due to Hpx
Unfactored combined moment on pile group about x-axis
Unfactored combined moment on pile group about y-axis

Design of Piled Foundations 295


Mpxu
Mpyu
Maddx
Maddy

n
N
N

Nq
Nu
Ny

N;

N~

Nuz
Nbal

Px
P_v
p

Pa
Pu
Ppu

P,;
ij

qc

qu
qcs

R
R;H

R;v
s
Sv
T
Ta

Tu

u
v

Ultimate bending moment in pile about x-axis


Ultimate bending moment in pile about y-axis
Additional bending moment in pile about x-axis due to slenderness
Additional bending moment in pile about y-axis due to slenderness
Slenderness ratio in a prestressed pile
Statistical average of SPT number for a soil stratum
Combined vertical load on pile cap - unfactored
Soil bearing capacity coefficient as per Terzaghi
Ultimate vertical load on a circular pile
Soil bearing capacity coefficient as per Terzaghi
Adjusted bearing capacity factor for cohesion
Adjusted bearing capacity factor for LIB > 1
Design ultimate capacity of a concrete section subjected to axial load only
Design axial load capacity of a balanced section ( = 0.25/cubd)
Percentage of tensile reinforcement in a circular pile
Percentage of tensile reinforcement in a pile section to resist bending
about x-axis
Percentage of tensile reinforcement in a pile section to resist bending
about y-axis
Total vertical load on a group of piles
Allowable unfactored vertical load on pile
Ultimate axial compressive load on pile
End-bearing resistance of pile
Skin friction resistance of pile
Effective vertical stress at pile point
Statistical average of cone resistance of soil in a stratum (kN/m 2)
Unconfined compressive strength (kN/m 2)
Side friction resistance in a cone penetrometer
Number of piles in a group
Initial estimate of number of piles based on total horizontal load
Initial estimate of number of piles based on total vertical load
Spacing of nodes in pile for finite element analysis
Spacing of links used as shear reinforcement
Unfactored torsion on a group of piles
Allowable unfactored tension load on pile
Ultimate axial tensile load on pile
Perimeter at punching shear plane in a pile cap
Shear stress in concrete in pile cap
Design concrete shear stress in concrete
Shear stress in concrete for shear due to bending about x-axis
Shear stress in concrete for shear due to bending about y-axis
Modified design shear stress to take into account axial compression
Design shear stress in concrete for shear due to bending about x-axis
Design shear stress in concrete for shear due to bending about y-axis
Ultimate shear force in a circular pile section
Shear resistance of a concrete section
Shear resistance of uncracked prestressed section
Shear resistance of cracked prestressed section

296 Reinforced Concrete

Weight of pile (kN)


Depth of lever arm

Coefficient for calculation of skin resistance of a pile


Factor for computation of effective length of a pile
Factor for conversion of biaxial bending moment into uniaxial bending
Unit weight of soil (kN/m3 )
Angle of friction between soil and concrete
Poisson's ratio
Angle of internal friction
Nominal diameter of tendon in prestressed concrete section

(3

(3
y

<I>
<I>

7.1

VERTICAL LOAD - SINGLE PILE CAPACITY

Pu =Applied load

r W:Weight
of pile
1r
Psi

1I t

Psi

1 , tSkin friction
1 t
Ppu= End bearing

SK 711 Single pile capacity.

= Ppu + 'r.Psi - W
Tu= 'r.Psi + W

Pu
where

Pu = ultimate compressive load on pile


Tu = ultimate tensile load on pile
'r.Psi = skin friction resistance
P pu = end-bearing resistance
W = weight of pile

First method for point resistance

(see Reference 6, page 602)


where AP
N

=
=

cross-sectional area of pile (m 2 )


statistical average of the SPT number in a zone of about SB
above to 3B below the pile point

Design of Piled Foundations 297


B

Lb

= width or diameter of pile


average depth of pile in the ground

Second method for point resistance

Ppu

(see Reference 6, page 602)

Apqc

where Ap
%

= cross-sectional area of pile (m2 )


= statistical average of cone point resistance in a zone of about
SB above to 3B below pile point (kN/m2 )

Third method for point resistance

(see Reference 6, page 598)


cross-sectional area of pile (m 2)
= cohesion or undrained shear strength Su = qul2 kN/m2
= unconfined compressive strength
ij = effective vertical stress at pile point
N~ = adjusted bearing capacity factor for cohesion (see Fig. 7.2)
N~ = bearing capacity factor adjusted for Lib> 1 dependent on
initial angle of shearing resistance <I> (see Fig. 7.2). (See
Reference 8, page 600.)
L = depth of penetration
B = width or diameter of pile
LIB should be greater than Lei B as obtained from Fig. 7 .2 for the value
of <j>.
where Ap
c
qu

Note:

Find point resistance by more than one method if soil test data allow and
take the lowest for a conservative estimate.
Determination of skin resistance
LPs;

= LAsfs

where As = pile perimeter x pile length over which fs acts (m 2)


Is = skin resistance (kN/m2)
First method of skin resistance
fs = 2NkN/m 2
Is= NkN/m2

where

for large volume displacement piles


for small volume displacement piles

= statistical

average blow count in stratum for SPT.

Second method of skin resistance

= 0.005qc kN/m2
where qc = cone penetration

fs

resistance (kN/m 2).

Third method of skin resistance

Is =

qcskN/m 2

for small volume displacement piles

298

Reinforced Concrete
ls = l.5qcs to 2.0qcs
where

for large volume displacement piles

qcs = side friction resistance in cone penetrometer.

Fourth method of skin resistance


ls=

c:\':C

where

0.5 q Kstanb

c =
q=
6=
Ks =
Dr =

(see Reference 8, page 603)

average cohesion or Su of stratum (kN/m 2 )


effective vertical stress (kN/m 2)
angle of friction between soil and pile
coefficient of friction
relative density of sand.

Table 7.1 Values of K, (Reference 8, page 603).

Pile type

Ks for low Dr

Ks for high Dr

Steel
Concrete
Wood

20
0.75<1>
0.67<1>

0.5
1.0
1.5

1.0
2.0
4.0

(See Reference 7, page 136.)

Table 7.2 Values of a: (Reference 7, page 126).

Soil condition

Values of a:
DI B

c = 50

c = 100

c = 150

c = 200

c = 250

Sands or sandy gravel


overlying stiff to very
stiff cohesive soil

<10
20
>40

1.0
1.0
0.9

1.0
0.9
0.65

1.0
0.75
0.4

1.0
0.75
0.4

1.0
0.75
0.4

Soft clays or silts


overlying stiff to very
stiff cohesive soil

10
>20

0.35
0.75

0.30
0.70

0.25
0.63

0.2
0.55

0.2
0.5

Stiff to very stiff


cohesive soils without
overlying strata

10
>40

0.9
1.0

0.7
0.9

0.3
0.3

0.2
0.3

0.2
0.3

The units of c are kN/m 2

Note:

Find skin resistance by more than one method if soil test data allow and
take an average.

Pu
2.5

=a

where

Tu
T =a
2.5

Pa = allowable pile load in compression


Ta = allowable pile load in tension

Design of Piled Foundations 299

7.2 HORIZONTAL LOAD - SINGLE PILE CAPACITY


Method I

Cohesive soils

ksB = l.3(EsB4)-b

(~)
1-

Etft

as per Vesic, 1961 (see Reference 6).


where

modulus of subgrade reaction (kN/m3 )


width or diameter of pile (m)
stress-strain modulus of soil (kN/m 2 )
stress-strain modulus of pile material (kN/m 2)
ft= moment of inertia of pile (m 4)
= Poisson's ratio of soil

ks=
B =
Es =
Et =

Es may be obtained by the following methods:


(1) Triaxial tests.
(2) Borehole pressuremeter tests.
(3) Es = 650N (kN/m2 )
N = SPT number of blows.
where mv =coefficient of volume compress(4) Es= 3 (1- 2)/mv
ibility (m 2/kN).
Method 2 Cohesive soils
ks = 240qukN/m3

where

qu = unconfined compression strength (kN/m2 ).

Cohesionless soils

ks = 80 [ C2ii.Nq

C1 (0.5 y BNy)] kN/m 3

as per Vesic (see Reference 8, page 631 and page 323, equation 9-8).
where

C1 = C2 = 1.0
for square piles
C 1 = 1.3 to 1.7
for circular piles
C2 = 2.0 to 4.4
for circular piles
q = effective stress (kN/m2)
y = unit weight of soil
B = width or diameter of pile

Nq and Ny may be obtained from the following table (Hansen equations)


- see Reference 8, page 137, Table 4-4:
Finite element model of vertical pile

Spring stiffness= SBks kN/m


where S = node spacing not greater than B
B = width or diameter of pile ( m)
ks= modulus of subgrade reaction (kN/m3 )

300

Reinforced Concrete
Table 7.3 Values of Nq and Ny (Reference 8, page 137).

(degrees)

<I>

0
5
10

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

Nq

Ny

1.0
1.6
2.5
3.9
6.4
10.7
18.4
33.3
64.2
134.9
319.0

0
0.1
0.4
1.2
2.9
6.8
15.1
33.9
79.5
200.8
568.5

Rotation about
X Z axis
Translations about
x and y axis

Translations

'-Rotation about

Note:

1'

SK 7/2 Two-dimensional model of


pile in soil (degrees of freedom top and bottom of pile).

For horizontal loads which are not constant and are reversible or repetitive,
the top l.5B of pile may be assumed unsupported by soil.
Boundary conditions
(1) Free head pile
Translations x, y
Rotation z
Translations y
Rotation z
(2) Fixed head pile
Translations x, y
Rotation z
Translations y
Rotation z

Free at top
Free at top
Restrained at bottom
Free at bottom
Free at top
Rigid at top
Restrained at bottom
Free at bottom

Material type
For sustained horizontal load due to dead load, water pressure, earth

Design of Piled Foundations 301


pressure, etc., use short-term Young's modulus of concrete for bending
moment computations but long-term Young's modulus of concrete for pile
head deformation.
For short-term horizontal loads due to wind, earthquake, crane surge,
etc., use short-term Young's modulus of concrete for bending moment and
deflection computations.
Software
Use any fully validated software which has a suite for analysis of 2-D plane
frame with sprung boundaries.
Member type
For rectangular pile use minimum width B in all computations involving B.
A cracked section moment of inertia may be used for reinforced concrete
piles based on Section 2.1.

7.3 PILE GROUP EFFECTS


7.3.1 Spacing of piles
S?:. 2B
S?:. 3B

where

Note:

S
B

for end-bearing piles


for friction piles

= spacing of piles
= least width or diameter of pile.

Piles carrying horizontal load should not be spaced at less than 3B.

7.3.2 Pile group capacity


Ultimate group capacity = group friction capacity + group end-bearing
capacity
Ultimate group friction capacity = 2D( B + L )ca:

SK 7/3 Group of piles - plan of


overall dimensions of group.

302 Reinforced Concrete


Pile Cap

~G,oop

Friction

Group Bearing

where c =
=
ex=
D =
B =
L =

SK 714 Elevation of group of piles


showing group capacity.

average cohesion of day


average Su = average qul2
coefficient (from Section 7.1, Table 7.2)
depth of pile group below ground
overall width of group
overall length of group.

Ultimate group end-bearing capacity= BL (N'cc + qN~)


where

Note:

c = cohesion or undrained shear strength Su = quf2 at bottom of


pile group
qu = unconfined compressive strength
ij = effective stress at bottom of pile group
N~ = bearing capacity factor (see Fig. 7.2)
N~ = bearing capacity factor (see Fig. 7.2)

Total vertical load on a group of piles should not exceed the group
capacity. Individual pile loads inside the group will be limited by the single
pile capacity. Piles carrying horizontal load and spaced at 3B or more need
not be checked for group effects due to horizontal load.
ultimate group capacity + ultimate group
end-bearing capacity

Allowable group capacity = --------=----=---=-----

2.5

7 .4 ANALYSIS OF PILE LOADS AND PILE CAPS


7.4.1

Rigid pile cap


N = combined vertical load on pile cap - unfactored
Mx =combined moment about x-x - unfactored
My= combined moment about y-y - unfactored

Design of Piled Foundations 303

SK 715 Loads and eccentricity on pile cap.

y
Hx-

elt
M-

... i--~

L$
-

SK 7/6 Plan view of loads and


eccentricity on pile cap.

!ey

Hy

ehlc

t Qf R(ication
~in
vcrt1c~ load

Hx =combined horizontal load on pile cap - unfactored in x-x direction


Hy= combined horizontal load on pile cap - unfactored in y-y direction
ex= eccentricity of N from CG of pile group in x-x direction
ey = eccentricity of N from CG of pile group in y-y direction
ehx = eccentricity of Hy from CG of pile group in x-x direction
ehy = eccentricity of Hx from CG of pile group in y-y direction
h = depth of pile cap.
Loads on pile group
P = vertical load on pile group
= N + weight of pile cap + weight of backfill on pile cap + surcharge

on backfill
Mxx = moment about x-x on pile group
= Mx + Ney + H_.,h + M:
Myy = moment about y-y on pile group
= My + Nex + Hxh + M_~

304 Reinforced Concrete


y

. ---i

-----<

...... ~-~

ft--

I+--

/iC.G.of pile group

y'

Y1

.
1--< I'---~ !<----

)2 Y3
'
~--

x, x2

x'

I
!

R= Total number of piles

X=

X3

X4

R~x'

-y = .!Y'
R

XS

x' and y' are orthogonal


distances of each pile
from corner pile

SK 7/7 Typical pile foundation showing CG of group and co-ordinates of piles.

C.G. of group
of piles

~/R

x
Tr/lz

SK 7/8 Group of piles subject to


horizontal loads and torsion.

HORIZONTAL FO VE DIAGRAM ON A PILE

where M: and Mt are moments with respect to CG of pile group due to


eccentric surcharge on backfill or pile cap.
T

= torsion on pile
= H x'?hy + Hyehx

group

lxx = ~y about x-x axis passing through CG of pile group


2
I yy = u about y-y axis passing through CG of pile group
J, = fxx + fyy

= number of piles

Vertical load on a pile

in group.
=

(!_)
R

(MxxY)
fxx

(Myyx)
fyy

Design of Piled Foundations 305

.
.
Honzontal load on any p!le

resultant of

(Hi

+ H~)~
R

T(x 2 + y 2)!
and - - - - fz

Sign convention

Vertical loads:
Torsion on pile group:

downwards positive
clockwise positive

Moments on pile group:

clockwise positive

+ve Mxx produces compression in piles which have +ve y ordinates.


+ve Myy produces compression in piles which have +ve X ordinates.
Hx is positive in direction of increasing x in positive direction.

Hy is positive in direction of increasing y in positive direction.


Eccentricities are +ve for +ve x and +ve for +ve y.
Bending moments in pile cap

SK 7/9 Critical sections for


bending moment in a pile cap.

Take sections X - X or Y - Y through pile cap at faces of columns or base


plates. Find pile reactions due to combined and load factored basic load
cases. Consider all upward and downward loadings across sections X-X
and Y-Y. Find bending moments across section. Find horizontal load on
each pile by using the following expressions:

Hvu

Hpyu =

where R is number of piles in pile cap. Find bending moments in pile Mpxu
corresponding to Hp.vu and Mpyu corresponding to Hpxu assuming an end
fixity to pile cap following the method in Section 7.2. Hxu and Hyu are
combined factored ultimate horizontal loads.

306 Reinforced Concrete

SK 7/10 Additional bending


moment in pile cap due to pile
fixity.

Algebraically add the bending moments in pile cap due to vertical load
and pile fixity moments due to horizontal load to find design bending
moments in pile cap.

7 .4.2 Flexible pile cap


Large pile caps including piled raft foundations should be modelled as
flexible. The modelling will normally be carried out using either a grillage
suite of a computer program or a general-purpose finite element program.
The piles should be modelled as springs in the vertical direction. The
vertical spring stiffness should be obtained from test results on site. A
parametric study can be carried out using minimum and maximum stiffness
of the pile if there is a large variation.
Grillage model

(1) Divide pile cap into an orthogonal grillage network of beams. Ensure
that piles are located at crossing of orthogonal beams. Each grillage
beam represents a certain width of pile cap.
(2) Use short-term Young's modulus for concrete material properties.
(3) Full section concrete stiffness properties may be used for hypothetical
grillage beams (hypothetical width x depth of pile cap).
(4) Piles will be modelled as sprung supports vertically.
(5) Vertical loads on pile cap may be dispersed at 45 up to central depth
of pile cap.
(6) Apply at each node with a pile, the moments given by the following
formulae:
M

Hvh

=---

about x-axis

Design of Piled Foundations 307

__,,.._,___ Pile

II
II

SK 7/11 Plan of raft on piles showing idealised grillage elements - flexible


analysis.

Column
Column load may spread
onto grillage element
Pile Cap/ Raft

Pile modelled

as spring
elements

clealised grillage
element al cenfre
of raft

---Pile--..SK 7/12 Part section through raft showing details of grillage idealisation.

about y-axis

(7) Find horizontal load on each pile by using the following expressions:
H px

Hx

= -R

and H PY

Hv

= ---'
R-

where R is total number of piles in group.

308 Reinforced Concrete


(8) Find bending moments in pile, Mpx corresponding to Hpy and Mpy
corresponding to Hpx assuming an end fixity to pile cap following
method in Section 7.2. Apply these moments to pile cap grillage
model as nodal loads. The pile head to pile cap connection may be
assumed as hinged and then M px and M PY will be zero.
(9) Find bending moments in pile cap by grillage analysis. Divide bending
moments by width of hypothetical strips of pile cap representing
grillage beams and obtain Mx, My and Mxy in pile cap per metre
width. Apply load factors and combine basic load cases. Modify these
combined moments by Wood-Armer method to find design bending
moments.lIUlJ
(10) Combine basic load cases at serviceability limit state to find reactions
at pile nodes. Compare maximum reaction with pile capacity.
Finite-element model

SK 7 /13 Typical finite element


modelling of a circular raft on
piles.

(1) Create a finite element model of pile cap using either 4-noded or
8-noded plate bending elements. The elements may only have three
degrees of freedom at each node viz z, ex and Sy. The piles will be
represented by vertical springs.
Piles will come at nodes in finite element model. Between two piles'
nodes there should be a minimum of one plate node without pile.
(2) Use short-term Young's modulus for concrete material properties.
(3) Full section concrete section properties may be used in the analysis.
(4) Vertical loads on pile cap may be dispersed at 45 up to central depth
of pile cap. These loads may be applied as nodal loads or uniformly
distributed loads on plate elements depending on software used.
(5) Apply at each node with a pile, the moments given by the following
formulae.
Hvh
M =---

about x-axis

Hxh
M =_v
R

about y-axis

Design of Piled Foundations 309


(6) Find horizontal load on each pile by using the following expressions:

Hx

H px = -R

and

H.

H PY = ---'R

where R is total number of piles in group.


(7) Find bending moments in pile, Mpx corresponding to Hpy and Mpy
corresponding to Hpx assuming an end fixity to pile cap following
method in Section 7.2. Apply these moments as nodal loads in finite
element model at nodes with piles. These moments will be zero in the
case of a hinged connection of pile to pile cap.
(8) Carry out analysis using a validated general-purpose finite element
software. Apply load factors to combine basic load cases. Modify the
combined Mu Mv and Mxv using the Wood-Armer method to find
design bending moments.l11 121
(9) Combine basic load cases at serviceability limit state to find reactions
at pile nodes. Compare maximum reaction with rated pile capacity.

7.5

LOAD COMBINATIONS
Applied loads on pile cap will be combined using the following principles.

7.5.1

Pile load calculations


LC 1 :
LC2 :
LC3 :
LC4 :

l.ODL + l.OIL + l.OEP + 1.0CLV + l.OCLH


l.ODL + 1.0EP + l.OCL V + l.OCLH + 1.0WL (or 1.0EL)
1.0DL + 1.0/L + l.OEP + l.OWL (or 1.0EL)
l.OL + I.OWL (or l.OEL)

where

DL
IL
EP
CL V
CLH
WL
EL

= dead load
= imposed load
= earth pressure and water pressure
= crane vertical loads
= crane horizontal loads
=wind load
= earthquake load.

7 .5.2 Bending moment and shear calculations in pile cap or piles


LC5 :
LC6 :
LC7 :
LC8 :
LC9 :
LC 10 :
LC11 :
LC12 :

l.4DL
l.2DL
l.4DL
l.ODL
l.4DL
l.4DL
l.4DL
1.2DL

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

1.6/L + l.4EP
1.2/L + 1.2EP + 1.2WL (or 1.2EL)
1.4WL (or 1.4EL) + 1.4EP
1.4WL (or l.4EL) + 1.4EP (if adverse)
l.4CL V + 1.4CLH + 1.4EP
l.6CL V + l.4EP
l.6CLH + l.4EP
1.2CLV + 1.2CLH + 1.2EP + 1.2WL (or 1.2EL)

310 Reinforced Concrete

7.6 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR PILED FOUNDATIONS


Step 1 Select type of pile
The type of pile will depend on the following principal factors:

Environmental issues like noise, vibration.


Location of structure.
Type of structure.
Ground conditions.
Durability requirements.
Programme duration.
Cost.

The commonly available types of piles can be broadly classified as below.


Large-displacement piles (driven)

Precast concrete.
Prestressed concrete.
Steel tube with closed end.
Steel tube filled with concrete.

Small-displacement piles (driven)

Precast concrete tube with open end.


Prestressed concrete tube with open end.
Steel H-section.
Screw pile.

Non-displacement piles

Bored and cast-in-situ concrete pile.


Steel tube in bored hole filled with concrete.
Steel or precast section in drilled hole.
Step 2 Determine vertical capacity of single pile
Follow Section 7 .1.
Step 3 Determine horiwntal capacity of single pile
Follow Section 7 .2.
Note:

Horizontal capacity of a single pile is limited by maximum deflection of


pile cap that structure can accommodate and also by pile structural capacity.

Step 4 Determine approximate number of piles and spacing

Design of Piled Foundations 311


H
RiH =CH

R; = R;v

or R;tt, whichever is greater

where R; = approximate number of piles


P = total vertical load on pile cap - unfactored
Cv = rated working load capacity of pile - vertical load
CH = rated working load capacity of pile - horizontal load
H = total horizontal load on pile cap - unfactored
I
= (H~ + H~)i
Spacing of piles should be according to Section 7.3. To minimise the cost
of pile cap, the spacing should be kept close to minimum allowed. Larger
spacing increases the pile group capacity and pile group moment capacity.

~~~: gx~~p

C.G. of group
right of Y-Y

-+--+---~

C.G. of the
Pile Group

SK 7/14 Determination of
approximate number of piles.

(1) Select a group of piles with approximate number of piles= R;.


(2) Find CG of pile group and locate orthogonal axes x-x and y-y
through the CG.
(3) Find CG of group of piles on left of axis y-y and right of axis y-y.
(4) Find the x-axis distance between these two CGs and call it Sx(5) Similarly, find Sy about y-axis.
(6) Find Mxl P = ey and Myl P =ex, where Mx and My are total combined
applied moments on pile cap about x-x and y-y respectively.
(7) Find exi Sx and e_JSy(8) Find Ex and Ey from Fig. 7.1.
1.1 R;v
(9) R = - - 2: R;H

ExEy

where R

= number of piles

in group for checking pile load.

Note: The factor 1.1 is introduced to cater for additional vertical loads from selfweight of pile cap, surcharge on pile caps, backfilling, etc.
Revise the number of piles in group from R; to R.

312 Reinforced Concrete


Step 5 Determine size of pile cap
Allow l.5B from centre of pile to edge of pile cap.
Depth of pile cap is governed by the following:

Shrinking and swelling of clay.


Frost attacks.
Holding down bolt assemblies for columns.
Water table and soluble sulphates.
Pile anchorage.
Punching shear capacity of pile cap.

Step 6 Carry out load combination


Follow Section 7.5.
Step 7 Check pile group effects
Follow Section 7.3.
Step 8 Carry out analysis of pile cap
Follow Section 7.4.
Step 9 Determine cover to reinforcement
From the soils investigations report, find the concentration of sulphates
expressed as S03
Find, from Table 17 of BS8004: 1986[21, the appropriate type of concrete.

Table 7.4 Minimum cover to reinforcement for class of exposure.

Note:

Class of
exposure

Total S03
percentage

Minimum cover
on blinding (mm)

Minimum cover
elsewhere (mm)

1
2
3
4
5

<0.2
0.2 to 0.5
0.5 to 1.0
1.0 to 2.0
>2.0

35
40
50
60
60

75
80
90
100
100

Concrete in 'class of exposure 5' needs protective membrane, or coating.


The uneven heads of piles normally necessitate a minimum 75 mm cover
over blinding for pile caps. The concrete piles will have minimum cover as
specified elsewhere.

Step 10 Calculate area of reinforcement in pile cap


M = bending moment as found in Step 8 at ultimate limit state
K

= --

fcubd 2

where

/cu

:s 0.156
=

concrete characteristic cube strength at 28 days

Design of Piled Foundations 313

b = width of section over which moment acts


d = effective depth to tension reinforcement.
If K is greater than 0.156, increase depth of pile cap.

A.1 = - - 0.87/yz

J(

z = d[ 0.5 +

0.25 -

0~9) J ::; 0.95d

Distribute this area of reinforcement uniformly across the section.

Note:

Step 11

The effective depth to tension reinforcement will be different in the two


orthogonal directions.

Check shear stress in pile cap


Pile diameter ~

Critical section for


shear check at f/5
nside pile

\.

Column
I

'-

'

--.',-f-11'--

-+--

Pile cap (effective depth= d)

SK 7115 Critical section for


checking shear stress in pile cap.

Enhancement of shear stress is allowed if ays15d

The critical section for checking shear stress in a pile cap is <j>/5 into the
pile. All piles with centres outside this line should be considered for
calculating shear across this section in pile cap. For shear enhancement, av
is from face of column to this critical section. No enhancement of shear
stress is allowed if av is greater than l.5d. Where pile spacing is more than
3<j> then enhancement of shear should be applied only on strips of width
3<j>. The rest of the section will be limited to unenhanced shear stress.
"J:.P
V=-=sv

Bd

where

"J:.P

or enhanced

vcl

if applicable

sum of all pile reactions at ultimate loading on left of


section

= width of pile

cap at critical section

314 Reinforced Concrete


d = average effective depth at critical section
Vc1

Ve

e~)

:s

0.8V/cu

or 5N/mm

For rectangular piles the critical section may be considered at face of pile.
Pile with e,,quivalent
diameter

Critical section
for shear
+-----.f--Vc (design concrete
shear stress)

~~-+-Column

'---+-Ve
L .J

_l:rt:J---;~'.._-~-Vc 19..

av

t-t----+-Vc

SK 7/16 Diagram showing zones


of enhanced shear stress on critical
section.

Pile cap

The value of vc1 can be found from Figs 11.2 to 11.5 depending on
percentage of tensile reinforcement and /cu
Shear capacity of section should be greater than or equal to applied
shear. Ultimate limit state analysis results should be used for checking
shear capacity.
Step 12 Check punching shear stress in pile cap

..

Punching shear
perimeter around
loaded area '
Check V < 08Au s5N/mm2

..,
A

,__+ ,,..,,!-------"',,.--t-

_,__ _!----+-

Punching shear perimeter


to nea~t pile
Check V <Ve

>3
No check necessary if _pile
spacing is less than 3

SK 7/17 Perimeters for punching shear checks.

Design of Piled Foundations 315


When the spacing of piles is greater than 3 times the diameter of a pile
then the punching shear plane for column should be considered. For
rectangular piles the plane can be considered at face of pile. The stress on
this punching shear plane should not exceed Ve depending on the percentage
of tensile reinforcement in pile cap.
Check of punching shear stress is also required at perimeter at face of
column or pile. This shear stress should not exceed 0.8\/fcu or 5 N/mm2
Punching shear pernneter
around pile-v<08&us5N/mm2

Punching shear
perimeter

'

I
-/

15d

SK 7/18 Further perimeters for punching shear checks in a pile cap.

The punching shear planes for piles will depend on location of pile with
respect to edge of pile cap.
Find the perimeter U at punching shear plane.
p
v=-:Sv
Ud

where

P
Ve

= ultimate vertical column load or ultimate vertical pile reaction


= design concrete shear stress obtained from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.

Percentage area of tensile reinforcement for computation of design concrete


shear stress will be average percentage across punching shear planes.
Step 13 Check area of reinforcement in pile

Effective length of pile, le =


where 10

~10

unsupported length of pile (piles which are not subjected to


horizontal load may be assumed fully supported by ground
from ground level; piles subjected to horizontal load may be
assumed supported by ground at a depth of 1.5b below
ground level where b is width of pile or diameter of pile)

316

Reinforced Concrete
~ =

1.2
1.6

for piles with head fixed to pile cap


for piles with head free to rotate.

Rectangular piles

-":>M
y

,
'

t__

-+--

~L

I~

Asr,12

'

~~

_____
y
b

-r:x

Asc_/ 2

.I

SK 7/19 Typical section through a


rectangular pile.

(A) If lei b 'S 10, then treat piles as a short column.


(i) Pile with no moment
N = 0.4/cubh + 0. 75A,cfy

Check N;::::: applied direct load on pile.


(ii) Pile subjected to uniaxial moment
Find e=MIN and then e/h.
Find Nlbh and select appropriate table from Tables 11.8 to 11.17 depending
on !cu and k = dlh.
From appropriate table find p which satisfies value of Nlbh for given elh.
Find Ase= pbh/100.
Put Ascl2 on each face of pile equidistant from axis of moment.

Note: The moment M in pile is due to horizontal load as obtained in Step 3


following Section 7.2.
(iii) Pile subjected to biaxial moment
Assuming diameter of reinforcement and finding cover from Step 9, find h'
and b'.
Find Mxlh' and M_Jb'.
If Mxlh' > M_Jb', then

M~ =

Mx

~Mv.

(ii_)
b'

If M_vf b' > Mxlh', then

M~- = Mv.

~Mx

(b')
h'

Design of Piled Foundations 317


Find Nlfcubh.
The values of

are given in the table below.

Table 7.5 Values of 13 for biaxial bending of pile.


N/fcubh

13

1.00

0.1
0.88

0.2
0.77

0.3
0.65

0.4
0.53

~0.6

0.5
0.42

0.30

Design as uniaxial bending with N and M~ or M_~ whichever is more prominent. Find Ase in manner described in (ii) for pile subjected to uniaxial
moment.
(B) If Leib> 10, then treat pile as a slender column.

)2hK
1- (/ )2bK
=2000 b
1

ax= 2000
a

(/

...!

Select Ase
K

-- -Nuz
- -- -N: s 1
Nuz - Nbal

Nuz = 0.45/cuAc
Nbal =

0.87/yAsc

0.25/cubh

Ac= bh - Ase
Maddx =
Maddy=

Nax
Nay

Combine these additional moments with moments obtained from analysis


as in Step 3 following Section 7 .2. Design pile subjected to biaxial bending
as described previously.
Circular piles

SK 7/20 Typical section through a


circular pile.

h
Uscz minimum six bars

318

Reinforced Concrete
(A) If lelh:::; 10, then treat pile as a short column.
(i) Pile with no moment
Assume size of reinforcement and at least six bars.
Ac = 0.25Jth 2

Ase

N = 0.4fcuAc

0.75A,cfy

Check N 2: applied vertical load on pile.


(ii) Pile with moment
Find e =Ml N and the el R, where 2R = h.
Find Nlh 2 and select appropriate table from Tables 11.18 to 11.27
corresponding to !cu and k = hsl h.
Find p from appropriate table which satisfies N/h 2 for given value of e/R.
Find Ase = p:ItR 2/100.
Use at least six bars.
(B) If lelh > 10, then treat pile as a slender column.
a

I~
hK
2000

Ma<l<l

(assume K

= 1 conservatively)

=Na

Combine this additional moment with moment obtained by analysis


in Step 3 following Section 7.2. Design pile with moment as described
in (ii) above.
Step 14 Check stresses in prestressed concrete piles

y x

SK 7/21 Typical section of a


pretensioned prestressed pile.

Stresses may be checked at the serviceability limit state only as per


BS8110: Part 1, Section 4.[IJ
Permissible maximum compressive fibre stress in concrete = 0.4fcu
Assume pile as Class 3 member with a limiting crack width of 0.1 mm.

Design of Piled Foundations 319


Hypothetical flexural tensile stress in concrete

= 4.1 N/mm2
=

for Grade 40
4.8N/mm2
for Grade 50 and above

Depth factors to modify tensile stress are shown in the following table.

Depth (mm)

Factor

Up to 400

1.0
0.95
0.9

500
600

= direct service

load on pile

Mxx

= bending moment as obtained from

Myy

= bending

Step 3 about axis x-x


moment as obtained from Step 3 about axis y-y.

Assume the pile section is uncracked.


Find Ac

= area

of concrete

lxx = moment of inertia about x-x axis


l_v_v

= moment of inertia about y-y axis

= residual

prestress after all losses.

Maximum compressive stress in concrete = ( PA+cN) +

(M_vx)
lyy

Maximum tensile stress in concrete

= ( PA+cN) - (MlxxxY)

M_vx)
( lyy
= modular ratio
f, = strand stress prior to release

fc = stress in concrete due to prestress alone.

(1) Loss due to elastic shortenmg

(lOOm/c)
~ %

(2) Loss due to relaxation of steel - refer to strand manufacturer's


brochure.
(3) Loss due to creep of concrete - follow clause 4.8.5 of BS 8110: Part
1.(1]

(4) Loss due to shrinkage of concrete - follow clause 4.8.4 of BS8110:


Part i.1 11
Note:

Prestressed piles designed as fixed to pile cap must extend into pile cap by

320

Reinforced Concrete
a minimum distance equal to transmission length given by the following
equation:

where

!cu = concrete

cube strength at 28 days


for plain or indented wire
= 400 for crimped wire
= 240 for 7-wire standard or super strand
= 360 for 7-wire drawn strand
= nominal diameter of tendon.

K 1 = 600

<j:>

Step 15 Check shear capacity of RC pile

SK 7/22 Typical section through a


rectangular pile subject to biaxial
bending and shear.

Ultimate limit state shear forces in pile are Hpxu and Hpyu Corresponding
bending moments in pile are Mpyu and Mpxu The ultimate coexistent
direct load on pile is Nu.
Rectangular piles
No shear check is necessary if
Mpxuf Nu S 0.6h
and Mpyul Nu s 0.6b
and Hpyulbh' s 0.8v'fcu s 5N/mm2
and Hpxulhb' s 0.8y'/cu s 5N/mm2
Shear check is necessary if"
MpxulNu > 0.6h and/or MpyulNu > 0.6b
Find Vx = Hpyulbh' and Vy = Hpxulhb'
Find Px = IOOAsxlbh' and Py = lOOA,yfhb'

Find Vex and Vey corresponding to Px and Py from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.

Design of Piled Foundations 321

If this check fails, provide shear reinforcement in the form of links.


I

Nu

y
b

Ac:: bh
Enhancement of design
concrete stress= 06 ~i;i Hyuh/ MxuAc
Hyuh/ Mxu'!ii: 10
SK 7/23 Shear stress enhancement due to
presence of axial load.

Note:

Ac= bh
Enhancement of design
concrete shear stress
=06 NuHxublMyuAc
Hxub/Myu'5 l0

SK 7/24 Shear stress enhancement due to


presence of axial load.

vex and Vey may be enhanced by using the following formulae due to
presence of an axial load Nu:

Hpyuhl Mpxu and Hpxubl Mpyu should be less than or equal to 1.0.
Shear reinforcement

Asv

bSv(v - v~)
= ---'----'-

0.87 fyv

where Asv

total area of legs in direction of shear

b = width of section perpendicular to direction of shear

Sv = spacing of links
fyv ~ 460N/mm 2 for links.
Circular piles
Hpu

= ultimate vertical load with H pu


= combined ultimate horizontal load

Mpu

= moment in pile due to

Nu

Hpu

322 Reinforced Concrete

Asvx ~ bxSv ( Vx -Vex>

Asvy ~

087Jyv

by 5v ( Vy - Vty)
087Jyv

SK 7/25 Shear reinforcement in a


rectangular pile.

Asv<are of link)
As= area of all
r---+~-1--___;,.::longitudinal bars

Sv

SK 7/26 Shear reinforcement in a


circular pile.

No shear check is necessary if"


Mpul Nus 0.60h

where

and

Hpu/0.75Ac s 0.8\f/cu s 5 N/mm 2

Ac= 0.25nh 2

Shear check is necessary if"


MpufNu>0.60h

Shear stress, v = Hpul0.75Ac


assuming 50% of bars effectively in tension
where As= total area of steel in pile.

Design of Piled Foundations 323


Find Ve corresponding top from Figs 11.2 to 11.5.
The shear stress vc may be enhanced by using the following formula due to
presence of an axial load Nu:
, _

Ve -

Ve

0.6NuHpuh
AcMpu

<

,/

<

- 0.8y /cu - 5N/mm

Hpuh/Mpu should be less than or equal to 1.0.

If v > v;, then use shear reinforcement.

where Av = total area of link bars perpendicular to longitudinal bars, i.e.


the two legs of hoop reinforcement
/yv = characteristic yield strength of link reinforcement
S = spacing of links.
Find z/R from appropriate table from Tables 11.18 to 11.27 corresponding
to /cu h.fh, p, NIR 2 and e/R.
Check

H pu :S Vs + Ve

The total shear resistance for inclined links =


Vs= [0.87 /yAsv (coscx + sin ex cot f)) ( z/ S)]
where Asv = total area of link bars i.e. the two legs of hoop reinforcement.
f3 may be taken as 45 when ex is angle of inclination of link.

Step 16 Check shear capacity of prestressed pile


b

h d
Spiral link
.reinforcement

Spiral
link

Aps to find Ve
SECTION

Vco =

,'
j

SK 7127 Typical section and


elevation of a prestressed concrete
pile.

ELEVATION

0.67bh(f~ + 0.8/cp!t)!

0.55/pe)
Ver= ( 1 - - - - Vcbd
/pu

M0 V

+ -M

~ O.lbdV/cu

Ve = Vco or Ver as the case may be (kN) -

resistance

design ultimate shear

324

Reinforced Concrete
Vco = shear resistance of section uncracked (kN)
Ver

= shear resistance of section cracked (kN)

f 1 = maximum design principal stress at the centroidal axis= 0.24y!cu


fcp = design compressive stress at centroidal axis of concrete section due
to prestress alone
fpe = design effective prestress in tendons after all losses :S 0.6fpu
fpu = characteristic ultimate strength of tendons
Ve

= design concrete shear strength from Figs 11.2 to 11.5 where percentage of steel reinforcement should include tendons plus any ordinary
untensioned longitudinal steel reinforcement in tensile zone of
section

d = effective depth to centroid of reinforcing steel in tension zone

where reinforcing steel should include tendons and any untensioned


reinforcement

!cu

= characteristic cube concrete strength at 28 days

M0 = moment to produce zero stress at tension fibre with 0.8fcp on


section.

~tressing

strands

fc

-Jc
l.Jl:l1formly_ prestressed
pile section

Uiiform Prestress
=OSfcp

Stress due to M0
M0 Zfc 08Zf cp

SK 7 /'28 Stress diagram for a symmetrical rectangular prestressed pile due to M 00

If Hpu < 0.5Vc, no shear reinforcement is required.


If Hpu ~ 0.5Vc, then provide shear reinforcement as follows.
Shear reinforcement
If horizontal shear on pile, Hpu, is less than or equal to (Ve+ 0.4bd) then,

Asv
Sv

0.4b
0.87fyv

If horizontal shear on pile, Hpu, is more than (Ve+ 0.4bd) then,

Design of Piled Foundations 325


Asv
Sv
Note:

Hpu - Ve
0.87/yvd

For biaxial bending and shear, check requirement for shear reinforcement
for each direction of bending separately, but allow for contribution of
concrete shear resistance Ve in one direction of loading only for calculation
of shear reinforcement. (See Step 7 of Section 4.3.1.)

Step 17 Check minimum reinforcement in RC pile


For rectangular and circular piles, lOOAscfAc::::: 0.4.
Step 18 Check minimum prestress in prestressed pile

Find slenderness ratio of pile = n =


where

b = minimum width of pile

I = total length of prestressed pile at commencement of driving.

Minimum prestress after losses = 60n psi


or
= 0.4nN!mm 2
If diesel hammer is used,

minimum prestress in concrete= 5 N/mm 2


Step 19 Maximum reinforcement in pile
lOOAscfAc ~ 6
Step 20 Containment of reinforcement in pile
Minimum dia. of links= 0.25 x largest bar::::: 6 mm

Maximum spacing of links = 12 x smallest dia. of bar


Step 21

Links in prestressed piles


At top and bottom 3B length of pile, provide 0.6% of volume of pile in
volume of link.

Step 22 Minimum tension reinforcement in pile cap


As 2: 0.0013bh
in both directions
Step 23 Curtailment of bars in pile cap
A minimum anchorage of 12 times diameter of bar should be provided at
ends by bending bar up vertically. Additionally check that full tension
anchorage bond length is provided from critical section for bending in a
pile cap where design for flexure and requirement for flexural steel in
tension is determined. In finding anchorage bond length beyond that
section, actual area of steel provided may be taken into account.
Step 24 Spacing of bars in pile cap
Clear spacing of bars should not exceed 3d or 750 mm.

326 Reinforced Concrete

Pile
r-

-,

=Tension Anchorage
Bond Length

Percentage of reinforcement,
lOOA,lbd (%)

SK 7 /29 Typical section through a

pile cap.

Maximum clear spacing


of bars in pile cap (mm)

1 or over
0.75
0.5

0.3

Less than 0.3

Note:

160
210

320
530
3d or 750

This will deem to satisfy a crack width limitation of 0.3 mm.

Step 25 Early thermal cracking


See Chapter 3.
Step 26 Assessment of crack width in flexure
See Chapter 3.
Step 27 Connections
See Chapter 10 for connection of pile to pile cap and column to pile cap.

7. 7 WORKED EXAMPLE
Example 7.1

Pile cap for an internal column of a building


Size of column = 800 mm x 800 mm
Spacing of column = 8 m x 8 m on plan

Design of Piled Foundations 327


Unfactored column loads

Vertical load, N (kN)


Horizontal shear, Hx (kN)
Horizontal shear, Hy (kN)
Moment, Mx (kNm)
Moment, My (kNm)

Dead

Imposed

1610
28

1480
18

112

72

Wind
156
112
448

624

Geotechnical information (see SK 7130)


Stratum 1
Average thickness of layer = 1.5 m

Classification:
Average N

= 3 (SPT)
=

<I>=
y

very loose yellow brown to brownish grey sandy silt.

11.3 kN/m 2
40
26kN/m3

Stratum 2
Average thickness of layer = 9 m

Classification:

soft to medium bluish-grey clayey silt.

Average N = 5 (SPT)
c = 20.2kN/m2
<I>= 50
y = 24kN/m3
3
Ysat = 27 kN/m
Stratum 3
Average thickness of layer = 2 m

Classification:

stiff to very stiff bluish-grey silty clay.

Average N = 14 (SPT)
c = 60kN/m 2
<I>= 60
3
Ysat = 26 kN/m
Stratum 4
Average thickness of layer = 7 m

Classification:

dense to very dense mottled brown sandy silt.

Average N = 24 (SPT)
c = 13.8kN/m2
<I>= 31
3
Ysat = 27 kN/m

318 Reinforced Concrete


:r:

l-

o..
w

Ot/1

"'>-

WW
<.!)

< <
w

" ' _J

>U..

<O
0

0
lf)

SOFT TO MEDIUM BLUiSH-GREY


CLAYEY SILT N=S AVERAGE

STIFF TO VERY STIFF BLUISH-GREY


SILTY CLAY N=l4 AVERAGE

0
0

0
0

:;;---------------3

::E

=>

.,,

JENSE TO VERY DENSE MOTTLED BROWN


SANDY SILT N=24 AVERAGE

1-

VERY STIFF TO HARD


SILTY CLAY N=31 AVERAGE

0
0

"""

0
0
0

SK 7/30 Average ground condition


soil strata.

Design of Piled Foundations 329


Stratum 5
Average thickness of layer= 15 m

Classification:

very stiff to hard silty clay.

Average N = 31 (SPT)
c = 71.5 KN/m2
<P = 8"
3
Ysat = 28 kN/m
Water table at 3.0m below ground level.
Step 1 Select type of pile
Considering all the factors as described in Step 1 of Section 7.6 it 1s
decided to use a non-displacement pile.
Choose 600 mm diameter bored and cast-in-situ concrete pile.
Step 2 Determine vertical capacity of pile
Follow Section 7.1.

First method of point resistance

Assume pile to go into Stratum 5 and stop at 8.0m within Stratum 5.

Lb = average length of pile = (1.5 + 9 + 2 + 7 + 8) m = 27.5m


AP = cross-sectional area of pile = n x

40.6

= 0.283 m2

B = 0.60m

N = statistical average of SPT in a zone of about SB above to 3B below


pile point = 31
27.5
= 15280kN
0.6
s 380N(Ap) = 380 x 31.0 x 0.283 = 3334 kN

Pru = 0.283

x 38 x 31 x -

Second method of point resistance


Pru = Ap(N~c

ijN~)

Ar = 0.283m 2

c = 71.5kN/m2
Yw = 10kN/m3
ij = effective vertical stress at pile point

= 1.5 x 26 + 1.5 x 24
- (27 .5 - 3) x 10
= 489.5kN/m2

+ 7 .5 x 27 + 2 x 26 + 7 x 27 + 8 x 27

330 Reinforced Concrete

STRATUM
1

0
0
Lil

~ =26KN/m'

0
0
Lil

~=24KN/m 3

- --

Water' Table

STRATUM
2

~sat=27KN/m'

STRATUM
3

0
0
0
N

~sat=26KN/m'

STRATUM
4

0
0
0

~sat=27KN/m'

"'
""

Lil

""
N

""

STRATUM

0
0

asat=27KN/m'

0
CD

SK 7131 The pile penetrating


different strata.

= 27.5m

LIB= 46

cj>

= 0.60m

= 8

From Fig. 7 .2,


N~ =

N~

= 15 and LclB = 3.5

L
Le
->>-

Ppu

= 0.283 [(15 x 71.5) + (3 x 489.5)] = 719kN

Design of Piled Foundations 331

0
0

<D
0
CDC
CilCD

....

(Ilg~~
(T)

CD

=--

SK 7132 Condition at bottom of


pile.

Determination of skin resistance

"1:.Ps; = "1:.Asf,
Used non-displacement pile of 600 mm diameter.
First method of skin resistance
fs = NkN/m 2
Stratum 1
As 1

=
=

perimeter x depth of stratum


x 0.60 x 1.5
2.83m 2
lt

fsi = 3kN/m2
Ps;1

=3x

2.83

8.5 kN

0.60

Stratum 2
As2

= lt

17m2

fs2 = 5kN/m2
Ps;2 =

5 x 17

= 85kN

Stratum 3

= lt x 0.60 x
fs3 = 14kN/m2
Psi3 = 14 x 3.8 =

As3

3.8m2

53.2kN

600 = B

332 Reinforced Concrete


Stratum 4
re

As4 =

f, 4

0.60

13.2m 2

24 kN/m2

13.2 x 24

Psi4 =

316.8kN

Stratum 5
Ass= re

0.60 x 8

15.lm2

fss = 31 kN/m 2

15.1 x 31 x 468.lkN

Psis =

~Psi=

931.6kN

Fourth method of skin resistance

f,

a:c + 0.5ijKs tan 6

Ignore the second term because 6 is very small.


Stratum 1
c

a:= 0.75
Psil =
Psit

As1

11.3 kN/m 2

X /s1

= 0.75

x 11.3 x 2.83

A, 1 = 2.83m

= 24kN

Stratum 2
a:

Psi2

A, 2

0.75

= 20.2 kN/m 2
x 20.2 x 17 = 257.2kN
c

= 0.75
= 17m2

Stratum 3
a:

0.75

Psi3

= 0.75 x

A,3 = 3.8m

= 60kN/m2
60 x 3.8

= 171 kN

Stratum 4
A;;4 = 13.2m2

a:

2.0

say with high D,

c = 13.8 kN/m 2
Ks= 2.0

6
tan6

<I> =

from chart

= 0.75<!> = 23.25
= 0.43

31

Design of Piled Foundations 333


{j = effective vertical stress at middle of layer

= 1.5 x

26

+ 1.5 x 24 + 7.5 x 27 + 2 x 26 + 3.5 x 27 - (16 - 3) x 10

= 294kN/m 2

/s

P,; 4

O'.C

0.5{j Ks tanb

13.2 [2

x 13.8) + (0.5 x 294 x 2 x 0.43)] = 2033 kN

The fourth method of skin resistance is giving much higher values than the
first method and may be ignored from the point of view of conservatism.
Pu= Ppu + Psu
= 719 + 932
= 1651kN

1651
Allowable working load on pile = - - = 660 kN
2.5
Designed pile is 600 mm diameter bored and cast in-situ concrete pile with
an average length of 27 .5 m to carry a working load of 660 kN. This is a
conservative theoretical estimate of single pile vertical load capacity and
must be verified by actual pile tests on site.

Step 3 Determine horizontal capacity of single pile


See Section 7. 2.
Assume cohesive soil.
Method 1
where N

Es= 650N

of
of
of
of
E, of

Es
Es
Es
Es

ksB

Stratum
Stratum
Stratum
Stratum
Stratum

1 = 650 x
2 = 650 x
3 = 650 X
4 = 650 X
5 = 650 x

= l.3(EsB4)fl
Erft

k,1B
ks2B
ks3B
ks4B
ks5B

(~) D
=
=
=
=
=

3 = 1950 kN/m 2
5 = 3250 kN/m 2
14 = 9100 kN/m 2
24 = 15600kN/m 2
31 = 20150 kN/m 2

(~)
1-

Et = 28 x 106 kN/m2

ft

SPT No.

(~)

1672 kN/m 2
2909kN/m2
8875 kN/m 2
15914kN/m2
20999kN/m2

for pile concrete


x 0.604 = 6.36 x 10- 3 m4
k, 1 =
ks2 =

k, 3 =
ks4 =

k, 5 =

2787 kN/m 3
4848 kN/m 3
14 792 kN/m 3
26523kN/m3
34998kN/m3

334 Reinforced Concrete


Method 2
ks = 240qu kN/m 2

= 480ckN/m2
k. 1 = 480 x 11.3 =
k.2 = 480 x 20.2 =
ks3 = 480 X 60 =
ks4

= 480

kss

480

13.8
71.5

=
=

5424 kN/m 3
9696kN/m 3
28800kN/m 3
6624kN/m3
34320kN/m3

The values given by Method 1 are smaller or softer which will produce
larger deflection and bending moments in pile.
For the sake of conservatism use values given by Method 1.
S = node spacing for finite element analysis
B = 0.60m
spring stiffness = SBk 5 kN/m

= 0.60 m

0
0

u
<

lJ.J

E
E

0
0
<D

"'

l11

~
>---

lJ.J

l11

l"1

2
3
4
5
5
7
6
9
10
11
12
13

14
15
15
17
16
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
25
27
26
29
30
31

SK 7/33 Finite element model of


pile.

Design of Piled Foundations 335


Ignore top l.5B of pile for lateral support from soil.
The whole length of pile need not be modelled.

Stratum 1
Spring stiffness
Stratum 2
Spring stiffness

= 0.60 x 0.60 x
= 1003kN/m
= 0.60

x 0.60 x 4848
1745kN/m

Stratum 3
Spring stiffness
Stratum 4
Spring stiffness

2787

= 0.60 x 0.60 x
= 5325kN/m

14 792

= 0.60 x 0.6 x 26523 = 9548kN/m

Assume full fixity of pile with pile cap.


Apply unit load at top of pile and find pile stiffness and bending moment
and shear in pile using a two-dimensional computer program.

= 0.283 m2

= 6.36 x 10- 3 m4

Results of computer run


Maximum moment
Pile top deflection

= 2.48 kNm/kN
= 0.12mm/kN

Single pile horizontal stiffness

1000
0.12

= - - = 8333 kN/m

Step 4 Determine approximate number of piles and spacing


Maximum vertical load on pile cap
Riv

p
Cv

3090

660

1610

+ 1480 = 3090kN = P

= 4.7

Assume maximum allowable horizontal displacement of pile cap is 10 mm.


Maximum horizontal load

= 28 +

18

+ 156 = 202 kN =

Maximum horizontal load on pile to limit deflection to 10 mm


= 8333 x 0.010
= 83 kN per pile

Rm

H
CH

202

= 83 = 2.4

Ri = greater of Riv and RiH = 4. 7

l.lRi

= 4.7 x 1.1 = 5.17

Use 6 no. piles.

336 Reinforced Concrete


2.48

-0.56
10

-0.57
11

-0.57
12

-0.56
13

-0.52
1~

-0.48
15

-0.43
16

-0.37
17

-0.31
18

-0.25
19

-0. 19
20
-0. 14
21
-0. 11
22
-0.09
23
-0.05
24

SK 7/'34 Bending moment (kNm)


due to 1 kN horizontal load at top
of pile.

-0.02
25

Step 5 Determine size of pile cap


B

= diameter of pile = 0.6 m

l.5B = 1.5 x 0.6 = 0.9 m

Allow 0.9 m from centre of pile to edge of pile cap.


Assume 0.9m depth of pile cap.

Design of Piled Foundations 337


900

1800

SK 7/35 Layout of piles under pile


cap.

Spacing of piles 2: 3B 2: 3 x 0.6 = 1.8 m


Size of pile cap assumed is 5.4 m x 3.6 m x 0.9 m.

Step 6 Carry out load combination


Estimation of load on pile
LC 1 = l.ODL + 1.0/L
N = 1610

+ 1480

3090 kN

Hx = 28 + 18 = 46kN
Hy= OkN
Mx = OkNm
Mv = 112 + 72 = 184kNm

LC3

l.ODL + LOIL + l.OWL

N = 3090kN

Wind in x-x direction


H x = 46 + 156 = 202 kN
Hy= OkN

Mx = OkNm
Mv = 184 + 624

= 808kNm

Wind in y-y direction


Hx = 46kN
Hy = 112kN
Mx = 448kNm
Mv = 184kNm

LC4

1.0DL + I.OWL

1800

900

338

Reinforced Concrete
N = 1610kN

Wind in x- x direction
Hx = 28 + 156
Hv = OkN

184kN

Mx = OkNm
Mv = 112 + 624 = 736 kNm
Wind in y-y direction
Hx = 28kN
Hv = 112kN
Mx = 448kNm
My= 112kNm
Estimation of loads on piles for bending moment and shear calculations in pile
cap

LC5 = 1.4DL + 1.6/L


N

= 1.4 x 1610 + 1480 x 1.6 = 4622kN

Hx = 1.4 x 28 + 1.6 x 18 = 68 kN
Hv = OkN
Mx = OkNm
My= 1.4 x 112 + 1.6 x 72 = 272kNm
LC6 = 1.2DL + 1.2/L + l.2WL
N = 1.2 x 1610

+ 1.2 x 1480

3708kN

Wind in x- x direction
Hx = 1.2 x (28 + 18 + 156) = 242.4 kN
Hy= OkN
Mx = OkNm
Mv = 1.2 X (112 + 72 + 624) = 969.6kNm
Wind in y-y direction
Hx = 1.2 x (28 + 18) = 55.2 kN
Hv = 1.2 x 112 = 134.4 kN
Mx = 1.2 X 448 = 537.6kNm
My = 1.2 x (112 + 72) = 220.8 kNm
LC7 = 1.4DL + l.4WL
N = 1.4 x 1610 = 2254 kN

Wind in x- x direction
Hx = 1.4 (28 + 156) = 257.6kN
Hy= OkN

II T031985 0011425 6TT II


Design of Piled Foundations 337
900

1800

SK 7/35 Layout of piles under pile


cap.

Spacing of

piles~

3B ~ 3 x 0.6 = 1.8 m

Size of pile cap assumed is 5.4m x 3.6m x 0.9m.


Step 6 Carry out load combination
Estimation of load on pile

+ 1.0/L

LC 1 = 1.0DL
N

1610

+ 1480 = 3090 kN

Hx = 28 + 18 = 46kN
Hy= OkN

Mx = OkNm
My = 112 + 72

= 184kNm

LC3 = l.ODL + 1.0/L + l.OWL


N = 3090kN

Wind in x-x direction


Hx = 46 + 156
Hy= OkN

Mx
My

= 202kN

= OkNm
184 + 624

808 kNm

Wind in y-y direction


Hx = 46kN
Hy= 112kN

Mx

448kNm

My= 184kNm

LC4 = l.ODL

+ l.OWL

1800

900

340 Reinforced Concrete


c = 71.5 kN/m 2

at bottom of group

ij = effective stress at bottom of group = 489.5 kN/m 2

N~

N;

3}

15

or

.+. _
'I' -

(see Step 2)

80

Group end-bearing capacity = 1.8 x 3.6 x (15 x 71.5 + 489.5 x 3)


= 16465kN
Ultimate group capacity

= 7996 +

Allowable group capacity

24461
2.5

16465

= -- =

= 24461 kN

9784 kN

Allowable group capacity based on single pile capacity


3960kN

x 660

Design basis is single pile capacity.


Step 8 Carry out analysis of pile cap
Assume that pile cap is rigid. Assume 500mm backfill on top of pile cap.
Assume a surcharge of 5 kN/m 2 on backfill with no eccentricity.
It is always advisable to use the table as presented.
W = weight of pile cap
+ weight of backfill on pile cap
+ weight of surcharge on backfill
=

5.4m x 3.6m x 0.9m x 24kN/m3


+ 5.4 x 3.6 x 0.5 m x 20 kN/m 3
+ 5.4 x 3.6 x 5 kN/m 2

712kN

Maximum service load on pile without wind = 665 kN


Maximum service load on pile with wind = 771 kN

x- -

T-1J--r4-- ~-l--~-

-; - - - - - , - - - - r--- +----+--X

SK 7 /37 Calculations of pile group


stiffness.

Analysis of loads on pile cap.


Load case
LC1
LC3
LC3
LC4
LC4
LCs
LCo
LCo
LC1
LC1

Mx

My

Hx

Hy

ex

ey

ehx

ehy

POT Pu

M*x

M*y

Mxx

Myy

3090
3090
3090
1610
1610
4622
3708
3708
2254
2254

0
0
448
0
448
0
0
537.6
0
627.2

184
808
184
736
112
272
969.6
220.8
1030.4
156.8

46
202
46
184
28
68
242.4
55.2
257.6
39.2

0
0
112
0
112
0
0
134.4
0
156.8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

3802
3802
3802
2322
2322
5619
4562
4562
3251
3251

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
548.8
0
548.8
0
0
658.6
0
768.3

225.4
989.8
225.4
901.6
137.2
333.2
1187.6
270.5
1262.2
192.1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

I~
r.ll

cjQ'

Mxx = Mx + Ney + Hyh + M'f


Myy = My+ Nex + Hxh + Mj
P=N+W
Pu = N + l.4W (or l.2W)
T = Hxehy + Hyehx

la
~
~

Q..

6'1

:l

Q..

....
c;
~

....~

:t:
N
:::i::i

(b

s
..,O'
(")
(b

0..

<l
0

..,

Loads on pile.

(")

(b

;'

Load case

Por Pu

Hx

Hy

Mxx

Myy

Qmax

Qmin

Hor

Mp

or

Mpu

b (mm)

Hpu

3802
3802
3802
2322
2322
5619
4562
4562
3251
3251

LC1
LC3
LC3
LC4
LC4
LC5
LCt.
LCt.
LC7
LC7
lxx

= ~y = 4.86m2

Qmax =

H =

Y(H; + H~)
R

Mp=

112

548.8

112

548.8

134.4

658.6

156.8

768.3

I yy = :LJ'. 2 = 12 . 96m 2

P
MxxY
Myyx
-R + -/- + -/xx

46
202
46
184
28
68
242.4
55.2
257.6
39.2

yy

Qmin =

R-

MxxY
fxx

I,,

225.4
989.8
225.4
901.6
137.2
333.2
1187.6
270.5
1262.2
192.1
lxx

fyy

= 17.82m2

MyyX
-

fyy

= no. of piles = 6

bending moment in pile = 2.48H (see Step 3)

x = 1.8m

= horizontal displacement at top of pile = 0.12Hmm (see Step 3)

y = 0.9m

665
771
767
512
508
983
925
920
717
711

602
496
501
262
266
890
595
601
367
373

7.67
33.67
20.18
30.67
19.24
11.33
40.40
24.21
42.93
26.94

19.0
83.5
50.0
76.1
47.7
28.1
100.2
60.0
106.5
66.8

0.9
4.0
2.4
3.7
2.3
1.4
4.8
2.9
5.2
3.2

Design of Piled Foundations 343


SURCHARGE ON BACKFILL

900

1800

400

400

qrx- -

1800

900

-T-

0
0

en

- r-----

"i---

4--~~ -$SK 7138 General arrangement of


pile cap and piles.

0
0

en

0
0

en

0
0

en

Allowable service load on pile without wind = 660 kN OK


Allowable service load on pile with wind = 660 x 1.25 = 825 kN OK

Bending moment and shear force in pile cap

400 ' 1

1400

en

2
0
0

SK 7/39 Critical sections for


calculation of bending moment in
pile cap.

344 Reinforced Concrete


Sections 1-1 and 2-2 are taken at the face of column.
Assume column size = 800 mm x 800 mm
Dead load of pile cap+ surcharge+ backfill= 0.9 x 24 + 0.5 x 20 + 5 =
36.6kN/m2
Applying load factors for different load cases:
1.4 x 36.6 = 51.2kN/m2
1.2 x 36.6 = 43.9 kN/m 2
M[ 1 = bending moment due to dead load of pile cap etc. on section 1-1
2

3.6 x 51.2 x 2.3


48
k
= 7.5 Nm
2
or

3.6 x 43.9 x 2.3 2


= 418.0 kNm
2

Ml. 2 = Bending moment due to dead load of pile cap etc. on section 2-2

or

5.4 x 51.2 x 1.42


= 271.0kNm
2
5.4 x 43.9 x 1.42
= 232.3kNm
2
3
120

180
900

SK 7140 Critical sections for shear.

Step 9 Determine cover to reinforcement


From soil test reports, the total S0 3 is 0. 75%. This means it is Class 3
exposure (see table in Step 9 of Section 7.6).

Minimum cover on blinding concrete = 50 mm


Minimum cover elsewhere = 90 mm
Assume 90 mm cover for pile cap everywhere.
Step 10 Calculate area of reinforcement in pile cap
M = bending moment in pile cap

M 11 = 2264.9kNm

as found in Step 8.

from table in Step 8.

Bending moments and shear in pile cap.


Load case Qi

Q1

Q3

Q4

Mi1

Mh

M"11

M"22

Mu

M12

V'33

V,44

V'33

V"44

V33

V44

890
595
844
367
657

937
760
882
542
684

983
925
920
717
711

983
925
676
717
427

-487.5
-418.0
-418.0
-487.5
-487.5

-271.0
-232.3
-232.3
-271.0
-271.0

2752.4
2590.0
2234.4
2007.6
1593.2

1405
1140
1323
813
1026

2264.9
2172.0
1816.4
1520.1
1105.7

1134.0
907.7
1090.7
542.0
755.0

-199.1
-170.7
-170.7
-199.1
-199.1

-298.6
-256.0
-256.0
-298.6
-298.6

1966
1850
1596
1434
1138

2810
2280
2646
1626
2052

1766.9
1679.3
1425.3
1234.9
938.9

2511.4
2024.0
2390.0
1327.4
1753.4

LCs
LCo
LC6
LC1
LC1

Qi. Q1, Q 3 and

Q4 are pile reactions

M'i1 = 1.4 (Q3 + Q4)


M22 = 0.5 (Q1 + Q1 + Q3)
M11 = Mi1 + M'i1
V'.h = Q3 + Q4
V'.j4 = Q1 + Q1 + Q3
V33 = VJ3 + V)3
M)1> Mi_ 2 , Vin and V,44 are bending moments and shears in pile cap due to dead load of pile cap+ surcharge
M'i1> M:b, VJ3 and V',M are bending moments and shears in pile cap due to pile reaction
M 11 , M 22 , V33 and V44 are combined bending moments and shears in pile cap
<j> = 600 mm
<j>/5 = 120 mm
<j> =diameter of pile

t1

"'
<"
0
......

0.

61

-g
0.

Ill

"'

346

Reinforced Concrete

1/
It

1/
It

1/
11

SK 7141 Moments in pile and pile

cap due to pile fixity.

For this load case, pile fixity moment= 19.0 kNm

per pile.

Pile fixity moment on pile cap is opposite in sign to moment M 11 and may
be ignored.
Assume 20 mm diameter reinforcement.
dx = 900 - 90 (cover) - 10 (half bar dia.) = 800mm

!cu = 30N/mm2
M11

b = 3.6m

for concrete in pile cap


2264.9 x 106

K = - -2 =
= 0.033
fcubd
30 X 3600 X 8002

z=

d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

= 0.96d s: 0.95d = 760mm


A

st

_M
_
_
2264.9 x 106
11
- - - - - - - = 744?mm2
- 0.87 fyZ - 0.87 X 460 X 760

Assume fy = 460 N/mm 2 for HT reinforcement


Area of 20mm dia. bar = 314mm2

24 x 314 = 7536mm2

Use 24 no. 20mm diameter bars equally spaced (approximate spacing


150mm) in the x-x direction.
M22

= 1134kNm

from table in Step 8.

Ignore the effect of pile fixity moments.


Assume 12 mm diameter reinforcement.
dy = 900 - 90(cover - 20(bar dia.) - 6(half bar) = 784mm

Design of Piled Foundations 347


1134 x 106

22
= -=
2

fcubd

z = 0.95d
= 0.95 x
st

5400

784 2

= 0.011

by inspection
784 = 745mm

30

= - 22
-=
0.87fyz

1134 x 106
0.87 x 460 X 745

Area of 12 mm dia. bar

113 mm2

= 3803 mm2
34 x 113

= 3842 mm 2

Use 34 no. 12 mm diameter bars equally spaced (approximate spacing


155 mm) in the y-y direction.
(See also Step 22 for minimum reinforcement.)
All bars are high tensile reinforcement to be placed at bottom of pile cap.
There is no requirement for bars on top of pile cap.

SK 7/42 Pile cap reinforcement.

Step 11 Check shear stress in pile cap


V33 = shear on critical section 3-3
= 1766. 9 kN
(see table in Step 8)

av

= 2700 - 400 (half column) - 1080 = 1220mm

24 - 20

348 Reinforced Concrete


l.5dx = 1.5

800

1200 mm

hence no enhancement of shear stress is allowed


3

V
1766.9 x 10
v=bd= 3600x800

=. 6 lNmm

lOOA,
100 x 7536
p = -- =
= 0.26%
bd
3600 x 800
Ve

= 0.425 N/mm 2 <

400

0.61 N/mm 2

from Fig. 11.3

1100

1200

av

3
920

1780

SK 7143 Critical shear plane in pile


cap.

920

1780

The cheapest alternative is to bring the outer piles in towards the centre of
pile cap by 20 mm in the x- x direction only. This has very little effect on
pile reactions.
av=

1200mm

2d

2 x 800
1200

l.5dx = 1200mm

333

1.

Increase grade of concrete from !cu= 30N/mm2 to !cu= 40N/mm2 in pile


cap.
vc1 = 0.47N/mm2
Vcz

Vc1

e~)

0.47

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5


X

1.333

= 0.63 N/mm 2

> 0.61 N/mm 2 OK

V44 = shear on critical section 4-4


= 2511.4 kN
(see table in Step 8).

= 1800 - 1200 + 120 - 400 (half column) = 320 mm


l.5dy = 1.5 x 784 = 1176mm > av

av

Design of Piled Foundations 349


2dy
av

=2 x

784
320

lOOAsc
bd

= -- =

= 4 9

100 x 3482
5400 x 784

= 0.08%

(See Step 22 for minimum percentage of reinforcement.)


Vc1
Vc2

= 0.40N/mm2 for !cu = 40N/mm2


= 0.40 X 4.9 = l.96N/mm2

v
vc

2511 x 103
5400 x 784

= bd =
= 0.59N/mm2 <

l.96N/mm 2

OK

Step 12 Check punching shear stress in pile cap

1.5 dx ..
1200
1

oo
CD 01

- ---+ 1--- ----i l_1-r'f


'f
J

SK 7/44 Critical planes for


punching shear of piles in pile cap.

U1

CRITICAL PLANE
FOR PUNCHING SHEAR

= perimeter of column = 2 (800 +

800)

= 3200 mm

Since pile spacing is not greater ~han 3 times diameter of pile, then
punching shear stress at critical perimeter for column need not be checked.
U2

= perimeter on
=

2300

+ 2256

punching shear critical plane for pile load


4556 mm

Ultimate maximum column load, N = 4622 kN


Ultimate maximum pile load, Q = 983 kN

from table in Step 8.

350

Reinforced Concrete

Column punching shear stress

N
= -

U 1d

4622 x 103
( OO
)
3200 x 0.5 x 8 + 784

= l.82N/mm

< 0.8\Jfcu or

5N/mm 2 OK
Punching shear stress at perimeter of pile

=
lt

Pile punching shear stress

=-

U2d

983 x 103
x 600 x 800

0.65N/mm 2 < 0.8V/cu


983 x 103

4556 x 0.5 800 + 784

OK

= 0.27N/mm 2

Minimum

Ve

for Grade 40N/mm 2 concrete

= 0.40N/mm2

OK

Step 13 Check area of reinforcement in pile


Unsupported length of pile, /0 , is assumed negligible.
Assume lclh < 10.
The pile is treated as a short column. From tables in Step 8,
Qmax

with M = 28.1 kNm


with M = 106.5 kNm

= 983kN

Qmin =

367kN

Max. shear,

Vmax

= 42.93kN

Assume minimum cover is 75 mm.


h

600

SK 7 /45 Pile reinforcement.

Allowing for links and bar diameter, assume hs


h,

420

600

....:_ = -

= 0.70 = k

/cu = 30 N/mm2
e

M
28.1
e= - == 0.029 m
N
983

0.029
0.3

- = - - = 0.095
R

Qmax =
2

983 X 103 = 2.73N/mm2


600 x 600

420mm.

Design of Piled Foundations 351


From Table 11.19, it is observed that minimum reinforcement may be
used.
Use minimum reinforcement.
For the second load case,

= 367

X 1Ct3
600 x 600

Omin
2

= l N/mm 2

-=1
R

Again use minimum reinforcement.


Step 14 Check stresses in prestressed concrete piles
Not required.
Step 15 Check shear capacity of RC pile
No shear check is necessary if MpulNu :S:0.60h.

Mpu
Nu

106.5 x 106
367 X 103

= 290 mm

0.60h = 0.60 x 600 = 360 mm

No shear check is necessary.

Hpu

42.93 x 1Ct3

0.75 x n: x 6002 /4

0.75Ac
=

0.20N/mm 2 <0.8\lfcu OK

Step 16 Check shear capacity of prestressed pile


Not required.
Step 17 Check minimum reinforcement in RC pile
lOOAsc
-Ac

A
SC

0.4

=Ac x 0.4
100
n: x 3002 x 0.4

=
100
= 1131mm2

Use 6 no. 16 mm dia. HT bars (1206 mm2).


Step 18 Check minimum prestress in prestressed pile
Not required.
Step 19 Maximum reinforcement in pile
Not required.

352 Reinforced Concrete


Step 20 Containment of reinforcement in pile

Minimum dia. of links

= 0.25 x bar dia. = 4mm ;;::: 6mm

Maximum spacing of links


192mm

12 x smallest dia. of bar

12 x 16

Use 6 mm dia. links at 175 mm centres.


Step 21 Links in prestressed piles
Not required.
Step 22 Minimum tension reinforcement in pile cap
As ;;::: 0.0013bh

in both directions

Minimum reinforcement in the x-x direction


4212mm 2

= 0.0013 x 3600 x 900 =

Provided 7536mm 2 (see Step 10).


Minimum reinforcement in the y-y direction = 0.0013 x 5400 x 900 =
6318mm 2
Area of 16 mm dia. bar
Area required

3842 mm 2

201 mm 2

32 x 201 = 6432 mm 2

from Step 10

Use 32 no. 16mm dia. bars equally spaced (approximate spacing 170mm)
in the y-y direction .

. (f-~
-ffi--{T

24 - 20

32 - 1616

SK 7/46 Pile cap reinforcement


revised to suit minimum
reinforcement.

Step 23 Curtailment of bars in pile cap


Minimum anchorage at ends of bars is 12 x dia. of bar.

12 x 20
12 x 16

=
=

240mm
192mm

Provide a minimum 250 mm bent up length of pile bottom reinforcement.


Check full anchorage bond length of the main tension bars.

Design of Piled Foundations 353

/cu

40N/mm 2

Reinforcement used is Type 2 deformed bars.


From Table 3.29 of BS8110: Part 1: 1985,Pl
tension anchorage length

= 32<!> = 32 x

20

= 640 mm

More than 640 mm length of bar is available beyond section 1-1 in Step 8.
Step 24 Spacing of bars in pile cap

Maximum percentage of remforcement

=p =

lOOA,
bd
100 x 7536
3600 x 800

= 0.26%

Maximum allowed clear spacing for p less 0.3% is 3d or 750 mm, whichever
is less.
Spacing of bars adopted is 150mm.
Step 25 Early thermal cracking
If it is felt necessary to limit early thermal cracking of concrete in pile cap
then minimum reinforcement on sides and top of pile cap should be
provided based on method of calculation shown in Chapter 2.
Step 26 Assessment of crack width in flexure
Normally the calculations in Step 24 will deem to satisfy the crack width
limitations of BS8110: Part 1: 1985.1 11
If calculations are necessary to prove the limitations of crack width due
to flexure in pile cap then methods shown in Chapter 3 should be followed.
Step 27 Connection of pile to pile cap
From Step 17, 16 mm HT Type 2 deformed bars are used.
From Table 3.29 of BS8110,

full anchorage bond length

32cp; 32 x 16

512mm

The bars from the pile will project 600 mm into pile cap. (See general
recommendations for design of connections in Chapter 10.)

354 Reinforced Concrete


7 .8 FIGURES FOR CHAPTER 7
1 0

09
08

E o1

""' """ ""'


.....

06

"'

........

--

........... .......

OS
01

02

03

04

Oti

05

07

r-- .......

08

09

10

Fig. 7.1 Determination of pile


efficiency.

e
s
1000
8

,,

....

v ,,
./

I I/

....

v
y v

~i

liv

10

/I
I

v1 I
... ,, ,,"

"Zc-1v
y

20
B,deg

/I

~/

v )'

>-/v

~--

~
,, ,,
,, ,,
/ v~

I/

./

V"

Fig. 7.2 Bearing capacity factors


for deep foundations.

b/> I I

<:
<:0- 6 ....
<:"-' 4

1
0

'//,,

;j ~
~
,/,I

.o-100 ,_
8

12

,i7/~-

16

/'ti'

20

30

40

Chapter 8

Design of Walls

8.0

NOTATION

au
acj

ati

A
Ac
Ac
Ah
AT
Av
Ase

A.;
A.0
Astj
A~tj

b
be
B
c

C
d
d;
d0

e
e8
ex
ex.I
ex. 2

fc

fv

!cu
!st

Deflection due to slenderness of wall


Distances from compression face to centroid of layers of concrete in
compression
Distances from compression face to centroid of layers of tensile
reinforcement
Area bounded by median line of wall in closed cell
Net area of concrete in a section of wall
Centroid of compression in a wall section
Area of steel in shear reinforcement placed horizontally in in-plane
direction
Centroid of tensile steel in a wall section
Area of steel in shear reinforcement placed vertically
Area of steel in compression in a section of wall
Total area of steel in tension in a wall section for in-plane bending
Total area of steel in tension in a wall section for out-of-plane bending
Layers of tensile steel reinforcement in wall for stress analysis
Layers of compressive steel reinforcement in wall for stress analysis
Actual width of flange of a shear wall
Unit width of wall for out-of-plane bending
Effective width of flange of a shear wall
Plan length of wall for the computation of moment of inertia
Coefficient to determine torsional stiffness of a rectangular section
Torsional stiffness of a rectangular section
Effective depth from compression face to centroid of tensile steel
Effective depth of tensile steel in wall for in-plane bending
Effective depth of tensile steel in wall for out-of-plane bending
Eccentricity of load on wall section for in-plane bending
Slenderness coefficient of slender braced plain wall
Resultant eccentricity of all loads at right angles to plane of wall
Resultant eccentricity of loads at top of wall
Resultant eccentricity of loads at bottom of wall
Modulus of elasticity
Stress in concrete compression
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Tensile stress in steel reinforcement

355

356

Reinforced Concrete

m
M
M'

M1
MoH
Mov
Madd

nw
N
Nov
p;

Po
q
Q1
R

V~o

VoH

Vov

x
X;

Modulus of rigidity
Thickness of wall
Thickness of flange of a shear wall section
Thickness of web of a shear wall section
Height of wall
Effective height of wall
Clear height of wall
Torsional stiffness of a closed cell structure
Factor to determine additional moment due to slenderness
Length of wall in in-plane direction
Modular ratio E,I Ee
Applied bending moment on a concrete section
Modified applied moment to account for axial load
In-plane applied bending moment in a wall section
Out-of-plane bending moment in wall about horizontal plane
Out-of-plane bending moment in wall about vertical plane
Additional bending moment in out-of-plane direction due to slenderness
Total design ultimate axial load on a wall
Axial load
In-plane axial load due to out-of-plane loading on wall panel
Percentage of tensile steel for in-plane bending of wall
Percentage of tensile steel for out-of-plane bending of wall
Shear flow in components of a closed cell (kN/m)
In-plane shear flow due to torsion in a closed cell
Restraint factor
Median length of wall
Spacing of horizontal shear reinforcement to resist in-plane shear
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist in-plane shear
Torsion (kNm)
Shear stress in concrete wall section due to V;
Design concrete shear stress in wall section for in-plane bending
Design concrete shear stress in wall section for out-of-plane bending
Shear stress in concrete wall section due to VOH
Modified design concrete shear stress for in-plane bending
Modified design concrete shear stress for out-of-plane bending
Combined in-plane flexural shear and torsional shear
In-plane shear force in a wall section
Shear resistance of shear reinforcement for in-plane shear
Shear resistance of shear reinforcement for out-of-plane shear
Available concrete shear strength for in-plane bending after allowing
for VoH
Available concrete shear strength for out-of-plane bending after allowing
for V;
Out-of-plane shear about horizontal plane
Out-of-plane shear about vertical plane
Depth of neutral axis from compression face
Shear flow in the components of a closed cell (kN/m)
Depth of lever arm

Design of Walls 357


Coefficient to determine effective height of wall
Factor for determination of deflection due to slenderness of wall
Rate of twist (radians per metre length of member)
Factor to determine effective width of flange of shear wall

8.1

ANALYSIS OF WALLS

8.1.1
8.1.1.1

Walls and properties of walls


Definitions
L

ELEVATION OF WALL

I...___
I.

SK 8/1 Plan and elevation of


concrete wall.

___.13
L>4h

PLAN OF WALL

Wall is a vertical load-bearing member whose length exceeds four times its
thickness.
Unbraced wall is designed to carry lateral loads (horizontal loads) in
addition to vertical loads.
Braced wall does not carry any lateral loads (horizontal loads). All horizontal loads are carried by principal structural bracings or lateral supports.
Reinforced wall contains at least the minimum quantities of reinforcement.
Plain wall contains either no reinforcement or less than the minimum
quantity of reinforcement.

358

Reinforced Concrete
Stocky wall is where the effective height (He) divided by the thickness (h)
does not exceed 15 for a braced wall and 10 for an unbraced wall.
Slender wall is a wall other than a stocky wall.

8.1.1.2 Effective heights


8.1.1.2.1

Reinfarced wall - monolithic construction

r
-

CONSTRUCT I ON

Hol ,__.____-L-------'-----<MONOL ITH IC

SK 8/2 Wall monolithically


constructed with slab and
foundation.

He= ~Ho
where

H 0 = clear height of wall.

Values of

for braced walls.


End condition at top

End condition at bottom

2
1
2

Values

of~

0.75
0.80

0.80
0.85

for unbraced walls.


End condition at top

End condition at bottom

2
1

1.2
1.3

1.3
1.5

Design of Walls 359

Ho

--+----1--_,hr

ENO CONDITION

__..__ _,..___!\2

ENO C~OITION

--i-------f4>----"h3 ENO CONDITION

WALL F [ XEO TO

FOUNDATION

SK 8/3 Wall/slab construction


showing end conditions.

WALLS MONOLITHIC WITH SLAB OR

FOUNDATION

8.1.1.2.2 Reinforced wall - simply supported construction


He= 0.75H0

for braced wall where lateral support resists lateral movement and rotation
He = H 0
He

l.5H0

He = 2.0H0

for braced walls where lateral supports resist lateral movement


for unbraced wall with a roof slab or a floor slab at top
for unbraced wall with other forms of construction at top

360 Reinforced Concrete

SK 8/4 Slab simply supported on


wall.

8. I. I .2.3 Reinforced wall - cantilever construction


for moment connection at foundation
8.1.1.2.4

Braced plain wall


With translation and rotation restraint at any lateral support:
He= 0.75H0

With translation restraint only at any lateral support:


He= Ho

Cantilever construction:

SK 8/5 Cantilever wall.

for rotational and lateral restraint at foundation

Design of Walls 361

8.1.1.2.5

Unbraced plain wall


Supporting a roof or a floor slab:
He= l.5H0

For other walls with lateral restraints:


He= 2.0H0

For cantilever plain wall:

8.1.1.3 Effective width of flanges for in-plane bending


The effective width is width of wall perpendicular to direction of horizontal
loading which is considered as effective as compression flange, and also
vertical reinforcement provided in this width acts in tension as in tension
flange. These factors for effective width are based on the recommendations in
BS5400: Part 5_[3l

2bs

bs

2xACTUAL
WIDTH

ACTUAL
WIDTH

SK 8/6 Effective width of flange on plan of wall


arrangement.

SK 8/7 Effective width of flanges of a closed


cell on plan.

be1

b,
ACTUAL

WIDTH

1~

H~

2b2
2x ACTUAL

WIDTH

SK 8/8 Effective width of flanges of a channel


shaped shear wall on plan.

SK 8/9 Effective width of flanges of a channel


shaped shear wall on plan.

362 Reinforced Concrete


h

1~
L b3

b4

ACTUAL WIDTH

ACTUAL WIDTH

SK 8/10 Effective width of flanges


of an I-shaped shear wall on plan.

From diagrams of typical shear wall sections:


bel = 0.85
be2 = 'ljJ b2
bc3 = 0.85
be4 = 0.85
bes = 0.85
be6 = '1Jlb6

'ljJ bi
'ljJ b3
'ljJ b4
'ljJ bs

Effective breadth ratio 'ljJ for shear walls (see BS 5400: Part 51 3 1).
b/H

0
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00

Uniformly distributed loading

Point loading at top

Cantilever
wall

Continuous
wall

Cantilever
wall

Continuous
wall

1.0
0.82
0.68
0.52
0.35
0.27
0.21
0.18

1.0
0.77
0.58
0.41
0.24
0.15
0.12
0.11

1.0
0.91
0.80
0.67
0.49
0.38
0.30
0.24

1.0
0.84
0.67
0.49
0.30
0.19
0.14
0.12

b = actual width of flange


H = height of cantilever walls, or
= half height between monolithic horizontal restraints for continuous walls

Note:

The flange width limitations by use of a factor 'ljJ are required to take into
account shear lag effects. For ultimate limit state analysis, effects of shear
lag in compression flange are sometimes ignored, but effective tension
reinforcement in flange for in-plane bending should be limited within
effective flange width as given by above expressions.

Design of Walls 363

............

/'

II

===11

I
SK 8/11 Cantilever shear wall.

SK 8/12 Continuous shear wall.

8.1.1.4 Moment of inertia and shear area


The moment of inertia and shear area to be used for the computation of
deflections of a cantilever shear wall structure and also for input to a
computer program with a view to finding the interaction with other walls
and frame structures could follow the typical suggestions given below.
Type 1 shear wall

81

cl

h2
82

~
Hx

13

SK 8/13 Type 1 shear wall.

for horizontal force Hx,

14

s.

364 Reinforced Concrete


Shear area = 0.8 (B 1h 1

B 3 h3 )

For horizontal force Hy,


Ix =

h2B2
12

Shear area = 0.8B 2h 2


Type 2 shear wall

SK 8/14 Type 2 shear wall.

For horizontal force Hx,


1
3
Iv = - (2h1B1)
.
12

Shear area = 0.8 (2h 1B 1)


For horizontal force Hy,
Ix =

12

(2h 2B2)

Shear area = 0.8 (2h 2 B2)


The above philosophy may be applied to any shape and size of shear wall
layout in a building. The stiffness of walls lying parallel to the direction of
loading may only be included in the computation.
Note:

The flanges of the shear walls have been ignored, as in T-beams in building
frames, because the horizontal loads are generally of a reversible nature

Design of Walls 365


and concrete in alternate flanges goes into tension. Considering cracked
section moment of inertia including effective width of compression flanges
does not produce too dissimilar results.
The out-of-plane stiffness of walls may be ignored in the global 3-D
frame analysis.
8 .1.1.5 Torsional stiffness
8.1.1.5.1

Open cell shear wall

--

-~----.,3

I.

SK 8/15 Open cell shear wall.

.I

The torsional stiffness of individual wall elements should be added.


The torsional stiffness of the open cell as a whole is
C == c1hiB1

c2h~B2

+ c3 h~B3

Values of coefficient c.
Blh
c

Note:

8.1.1.5.2

1.5

0.14

0.20

2
0.23

0.26

5
0.29

10
0.31

In a global 3-D model each wall of the open cell shear wall may be modelled
separately as vertical stiffness elements. The property of each wall will
then include the individual torsional stiffness expressed as C == ch 3 B.

Single closed cell shear wall


Torsional stiffness,
4A 2
4A 2
J == - - - == - - - ~( Blh)
2Bi
2B2

-+hi

hz

366 Reinforced Concrete

OF WALL

,,

OF WALL

..---'-----------,=:3

SK 8/16 Single closed cell shear


wall.

B 1B2 (area bounded by median line)

T = 2Aq

where

T = torsion applied
q = shear flow (kN/m).

SK 8/17 Closed irregular cell


section subject to torsion.

The general formula for any single closed cell is given by:
4A 2

1=-

f~

where A
h

= area
=

s =

bounded by median line of wall thickness


thickness of wall
median length of wall.

Design of Walls '367


T
1=-

G6

where

8.1.1.5.3

T = torque applied = 2Aq


G = modulus of rigidity = E/2(1 + )
E = modulus of elasticity
6 = rate of twist in radians per metre length
q = shear flow (kN/m).

= (q/2AG) f (dslt)

Multi-cell closed shear wall

- x,

I 01-2 f

(?)

x,

X2

X4

x3-4

X2-

'- -

SK 8/18 Closed multiple-cell


section subject to torsion.

f0 r

x,

X4

X4

General equation for unit twist of one cell:


0;
P;

1 (
= 2A-G
X;
1

J. 1ds

X;-1.

1-l,1

ds

= I

J 1ds
J Ids)
X;+1.

P;-1,;

=.

1,1+1

f.

P;,;+1 =

dts

For compatibility, assume 6;


-X;-1Pi-1,;

Assume XI

+ X;p;

ds
t

. +I
1,1

1-1,1

- X;+JP;,;+1

= 2A;G0

= X;12G6

-XI-1Pi-l,i

XJp; - XI+1P;,;+1

= A;

From this general equation:

=
- x:z-2P11-2,11-I

+ x:1-IP11-I
- x:.-1P,,-1,,,

A1

- X3P2.J

= Az

- x:,P11-l,ll
x;,p,,

= A,.

= A,,_1

Solving for the unknowns in the above matrix gives values of Xj to


II

= 4G0L

A;Xi

When Tis known, 0 can be found.

x;,.

368 Reinforced Concrete

=-

GS

"

= 4" AX

f ''

Shear flow, X;

= 2Gex; =

X;, ;+1 = X; -

X;+1

(2;)x;

8.1.2 Modelling for structural analysis


8 .1.2 .1 Global analysis for in-plane fore es
Modelling as individual walls
Each individual wall can be modelled as a vertical beam element with
properties as described in Section 8.1.1.4 and 8.1.1.5.

BEAM ELEMENTS

1 EQUIVALENT BEAM ELEMENT


SK 8/20 A closed cell converted to one
equivalent beam element.
SK 8/19 Walls of a shear wall system converted
to equivalent beam elements.

Modelling as a combined unit


A set of walls can be combined to be represented by one beam element. In
this case the property of this beam element will be the summation of
properties for individual walls. The representative beam element may be
located at the CG of the wall configuration.
In the case of closed cell shear wall structure the equivalent torsional
stiffness will not be the sum of the individual torsional stiffnesses of the
walls. The equivalent torsional stiffness will be found as per Section
8.1.1.5.2. When a closed cell shear wall structure is modelled as individual
wall elements, then the torsional stiffness parameters for these individual
wall elements will be considered as negligible. A separate single beam

Design of Walls 369

BEAM TORSIONAL ELEMENT


I

SK 8/21 Cell converted to a


combination of flexural and
torsional elements.

BEAM FLEXURAL ELEMENTS

element must be modelled to represent the torsional stiffness of the closed


cell system. This beam element will have no bending or shear stiffness but
only torsional stiffness. This element may be placed at the CG of the
closed cell structure. This separate torsional beam element will be connected by rigid offsets with the individual wall bending elements.
The design of walls should be carried out on an individual wall basis.
The determination of individual wall moments and shears from the representative single beam element will be carried out by using the relative
bending and shear stiffnesses of individual walls.
8.1.2.2 Local analysis for out-of-plane forces
Out-of-plane forces on the wall may be due to the following:

Eccentric dead and live load.


Wind pressure on wall panel.
Earthquake wall mass excitation.
Earth pressure on wall face.
Water pressure on wall face.
Thermal gradient across wall thickness.

Local analyses should be carried out using appropriate boundary conditions.


Published tables may be used to find out-of-plane bending moments and
shears. Combined bending moment triads using the Wood-Armer principle
should be used to find the reinforcement requirement.
For out-of-plane local analyses, follow the general guidelines in
Section 3.1.
For a complicated wall geometry, wall panels in the out-of-plane direction
may be modelled using hypothetical grillage elements using for solution a
grillage suite of a computer software.

370 Reinforced Concrete


.

8.2 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR WALLS


Step 1 Find properties of wall system
Find moment of inertia and shear area (follow Section 8.1.1.4).
Step 2 Find torsional stiffness of wall system
Follow Section 8.1.1.5.
Step 3 Carry out modelling for analysis
Follow Sections 8.1.2.1 and 8.1.2.2.
Step 4 Carry out global analysis

SK 8/22 Description of in-plane


forces in a wall.

Find in-plane forces in walls. After analysis the following internal forces
should be available for each individual wall section in the system.
M1

in-plane bending moments

Vi = in-plane shear force


Q1 = in-plane shear flow due to torsion
N

= axial load

Step 5 Carry out local analysis


Find out-of-plane forces in walls (follow Section 8.1.2.2).
After analysis the following internal forces should be available for each
individual wall panel in the system.

Design of Walls 371


MoH/METRE

Mov

+t-fTl-tTflTTf D
VoH/METRE

SK 8/24 Out-of-plane internal forces in a wall


section.
MoH

SK 8/23 Elevation of a wall panel showing outof-plane moments.

Mott = out-of-plane
Mov = out-of-plane
Vott = out-of-plane
V 0 v = out-of-plane

bending moment about horizontal plane


bending moment about vertical plane
shear about horizontal plane
shear about vertical plane

Step 6 Carry out combination of loading


This should preferably be carried out in a tabular fashion for different load
cases. The load combinations should be generally as follows:
LC 1 = l.4DL
LC2 = l.ODL
LC3 = 1.4DL
LC4 = 1.0DL
LC5 = I.2DL
Note:

+
+
+
+
+

l.6LL + l.4EP + 1.4WP


1.4EP + 1.4WP
I.4WL + 1.4EP + I.4WP
I.4WL + I.4EP + I.4WP
I.2LL + I.2WL + 1.2EP + I.2WP

Load combinations LC2 and LC4 should be considered only when dead
and live load have beneficial effects.
where

DL
LL
WL
WP
EP

= dead load
= live or superimposed load

= wind load or earthquake load

= water pressure
= earth pressure.

Step 7 Check slenderness of wall


Determine type of wall: braced, unbraced, plain or reinforced.
Find effective height (follow Section 8.1.1.2.1)

He= ~Ho
Check slenderness ratio Helh.
For braced reinforced wall with< 1% reinforcement, limit of He! h :S 40.

372

Reinforced Concrete
For braced reinforced wall with 2: 1% reinforcement, limit of Helh
For unbraced reinforced wall and plain wall, limit of Hclh ::S 30.

::S

45.

::S 15 (braced) or 10 (unbraced), then design as a stocky wall.


Otherwise, design as slender wall.

If Helh

Step 8 Find effective width of flanges for rein/orced wall


Follow Section 8.1.1.3.
Step 9 Find additional out-of-plane moments about horiwntal plane

(1) Moments due to minimum eccentricity of h/20 or 20mm of direct


loads from beams and slabs simply supported on wall.
(2) Moments due to slenderness of wall.
For Hclh > 15 (braced) or >10 (unbraced):
Note:

Wall braced or unbraced in the transverse direction only to be considered


for additional moments.
Deflection due to slenderness of wall,

au =

BK

Assume K = 1 for conservatism.

13

1 (Hc)
h

= 2000

Mi+ Model
h

BRACED WALL
BOTH ENDS OF WALL FREE TO ROTATE
BUT RESTRAINED JN POSITION
Mi = Initial watt moment

SK 8/25 Wall additional moment.

Mi+ Madd

BRACED WALL UNBRACED WALL


SK 8/26 Wall additional moments.

Additional moment due to slenderness,


where

Madd

=Nau

N = direct ultimate load on wall.

Combine this additional moment, Madd with any other out-of-plane


moments obtained from analysis using Figure 3.20 or Figure 3.21 of
BS8110: Part 1: 1985.Pl

Design of Walls 373


Note:

These additional moments should be doubled if the wall has only one
central layer of reinforcement.
Mi+ Madel

_JJ,Mi2+Madd/2

BRACED WALL

~d

UNBRACED WALL

l.. M;+Madd
CANTILEVER WALL

.. J

SK 8/28 Wall additional


moments.

BOTH ENDS OF WALL RESTRAINED TO ROTATE


Mi = Initial Moments in the wall from analysis.
SK 8/27 Wall additional moments.

These out-of-plane bending moments and shears are about a horizontal


plane.
Step 10 Design stocky braced reinforced wall with approximately symmetrical
arrangement of slabs
Spans of slab on either side of wall within 15% and slab subjected to
uniform load.

nw :s 0.35fcuAc + 0.67A,cfy
where

nw

total design ultimate axial load on wall.

Step 11 Determine cover to reinforcement


Determine cover to reinforcement as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Step 12 Design of reinforced wall - rigorous method
Using the effective flange widths found in Step 8, find by elastic analysis
the stresses in the concrete and steel due to in-plane bending moment and
axial load only.

(1) Assume initially 0.40% area of steel in wall distributed uniformly in


two layers on two faces.
(2) Assume a value of x for depth of neutral axis from compression face.
(3) Divide compression zone into layers of concrete with depths dc 1 , dc2'
dc 3 , etc. and find centres of these layers from compression face ac1,
aci. ac3 etc.
(4) Conveniently group bars in tension zone and find area of groups Asti.

374

Reinforced Concrete
be

-.

AK
s t,

0C3
Oc

---I

-+- - --E+)- -

OC2

~-

rn

dc2

A'st2
-

A'st3

dC3

A'st

de

Ast 1

Ot1

ITT

Ast2
Ast3

Ot2

rn

rn

0t3
at.

>----

Ast

Ots

>----

As ts

[Ksl

I.

Ots

As ts

SK 8/29 A typical example of


analysis of a shear wall.

.I

be

A,12 , A,13 , etc. and also distances of these groups of bars from com-

pression face, i.e. a 1 i, at2 , a13 , etc.


(5) Find the following:
LAstllt( a
LAst(a 1

x)
x)

1 AT=-----~
-

S1 = Ac1 + (m where

x=

Ac 1 = area of concrete in the layer 1 of concrete in compression zone


A~ 11 = area of compressive reinforcement in layer 1 of concrete in compression zone
m = modular ratio = EJ Ee.

mLA stat + LSac


m LA st+ LS

-------

e = -=

le

fst =

l)A~t1

in-plane bending moment


axial compression

Nx( e + AT - x)
(AT - Ac) L (x - ac)S

[fe

(d - x)
(
)
- L(x - ac)S - N
2: at - x A,1 x

Design of Walls 375


(6) Finally check:

x=----

fst
mfe

If x is different from the assumed value then repeat the exercise with

a new assumed x until convergence is reached.


(7) Find final stresses /e and f, 1 after convergence. If /st is greater than
0.87/y. then increase area of steel by proportion !stl0.87fy If /e is
greater than 0.45/eu then increase thickness of wall.
(8) Find revised /e and !st with increased reinforcement. There will be no
need to carry out the iteration to find x with increased reinforcement.
LAYER 1 - AVERAGE STRESS

LAYER 2 - AVERAGE
STRESS fc2

Neutral Axis

SK 8/30 Elastic stress analysis of a


shear wall.

STRESS DIAGRAM

(9) Draw stress diagram for in-plane bending moment and direct axial
load. Divide wall into unit lengths. Over each unit length convert the
average compressive stress in compression zone into a direct load by
multiplying with the area of the unit length of wall. This compression
force acts in combination with the out-of-plane bending moment in
that length of wall. Design reinforcement for out-of-plane bending
additional to that already provided in that unit length using Tables
11.8 to 11.17 - design tables for rectangular columns.
(10) In the tension zone of the wall subject to in-plane bending moment
and axial load only, assume the concrete as unstressed. Find reinforcement required for out-of-plane bending moment as in an RC beam
following Step 10 of Section 2.3. Add this reinforcement to reinforcement already provided for in-plane bending moment.
If reinforcement provided for in-plane bending is not fully stressed
to the ultimate limit of 0.87/r then the residual capacity of this
reinforcement may be used to withstand out-of-plane bending moment.
Average tensile strain in the tensile flange may be found and
converted to an average tensile force in the flange for computation of
reduced shear stress for out-of-plane bending. Conservatively ignore
concrete shear resistance in tension flange.

376

Reinforced Concrete

1-----1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
SK 8/31 Out-of-plane bending of a
panel of a wall.

Note:

Each panel of wall should be checked for global loads in both orthogonal
directions separately if these loads are not acting simultaneously. The
worst reinforcement from either of the two orthogonal loads will be used.
The out-of-plane bending moments for combination with in-plane bending
moments are about the horizontal plane.

Step 13 Design of reinforced wall - simple method

-~--~

L/2

L/2

SK 8/32 Analysis of a shear wall


against in-plane bending.

Flanged wall
M' = M

where

L 2hr)
(2-

M = in-plane bending moment


N = axial load.

M'
K = - - :s: 0.156

fcubd 2

Design of Walls

d[ 0.5

d -

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

:5

377

0.95d

x=-0.45
As=

(o.~~YJ - (o.~f)

This reinforcement will be provided in effective width of flange in two


layers as shown. The web of the flanged wall will have the minimum
reinforcement unless dictated by out-of-plane bending moments or
reinforcement requirement as part of tension flange for other direction of
orthogonal load.
If x >ht, then follow Step 11 of Section 2.3.
The out-of-plane bending about a horizontal plane on either the wall
flange or the wall web may be due to the following:
(1) Out-of-plane framing action with supported slab.
(2) Slenderness of wall.
(3) Eccentric loads from beam or slab or any other structure on wall.
(4) Coacting horizontal loads on wall panel due to wind, earthquake,
water pressure or earth pressure.
(5) Thermal gradient across wall thickness.
The reinforcement for the out-of-plane bending moment about a horizontal
plane will be calculated as follows.
In the compression zone of concrete wall due to in-plane bending
moment, assume that the concrete has already reached the ultimate stage

COMRESSION ZONE
DUE TO M1

--0-Mr~

NA
SK 8/33 Analysis of a shear wall
against in-plane and out-of-plane
bending.

TENSION ZONE
DUE TO M1

STRESS
DIAGRAM

378 Reinforced Concrete


and cannot take any more load. Hence, the bending moment will be
resisted by equal amounts of compressive and tensile steel with a lever arm
equal to the distance between the two layers of steel.
In the tension zone of concrete wall due to in-plane bending moment,
assume that the concrete is unstressed and use the beam theory to find
reinforcement due to out-of-plane bending moment.
The reinforcement required due to out-of-plane bending moment will be
added to the reinforcement found for in-plane bending.
Step 14 Design of reinforced wall - short and squat cantilever - deep-beam approach

Ast~ ARM FOR Mo"

Ast

I..__-="i::Jtr
I.

..

l.,CSL-2H)/40

PLAN

C5L-2H)/20

SK 8/34 Design of a shear wall by


deep-beam method.

ELEVATION

This approach may be used for walls with total height less than or equal to
their length. For in-plane bending consider the wall as a deep-beam and
follow the deep-beam theory of stress distribution.
For horizontal loading to resist in-plane bending moment

6H

z=-

when - s 0.5
L

2(H + L)
5

H
when 0.5 < L s 1

Tension reinforcement to be distributed over a length of wall equal to


5L - 2H

20
d

= L _

M' = M

As
Note:

(5L ~O 2H)
L 5L - 2H)
N (- - ---2
40

(o.~~YJ - (o.~1J

The flexural strain in concrete is very small in a short and squat cantilever
wall and for all practical purposes may be ignored when designing for the

Design of Walls 379


transverse out-of-plane bending moment. Use the normal beam theory to
find reinforcement for the transverse out-of-plane bending moment.
Add this additional reinforcement for transverse out-of-plane bending
moment to reinforcement already found for in-plane bending moment.
The out-of-plane bending mol'1ent in this context is about the horizontal
plane.
The flanges of the wall, if present, either in tension or compression may be
ignored if this deep-beam approach is used. The shear strains in a wall
with the aspect ratios of a deep beam may be high and a conservative
approach taking the shear-lag effect would be to ignore the flanges.
Step 15 Check shear

__J

co
0

Asi

II

"'

ht/2

SK 8/35 Design for in-plane shear.

---=E
be

.. I

h112

In-plane bending

lOOA,i
Pi = ----,;-;,[
WI

where Pi = percentage of tensile reinforcement in in-plane direction


Asi = reinforcement available to resist in-plane bending
di = effective depth as shown.
Vi

Vi = - ' -

~ 0.8y fcu ~ 5 N/mm2

where

shear stress due to in-plane bending and torsional shear flow


in wall
= combined in-plane shear
= flexural shear + torsional shear
= Vi + Q1 (see Step 4).

hwdi

vi =

Vi

380 Reinforced Concrete


vci = design concrete in-plane shear stress depending on p; and /cu (see
Figs 11.2 to 11.5)

Aso

1b
_l

(Unit length
of wall)

SK 8/36 Design for out-of-plane


shear.

Out-of-plane bending
100A 50

Po=~
0

where A, 0 = reinforcement available to resist out-of-plane bending


b = unit length horizontally
d 0 = effective depth in transverse out-of-plane direction
p 0 = percentage of tensile reinforcement in out-of-plane direction.
Vco = design concrete out-of-plane shear stress depending on p 0 and /cu
(see Figs 11.2 to 11.5)

VoH = out-of-plane shear about a horizontal plane over a unit width b.


V0 h

VoH
bd0

= - - :S

O.Sv//cu

:S

SN/mm

No shear reinforcement is necessary if the following equation is satisfied:

Note:

In Step 12 and Step 13 the wall is designed as flanged beams for in-plane
loading. For out-of-plane shear in the flanges which acts together with the
in-plane loading, the check should be carried out separately for compression
and tension flange. For compression flange the enhancement of design
shear stress due to axial load may be allowed based on average compressive
stress. For tension flange the concrete may be conservatively ignored and
the shear force will be totally carried by shear reinforcement. Alternatively,
average tensile strain in concrete may be found and the shear stress
reduction formula may be used.

Step 16 Calculate shear reinforcement


Note:

Increase or decrease of design concrete shear stress due to presence of


axial load may be allowed following the formula on page 160.

Design of Walls 381


SK 8/37 In-plane shear
reinforcement in walls.

'////

'/ /

r/

Elevation

Plan

1
V=
Cl

'/V ~/

'/

Side Elevation

Voh) V

1--

Cl

Vco

where v~i = available concrete shear strength in in-plane direction for use
with shear reinforcement.

Provide shear reinforcement in in-plane direction for a shear force equal to


(Vi - v~i) and check:

<Vi -

v~i)

where

Note:

:s

v,j

V,i = shear resistance of horizontal bars in wall for in-plane shear


sh = spacing of horizontal bar in wall
Ah = area of horizontal shear reinforcement
fy = characteristic yield strength of reinforcement.

Provide equal amount of vertical shear reinforcement with horizontal


shear reinforcement.

where Av = area of vertical shear reinforcement


Sv = spacing of vertical shear reinforcement.
In this Case 1, no shear reinforcement is required for out-of-plane flexure.
Provide the shear reinforcement for in-plane shear in addition to other
bars required for in-plane and out-of-plane bending moments.
Case 2:

Voh

>

Vco

382

Reinforced Concrete

where

v~; =

available concrete shear stress strength in in-plane direction


for use with shear reinforcement
v~ 0 = available concrete shear stress strength in out-of-plane
direction for use with shear reinforcement.

V~; = V~j hd;

Provide shear reinforcement m in-plane direction, as in Case 1, which


satisfies

SK 8/38 Out-of-plane shear


reinforcement in walls.

I b IUnit width
//

,/

As

Side Elevation

Elevation

JfffC cc t't :I
Plan

For shear reinforcement in out-of-plane horizontal direction, use links


through thickness of wall.
For out-of-plane horizontal directional shear, resistance from links, Vs 0 ,
for a unit length b is given by

where

As = area of links over a unit width b

S
Check
Note:

VOH

vertical spacing of links.


-

V~ 0 ::S

Vso

If considerable ductility is required of a shear wall, as in seismic design,


the whole shear force should be carried by reinforcement and the shear
capacity of concrete may be ignored if the shear capacity of concrete is
exceeded.

Step 17 Check-out-of-plane bending about vertical plane


After local analysis of wall panel the bending moments, direct loads and
shears about the vertical plane in the panel are obtained.

Design of Walls 383

,--------;::-.h..
Mov

Nov

cb_ Nov
Mov cb._ Nov

Mov

Mov

Nov~"" Mov

Nov~

Mov

Nov-Cb

Mov

~ ~o_y - - ~~

Mov

Elevation of Wall Panel

NovPfov

SK 8/39 Internal forces in wall


panel due to out-of-plane loading.

v+rNov

Plan of Wall Panel

Design horizontal reinforcement for flexure of wall panel about a vertical


plane. The procedure is the same as in Step 4 of Section 3.3.
Check shear stress and reinforcement for shear as in Step 6 of Section 3.3.
Step 18 Design of plain (not adequately reinforced) walls
(A) Stocky braced plain wall

SK 8/40 Eccentric loading on wall


in out-of-plane direction.

Check nw
where

:S

0.3 (h - 2ex)fcu

nw = maximum ultimate axial load per unit length on wall


ex = resultant eccentricity of all loads at right angles to plane of
wall (minimum value of ex is h/20).

(B) Slender braced plain wall

Check nw :S 0.3 (h - 2ex)fcu


and nw :s 0.3 (h - l.2ex - 2ea)!cu
H~
e =-a

2500h

where

He

= effective

height (as per Section 8.1.1.2).

384

Reinforced Concrete
(C) Unbraced plain wall

Check
and

nw
nw

where

ex.i = resultant eccentricity of loads at top of wall


ex. 2 = resultant eccentricity of loads at bottom of wall.

:S:

:s;

0.3 (h - 2ex.1)/cu
0.3 [h - 2 (ex,2 + ea)]/cu

Step 19 Shear check of plain walls

Check

V :s: 0.25nw

where

V = in-plane ultimate shear force per unit length.

Check

v = - :s: 0.45 N/mm 2


hb

where

v = shear stress
b = unit length (mm).

Note:

A plain wall subjected to in-plane shear should satisfy at least one of the
above checks.

Step 20 Check minimum reinforcement

Minimum compression (vertical) reinforcement in reinforced wall= 0.4%


(fy = 460 N/mm 2 ) of gross cross section
Minimum horizontal tension reinforcement to withstand out-of-plane
loads= 0.13% (/y = 460 N/mm 2 ) of gross cross-section on each face
Minimum anti-crack reinforcement= 0.25% (/y = 460N/mm2 ) of gross
cross-section
Step 21

Check maximum reinforcement

Maximum vertical reinforcement in wall= 4% of gross cross-section


Step 22 Check containment of wall reinforcement
For vertical compression reinforcement in walls up to 2% of gross crosssectional area, use the following minimum horizontal bars:

0.25% of gross concrete area


Horizontal bar diameter should be greater than or equal to * size of
vertical bars but not less than 6 mm diameter.
For vertical compression reinforcement in walls greater than 2% of gross
cross-sectional area, use links through the thickness of wall.
Dia. of links 2*dia. of vertical bars or 6mm, whichever is greater
Spacing of links 2 2h

in horizontal and vertical direction

Spacing of links in vertical direction should not be more than 16 times


vertical bar diameter.

Design of Walls 385

-g
<11

,_.,,_,_,......
, --1-

<!>
-

:5 200

-- ~

'

~-

s:.
N

vI
, __ <!>

<I> ..

r-.
:5 2h

Elevation of Wall

<P--tt-

1~t:c:~:-i.~
I j j j

SK 8/41 Detailing rules for walls.

Diameter~ 114<!>

Plan of Wall

Any vertical compression bar not enclosed by link should be within 200 mm of
a restrained bar.
Step 23 Check early thermal cracking
See Step 14 of Section 3.3.
Step 24 Clear spacing of bars in tension
Follow Step 13 of Section 3.3.
Step 25 Connections
See Chapter 10.

8.3

WORKED EXAMPLE

Example 8.1

Reinforced concrete cell


Design the walls of a reinforced concrete cell which forms part of the
horizontal stability system of a building.

Step 1 Find properties of wall system


Follow Section 8.1.1.4.
Stiffness in y-direction
Divide the wall cell system into six beam elements located at the centroid
of each wall.
Equivalent beam elements 1, 2, 3 and 4 contribute to stiffness in
y-direction.

386

Reinforced Concrete
8500

4400

10500

=
----

y
II

GS
II

U)

600

----

8000
400

SK 8/42 Location of flexural vertical beam elements.

Equivalent beam elements 1 and 4 (ignoring flanges)

1
Ix = 12

600

112003 = 70.25 m4

Shear area= 0.8 x 600 x 11200 = 5.38m 2

Equivalent beam elements 2 and 3 (ignoring flanges)

1
Ix = 12

400

112003 = 46.84 m4

Shear area = 0.8 x 400 x 11200 = 3.58 m2

Note:

The moments of inertia and shear area of equivalent beam elements 1, 2,


3, and 4 about the y-axis will be ignored in the analysis.

Stiffness in x-direction
Equivalent beam elements 5 and 6 contribute to stiffness in x-direction.
Equivalent beam elements 5 and 6 (ignoring flanges)

1
Iv= .

12

600

2400a3 = 691.2m4

Shear area = 0.8 x 600 x 24000 = 11.52 m2

Note:

The moments of inertia and shear area of equivalent beam elements 5 and
6 about the x-axis will be ignored in the analysis.

Step 2 Find torsional stiffness of wall system


Equivalent torsional rigidity element of the closed cell structure may be
located at the centroid of the cell.

Design of Walls 387


y

11800

1 Wall No.5--,

1~
I-Wall No.1

--

. WallNo.6 0

SK 8/43 Location of torsional


vertical beam element.

Ir-

Torsional beam
element

-wall No.3

"'!

Wall No.2-1
.

8500

.,

12200

II
44d6

WallNo.4-

10500

By taking moments of areas about the left-hand edge of the cell,


0.6 x 10 x 0.3 + 0.4 x 10 x 8.8 + 0.4 x 10 x 13.2 + 0.6 x 10 x 23.7
+ 2 x 0.6 x 24 x 12
6 + 4 + 4 + 6 + 2 x 14.4
11.8m

x=~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Areas of cells on centreline are as follows:


Ai = 10.6 x 8.5 = 90.lm2
A2 = 10.6 x 4.4 = 46.6m 2
A3 = 10.6 x 10.5 = lll.3m 2
PI

2: (length ~f each arm of cell 1)


thickness of arm

(2 x 8.5) + (10.6) + (10.6)


0.6
0.6
0.4

= 72.5
Similarly,
p2

(2 x 4.4) + (2 x 10.6)
0.6
0.4

= 67.7
p3 = (2 x 10.5)
0.6

+ (10.6) + (10.6)
0.6

0.4

= 79.2
10.6

PI.2

= 0.4 = 26.5

10.6
= = 26.5
P 23
0.4
.

Substituting n = 3 in the general equations in Section 8.1.1.5.3.

Reinforced Concrete

388

Xlp1 - X2Pu + 0 = A1
- XIPu + X2_p2 - X3P2.3 = A2
0 - X2P2.3 + X}p3 = A3
or 72.5X( - 26.5X2 + 0 = 90.1
-26.5X( + 67.7X2 - 26.5X3 = 46.6
0 - 26.5X2 + 79.2X3 = 111.3
Solving these equations:

x;

XJ_ = 2.38m 2

2.llm2

x3

= 2.2m 2

11=3

J = 4

L (A;X;)
I

= 4(A1XI + AzX1 + A3X3)


= 4(90.1 x 2.11 + 46.6 x 2.38

+ 111.3 x 2.2)

2183.5m4

It is always useful to check at this stage the torsional rigidity of the outer
cell, ignoring the internal dividing walls. This gives confidence in the
numerical accuracy of the analysis.
For single outer cell:

4A 2

1=-L.(Blh)

4 x (23.4 x 10.6) 2
(2 x 23.4/0.6) + (2 x 10.6/0.6)
2171m4

This value is very close to the multiple cell rigidity.


Note:

The torsional beam element to be used in the analysis will have negligible
moments of inertia and shear area.

x,
x,.2

x,

X3

X2.3

CELL

CEL.,L

CELL

CD

X1

X1

SK 8/44 Torsional shear flow


diagram.

=(

X2 = (

J)x1 = 2.18 x 10- TkN/m


J)x2 2.18 x 10- TkN/m

1
1

Design of Walls 389

Step 3 Carry out modelling for analysis


Follow recommendations in Section 8.1.2.1 and 8.1.2.2.
Step 4 Carry out global analysis
The results of the analysis for different loadings are as follows:

Global torsion
= +50 000 kNm (clockwise) for horizontal load in y-direction
= +40000 kNm (clockwise) for horizontal load in x-dircction

Wall no.

Load
case

N
(kN)

DL
LL
WL(y)

3180
1325

DL
LL
WL(y)

980
615

DL
LL

980
615

WL(y)

DL
LL
WL(y)

3180
1325

DL
LL
WL(x)

7200
3125

DL
LL
WL(x)

7200
3125

Mr

Vi

Local shear flow

(kNm)

(kN)

(kN/m)

+20000

+1700

+97

+13350

+1200

-12

+ 13 350

+1200

+8

+20000

+1700

-101

+35000

+3000

+87

+35000

+3Ll00

-87

10600

----.--

r- -- - - -- - - ----------,

Ii

ll:A
11

SK 8/45 Elevation - Wall 1.

:I

!
cj'I
11

J.
I

390

Reinforced Concrete
Step 5 Carry out local analysis
Find out-of-plane internal forces in wall panels (follow Section 8.1.2.2).
After analysis the following internal forces are reported:

Wall no.

Line

Load
case

MoH
(kNm/m)

VoH
(kN/m)

DL
LL
WL

DL
LL
WL

20

DL
LL
WL

Vov
(kN/m)

28

26

28

26

10

32

30

DL
LL
WL

Mov
(kNm/m)

10
5

32

30

I
I

CIE

IA

l
'/

.'"/

'/

I
I

Iii

H
/

LI

"ilJ

I
I

//

I
I

M
// /

I
-----;

SK 8/46 Elevation - Wall 5.

Wall l only will be designed as an example.


Wall 5 panels are shown in sketch to illustrate the location of lines where
results should be available for out-of-plane bending.
Note:

The example shown uses only one value of bending moment and shear per
line of interest. In practice, more values along the line will have to be
considered.

Step 6 Carry out combination of loading


Most computer programs used for the analysis will automatically carry out
the combination according to principles described in Step 6 of Section 8.2.
Reproduced below is the result of one combination of Wall 1.
Load case LC3 = l.4DL

+ l.4WL

Design of Walls 391


Wall I subject to WL (y-direction)
In-plane forces (see Step 4 in Section 8.2):
N = 4452kN
M1 = 28000kNm
Vi= 2380kN
Q1 = 1440kN (97 x 10.6 x 1.4)

Out-of-plane forces (see Step 5 in Section 8.2):


At line D (WL in y-direction),
Mott= 14kNm/m (dead load x 1.4)
Vott = 42kN/m (DL x 1.4)
On flanges (part of Wall 5 and 6),
Mott = 39 kNm/m (WL in y-direction)
Vott = 36kN/m (WL in y-direction)
Step 7 Check slenderness of wall
Follow Section 8.1.1.2.1.

Type of wall= unbraced, reinforced in the in-plane direction

600

SK 8/47 Section through Wall 1.

fcu

He=

30 N/mm2

fy

= 460N/mm2

p Ho

H0 = clear height

12.0m

Monolithic construction at top and bottom of wall.


Assume thickness of slab at top is 400 mm.
End conditions are 1 at bottom and 2 at top.

:. p =

1.3

He = 1.3
He

12000 = 15600mm

15600
= 26 > 10 < 30 (limit for unbraced reinforced wall)
600

= --

Design as slender wall.

~n

Reinforced Concrete

Step 8 Find effective width of flanges

600

SK 8/48 Plan of Wall 1 showing


effective flange widths.

Follow Section 8.1.1.3.


Assume the shear wall behaves as a cantilever.
8500
b = = 4250
2
b

0.35

'!'

0.53

be =

'ljJ

H = 12000

for loading at top of wall

b = 0.53

4250 = 2250mm

Step 9 Find additional out-of-plane moments


Wall is assumed braced in the out-of-plane direction.

au =

He = B H

B Kh,

0.8

12000

Assume K = 1 for conservatism.

B=

au =

1
2000

(He)

256
2000

0 128

0.128h = 76.8 mm

Madd =

Nau

(out-of-plane)

= 4452 x 0.0768

= 342kNm
342
10.6

=-

32.3 kNm/m

Step 10 Design stocky braced reinforced wall


Not applicable.

9600

Design of Walls 393


16-2

16-2

SK 8/49 Moments due to


slenderness.

Out-of-Plane Madd

Step 11 Determine cover to reinforcement


Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Condition of exposure = mild
Grade of concrete = C30
Minimum cement content= 275 kg/m 3
Nominal cover = 25 mm
Step 12 Design of reinforced wall - rigorous method

~l
8

-Astt,]1
!:::! 0
U----- Ast~
S

Ast~-

<D

N-

(Y)

lO

Ast1

!?

!?

8
CXl

<D

Asti

Asb

+-

Ast4

~o
a:>

~o

!?

!?
0

!?

SK 8/50 Elastic stress analysis of


Wall 1.

Asts

2550

Ast6

S2

394 Reinforced Concrete


(1) Assume 0.40% reinforcement in wall.
Reinforcement per metre length =

600 x 1000 x 0.40

100

= 2400mm 2/m

Use 1200 mm 2 on each face per metre length.


(2) Assume a value of x for depth of neutral axis from compression face.
x = 3000 mm

assumed.

(3) Divide compression zone into convenient layers of concrete.


(4) Divide tension zone into convenient layers of steel.
(5) Find the following in completing the table:
S = Ac

+ (m -

l)A~ 1

C1 = (x - ac)S

C2 = (x - ac)acS
C3 = (a 1 - x)A 51
C4 = (a 1 - x)a1A,1

Number Ac

A~1

(x 106 )
1
2
3
4
5
6
Totals

llc

Ast

ll1

(x 106 )

1.53
0.72
0.72

6120
2880
2880

1.62
0.76
0.76

2.97

11880

3.14

300
1200
2400

3648
3648
3648
3648
3648
6120
24360

C1
(x 109 )

3760 4.374
5280 1.368
6800 0.456
8320
9840
10900
6.198

C2
(x 1012)
1.312
1.642
1.094

4.048

4.048 x 10 12
----=653mm
6.198 x 109

M
28000 x
e = - =
N
4452

la3

= 6289 mm

Nx(e + AT - .f}
fc = ---'----___::__ ___:__
(AT - Ac) ~ (x - ac)S

4452 x 103 x 3000 x (6289

+ 9201 - 1735)

(9201 - 653) x 6.198 x 109


= 3.467 N/mm 2

c,
(x 106 )

C4
(x 1010)

2.772
8.317
13.862
19.407
24.952
48.348
117.658

1.042
4.392
9.426
16.147
24.553
52.699
108.259

Design of Walls 395

!st=

[~(a:= ;)AJ[ (~) L (x -

ac)S - N]

3
3 67
9
( ll lOO - ~) x [( .4 ) x 6.198 x 10
117.658 x 10
3000
=

4452 x 1()3]

186.6N/mm2
d

(6) Check x =
1

= 2419mm

+ iE_
mfc

Second approximation for x is halfway between first approximation and


the check result.
Assume x

= 2700 mm

After carrying out the same tabular exercise as before it is found that:
fc

!st

= 3.66N/mm 2
=

182.4N/mm2

Check x

= 2570 mm.

No further iteration is necessary.


Check reinforcement in compression flange due to out-of-plane bending

Average compressive stress in flange

= ~(3.7 + 2.8) = 3.25N/mm2

fc:3-7 N/mm2

N{ ~~--I-:-_:::-_::: _28-N/m_m_'.

SK 8/51 Elastic analysis - stress


diagram.

-------------

I
fs=183 N/mm 2

396 Reinforced Concrete


Average compressive stress in reinforcement in flange = 3.25 x 15
form = 15
= 48.75N/mm 2
Over a unit length of wall,
compressive force, N = 3.25 x 600 = 1950 kN
Out-of-plane bending moment due to DL + WL(y) + additional moment
due to slenderness
32.3
=39+2

(see Step 9)

= 55.2kNm/m

SK 8/52 Section through wall for


out-of-plane analysis.

Material strengths chosen:

!cu

= 30N/mm 2

fy = 460N/mm2

d
565
k = - = = 0.95
h
600

M
e = - = 0.028 m
N

See Table 11.8.


e

-h = 0 .047

For p = 0.4, bh from chart 1s 13.53 > 3.25 N/mm

:. Nominal steel is required as per chart.


Check reinforcement in tension jla.nge for out-of-plane bending
Maximum tensile stress in bar due to in-plane bending moment =
183N/mm2
Maximum allowable ultimate tensile stress in bars = 0.87/y
= 0.87 x 460
= 400N/mm 2
Available tensile force in bars per metre length of wall per face of wall
= (400 - 183) x 1200 (area on each face)
= 260.4kN/m
Maximum out-of-plane bending moment= 55.2 kNm/m

Design of Walls 397


M
K=--

fcubd2

55.2 x 106
30 x 1000 x 565 2
= 5.76 x 10- 3

z=

d[

0.5

J(

0.25 -

0~9) J

'.S

0.95d

= 0.95d = 537mm
.

Required tensile force m bars = - =

55.2 x 103
537

102.8 kN/m

This is less than 260.4 kN/m available. Hence, no additional reinforcement


is required in tension flange.
Step 13 Design of reinforced wall - simple method
Not required. The design principle is exactly similar to beam design and
has not been illustrated.
Step 14 Design of short and squat cantilever wall - deep beam approach
Not required, because HIL > 1.
Step 15 Check shear

0
0

600

~
II

SK 8/53 Shear check of Wall 1.

Asi = available tension reinforcement below neutral axis in web ignoring


flange
= (11.2 - 2.6) x 2400
= 20640m 2
di = 11200 - 300 = 10900mm (approx.)

lOOAsi

p; = - - =

hwdi

100 x 20640
=0.32%
600 X 10 900

398

Reinforced Concrete

/cu

30N/mm 2

From Figs 11.2 to 11.5,


Vci =

0.47N/mm 2

Vi

combined in-plane shear


Vi + Q1 = 2380 + 1440

=
=

v.

vi=--' =

hwdi

3820kN

0.58N/mm 2

Aso = available tension reinforcement for out-of-plane bending

1200mm2 /m

(each face)

d0 = effective depth in out-of-plane direction = 565 mm


p

=
0

lOOAso = 100 x 1200 = 0 _21 %


bd0
1000 X 565

From Figs 11.2 to 11.5,


Vco

0.4 N/mm 2

Vott = out-of-plane shear coacting with V;


= 4.2kN/mm on the web
Vott
bd0

Voh = - - =

0.007 N/mm

-Vj + -V0 h = (0.58)


+ (0.007)
- - = 1.25 > 1
Vci

Vco

0.47

0.4

Shear reinforcement is necessary for in-plane shear.


Note:

Increase of design concrete shear stress due to presence of axial load has
been ignored in these calculations but may be allowed as per formula on
page 160.

Step 16 Calculate shear reinforcement

VI1 =

1 - -Voh) V Cl
Vco

0.007)
- x 0.47
(1 - 0.4

= 0.46N/mm2
Vi= vlhwdi = 3008.4kN
V; - Vj

= 3820 - 3008.4 = 811.6kN

Shear reinforcement is required to resist 811.6 kN.

Design of Walls 399


Ah=

sh

Vsi

o.87/A
811.6 x 103
0.87 x 460 x 10900
= 0.19

If Sh = 300, then Ah = 300 x 0.19 = 57 mm 2 which is 29 mm 2 of horizontal

bar on each face at 300mm centres, or, 97mm2 per metre on each face.
Av

Sv

Ah

= -

Sh

= 0.19

for fy = 460 N/mm 2

Vertical shear reinforcement additional to vertical bars provided for bending is required if available vertical bars have no residual capacity.
In the web 2400mm2 /m vertical bars are available at a maximum average
stress level of, say, 160N/mm2 (see Step 12). Hence residual capacity
available in vertical bars in web= 0.87 x 460 - 160 = 240 N/mm 2
Modified Avf Sv to take into account the residual capacity

460
= 0.19 x 0.87 x = 0.32
240
Av for shear required per metre length of wall = 320mm 2

(modified)

Available vertical bars = 2400mm /m in web


Hence no additional vertical bars are necessary to resist shear in web.
No shear reinforcement is required in out-of-plane direction.
Step 17 Check out-of-plane bending about vertical plane

SK 8/54 Out-of-plane bending


about vertical plane.

Mov
Vov

1.4 x 28
(see Step 5)
= 39.2kNm/m

1.4 x 26

= 36.4kN/m

400 Reinforced Concrete


M
39.2 x 106
K = -- =
= 4.3 x 10- 3
fcubd 2
30 X 1000 X 5502

z=

d[ 0.5

= 0.95d =

J(

0.25 -

:S

0.95d

522mm

M
A, = - - - =

0~9) J

0.87/yZ

39.2 x 106
= 187.6mm2
0.87 X 460 X 522

Add to this reinforcement the horizontal reinforcement required in Step 16


for in-plane shear.
Total horizontal reinforcement required on each face (assuming the load
WL is reversible in direction)
187.6 + 97 = 284.6mm 2/m
v

= Vov = 36.4
bd

OV

X 103 = 0.07 N/mm2


1000 x 550

Shear stress is negligible.


Step 18 Design of plain walls
Not required.
Step 19 Shear check of plain walls
Not required.
Step 20 Check minimum reinforcement
Minimum compression vertical reinforcement in wall = 0.4%
(fy = 460N/mm 2)
This has been provided.

Minimum horizontal tension reinforcement on each face


= 0.13% (/y = 460N/mm2 )
600
100

x 1000 x -

0.13

780mm2 /m

on each face

This amount is greater than horizontal reinforcement found in Step 17.


This reinforcement will be adopted.
Minimum anti-crack reinforcement is 0.25% in both directions on each
face. This has been provided.
Step 21

Check maximum reinforcement


Not required.

Step 22 Check containment of wall reinforcement


Vertical reinforcement is less than 2% of gross concrete area.

Design of Walls 401


Hence requirement is to provide horizontal reinforcement equal to 0.2%
of gross cross-sectional area. This is provided.
Vertical bar diameter

20mm

Horizontal bar diameter


Step 23

lOmm >

!4 (20mm)

Check early thermal cracking

Crack width limitation = 0.3 mm


(see Step 14 of Section 3.3).
Assume R = 0.8 at base.
T 1 = 32C
Er

= 0.8T1o:R
= 0.8 x 32 x 12 x 10- 6 x 0.8 = 2.46 x 10- 4

Check horizontal bars for vertical cracks

:==::J100
-==_]100

SK 8/55 Crack width for


horizontal bars lOmm @ 100 c/c.

Assume lOmm diameter bars at lOOmm centres (785mm 2/m).


acr

65.7mm

(1.414

50 - 5

65.7)

take x = h/2
Wmax

= - - -3acr
- Er- - 2( Ocr - C min)
1 + -'--"'-----"'="h - x

3 x 65.7 x 2.46 x 10- 4


2(65.7 - 45)
1
+
300

= 0.04 mm <

0.3 mm

OK

Check vertical bars for horizontal cracks


Assume 20mm diameter bars at 250mm centres vertically (1256mm2 /m
each face).

402 Reinforced Concrete

_Q _

_ljl_--=:I20

-~=_j25

125

125

SK 8/57 Sketch to find ac,.


SK 8/56 Crack width for vertical
bars 20mm @ 250 c/c.

acr

120mm

Wmax =

3 x 120 x 2.46 x 10- 4


2(120 - 25)
1
+
300
0.05 mm < 0.3 mm OK

Step 24 Clear spacings of bars in tension


Reinforcement provided is 20 mm diameter at 250 mm centres both faces
vertically and 10 mm diameter at 100 mm centres both faces horizontally.
These spacings satisfy the requirements according to Step 13 of Section
3.3.
Step 25 Connections
Follow Chapter 10.

Chapter 9

Design of Flat Slabs

9.0 NOTATION
A

A,t
be
Cx
Cy
d
dh

fy

/cu
he
Gk
le

'Ixh
ly
/ho

th.max
/1
/2
M'

Mt
Mt.max

Qk

Vi
Vett

wk
x

Area of column or area of effective column head


Area of steel in tension
Effective width of slab for transfer of moment to edge column
Size of a rectangular column in x-direction
Size of a rectangular column in y-direction
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Depth of column head
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Effective diameter of column or effective column head
Characteristic dead load
Dimension of column in direction of /h
Effective dimension of column head
Shorter span framing onto columns
Longer span framing onto columns
Actual dimension of column head
Maximum dimension of column head taking 45 dispersion
Centre-to-centre of column in direction of span being considered
Centre-to-centre of column perpendicular to direction of span being
considered
Design limit moment at hc/2
Moment transferred to column by frame analysis
Limiting moment between flat slab and edge column
Total ultimate load per unit area on flat slab
Characteristic live load
Calculated shear from analysis
Effective shear at column/slab interface
Characteristic wind loading
Length of side of a perimeter parallel to axis of bending

9.1 DEFINITIONS
Flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported by columns with, or
without, drops. The columns may be with, or without, column heads.
Drop is a local thickening of the slab in the region of the column.

403

404 Reinforced Concrete

WITH DROP AND


NO COLUMN HEAD

WITHOUT DROP AND


NO COLUMN HEAD

WITHOUT DROP AND


WITH COLUMN HEAD

SK 9/1 Flat slab - section. SK 9/2 Flat slab - section. SK 9/3 Flat slab - section.

Column head is a local enlargement of the column at the junction with the
slab.

9.2

ANALYSIS OF FLAT SLABS

-1---r---l- ---cl-- -

--t--t-- --&- - ---&- - - -

~ L~

..

Ly > Lx

SK 9/4 Typical plan of flat slab.

Flat slabs are usually supported by a rectangular arrangement of columns.


The analysis may be carried out by an equivalent frame method or by the
use of a finite element computer code. When using the equivalent frame
method the ratio of the longer to the shorter span should not exceed 2.
The analysis for uniformly distributed vertical load may be carried out by
using Tables 9.1 to 9.6.
The properties of the flat slab for analysis are similar to those already
discussed for solid slabs in Chapter 3.

9.2.1

Effective dimension of column head


/h = effective dimension of head

actual dimension of head


le + 2( dh - 40)
le = dimension of column in direction of lh
dh = depth of head
/h = is taken as the lesser of /ho or th.max
/ho =

/h,max =

Design of Flat Slabs 405

SK 9/5 Flat slab - definitions.

Note:

9.2.2

This means that the maximum dimension is limited by a 45 dispersion of


column up to 40 mm below the slab.

Effective diameter of a column head


l

he= (4A/Jt)2:S0.25lx
he = effective diameter of column or column head
A = area of column or area of effective column head as defined by lh

lx

shortest span framing onto column

he should not be taken greater than one-quarter of shortest span of slab


framing into column.

9.2.3 Drops
Drops will be effective in the analysis if the smaller dimension of the drop
is at least one-third of the smallest span of surrounding panels.
For the checking of punching shear, this limitation does not apply.

9.2.4

Load combinations for analysis


LC1
LC2

=
=

where

l.4Gk + 1.6Qk
1.4Gk + 1.6Qk
1.0Gk

on all spans
on alternate spans and other spans loaded with

Gk = characteristic dead load


Qk = characteristic live load.

9.2.S Effective width of slab for analysis


For vertical loading assume full width of panel between columns for frame
analysis.
For horizontal loading as a frame assume stiffness of half width of panel.

Reinforced Concrete

406

FULL PANEL WIDTH


____,___FOR VERTICAL LOADING

--+-

SK 9/6 Plan of flat slab showing


panel widths for analysis.

The analysis should be carried out using a computer program or a moment


distribution method. The analysis may also be carried out for uniformly
distributed vertical loads using Tables 9.1 to 9.6.
The analysis may be carried out using Table 3.13 of BS8110: Part 1:
19g5Pl provided the lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column
connection and loading on the flat slab for the design is based on a single
load case, i.e. LCi, the ratio of Qk/Gk does not exceed 1.25, Qk does not
exceed 5 kN/m2 , and there are at least three rows of panels.

9.3 DESIGN OF FLAT SLABS


The design may be based on the negative moment at hc/2 from the
centreline of the column. But this negative moment will have to be modified if
the sum of the positive design moment and the average negative design
moment is less th;in the following expression:
M' =

SPAN A

I.

L1

.I

(n~2)(i,

SPAN B

_2:cr

SPAN C
SK 9/7 Negative moment
limitation for flat slabs - section.

Design of Flat Slabs 407

SK 9/8 Typical plan of fiat slab negative moment limitation.

where 11

centre-to-centre of column in direction of span being


considered
/ 2 = centre-to-centre of column perpendicular to direction of span
being considered
n = total ultimate load on slab (kN/m2).
=

To give an example:
For Span A
0.5 (M 1

+ M1) + M 7

:;;::

M'

For Span B
0.5(M3

M4)

M1 :;;:: M'

Increase negative moments Mi. Mi, M3 , etc. until these conditions are
satisfied.

9.3.1 Division of panels

Lx/4
v
x
v -'
x

'

'- '

-'-~/'1jt/4

l-+---+-t t-t~ ~-t----,

COLUMN
OF COL STRIP
MIDDLE
STRIP

t-+-~-~l_J

-'

v
x
--' v
x

'

'- '

SK 919 Flat slab - division of


strips.

Lx/4

-41-- - - - -++OF COL COLUMN


STRIP

-l_L __Ji_J

COL
COL
-Lx/
Lx/2
Lx/2
COLUMN MIDDLE COLUMN
STRIP STRIP STRIP

Ly > Lx

408

Reinforced Concrete

COLUMN
TRIP
MIDDLE
STRIP

Lx

COLUMN
STRIP

I.

~ MIDDLE

COLUM
STRIP

. I.

STRIP COLU N
STRIP

Drop

PLAN OF SLAB WITH DROP

IGNORE DROP IF DROP WIDTH

SK 9/10 Flat slab - division of

strips.

< Lx/3

Panels are divided into column strips and middle strips as shown.
For slab without drop the column strip is lxl4 wide on either side of the
centreline of column, where Ix is the shorter span.
For slab with drop the column strip is the size of the drop. Ignore drop if
the size of the drop is less than /)3.

9.3.2 Division of moments between columns and middle strips


The moments obtained from analysis of frames should be divided as
follows (these percentages are for slabs without drops):

Negative
Positive

Note:

Column strip

Middle strip

75%
55%

25%
45%

Where column drops are used and column strips are determined from the
width of the drop, it may so happen that the middle strip is bigger than the
middle strip in a slab without drop. In that case the moments in the middle
strip will be proportionately increased and those in the column strip
decreased to keep the total positive and negative moment unchanged.

9.3.3 Design of flat slab panels


The design is similar to the design of slabs and the worked examples are in
Chapter 3.

Design of Flat Slabs 409


COLUMN STRIP

1/6 Ast

SK 9/11 Detailing of
reinforcement in fiat slabs.

Column

Internal panels and edge panels


Two-thirds of the negative support reinforcement in the column strip
should be placed in half the width of the column strip centred over the
column.

9.3.4 Moment connection to edge column

I
I.

SK 9/12 Effective width of slab for


moment connection to edge
column.

b, =Cx-Cy

.I

I ~"
I

I'}

be= CxY

COLUMN STR I P1

!>e= X+ 12

See sketches above to find effective width of slab be for transfer of


moment between flat slab and edge column. This moment should be
limited to

410 Reinforced Concrete


Mt.max

where

= 0.15bed 2fcu
d = effective depth of top reinforcement in column strip.

The moment Mi.max should not be less than half the design moment from
an equivalent frame analysis or 70% of the design moment from a grillage
or finite element analysis. The structural arrangement may be changed if
Mi.max does not satisfy the above condition.

Mt
MOMENT FROM
ANALYSIS

I
I

EDGE COLN

cD

REDISTRIBUTED
MOMENT TO
ACCOUNT FOR

JNTERN~OLUMN

. Mt, max.

SK 9/13 Insufficient moment


transfer capacity at edge column.

Where the design moment is larger than Mt.max redistribution of


moment may be carried out to reduce the design moment to Mt.max
Otherwise, to transfer moments in excess of Mt.max to edge column, the
edge of the slab should be reinforced by an edge beam or an edge strip.
The edge beam will be designed to carry the additional moment by torsion
to the column.

9.3.5 Shear in flat slabs


Punching shear around columns should be checked according to Step 7 of
Section 3.3. The shear to be considered for the punching shear calculation
is increased from the calculated column shear by an amount dependent on
the moment transferred to the column by frame action.
For internal column connections,

Design of Flat Slabs 411

Mt

rp

+-,l--t1

15d

I
I~

I
I
-+---+\-+I

I
SK 9/14 Moment diagram at an internal column
of a flat slab.

where

Vt

Mt
x

\_

PUNCHING SHEAR
PERIMETER

SK 9/15 Definition of dimension x.

= calculated shear from


=
=

analysis
moment transferred to column by frame analysis
length of side of perimeter considered parallel to axis of
bending.

Alternatively,
Vett

1.15Vt

for simplicity

For corner column connections,


Vett = 1.25Vi

For edge column connections,

for bending about axis parallel to free edge


for bending about axis perpendicular to free
edge
Alternatively,
Vett

1.4V1

The moment M1 may be reduced by 30% where the equivalent frame


analysis is used and both load cases LC 1 and LC2 have been considered.
The shear reinforcement will be calculated according to Step 7 of Section 3.3.

412

Reinforced Concrete

9.4

STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR FLAT SLABS


Step 1 Carry out analysis as in Section 9.2.
Step 2 Find moment connection to edge column as per Section 9.3.4 and redistribute moments if necessary.
Step 3

Draw bending moment diagrams and calculate moments at hcl2 following


Section 9.3.

Step 4 Check limitation of negative design moments following Section 9.3.


Step 5 Carry out division of panels as in Section 9.3.1.
Step 6

Divide moments between column strips and middle strips as per Section
9.3.2.

Step 7 Determine cover to reinforcement (see Step 3 of Section 3.3).


Step 8 Carry out design for flexure as per Step 4 of Section 3.3.
Step 9

Distribute reinforcement as per Section 9.3.3.

Step 10 Check punching shear stress


Follow Step 7 of Section 3.3.
Step 11

Check span/effective depth ratio


Follow Step 11 of Section 3.3 for slabs with drops. For slabs without drops
follow the same step but multiply Leid from Table 11.3 by 0.9.

Step 12 Curtailment of bars


Follow Step 12 of Section 3.3.
Step 13 Spacing of bars
Follow Step 13 of Section 3.3.
Step 14 Check early thermal cracking
Follow Step 14 of Section 3.3.
Step 15 Calculate minimum reinforcement
Follow Step 9 and Step 15 of Section 3.3.
Step 16 Calculate flexural crack width
Follow Step 16 of Section 3.3.
Step 17 Design of connections
Follow Chapter 11.

Design of Flat Slabs 413

9.5 WORKED EXAMPLE


Example 9.1

Flat slab construction for a sports hall


400" 400 columns

400 " 800 deep


edge beam

6000

...

.l __ .,._.r

-,

6000

...J. ___ :- -

...J----.-1-

6000

6000

Staircase and
Lift Block

6000

SK 9/16 Plan on first floor.

400 " 400 columns

400 " 600 deep


edg beam

T"

.:

.:.
I

I
I

.,

I
I

.,

I
I

I
I

,I

+-++-+
-+1oo~r +- t--::E
.

I
I

6000

6000

SK 9/17 Plan on roof.

I
I

__l
I

I
I

I'
I

,,

6000

6000

ll'I

11:

0
0
0

. 1,

1--------- 1-----

6000

I
I

0
0
0

in

0
0
0

in

"' ~Stairca

se and
Lift Block

414

Reinforced Concrete

r200

,_

I
1200

ri.oo

l 2000

:-

""
~

SK 9/18 Section through building.

Two-storey building plan size: 15 m x 30 m


Column grid: 5 m x 6 m
Column size: 400 x 400
Height of building = 10 m overall
Topography factor, S 1 = 1.0
Ground roughness factor, S2 = 0.95
Statistical factor for wind, S3 = 1.0
Basic wind speed = 42 mis= V
Design wind speed=S 1S2 S3 V=40m/s
q =kV~= 1 kN/m 2
Cpe = +0. 7 and -0.3
Cp; = -0.3 (four faces equally permeable)
The above wind pressure coefficients are obtained from CP3: Chapter V
Wind loads.11 4 1
Live load on roof= 1.5 kN/m 2
Live load on floor= 5 kN/m 2
Floor slab has 2000 x 2000 drop at columns
Thickness of roof and floor slab = 200 mm
Thickness at drop of floor slab = 400 mm
Continuous perimeter edge beam 400 wide x 800 deep
Centre-to-centre height of floor= 4.5 m

Step 1 Carry out analysis


Only one frame in the short direction of the building will be analysed.
Column head has not been used.
Effective diameter of column, he =
A = 400 x 400 = 160 000 mm 2
I

he= (4

~60000)2

= 451 mm < 0.25/x

Ix= 5000mm
0.25/x = 1250 mm

4A)!
( -;-

0.25lx

Design of Flat Slabs 415


Drop of 2000mm in floor slab is greater than lx/3 = 1667mm.
Drop will be effective in the distribution of moment.
Loading
Frames in short direction are 6 m apart.
Roof slab

Gk = characteristic dead load = 0.2 x 25 = 5 kN/m 2


Qk = 1.5 kN/m 2
LC 1 = 1.4Gk

+ l.6Qk = 9.4kN/m2 = 56.4kN/m

LC2 = 9.4kN/m2 and 5kN/m2


on alternate spans
or LC2 = 56.4kN/m and 30kN/m
on alternate spans
Floor slab

Gk

= 5 kN/m 2

at slab without drop


= 10kN/m 2
at slab with drop (area 2m x 2m)
= 30kN/m or 30 + 5 x 2 = 40kN/m

Qk = 5kN/m 2
= 30kN/m
LC 1 = l.4Gk

+ 1.6Qk

LC2 = alternate spans loaded with LC 1 and dead load only


Columns

Horizontal load on columns is due to wind load at the rate of 1 kN/m 2


which is equivalent to 6kN/m on the column. The wind loading analysis
will be carried out separately and combined later with the vertical loading
because the stiffness of the slab to resist horizontal loading is half of that
to resist vertical loading.
Load cases with wind load Wk are as follows:
LC3 = l.4Gk
LC4 = 1.2Gk

+ 1.4Wk
+ 1.2Qk + l.2Wk

Frame analysis using a computer software


E = Young's modulus= 28 x 106 kN/m 2
12 joints
14 members
Joints 1, 4, 7 and 10 rigidly fixed.
Column size 400 x 400
Slab size 6000 x 200 (deep)
Load cases:
B 1 - dead load
B2 to B 7 - live loads on members 9 to 14 respectively
B8 - wind load

416

Reinforced Concrete

5000

5000

~1

5000

:J

Member
Numbers

3
Joint

Numbers"i.

0
0

in
~

11

10

0
0

in
~

SK 9/19 Frame diagram for


analysis.

40kN/m
~--+--30kN/m

SK 9/20 Dead load on frame (B 1).

SK 9/21 Basic live loads B2 to B8

Combinations:
C1 = 1.4B1 +
C2 = 1.4B1 +
C3 = 1.4B1 +
C4 = l.4B1 +

1.6(B2
1.6(B2
1.6(83
l.6(B2

+ B3 + B4 + Bs +
+ B4 + Bs + B1)
+ 86)
+ 83 + B4)

B6

+ B1)

Design of Flat Slabs 417

Output from analysis


Envelope of load cases (vertical loads)
Elastic analysis - no redistribution
Floor slab
Joint
2
5
Midspan

Member 9
Maximum BM
130.80
215.5
131.2

Shear
228.5
258.2

Floor slab
Joint
5
8
Midspan

Member 10
Maximum BM
199.9
199.9
112.5

Shear
239.0
239.0

Roof slab
Joint
3
6
Midspan

Member 12
Maximum BM
67.8
129.0
82.0

Shear
130.0
153.5

Combination
C2
C1
C2

Roof slab
Joint

Member 13
Maximum BM
121.3
121.3
60.4

Shear
141.0
141.0

Combination
C1
C1
C3

6
9
Midspan

Combination
C2

C4
C2
Combination

C4
C4
C3

,,,,.

/1\
I

'

',

/ \

,,
I

,1

/ : '\

'~

r\ 2 \ , '

\
SK 9122 Combination C 1 bending moment diagram.

........

__ ...

"'/

I
',..,

...... _.,...,,,,.

I \
8I

I
\

,,,,
I

!J
',,

......... _....... "'

, /

11

'I

,I

I\

/l

;
I

10/

Envelope of load cases (vertical+ horizontal loads) (The analysis of horizontal load is carried out with half stiffness of slab)
Elastic analysis - no redistribution
Combinations:
Cs = l.4B1 + 1.488
C6 = l.2B1 + 1.2(82 + 83 + 84 + Bs + B6 + B1) + l.2Bs

418

Reinforced Concrete
Floor slab
Joint
2
5
Midspan

Member 9
Maximum BM
121.9
191.4
95.8

Shear
185.9
215.2

Combination

Floor slab
Joint
5
8
Midspan

Member 10
Maximum BM
176.0
176.0
71.4

Shear
198.6
198.6

Combination

Roof slab
Joint
3
6
Midspan

Member 12
Maximum BM
57.0
112.2
67.1

Shear
108
128.9

Combination

Roof slab
Joint
6
9
Midspan

Member 13
Maximum BM
108.1
108.1
45.4

Shear
119.8
119.8

Combination

c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6
c6

Carry out redistribution of moment:


Maximum bending moment at joint 5 = 215.5 kNm
Assume 20% redistribution.
Set plastic moment capacity at joint 5 = 0.8 x 215.5 = 172.4 kNm
Similarly
maximum bending moment at joint 6 = 129 kNm
Assume 20% redistribution.

2155kNm

Moment Envelope

SK 9/'23 Shear and moment envelope for member 9.

2581kN

Design of Flat Slabs 419

199-9kNm
2390kN

--~

- -........
....

--

SK 9124 Shear and moment envelope for member IO.


Set plastic moment capacity at joint 6 = 0.8 x 129 = 103.2 kNm
The following steps of reanalysis of frame are carried out:
Step 1: For one combination at a time increase live load on span until
plastic moment is reached at a joint in a member. Plastic moment capacity
of members on first floor is 172.4kNm and member on roof is 103.2kNm.
Step 2: Release joint where plastic moment is reached and increase loading
until plastic moment capacity is reached at another joint.
Step 3: Progressively release joints and increase live load until full complement of live load is on structure.
Step 4: Find cumulative effect of all incremental live load on structure.
The following tables become useful if a non-linear finite element computer
package is not available.
Frame types:

F1 = no member end releases


F2 = member in F1 nos 12 and 14 ends released at joints 6 and 9
F3 = member in F2 nos 9 and 11 ends released at joints 5 and 8
F4 = member in F3 no. 13 ends released at joints 6 and 9
F5 = member in F4 no. 10 ends released at joints 5 and 8
3

@)

SK 9125 Frame type F1

12

12

11

11

10

10

SK 9/26 Frame type F2

420

Reinforced Concrete
Plastic Hinges

'

I+

12

11

10

SK 9/27 Frame type F 3

SK 9/28 Frame type F4

BS

86

87

Bl., Bj, B4
B5, B;,, B?

Combination

1.4 x dead load

or

+ B3 + B4 + B5 + B6 +
+ B4 + Bj + B7)

l.4B 1

C7

c;

c;

c;
CZ
CZ
CZ
c2
CZ

B7)

= 1 kN/m

Member end bending moments (kNm)

Frame
type

F1
F1
Fz
F3
F4
Fs
F1
Fz
F3
F4
Fs

CZ only.

= 0.3 kN/m

Member 9

c;
c;

03kN/m

SK 9/30 Unit live load on frame.

The method is illustrated for combinations C] and

C] = 1.6( B2
C2 = 1.6(B2

12

10

SK 9/29 Frame type F5 .

Combination C7

11

10

I+

12

Member 10

Member 12

Member 13

Joint 2

Joint 5

Joint 5

Joint 8

Joint 3

Joint 6

Joint 6

Joint 9

62.7
2.0
2.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
2.3
2.3
3.1
3.1
3.1

102.5
3.7
3.6
0
0
0
2.7
2.6
0
0
0

95.5
3.4
3.5
2.4
2.2
0
0.8
0.8
0
0
0

95.5
3.4
3.5
2.4
2.2
0
0.8
0.8
0
0
0

44.7
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0

97.5
1.1
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0

91.6
1.0
0.5
0.8
0
0
0.2
-0.2
0
0
0

91.6
1.0
0.5
0.8
0
0
0.2
-0.2
0
0
0

Design of Flat Slabs 421

Ci = 1 unit of live load combination in combination C 1 i.e. Ci = 1 kN/m


of 8 2 , 8 3 and 8 4 and 9/30 kN/m of 8 5 , 86 and 8 7
Full compliment of 8 2 , 8 3 and 8 4 is 30kN/m and of 8 5 , 8 6 and 8 7 is
9kN/m.
Plastic moment at joint 5 is fixed at 172 kNm
Plastic moment at joint 6 is fixed at 103.2 kNm
Dead load moment at joint 6 = 97.5 kNm
Each unit of combination C 1 produces 1.1 kNm at joint 6 for frame type
F 1 Therefore
units of live load in combination C 1 required to form first plastic hinges at
joint 6 and joint 9 in members 12 and 14
103.2 - 97.5
1.1

- - - - - = 5 units, say

Frame type F 2 has joints released at joints 6 and 9 for members 12 and 14.
After 5 units of combination C 1 the bending moments at joints are as
follows:
Frame type F 1

Member 9
Member 10
Member 12
Member 13

Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint

2
5
5
3

6
6

62.7 + 5 x 2.0 = 72.7kNm


102.5 + 5 x 3.7 = 121.0kNm
95.5 + 5 x 3.4 = 112.5 kNm
44.7 + 5 x 0.7 = 48.2kNm
97 .5 + 5 x 1.1 = 103 kN m *plastic
91.6 + 5 x 1.0 = 96.6kNm

Units of live load in combination C 1 to form second plastic hinges at joints


5 and 8 in members 9 and 11
172 - 121
3.6

---- =

14 units of combination C 1

Total number of units of C 1 to cause plastic hinges at joints 5 and 8 in


members 9 and 11 is 19.
After 19 units of combination C 1 , the bending moments at joints are as
follows:
Frame type F z

Member 9
Member 10
Member 12
Member 13

Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint

2
5
5
3
6
6

72.7 + 14 x 2.1
121 + 14 x 3.6
112.5 + 14 x 3.5
48.2 + 14 x 0.9
plastic
96.6 + 14 x 0.5

= 102.lkNm
= 171.4kNm *plastic

= 161.5 kNm
= 60.SkNm
= 103kNm *plastic
= 103.6kNm *plastic

Joint 5 of member 9 and joint 6 of member 13 have gone plastic simultaneously at 19 units of combination C 1 Therefore frame type F3 is not
considered.

422

Reinforced Concrete
After 24 units of combination Cb the bending moments at joints are as
follows:
Frame type F 4
Member 9
Member 10
Member 12
Member 13

Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint

2
5
5
3
6
6

102.1 + 5 x 3.1
plastic
161.5 + 5 x 2.2
60.8 + 5 x 1.1
plastic
plastic

=
=
=
=
=
=

117.6kNm
171.4kNm *plastic
172.5 kNm *plastic
66.3kNm
103kNm *plastic
103.6kNm *plastic

Frame type F 5
After 30 units of combination Ci. the bending moments at joints are as
follows:
Member 9
Member 10
Member 12
Member 13

Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint
Joint

2
5
5
3
6
6

117.6 + 6 x 3.1 = 136.2kNm


= 171.4kNm
= 172.5kNm
66.3 + 6 x 1.1 = 72.9kNm
= 103.0kNm
= 103.6kNm

Formula for calculating midspan bending moment and shear

C7 + 5 units of c; (F1) + 14 units of c; (F2 ) + 5 units of c; (F4 ) + 6 units


of Ci (F5 )
Member 9 - combination C1 (20% redistribution)
Midspan moment

= 56.3 + 2.2 x 5 + 2.2 x 14 + 5 x 3.5 + 6 x 3.5 =


136.6kNm

End shear, joint 2 = 111.1 + 3.7 x 5 + 3.7 x 14 + 4.6 x 5 + 4.6 x


6 = 232.0kN
End shear, joint 5

= 126.9 + 4.3 x 5 + 4.3 x 14 + 3.4 x 5 + 3.4 x 6 =


246.0kN

Similarly
Member JO - combination C 1 (20% redistribution)
Midspan moment = 115.7 kNm
End shear = 239 kN
Member 12 - combination C1 (20% redistribution)
Midspan moment = 90.9kNm
End shear 3 = 134.9kN
End shear 6 = 147.1 kN
Member 13 - combination C1 (20% redistribution)
Midspan moment = 72.7kNm
End shear 6 = 141 kN

From computer output:


Member midspan moments (kNm) and shears (kN) for various frame types under unit loading.
Combination

C1

Ci
Ci
Ci
CJ
Ci

Frame
type

F1
F1
F2
F3
F4
Fs

Member

Member

9
Shear

10

Member

Shear

Member

12

13

Midspan
moment

Midspan
moment

Midspan
moment

Midspan
moment

56.3
2.2
2.2
3.5
3.5
3.5

111.l
3.7
3.7
4.6
4.6
4.6

126.9
4.3
4.3
3.4
3.4
3.4

42.7
1.6
1.5
2.6
2.8
5.0

119.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

119.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

61.5
0.6
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0

94.4
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4

115.6
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

39.7
0.5
1.0
0.7
1.5
1.5

105.0
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

105.0
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

Shear

Shear

10
(1)

f/J

0......

21
~

en

;-'
O'
f/J

e
~

424 Reinforced Concrete


1036 kNm

1036kNm

729kNm

729kNm

1362kNm

SK 9/31 Bending moment diagram


combination C 1 (20%
redistribution).

Note:

Only one combination C 1 has been fully analysed to demonstrate the


procedure for redistribution of moments in a frame structure. In practice
all combinations of loads should be similarly processed to get an envelope
of moments and shears. For all combinations of loads the plastic hinges
will form at the same moment, i.e. 172 kNm at first floor level and 103.2 kNm
at roof level.

Step 2 Check moment connection to edge column


Edgrz of slab

E
E

CD

II

.If

SK 9/32 Effective width of slab for


moment transfer.

M,,
be

max =

Cx

O. l5bcd 2fcu

+ C_v = 400 + 400 = 800 mm

d = 175 mm

/cu
Mt.

assumed

= 40N/mm 2
max

= 0.15 X 800 X 175 2 X 40


=

147 kNm > 136.2 kNm

(member 9, joint 2)

The column slab connection at the edge can transfer the applied moment
and no further redistribution is necessary. It is conservatively assumed in
this analysis that the depth of the slab at the column is 200 mm, ignoring
the drop. The moment M 1 max is greater than the design moment obtained
from an equivalent frame analysis.

Design of Flat Slabs 425


Step 3 Find bending moments at hcl2 and at edge of drop
JOINT@

1720kNm

MEMBER 9

MEMBER 10

SK 9/33 Bending moments at


critical points - combination C 1
(20% redistribution).

400 x 400 Column

Member 9 - combination C 1 (20% redistribution)

Joint 5:
Bending moment = 172 kNm
Shear = 246 kN
Dead load: 1.4 x 40 = 56 kN/m near support
Live load: 1.6 x 30 = 48 kN/m near support
hc/2 = 0 .225 m
Bending moment at hcl2 = 172 - 246 x 0.225

=
Edge of drop

119.3 kNm

(56 + 48) x 0.225 2


+ -'------'----2

(top tension)

1000 mm from centreline of column

.
Bendmg moment at edge of drop = 172 - 246 x 1
=

-22kNm

(56 + 48) x 12
+ ~--~--

(bottom tension)

Joint 2, similarly:
Bending moment at hcl2

0 2252
48
56
136.2 - 232 x 0.225 + ( + ~ x

= 86.6kNm

(top tension)

Bending moment at edge of drop = -43.8 kNm

(bottom tension)

Member JO - combination C 1 (20% redistribution)

426 Reinforced Concrete


Joint 5:
Bending moment at hcl2 = 121.4kNm (top tension)
Bending moment at edge of drop = -14.5 kNm (bottom tension)
Member 12 - combination C1 (20% redistribution)

Joint 3:
Bending moment at hcl2

= 72.9 - 134.9

x 0.225

(1.4 x 30 + 1.6 x 9) x 0.225 2


2

Joint 6:
Bending moment at hc/2 = 71.3 kNm

= 44.0kNm

(top tension)

Member 13 - combination C1 (20% redistribution)

Joint 6:
Bending moment at hcf2
Step 4

73.3 kNm

(top tension)

Check limitation of negative design moment

'

Lmo

1366kNm

JOINT 2

JOINT 5

SK 9/34 Member 9 - combination C 1 (20% redistribution): limitation of negative


design moment.

where

loading per unit area on slab.

Average n on span on first floor


/1 =

M'

5.0m
=

(15

12

~ 6.o)

= 264.6kNm

6.0m

1.4 x 5

he= 0.225m

( 5 .0 _ 2 x
(floor slab)

~.225)2

+ 1.6 x 5

15 kN /m 2

Design of Flat Slabs 427


Average non span on roof = 1.4 x 5
M' = (9.4 : 6.0) ( 5 .0 _ 2 x

+ 1.6 x 1.5 = 9.4kN/m2

~.225)2

= 165.8kNm (roof slab}


Check negative moment limitation
Member 9

Joint 2 at hc/2 = M2 = 86.6kNm (see Step 3)


Joint 5 at hJ2 = M5 = 119.3 kNm
Midspan moment = 136.6kNm (see Step 1)
Average of M 2 and Ms plus midspan moment
= 0.5 (86.6 + 119.3) + 136.6
= 239.6kNm < M' = 264.6kNm
The negative moments will have to be increased by (264.6 - 239.6)
25.0kNm
Revised negative moments:
Joint 2: 86.6 + 25.0 = 111.6kNm
Joint 5: 119.3 + 25.0 = 144.3 kNm
Member JO

Joint 5 at hc/2 = Ms = 121.4kNm


Midspan moment= 115.7kNm
Average of negative and positive = 121.4
264.6kNm

+ 115. 7 = 237 .1 kNm <

M' =

The negative moments will have to be increased by (264.6 - 237.1) =


27.5kNm
Revised negative moments:
Joint 5: 121.4 + 27.5 = 148.9kNm
Member 12

Joint 3 at hJ2 = M3 = 44.0 kNm


Joint 6 at hJ2 = M6 = 71.3 kNm
Midspan moment= 90.9kNm
Average ofnegative and positive= 0.5 (44.0 + 71.3) + 90.9 = 148.55 kNm <
M' = 165.8 kNm
The negative moments will have to be increased by (165.8 - 148.6) =
17.2kNm
Revised negative moments:
Joint 3: 44.0 + 17.2 = 61.2kNm
Joint 6: 71.3 + 17.2 = 88.5 kNm
Member 13

Joint 6 at hcl2 = M6 = 73.3 kNm


Midspan moment= 72.7kNm

428

Reinforced Concrete
73.3 + 72.7

Average of negative and positive


165.8kNm

146kNm < M'

The negative moments will have to be increased by (165.8 - 146)


19.8kNm
Revised negative moments:
Joint 6: 73.3 + 19.8 = 93.lkNm
Step 5 Carry out division of panels

2000 Colurm Strip


0

-...---~-.-~~-.-~-,-

CD

+----H+-'-1I
_,__ _ __L -

I
I
_,__ - __L_

8
CD
I

_....J..__ ~-

5000

5000

2000 Column Strip

_J__ _ __L_

'

-L--- ~-

4000 Middle Strip

Middle Strip

~- ___L_

5000

SK 9/35 Plan of floor slab - division of strips.

First floor slab


Size of drop = 2000 mm

Ix

5000
3

- = -- =

Column strip

1667mm < 2000mm

= 2000 mm

With drop middle strip = 5000 - 2000 = 3000mm (y-y)


and
= 6000 - 2000 = 4000mm (x-x)
Middle strip in a slab without drop = 6000 - lxl2 = 6000 - 2500
3500mm
Proportion of middle strip with drop and without drop =
Roof slab

4000
= 1.14
3500

Design of Flat Slabs 429


5000

5000

5000

t _t---.

_25-+00Column Strip

-----tt+--

,.. --1=='. .$'-.....

----

----

3500 Middle Strip

2500 Column Strip

----tt----+

3500 Middle Strip

--+---J_--
---t+-l--- .

--+---

----l+f-

2500 Column Strip

SK 9/'36 Plan of roof slab - division of strips.

Column strip =

Ix

2=

5000
- - = 2500 mm
2

Middle strip = 6000 - 2500 = 3500mm (x-x)


= 5000 - 2500 = 2500mm (y-y)
Step 6 Divide moments between column strip and middle strip
For slabs without drops,

Negative moments - 75% column strip


25% middle strip
Positive moments - 55% column strip
45% middle strip
Floor slab: design moments
Member 9: negative moments

Joint 2:
Joint 5:

lll.6kNm
144.3 kNm

(see Step 4)
(see Step 4)

Middle strip moments


Joint 2:

111.6 x 0.25 x 1.14 (see Step 4) = 31.8kNm

Edge of drop
Joint 5:

43.8 x 0.25 x 1.14 = 12.5 kNm

144.3 x 0.25 x 1.14

41.1 kNm

(top tension)

(top tension)

(top tension)

Edge of drop= 22.0 x 0.25 x 1.14 = 6.3kNm

(top tension)

430 Reinforced Concrete


Column strip moments
Joint 2:
Edge of
Joint 5:
Edge of

111.6
drop:
144.3
drop:

- 31.8 = 79.8 kNm (top tension)


43.8 - 12.5 = 31.3 kNm (top tension)
- 41.1 = 103.2kNm (top tension)
22 - 6.3 = 15.7 kNm (top tension)

Member 9: positive moments


Design midspan moment

136.6 kNm

(bottom tension)

Middle strip moments


Midspan:

136.6 x 0.45 x 1.14

70.lkNm (bottom tension)

Column strip moments


Midspan: 136.6 - 70.1 = 66.5 kNm
Member 10: negative moments
Joint 5: 148.9 kNm (see Step 4)

(bottom tension)

Middle strip moments


Joint 5: 148.9 x 0.25 x 1.14 = 42.4 kNm (top tension)
Edge of drop: 14.5 x 0.25 x 1.14 = 4.1 kNm (top tension)
Column strip moments
Joint 5: 148.9 - 42.4 = 106.3 kNm (top tension)
Edge of drop: 14.5 - 4.1 = 10.4kNm (top tension)
Member 10: positive moments
Design midspan moment

115. 7 kNm

(bottom tension)

Middle strip moments


Midspan:

115.7 x 0.45 x 1.14

59.4kNm (bottom tension)

Column strip moments


Midspan:
Note:

115.7 - 59.4

56.3 kNm

(bottom tension)

Similarly calculate moments in column strips and middle strips in roof slab.

Step 7 Determine cover to reinforcement


See Step 3 of Section 3.3.
Step 8 Design for flexure
See Step 4 of Section 3.3.
The increased slab thickness at drops may be considered for the determination of reinforcement provided all reinforcement is properly anchored.
Check reinforcement also at edge of drop.
Note:

In this example the reinforcement is found for the flat slab spanning in the
short direction only. Exactly the same method of analysis and design
should be used to find the reinforcement in the long direction.

Design of Flat Slabs 431


Step 9 Detailing of reinforcement
Two-thirds of the negative support reinforcement in the column strip
should be placed in half the width of the column strip centred over the
column.
Step 10 Calculate punching shear and shear stress
Punching shear at floor slab
Check joint 5.
21SSkNm
1999 kNm

MEMBER 9
MEMBER 10

BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM .


ELASTIC ANALYSIS - NO REDISTRIBUTION
LOADING CONDITION C4

SK 9/37 Moment transfer to


column for punching shear
calculation.

}- [

,+1l-

~~:-~ ~":k Punching

~==~---=-~
'

~---+--t----r--

iI

t'

--

400

IQ

. I
IR1

Perimeter to check
Punching Shear

in 400 slab.

In

+--+--~--+-----

>< To Join--r-2-~-r-

'b Joint 8

1---+--t-Drop in slab
~----------

255

1000

--------!--..__-In__._
In
N

- - -----+----!'---4.

1000

255

SK 9138 Punching shear perimeters - plan of floor slab.

432

Reinforced Concrete
Use results of elastic analysis of frame before redistribution.
Maximum column moment at
joint 5 = 215.5 - 199.9 = 15.6 kNm
M1 = 15.6kNm
A 30% reduction is allowed if frame analysis is carried out.
M 1 = 0.7 x 15.6 = 10.9kNm
V1

= 258.2 +

239.0

= 497.2kN

Punching shear perimeter at l.5d from face of column.


d = 400 - 30 = 370 mm
l.5d = 1.5 x 370 = 555 mm

x = 400 + 2 x 555 = 1510mm = l.510m


Vcff

l.5M
=Vi ( 1 + -1)
V,x

497.2

x 10.9
1 + -1.5
-- -)
497.2 x 1.510

= 508kN

Maximum shear stress at column perimeter ( U0


Vctt

=-

4 x 400)

508 x 103
= 0.86N/m2 < 5N/m 2 OK
4 x 400 x 370
Vett

Shear stress, v

u=4 x

= 6040

v =

1510

Ud

508 x 103
x
= 0.23 N/mm 2 <
6040
370
reinforcement

Ve

for minimum percentage of

No shear reinforcement is required in slab with drop.


For slab outside drop consider that loaded area is perimeter of drop.
Veff =

508 kN - (load on the area of drop)


- 4 x 22
420kN

= 508
=

Perimeter of slab at l.5d (d = 170mm)


= 4 x (2000 + 3 x 170) = 10040mm
Shear stress, v

420 x 103
x
10040
170

0.25 N/mm 2 <


reinforcement
=

Ve

for minimum percentage of

No shear reinforcement is required at internal columns of floor slab.


Similarly check for an external column and a corner column.

Design of Flat Slabs 433


Rules for calculation of perimeters of external and comer columns

c.

15d

15d

Cy
15d

15d

s.

15d

c. 15d
P =2Cx + Cy + 6d

P =2( x + Cx) +Cy+ 6d

EDGE COLUMN ON
EDGE OF SLAB

EDGE COLUMN INSIDE


SLAB

c.

15d

15d

ffl~

Cy

,_

15d

x > 15d
P= hzsser of :2(x+C.) +Cy+6d
OR 2(Cx+ Cy)+ 12d

CORNER COLUMN ON
ON EDGE OF SLAB

EDGE COLUMN INSIDE


SLAB
x

15d

c.

15d

Cy+--+-:~

1'5d

]~

c,.
x and y < 15d

15d

P: C,.+Cy+ x+y+3d

CORNER COLUMN INSIDE

fil8.

d = Aver~ effective
depth of slab

x and Y. > 15d

P"' lesser of :Cx+ Cy+ x+y+Jd


OR 2(Cx+ Cy)+12d

CORNER COLUMN INSIDE

SW

SK 9/39 Punching shear perimeters for fiat slab.

The illustrations show the different column configurations with respect to a


free edge and the corresponding perimeters for the calculation of punching
shear stresses.

434 Reinforced Concrete


When the column face is more than l.5d away from a free edge of slab,
then there are two alternative perimeters possible as illustrated. Take the
least of these two alternatives for the calculation of punching shear stress.
Punching shear at roof slab
Check joint 3 - edge column.

Vi= 130kN
The frame action considered is in the x-x direction as explained in Section
9.3.5.
Yett

= 1.25 Vi = 1.25 x 130 = 162.5 kN

d = 170 mm assumed
l.5d = 1.5 x 170 = 255 mm

Shear stress at column perimeter ( U0 = 3 x 400 = 1200)


Yett

=-

U0 d

162.5 x 103
1200 x 170

Shear stress at l.5d

=
=

[2 x (400
2220
v =
=

= 0.8 N/mm 2 < 5 N/mm 2

=v=

OK

Yett

Ud

+ 255)] + (400 + 510)

162.5 x 103
2220 x 170
0.43N/mm 2

Assume minimum percentage of tensile reinforcement in slab.


Ve=

0.48N/mm2 for Grade 40 concrete and an effective depth of 170mm.

No shear reinforcement is necessary.


Note:

Step 11

The punching shear check should also be carried out for the flat slab
spanning in the long direction and the worst result should be used.
Check span/effective depth ratio
Follow Step 11 of Section 3.3

Step 12 Curtailment of bars


Follow Step 12 of Section 3.3.
Step 13 Spacing of bars
Follow Step 13 of Section 3.3.
Step 14 Check early thermal cracking
Follow Step 14 of Section 3.3.
Step 15 Calculate minimum reinforcement
Follow Step 9 and Step 15 of Section 3.3.

Design of Flat Slabs 435


Step 16 Calculate flexural crack width
Follow Step 16 of Section 3.3.
Step 17 Design of connections
Follow Chapter 11

9.6 TABLES AND GRAPHS FOR CHAPTER 9


How to use Tables 9.1 to 9.6

Intermediate floor. Typical section

column
fixed

First floor . Typical section

r.==i====:;;:::======:;;:::======il~

__

column
hinged"'.......__

2L

OC=40

First floor. Typical section

Ix

Ix
T

'!---.

-s
3
-()- ~ ~ ..

01

Ix

'
ly

ly

ly

0-5
0-3
~

03 0-5 07 10 H 15

Plan showing points for which coefficients are in tables 91 to 96


SK 9/40 Sketches to be used in conjunction with Tables 9.1-9.6.

436

Reinforced Concrete

15ly

-1

r--,

. - - - -...,

KF

I
13ly-I
I

C2

1-0ly-,

I
07Ly - : ...+--t-+-~l--___..,1--..--.-+----'-'-I
OSly - L
.......
-+---++-'"""""""'1-----+--r--+-+--....._.1---_

o-3 ly-

r ........
I

~---'

I
OOly-

C,

KF

---1.........~,__........,__~_._-1-.._-=--4

L----

____ J

1
I
I I
I
I I
OOly 03ly OSly 07Ly 10Ly 1-Jly 15ly

SK 9/41 Zones of stiffness

correction factors to be applied to


points of interest.

c3

Points to note:
(1) The flat slab system should have at least 3 spans in the ix direction and
3 spans in the Ly direction.
(2) The coefficients are valid for equal spans in the lx and Ly direction.
They may be used up to a maximum variation of 20% in the span
lengths.
(3) The tables can be used only for uniformly distributed loads with all
spans loaded simultaneously with the maximum load.
(4) To account for the possible increase in moment due to variation of live
loads in different panels of the flat slab, no redistribution of moments
should be carried out.
(5) For horizontal loading a separate frame analysis should be carried out
and the appropriate moments will be combined with the vertical load
moments. In general, flat slab construction should be fully braced and
the horizontal load should be carried entirely by a shear-wall system.
(6) The coefficients are applicable to a corner panel, an edge panel with a
free edge in the lx direction, an edge panel with a free edge in the Ly
direction and an internal panel.
(7) The moment triad (MD My and Mxy) obtained by this method of
analysis should be combined using the Wood-Armer method as
described in Section 1.12.
Sign convention for bending
moments ( + ve in directions
shown)

Bending moment
about y-axis

Bending moment

about x-axis

Torsional moment

=Mx

=My

===My

Note: A positive moment denotes hogging. This sign convention is opposite to the Wood-Armer
convention. Reverse the signs of the moments before carrying out Wood-Armer combination as per
Section 1.12.

Design of Flat Slabs 437


Step-by-step analysis procedure
Step I: Determine value of C\' (see SK9/40 and find l)ly)
Step 2: Assume d is the thickness of slab and h is the dimension of a side of
a square column.
Step 3: From available L, as shown in SK9/40, determine S = C\'d 3 L/h 4
Step 4: Select a point of interest from SK 9/40 or SK 9/41 where the
moments have to be found. Corresponding to the zone of influence, find
appropriate stiffness connection factor K depending on S from Graphs 9.1
to 9.18.
Step 5: Find moment coefficients from Tables 9.1 to 9.3 corresponding to
lxfly and the location of the point of interest.
Step 6: Find the ultimate uniformly distributed load on the flat slab

nkN!m 2
Step 7: Find moment triads:
Mx = nCxKxl~ kNm/m
Mv = nCvKJ~kNmlm
Mx:v = nCxyK;vi; kNm/m
Step 8: Carry out Wood-Armer combination.
Step 9: Find column reactions corresponding to lxlly (see SK 9/41 for
column locations).
Step JO: The moments obtained using these coefficients are in kNm/m.
Find the effective width be as in Section 9.3.4. Multiply the moment
obtained by analysis at edge and corner columns with the effective width
be to find the slab-to-column connection moment. This transfer moment
should be less than Mi.max as defined in Section 9.3.4.

Reaction at column C 1 = nC1lxl_v


Reaction at column C2 = nC2l)y, etc.
Note:

If in the zone of KA (as shown in SK 9/41) the point of interest is located,


then to find Mx use stiffness correction factor KAx corresponding to Sand

lxlly as in Graph 19.1. Similarly if the point of interest lies in the zone of
KF then to find Mx use KFx as in Graph 9.16.
The benefits of using these tables and graphs are that the analysis can be
done very quickly and the necessity of carrying out the two analyses for
the two orthogonal directions may be avoided. These tables can also be
used for the analyses of raft foundation where the loading n may be
assumed to be uniformly distributed over an inverted flat slab. The total
loads from a structure will be assumed uniformly distributed at the underside of the raft.
Step ll: Calculate total column moments using Table 9.7 and divide the
total moment between the columns at the junction depending on their
relative stiffness. The stiffer the column, the more moment it will carry.
The stiffness of a column may be calculated as Ill where I is the moment of
inertia and I is the effective height.

a
~

(1)

I~..,

Table 9.1 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs (fx/ly = 1.0).

!")

Location
of point of
interest

0.3/x

Olx

0.5/x

0.7/x

l.Olx

1.3/x

1.5/x

0.
()
0

()

l.5ly

-0.01184
-0.04987
0.00541

-0.05370
-0.03300
0.00296

-0.05697
-0.02794
0.00100

-0.02496
-0.03301
0.00400

+0.02633
-0.04358
0.00159

-0.00554
-0.02844
0.00380

-0.02230
-0.02230
0.00113

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.3ly

-0.01048
-0.02776
0.02030

-0.05739
-0.01667
0,01103

-0.06249
-0.01322
0.00338

-0.02620
-0.01265
0.014 76

+0.04690
-0.019 54
0.00744

-0.00757
-0.00757
0.01420

-0.02844
-0.00554
0.00380

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.Oly

+0.05482
+0.11571
0.03189

-0,07014
+0.02704
0.00619

-0,07560
+0,01521
0.00159

-0.03647
-0.04247
0.00819

+0.15656
+0.15656
0.042 91

-0.01954
+0.04690
0.00744

-0.04358
+0.02633
0.00159

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.01049
-0.04132
O.o2524

-0.05749
-0.03218
0.01214

-0.06357
-0.02993
0.00395

-0.02941
-0.02941
0.01790

+0.04247
-0.03647
0.00819

-0.01265
-0.02620
0.014 76

-0.03301
-0.02496
0.00400

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.5ly

-0.00157
-0.07603
0.00562

-0.05245
-0.06063
0.00262

-0.05718
-0.05718
0.00113

-0.02993
-0.06357
0.00395

+0.015 21
-0,07560
0.00159

-0.01322
-0.06249
0.00338

-0.02794
-0.05697
0.00100

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.3ly

-0.01059
-0.06515
0.01419

-0.05423
-0.05423
0.00744

-0.06063
-0.05245
0.00262

-0.03218
-0.05749
0.01214

+0.02704
-0,07014
0.00619

-0.01667
-0.05739
0,01103

-0.03300
-0.05370
0.00296

Cx
Cy
Cxy

Oly

+0.06370
+0.06370
0.01277

-0.06515
-0.01059
0.01419

-0.07603
-0.01157
0.00562

-0.04132
-0.01049
0.02524

+0.11571
+0.05482
O.o3189

-0.02776
-0.01048
0.02030

-0.04987
-0.01184
0.00541

Cx
Cy
Cxy

C1 = 0.194355

(1)

Moment
coefficient,

C2 = 0.45153

C3 = 0.45153

C 4 = 1.15263

Table 9.2 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs Uxlly = 1.2).

Location
of point of
interest

0.3/x

Olx

0.5/x

0.7/x

l.Ofx

1.3/x

1.5/x

Moment
coefficient,

1.5ly

-0.01657
-0.05758
0.00608

-0.07980
-0.03557
0.00347

-0.08586
-0.02828
0.00108

-0.03473
-0.03295
0.00474

+0.05340
-0.04754
0.00236

-0.00898
-0.02534
0.00466

-0.03784
-0.01780
0.00123

Cx
Cy
Cxy

1.3ly

-0.01414
-0.03235
0.02211

-0.08348
-0.02082
0.01211

-0.09097
-0.01716
0.00337

-0.03764
-0.01332
0.01624

-0.07768
-0.01930
0.01089

-0.01256
-0.00593
0.01604

-0.04371
-0.00543
0.00383

Cx
Cy
Cxy

1.0ly

+0.07262
+0.12706
0.04229

-0.09512
+0.01542
0.00573

-0.10176
+0.00164
0.00158

-0.05003
-0.03408
0.00776

+0.19583
+0.18274
0.05087

-0.02621
+0.03907
0.00707

-0.05675
+0.01480
0.00145

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.01399
-0.04465
0.02831

-0.08230
-0.03575
0.01360

-0.09065
-0.03378
0.00421

-0.04080
-0.03032
0.02085

+0.07160
-0.03656
0.01213

-0.017 33
-0,02569
0.017 47

-0.04690
-0.02623
0.00432

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.5ly

-0.01604
-0.08182
0.00710

-0.07664
-0.06117
0.00316

-0.08390
-0.05595
0.00148

-0.03994
-0.05809
0.00502

+0.03919
-0.08095
0.00236

-0.01588
-0.06046
0.00431

-0.04109
-0.05311
0.00115

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.3ly

-0.01365
-0.06907
0.01457

-0.07796
-0.05432
0.00963

-0.08693
-0.05111
0.00299

-0.04249
-0.05730
0.01417

+0.05316
-0.07482
0.00935

-0.02017
-0.05576
0.01330

-0.04558
-0.05069
0.003 31

Cx
Cy
Cxy

+0.09004
+0.06476
0.01871

-0.08934
-0.01134
0.01902

-0.10261
-0.Dll 69
0.00641

-0.05444
-0.01106
0.03097

+0.15200
+0.05945
0.03657

-0.03380
-0.01081
0.02540

-0.06265
-0.01176
0.00656

Cx
Cy
Cxy

Oly

C 1 = 0.195075

C2 = 0.44811

C3 = 0.453 375

C4=1.15344

tl

('!)

c70
"'

=
0...,.,
:!l

Ill

.....

I~

C"

"'

e
~

(1)

I s

Table 9.3 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs (lxlly= 1.4).

Location
of point of
interest

0.3/x

Dix

O.Slx

0.7/x

O'
....,

1.0/x

1.3/x

I.Six

Moment
coefficient,

I~
(')

I.Sly

-0.02136
-0.06491
0.00639

-0.10961
-0.039S2
0.00369

-0.11941
-0.03062
0.00100

-0.0470S
-0.03282
0.00498

+0.08741
-0.0SO 18
0.00320

-0.01469
-0.02241
0.01037

-0.0S713
-0.0lS 20
0.00113

ex
Cy
Cxy

1.3ly

-O.Q17 S2
-0.0362S
0.02248

-0.11318
-0.02623
0.01222

-0.12362
-0.02280
0.00296

-0.0Sl 14
-0.0144S
0.016 lS

+0.11466
-0.01742
0.014 79

-0.01923
-0.00486
0.01609

-0.06200
-0.00687
0.0033S

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.Oly

+0.09384
+0.13729
O.OS628

-0.123S4
+0.00397
O.OOS27

-0.131 73
-0.01129
0.00170

-0.064S9
+0.02SS1
0.00717

+0.23834
+0.20889
O.OS7 SS

-0.03332
+0.03142
0.00649

-0.07210
+0.00431
0.0012S

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.01723
-0.04721
0.03003

-0.11078
-0.03997
0.01418

-0.12186
-0.038S4
0.00411

-O.OS410
-0.03142
0.02227

+0.10672.
-0.o3S 13
0.01662

-0.02342
-0.02S32
0.01867

-0.06343
-0.02823
0.00422

Cy
Cxy

-0.020S6
-0.08747
0.00842

-0.104 76
-0.06227
0.003SS

-0. llS Sl
-O.OSS39
0.00170

-0.0S103
-0.06281
O.OOS7S

+0.07003
-0.08S60
0.00318

-0.02048
-0.0S789
0.00483

-O.OS780
-0.04970
0.00116

Cy
Cxy

-0.01606
-0.0729S
0.01377

-0.10S80
-O.OS462
0.01071

-0.118 20
-0.04976
0.00382

-0.0S4 79
-0.05667
0.01612

+0.08S86
-0.0790S
0.0130S

-0.02S20
-0.0S361
0.014 73

-0.061 SS
-0.04740
0.00343

Cy
Cxy

+0.12167
+0.06S93
O.o3124

-0.117S3
-0.01189
0.023S8

-0.13360
-0.0l l S8
0.007 41

-0.06868
-O.Dll 3S
0.03S96

+0.19234
+0.06438
0.04237

-0.04028
-0.01080
0.02947

-0.07779
-0.0113S
0.00739

Cx
Cy
Cxy

O.Sly

0.3ly

Oly

C 1 =0.19683

C2 = 0.44S S4S

C3 = 0.454 77

C4 = l.1S29

c,.
c,.

c,.

~
~

Table 9.4 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs (/xlly = 1.6).

Location
of point of
interest

Olx

0.3/x

O.Sfx

0.7/x

l.Ofx

1.3/x

I.Six

Moment
coefficient,

I.Sly

-0.02S96
-0.0713I
0.00638

-0.I4272
-0.04461
0.00367

-0.IS690
-0.03496
0.00083

-0.06I 72
-0.03274
0.00484

+0.I278S
-0.0S106
0.00411

-0.02244
-O.OI984
0.00478

-0.07938
-0.0I4 7S
0.0009I

Cx
Cy
Cxy

1.3ly

-0.02028
-0.03924
0.02I 63

-O.I46 I2
-0.0326S
O.Oil 67

-0.I6010
-0.02981
0.00236

-0.066S2
-O.OI60I
0.01496

+0.1S746
-0.0137S
0.0I9 I2

-0.02746
-0.00439
O.OI489

-0.08306
-0.00969
0.0026I

Cx
Cy
Cxy

1.0ly

+0.118S8
+O.I4626
0.07490

-0.1SS31
-0.00727
0.00493

-O.I6S70
-0.023S3
0.002 lI

-0.08020
+0.01704
0.00649

+0.28462
+0.23486
0.06314

-0.04I I6
+0.024 I6
O.OOS78

-0.090 I7
-0.00S II
0.00102

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.0I988
-0.0490I
0.03044

-0.14273
-0.044 71
O.OI397

-0.1S713
-0.04392
0.00373

-0.06914
-0.03274
0.02243

+0.14768
-0.0323I
0.02162

-0.0309I
-0.02S 16
0.01871

-0.08271
-0.03077
0.00386

Cx
Cy
Cxy

O.Sly

-0.02479
-0.09266
0.009S4

-0.136SS
-0.06388
0.00383

-0.IS162
-O.OSS66
0.00182

-0.06494
-0.0618S
0.00602

+0.10749
-0.08934
0.00408

-0.02697
-0.0SS lI
O.OOS04

-0.07773
-0.04713
0.00110

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.3ly

-0.01737
-0.07649
0.01189

-0.137 Sl
-0.0SS20
0.012Sl

-0.1S4 I9
-0.04868
0.00267

-0.06902
-O.OSS76
0.017 S9

+0.12493
-0.08263
0.0I727

-0.03182
-O.OSI 2S
O.OlS S9

-0.08087
-0.04433
0.00346

Cx
Cy
Cxy

+0.IS8S9
+0.06699
O.OSI 3I

-0.14962
-0.0123I
O.OZ810

-0. I69 I4
-0.01139
0.00830

-0.084 IS
-O.Oll 4S
0.04046

+0.23712
+0.069SO
0.04891

-0.047S7
-0.010 6I
0.03267

-0.09S90
-0.01082
0.00799

Cx
Cy
Cxy

Oly

(1)

~-

aei

:s
0
......

:!l

I Ill

C 1 =0.199 I2S

C2 = 0.443 38S

C3 =0.4SS76

C4 = l.lSI 73

f:!2

Ill

r:r

"'

....t

:t
~

(D

Table 9.5 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs Uxlly

Location
of point of
interest

0.31x

Dix

0.51x

I s

= 1.8).
0.7/x

O'
....

l.Ofx

l.31x

I.Six

Moment
coefficient,

I~
:I
(')
....

l.5ly

-0.03010
-0.07652
0.00608

-0.17890
-0.05063
0.00350

-0.197 96
-0.04105
0.00063

-0.07854
-0.03279
0.00442

+0.17436
-0.05001
0.00511

-0.03203
-0.01774
0.00431

-0.10420
-0.01633
0.00066

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.3ly

-0.02210
-0.04120
0.01976

-0.18209
-0.03986
0.01078

-0.20023
-0.03792
0.001 71

-0.08364
-0.01791
0.01311

+0.20582
-0.00829
0.02388

-0.03750
-0.00447
0.01293

-0.10677
-0.01368
0.00181

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.Oly

+0.14687
+0.15402
0.09911

-0.19028
-O.Dl830
0.00489

-0.20370
-0.03510
0.00247

-0.09695
+0.00888
0.00631

+0.33505
+0.26064
0.06783

-0.04997
+0.01736
0.00498

-0.11126
-0.01359
0.00081

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.02183
-0.05007
0.02965

-0.17800
-0.04986
0.01313

-0.19642
-0.04970
0.00344

-0.08582
-0.03425
0.02159

+0.19437
-0.02818
0.02708

-0.03982
-0.D25 23
0.01792

-0.10488
-0.03368
0.00337

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.5ly

-0.D2840
-0.09718
0.01047

-0.17182
-0.06594
0.00403

-0.19196
-0.05675
0.00184

-0.08093
-0.06072
0.00589

+0.15136
-0.09204
0.00516

-0.03531
-0.05232
0.00503

-0.10074
-0.04552
0.00099

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.3ly

-O.Dl716
-0.07944
0.00908

-0.17285
-0.05607
0.01458

-0.19464
-0.04804
0.00396

-0.08511
-0.54680
0.01906

+0.17018
-0.08544
0.02196

-0.04005
-0.04887
0.01615

-0.10347
-0.04177
0.00350

Cx
Cy
Cxy

Oly

+0.20072
+0.06785
0.08002

-0.18539
-0.01273
0.03292

-0.20919
-0.01121
0.00914

-0.10093
-0.01143
0.04472

+0.28659
+0.074 73
0.05597

-0.05594
-0.01029
O.o3522

-0.11731
-0.01027
0.00844

ex
Cy
Cxy

c, = 0.20178

C2 = 0.441495

C3 = 0.45639

C4 = l.15038

I~

Table 9.6 Bending moment coefficients for design of flat slabs (l)ly = 2.D).

Location
of point of
interest

Dix

D.3/x

0.5/x

D.7/x

I.Dix

1.3/x

I.Six

Moment
coefficient,

l.Sly

-D.03352
-D.08045
0.00553

-0.21798
-D.05733
D.00326

-D.24238
-D.04855
D.OOD44

-D.09727
-0.D330D
D.00386

+D.22671
-0.04700
D.00621

-0.04331
-0.Dl614
D.00368

-D.13147
-D.D196D
D.00041

Cx
Cy
Cxy

l.3ly

-D.D2266
-D.04210
O.Dl707

-0.22093
-O.D4764
0.00981

-0.24390
-D.04682
0.00113

-D.10237
-0.020D7
O.Dl098

+D.2596D
-0.DD105
O.D2901

-0.04825
-0.00502
0.01064

-0.13312
-D.01861
D.00107

Cx
Cy
Cxy

1.0ly

+0.17869
+0.16D68
D.12976

-D.2283D
-0.D2909
0.00537

-0.24572
-0.04607
D.00275

-0.11492
+D.00116
D.00633

+0.38991
+0.28634
0.07181

-0.05993
-0.DllOS
0.00436

-0.13551
-0.02132
0.00102

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.7ly

-0.02187
-0.05D39
O.D2777

-0.21636
-D.05533
0.01179

-D.23968
-0.D5573
0.00331

-0.10405
-0.03591
0.02000

+D.24672
-0.02278
0.03292

-D.05D17
-0.02554
0.01656

-D.13005
-0.03688
0.00283

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.Sly

-0.03105
-0.10089
0.01121

-0.21043
-0.06837
0.00418

-0.23636
-0.05857
0.00178

-0.09883
-0.05954
0.00588

+0.20147
-0.09363
0.00635

-0.04540
-0.04968
D.00488

-D.12677
-0.04482
D.00090

Cx
Cy
Cxy

0.3ly

-0.D1505
-0.08166
0.00549

-D.21163
-0.05719
0.01703

-0.23936
-0.04790
0.00446

-0.10299
-0.05350
0.02071

+0.22144
-O.D8741
0.02705

-0.04992
-0.04657
O.D1663

-0.12932
-0.03984
0.00361

Cx
Cy
Cxy

+0.24789
+0.06845
0.11841

-0.22465
-0.01316
0.03847

-0.25366
-0.01109
O.D10D2

-0.11907
-0.01131
D.04900

+0.34090
+0.08006
D.D6341

-0.06557
-0.00991
0.0373D

-0.14215
-D.D0979
0.00882

Cx
Cy
Cxy

Oly

c, = 0.204615

C2 =0.43974

C3 = 0.45666

C4 = 1.14903

(1)

I!!.

(]e,

0......

!1

e
~

I~
~

r:r
[/)

444

Reinforced Concrete

'

-+-+-

-~--+-'
L =average storey height

PLAN OF FLAT SLAB

SECTION THROUGH SLAB

SK 9/42 Column number identification.


Table 9. 7 Bending moment coefficient for design of columns in flat slab construction.
fxlly

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Moment
coefficients

0.01345
-0.01792
-0.00233
-0.03271
0.02765
0.00441
-0.00393
0.00659

O.oJ526
-0.02594
-0.00224
-0.04525
0.03301
0.00706
-0.00418
0.01028

0.01717
-0.03603
-0.00218
-0.06073
-0.03885
0.01040
-0.00454
0.01484

0.01916
-0.04836
-0.00216
-0.07939
0.04513
0.01445
-0.00506
0.02031

0.02123
-0.06307
-0.00218
-0.10147
0.05184
0.01919
-0.00571
0.02667

Ccy

Column
no.

1
2
2
3
3
4
4

O.QI 1 75
-0.01175
-0.00244
-0.02280
0.02280
0.00244
-0.00376
0.00376

Column total moment = Cc x R x

qx

Ccz
Ccy
Ccz
Ccy

Ccz
Ccy
Ccz

lJ

where lJ =load per unit area on slab.


See Graphs 9.19-9.26 for factors Ry and R,.

Note:

Divide total moment in column to top and bottom column in proportion to


their stiffness.

Graph 9.2 KAv for M . Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone A, curves for lxf l.v = 1 and 2.

Graph 9.1 KAx for Mx Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone A, curves for lxll.v = 1 and 2.
1.4

1.5
1

1.3

2
1.4

'~ \

1.2

1.2

1.3

~~

1.1

)l!'J

I\

\'\

1.1

'\

)I!

"

\-__

'0.9

0.8

'\

~~

-.....,.

0.7

"

0.9

0.8

en
(JQ.

i'....

"'

~~

:i

g,
'.!l
Ill

"' -

0.7

Vl

;-

0.6

11

0.6

S= ad L/h

10

SadL/h

10

Graph 9.3 KAxy for Mxy Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone A, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.4,

1.6, 1.8 and 2.

Graph 9.4 KBx for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Zone B, curves for lxll.v = 1 and 2.

:;i:::i
(n

O'

1.9

1.8

;:i
(n

0..

1.8

1.2

1.7

\\

I// 1. . . . . . .....-1

'\

1.3

.
~'J.

:ii

0.8

1.1

~(;"

'~

r-1-r---t--+-+-+---:-+,.Lk..--~-_J 1.4
1.5

1.2

-~----

'\

0.6
0.9

0.4

I~

"'

..........

0.7
0.2

0.5

0
0

6
3

S=ad L/h

10

5
3

S=adL/h

..........

"'

10

Graph 9.6 Ksxy for Mxy Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone B, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.4,
1.6, 1.8 and 2.

Graph 9.5 Kay for My. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Zone B, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.
1.3

1.01

1.008
1.2

1.4
1.6

1.006

18

1.1
1.2

1.004
2

1.002

...

I :-X:: I

114

:.:

0.9

1.8
2
o.998

I ,l',Mf

0.8
o.998

i.,........-

I //V

t;I

"'
ciQ"

=
0
.....,

0.7

:!!
~
.....

0.994

Cll

6i'
O"'

0.6

0.992
0

Szadl/h

10

5
6
3
4
S=adl/h

10

"'
t
.....

1.06

vv

1.04

1.02

><

lr:u0.98

0.94

0.92

?;'
s

O'
@

1.06

vv

1.04

1.02

ti

Q.

-~
~

lr: 0.98

0.96

Graph 9.8 Key for My. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Zone C, curves for lxllv = 1 and 2.

Graph 9.7 Kc, for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Zone C, curves for /xf l.v = 1 and 2.

0.96

0.94

0.92

'I

.
0.9

0.9

4
S=aiLth

10

sacrL1h

10

Graph 9.9 Kcxy for Mxy- Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone C, curves for (,Jlv= l, 1.4, 1.6
and 2.

Graph 9.10 Kox for Mx Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone D, curves for lxllv = 1 and 2.

1.1

1.012

1.01

1.008
2
1.6
1.4

0.9

1.006

1.004

ll: 0.8

l1.002

0.7
0.998

/I

0.6 +----t+--+----+---+---+---+----+---t----+---1
0.994

' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I' ' '

I' ' '

I' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I'

6
3

SaadL/h

I I I

I
9

I I

I I

I
10

I/
,I/

(1)

~.

g,
::1

2-

I'

v
1v

0.996

0.5

0.992
0

a
:
(/l

rJJ

6
4
S= .,illh

10

\C

Graph 9.12 KDxy for Mxy Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone D, curves for lxflv = 1, 1.2, 1.6
and 2.

Graph 9.11 Koy for My. Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone D, curves for lxlly = 1 and 2.

"'s
(1)

1\

1.8

1.6

O'
..,

1.4

1.2

11: o.8

1.2

:l
I (")

!';

II: 1.2

le0

0.8

"'

A // I

0.6

~ t-.....

+----!

0.4

~ 21
2
0.2

0.4
0

S ad L/h

10

I ''
0

I' ' ' I ' '' ' I ' '


2

I I

I' ' '' I 1


4

I I I

II

5
6
4
S ad\/h

I I I

I
7

I I I I

II
8

I I I

I
9

.....,
(1)

0.6

~
'~

0..
\.)
0
(1)

10,.....1 .....,..4

\~

1.4

(")
(1)

2
1.6

I I I

I
10

Graph 9.14 KEy for My. Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone E, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.6
and 2.

Graph 9.13 KEx for M,. Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone E, curves for lxllv = l, 1.2, 1.4
and 2.

1.01

1.015

1.01

1.005

'J

t.'4

"j1.6

--::t: I

1.005

1..

..J 1.2

11.2

0.995
0.995

,..

Ill

w
ill:

ill:

0.99

0.99
0.985
0.985

I
on
1

0.98

0.975

0.97

II
0

I I I

II
1

I
I I I

II
2

I I I

II
3

I
I I I

II
4

I I I

II

I
I I I

5
S= cxd3 L/h'

I1I
6

I
I I

II
7

I I I

II
8

I
I I I

I1I
9

0.975

o.97

I I

10

j VIM
~

rl

1, , , , r,,
0

Cl

(!)

oc;
"'

=
0
.......

I I I

, , 1,,, , 1,,, , 1, , , , 1. , , , 1,, , , 1, , , , 1, , , , 1. , , , 1


2

5
Scx d 3 L/h'

10

I~

;-

I~ti

.....

Graph 9.16 KFx for M., Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone F, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.4
and 2.

Graph 9.15 KExy for Mxy Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone E, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.6

and 2.

?;'
s
O'

g
0..
g

1.14

1.015

1.01

I J,-::::::1

16

1.2

1.12

1.1
1.005

~\
~~

~~
1.08

1.06
o.995

I Bl

\~

I
><
lo:... 1.04

~5
o~

o.985

L-L-4-M--+-+-t---t-~TI
I

#YI

ri
0

'

1.02

0.98

'

0.98

0.975

'\

"'

--~
~
'r':::
r-...

0.96

- -- -~ -.......

Q.97

I
0

1 1 1 I

Ii I I

I
2

I I I I

l1111l1111l1111l1111l1111l1111l1111I
3

S=ad L/h

10

0.94

3
Sad Lttt

"'

1.2
.4

10

Graph 9.18 KFxy for Mxy Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone F, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.4,

1.6, 1.8 and 2.

Graph 9.17 KFy for My- Stiffness correction


coefficients for Zone F, curves for lxllv = 1, 1.2, 1.4,

1.6, 1.8 and 2.


1.3

1 02 T-1-1-11--,---,-......,--,--~-

~-~--~-~-~--~-~----,---~-~----,

.4
1.25
1.01

1.2 ..__---!---\--4--+----J.--+---+--+----+---l----+----I

1.15
~
':tt.'"0.99

':tt.r:.

V/

1=----..J

1.1

0.98

1.05 ....---1---+--"<---'lc->,~+---+--+----+---I----+---

0('!)
~-

0.97

0....,

:!l

en

ii)'
0.95

0.96
0

Sz ad Lih

10

II
0

I I I

II

I I I

II
2

I I I

II
3

I I I

l1111l1111l1111l1111l1111l1111I
4

6
3

S=adL/h

10

~
~

Graph 9.20 R, for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 1.

Graph 9.19 Rv for Mv. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 1:

(1)

1.3

:;
O'

1.3

~---.,-----,-----,-----,-----,

c..
1.25

::I

1.2

+---~t.----+----1-----+------j

1.2

(1)

1.15
1.1

lxlly

lx/ly

--

--1

----1

1.1

---0---1.2

---0--- 1.2

--1.41

>

---+---

1.4

----0----

1 .6

ll::N1.05

II::

----0----

1.6

--.--1.a

----1.8

_,.,_._ 2
__J

_,.,_._ 2

0.9
0.95

0.9
0.8 +------+----+---+---+--~~
0.85

o. 7 4-,.--,r--T--.-+--.---r-r--r+-.-.......,--,-+,--,.--,r--T--t-.---.---r-r-i
0

3
4
S'"ad Lih

10

0.8

6
3

S=ad L/h

10

Graph 9.22 Rz for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 2.

Graph 9.21 Rv for Mv. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column Z:
1.6

1.5

1.4

....----rr----.-------,----,-------.-----,

15 r--1--1--,----.--~

1.5

-r-~t-t---t--~:-----L--_J

1.4

r-----11&---+---+---+--_J

1.3

r-----ftjt--+-----+--~--_J

1.3

Ix/ ly
1.2

----0---

1.2

--1_4

rl" 1.1

1.2

r---1~k--+---+--J___J

1.8

---0---

1.1

-I

I~'\..

1.2

1.6

----1.8

_____,,_ 2

---<>---- 2

0.9

----0---

--1_4

Ol;N

~1.6
--6--

lxlly
---1

--1

'\.I

0
0.8

0.7

0.9 ~

0.8

''
I

I~
=
0
....,

I :!1
....
~

Vl

;-

0.6

I
0

I
2

I
4

I
6

4
3
Sttd Lih

I
8

I
10

0.7

I
0

I
2

I
4

I
6

s =a d 3Li h4

I
8

'f
10

O'

"'

Im

Graph 9.24 R, for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 3.

Gr1lph 9.23 Rv for Mv Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 3.
.

~
1.8

1.35

----~----.------.------,------,

O'

;:i
(D

0..

1.25

1.6 -1------&.\\\-~-+l----+----+------t--~

0
1.15
1.4

lxfly

lxlly

-.e--1

-.e--1
----0----

---+- 1.4

ti" 1.2 I

!\.

I ---o--

1.05

1.2

----0----

ai::

1.6

--------- 1 .8

---0--

0.95

__,,______ 2

0.85

1'.

o.8L

0.6

I
0

-~~~

I
2

I
4

Sad L/h

I
8

0.75

I
10

1.6

--------- 1.8

__,,______ 2

1.2

---+-1.4

0.65

I
0

I
2

6
3

Ssad L/h

I
8

I
10

Graph 9.25 Rv for Mv. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column (

1.9

Graph 9.26 R0 for M,. Stiffness correction coefficients


for Column 4.

~---~-----,------.-----.----,

1.9

----~-----,------.--------,

1.7 4----\'l,---l-----+-----+-----+------1

1.7

--~~-+-----+-----+-----+------i

1.5

1.5

lxlly

lxlly

--1
1.3

..

ai::

--1

I --0-1.2

I ----+-- 1.4

\I

---0---

--1

1.1

I ---o-- 1.8
----fr--

0.9

1.6

1.3

--0---1.2
---+--1.4

ai::

---0---

1.6

--------- 1.8

1.1

----fr--

0.9

.....................

ti

"'

cjii"

0.7

F' ""' -:::<:::~~

0.7

0
I ....,
:!l
~
.....

en
ii>"
0.5

I
0

I
2

6
4
s=alLJh

I
8

I
10

0.5

I
0

I
2

4
3

s = ad L/ h

I
8

I
10

O"

"'

I~
-.J

Chapter 10

Design of Connections

10.0 NOTATION
a
Ast

C
D

/b
fy

/bu
/cu
Fs
F1

H
K1

I
lr
I,
11

M
n
n0
0
r
Ve

z
~

<I>

<l>e

Distance between two rows of bars resisting bending moment


Area of steel in tension
Embedment of pile into pile cap
Diameter or width of pile
Ultimate anchorage bond stress
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
Design ultimate bond stress
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Ultimate force in a bar or a group of bars
Tie force (kN)
Design ultimate horizontal load on pile
Coefficient to determine transmission length of prestressing tendons
Anchorage bond length
Greatest distance between vertical load-bearing elements in direction
of a tie
Floor to ceiling height (m)
Transmission length of prestressing tendons
Applied bending moment on concrete section of pile
Number of reinforcement bars in each row
Number of stories in a building
Perimeter of a bar of reinforcement in tension
Internal radius of a bend in a bar
Design concrete shear stress
Shear force in concrete section
Depth of lever arm
Coefficient to determine design ultimate bond stress
Diameter of bar
Diameter of one bar or equivalent diameter of a group of bars

10.1 INTRODUCTION
To make a complete building or structure, the elements described and
designed in the previous chapters will have to be connected together and
also tied together to give horizontal stability. This chapter describes the
principles of design of these connections and the ties.
459

460 Reinforced Concrete


There are basically two types of connections: rigid and free. The rigid
connections will have full moment and other internal force transfer capability. The connections classed as free do not offer resistance to rotation to
members at the connection. These connections should be capable of transferring shear and axial loads.

10.2

CONTENTS: TYPE OF CONNECTIONS


The following connections have been described in this chapter:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)

Requirement of building ties as per Codes of Practice.


Pile-to-foundation/pile cap connection.
Column-to-foundation connection.
Wall-to-foundation connection.
Column-to-column connection.
Wall-to-wall connection.
Column-to-beam connection.
Wall-to-beam connection.
Wall-to-slab connection.
Column-to-wall connection.
Slab-to-beam connection.

The theory of anchorage and bond length requirements is described initially.

10.3

ANCHORAGE AND BOND


Local bond stress is dependent on shear, i.e. the rate of change of bending
moment at any section.
Local bond stress = -

z~o

where

V = shear at section
z = lever arm of bending moment
~o = summation of perimeter of bars in tension.

The local bond stress at ultimate state need not be checked provided there
is adequate anchorage of the bars in tension on both sides of a section.
The ultimate anchorage bond stress is assumed constant over the anchorage
length of a bar.

fb =
where

Fs
n<J>el

fb

Fs
<Pe

ultimate anchorage bond stress


ultimate force in bar or group of bars bundled together
= diameter of one bar or equivalent diameter of a bar, the area
of which equals the total area of the bundle of bars
l = anchorage bond length.

Design of Connections 461

ii
ll

l:i

II

..

...

.A b.
ii.

6 ,a~

...

.A A
A

Jb

. ....
"...
-

.6 A

66:

4 .

.,./!
A

SK 10/1 Development of bond


stress in concrete.

Fs

A'.

...

I.

f.,

.I

The design ultimate bond stress depends on the characteristic strength of


the concrete and is given by the following formula:

Values

of~-

Plain bars
Type 1: deformed
Type 2: deformed
Fabric

In tension

In compression

0.28
0.40
0.50
0.65

0.35
0.50
0.63
0.81

A partial safety factor Ym = 1.4 is included.


The fabric reinforcement should be according to clause 3.12.8.5 of BS 8110:
Part 1: 1985.1 11

10.3.1 Basic rules of anchorage and laps


Anchorage of links
The link is to pass round another bar of equal or greater dimension
through an angle of 90 and continue for a minimum length of 8 x diameter,
or through an angle of 1800 and continue for a minimum length of
4 x diameter.
Anchorage of column starter bars
Column starter bars in compression need not be checked for anchorage.
They should be taken down to the level of the bottom layer of reinforcement
in the foundation.
Column starter bars in tension should be checked for anchorage.

462 Reinforced Concrete


B!ll

~1

J
SK 10/3 A 180 bend.

SK 10/2 A 90 bend.

Laps and joints

~2

,_
lI1

(fl

LI

$,

_Jl

LAP LENGTH

5 .; 200 IF
!ll1 AND {ll, > 20
AND C < 1 . S!ll, OR, 1-Sfl2

SK 10/4 Detailing rules at lap of


column bars.

SK 10/5 Lapping of bars.

Design of Connections 463


Laps and joints should be staggered. Welded joints should not be used for
cyclic loading. Minimum lap length is 15 times bar size or 300mm. Links
to be used at laps of bars in beams and columns at a maximum spacing of
200 mm where both bars at a lap exceed 20 mm diameter and the cover is
less than 1.5 times the diameter of the smaller bar.

10.3.2 Design of tension laps


---+-I-'-_= DI AMETER

C1 AND C2<2+
SK 10/6 Case 1 - anchorage length.

SK 10/7 Case 2 - anchorage length.

c,
0

D= <75 OR

6+

SK 10/8 Case 3 - anchorage length.

C1 AND C2

<2+

AND/OR D < 75 OR

s+

SK 10/9 Case 4 - anchorage length.

464

Reinforced Concrete
Lap length = tension anchorage length normally
= 1.4 x tension anchorage length for Cases 1, 2 and 3
= 2 x tension anchorage length for Case 4
Case I
Bars lapped are at the top of a section and cover is less than 2 times the
size of lapped bars.
Case 2
Bars lapped are at a corner of a section and cover to either face is less than
2 times the size of lapped bar.
Case 3
The distance between adjacent laps is less than 75 mm or 6 times bar
diameter, whichever is the greater.
Case 4
Corner bars at the top of a section with less than 2 times diameter of bar
cover to either face.
Lapped bars at the top of a section with distance between them less than
75 mm or 6 times bar diameter.

10.3.3 Design of compression laps


Lap length = 1.25 x compression anchorage length of smaller bar at lap
Effective anchorage length of a hook or a bend

T.P.

Br .; 24

T.P.
4r ( 12

SK 10/10 Effective anchorage


bond lengths.

Design of Connections 465


18(J' hook

Effective anchorage length = Br( :s24Q>) + l - 4Q>


or
= actual length of bar from tangent point
whichever is larger
9fJ' bend
Effective anchorage length= 4r(:s:12<j>) +I - 4<j>
or
= actual length of bar from tangent point
whichever is larger

10.3.4 Curtailment and anchorage of bars


Minimum anchorage length = d

or

12<j>

In tension zone of a flexural member, take a bar to:


a full tension anchorage length beyond a point where it is not required,
or
a point where the shear capacity of the section is twice the shear force at
the point, or
a point where the available bars continuing beyond provide a moment
of resistance twice the bending moment at the point.
The curtailment of bars should be staggered.
Anchorage of bars at a simply supported end
(1) An effective anchorage length of 12<j> beyond centreline of support.

Hook or bend should not begin before centreline. Effective anchorage


lengths of a hook or a bend may be considered.

SUPPORT

SK 10/11 Required effective


anchorage at simply supported end
where centreline of support is less
than or equal to d/2 away from
face of support.

L = EFFECTIVE ANCH~AGE
LENGTH ~ 12,

466

Reinforced Concrete

~
d/2
SK 10/12 Required effective

anchorage at simply supported end


where centreline of support is
more than d/2 away from face of
support.

L = EFFECTIVE ANCHORAGE LENGTH


;I

1216

(2) An effective anchorage length of 12<j> beyond d/2 from face of support.
Hook or bend should not begin before d/2 from face of support.
Effective anchorage lengths of a hook or a bend may be considered.

L <I 11/3

AND 30

SK 10/13 Required effective


11/2

anchorage at end of slab where


shear stress is less than 0.5 Ve.

11/2

(3) For slabs, if shear stress at face of support is less than half vc, then
project a straight length of bar beyond centreline of support equal to
one third of support width or 30mm, whichever is greater.
Anchorage bond lengths in multiples of bar sizes for Type 2 deformed bars
(fy = 460N/mm 2 ).
Grades of concrete - !cu (N/mm 2 )
C25 C30 C35 C40 C45 C50
Tension anchorage and lap
Compression anchorage
Compression lap

40

32
40

37
29
37

34
27
34

32
26
32

30
24
30

28

22
28

Design of Connections 467


Anchorage bond lengths in multiples of bar sizes for plain grade 250N/mm2
bars
Grades of concrete - !cu (N/mm 2)
C25 C30 C35 C40 C45 CSO
Tension anchorage and lap
Compression anchorage
Compression lap
Note:

39
32
39

36
29
36

33
27
33

31
25
31

29
23
29

27
22
27

The tension anchorage bond lengths will be multiplied by either 1.4 or 2.0,
depending on the location of the bar as described in Section 10.3.2.

10.4 BUILDING TIES


The following ties will be considered:

Peripheral ties.
Internal ties.
Horizontal column and wall ties.
Vertical ties.

Ties are continuous fully anchored and properly lapped welded or mechanically connected tension reinforcement.
The reinforcement required to act as continuous ties is additional to
other designed reinforcement. Available excess design reinforcement if
properly tied and continuous and capable of carrying the prescribed tie
forces may be considered.

10.4.1 Peripheral ties


A continuous tie should be provided at each floor level and roof level
within 1.2 m of edge of building or within perimeter wall. This tie should
be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to FtkN.

Ft = 20 + 4n0
where

n0

or 60

whichever is less

number of storeys in the structure.

Required area of steel for peripheral tie

F.
= Ast = __
t-

0.87/y

This means that the maximum area of steel for peripheral tie at each floor
and roof level is given by:
60 x 1e>3
0.87 x 460

- - - - = 150mm2
or two lOmm dia. bars (/y = 460N/mm 2) fully lapped and anchored.

468

Reinforced Concrete

Ft

>- ,_
a: :c
0 !2
,_

UJ

V)

...::c

,-

>- ,_

LU I

a:
0

IIf)

"'W
I

:::::i
SK 10/14 Typical frame elevation showing tie
forces.
SK 10/15 Typical floor plan showing ties
required.

10.4.2 Internal ties


These ties are at floor and roof levels in two orthogonal directions and
anchored to peripheral ties or columns or perimeter walls.
The spacings of these ties will not be greater than 1.5/., where lr is greatest

INTERNAL TIES Cx-DIRECTION)


p ERIPHERAL TIE

j
~

INTERNAL TIES C\j-DIREC TION)

COL

COL

COL

COL

:::

U1

-1

T- ~-1 ~

..J

":::I

U1

Sx I
":::I

U1

Sxl

.1. co~x,
Sx' 1.5 Lx
S\j ' 1. 5 L\j

,_

S>

.3
COL

SK 10/16 Typical floor plan


showing ties required.

Design of Connections 469


distance between centres of vertical load-bearing elements in direction of
tie.
The ties should be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to the greater
of:
or
where (gk + qk) is the sum of the average characteristic dead and imposed
floor loads (kN/m 2).

10.4.3 Horizontal column and wall ties

PERIPHERAL TIE

INTERNAL TIE
ANCHORED TO
PERIPHERAL TIE

SK 10/17 Anchorage of ties.

If peripheral tie is located in wall, then internal ties should be anchored to

peripheral tie. No other wall tie is required.


Each external column should be tied back horizontally at each floor or
roof level. The tie force will be the greater of (a) or (b) below.
CONTINUOUS
PERIPHERAL TIE

:/

no

CONTINUOUS
PERIPHERAL TIE

,,)>
I

'

- -I - - -

I.

U-BAR
EXTERNAL COLUMNS
HBOARcV 0TiT A~1.o1ohE

"""

- Uy
SK 10/18 External column - elevation showing
tie back.

I
I
I
I

I
I

- - -- - - - -

+--

U-BAR
HORIZONTAL T!E

I
I
I
I

SK 10/19 Corner column - plan view showing


tie back.

470

Reinforced Concrete
(a) 2F1 or (/,/2.5) F1 if less, where L. =floor-to-ceiling height (m)
(b) 3% of total design ultimate axial load carried by column
If peripheral tie is not located in wall, then every metre of wall should be

tied back at each floor or roof level. The tie force will be either (a) or (b),
as above.
The corner column will have horizontal ties at each floor level or roof level
in each of two directions, capable of developing a tie force equal to either
(a) or (b), as above.

10.4.4 Vertical ties


Each column and each wall should be tied continuously from the lowest to
the highest level. The tie force in tension will be the maximum design
ultimate dead and live load imposed on column or wall from any one
storey.

10.5

CONNECTIONS
The most commonly occurring structural connections are illustrated in this
section with guidance on the preferred detailing methods.

10.5.1

Pile-to-pile cap/foundation raft/ground beam

10.5.1.1

Bored and cast in-situ concrete pile

w
,,, .....

OLLW

a:

Wl-

CILJ W

a:

wa: u

>

"'
"

"

"

"

,..,

- "

I-OZ

w
_, a:

I-(_)

U::::>Z

,..,

zo::>
0

(_)

(_)

t:>..__,...
BORED INSlTU PILE
CASE 1

Case 1
Mainly vertical loads.
Small horizontal load.
No bending moment in pile at connection.
No tension loads in pile.

SK 10/20 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

Design of Connections 471


Pile embedment C into pile cap, or raft, or ground beam, up to bottom
layer of reinforcement.
Check bearing stress on concrete (pile and pile cap) due to horizontal load.

Beanng stress

= DC

::::; 0.6fcu

= design ultimate horizontal load on


= diameter or width of pile
C = embedment of pile into pile cap.

where H

pile

Check anchorage of pile reinforcement.


l = compression anchorage length

BENT BARS INTRODUCED


IN GREEN CONCRETE

0
U1

zLU

0..

I-<
_J
_J
_J

::::>

LL

E!(JED IN-SITU PILE


CASE 2A

BORED

INSITU PILE
CASE 28

SK 10/22 Pile-to-foundation connection.

SK 10/21 Pile-to-foundation connection.


ONCIUE BROKEN OUT
CR LEFT L*CONCRETEO

SURFACE OF PILE
ROUGHENED

SK 10/23 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

BORED INSITU PILE

CASE 2C

472

Reinforced Concrete
Case 2
Vertical compression load.
Vertical tension load.
Piles in swelling clay.
Bending moment in pile at connection.
Horizontal load on pile.
Check bearing stress on concrete as in Case 1.
Check anchorage of pile reinforcement.
11 = compression anchorage length
12 = tension anchorage length (the effective anchorage length of the bend
may be considered)
If bearing stress is higher than allowed, then embedment may be increased

by adopting solution in Case 2C.


10.5.1.2 Precast reinforced concrete pile
Case 1 (same condition as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 1)

r-~-

,.>

"

"

I,,..,

(')

...z
""
'iii
.........

I
I
'"

>
,..,

_, ex
u

('\

,_
u

'

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE


CASE 1 ANO CASE 2A

SK 10/24 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

Reinforcement to be exposed by breaking out a length equal to I above


pile cut off.
I

compression anchorage length

Check bearing stress, as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 1.


Case 2 (same condition as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 2)
Reinforcement to be exposed by breaking out a length equal to I above
pile cut off.
I

= tension

anchorage length

Design of Connections 473

SK 10/25 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

PRECAST REINFQRCED CONCRETE PILE


CASE 28

Check bearing stress, as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 2.


If bearing stress is higher than allowed then embedment C may be increased

by adopting solution in Case 2B.


10.5.1.3 Precast prestressed concrete pile
Case 1 (same condition as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 1)

,---,

I
I

I
I
u

SK 10/26 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

PRECAS! PRESIRESSED PILE


CASE 1

Check bearing stress, as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 1.


Case 2 (same condition as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 2)
I

transmission length of prestressing tendons

_ K1<J>

- V/cu

474 Reinforced Concrete


TOP HAT REINFORCEMENT
TOREAR~S!ST
T ON PILE
IF A VERT~CAL
WA L
PUNCH N SHEAR STREs ~OR
DEPTH 'd' IS EXCEEDED

ELEVATION

DIAGONAL BARS TO
REPLACE THE
CONTINUITY OF
BOTTOH MAT.
REINFORCEMENT

PRECAST PRESTRESSED PILE


CASE- 2

where

SK 10/27 Pile-to-foundation
connection.

<j> = nominal diameter of tendon

K 1 = 600

for plain or indented wire

= 400 for crimped wire with wave height not less than 0.15 mm
= 240 for 7-wire strand or super-strand
=

360 for 7-wire drawn strand.

The top-hat reinforcement detailing at pile connection may be adopted for


large vertical load and significant bending moment in pile.
10.5.1.4 Steel H-pile or steel tubular pile
Case 1 (same conditions as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 1)
Check bearing stress, as in Section 10.5.1.1 Case 1, using width of flange
or depth of section, whichever is smaller.
Check bearing stress on concrete on top of mild steel plate using maximum
ultimate vertical load on pile.

Design of Connections 475


MILD STEEL PLATE

(.)

SITE FILLET WELD

STEEL H-PILE OR
CIRCULAR STEEL TUBE

SK 10/28 Connection of steel pile


to foundation.

CASE 1

Case 2 (same conditions as in Section 10.5.1.1, Case 2)


Check bearing stress, as in Section 10.5.1.1 Case 1, using width of flange
or depth of section, whichever is smaller.
Check bearing stress on concrete on top of mild steel plate using maximum
ultimate vertical load on pile.

SITE FILLET WELD

SK 10/29 Moment connection of


steel pile to foundation.

CASE 2

STEEL H-PILE OR
CIRCULAR STEEL TUBE

I = tension anchorage length of the type of bar used (the effective


anchorage length of a hook or a bend may be used)
<j> =diameter of bar= 1.21 ( - M

)~

afyn

M = maximum ultimate bending moment in pile at connection


a = distance between bars perpendicular to axis of rotation or moment,

or distance between two rows.

n = number of bars in each row

476 Reinforced Concrete


Note:

During the driving operation it is difficult to control the orientation of the


flanges of H-piles to match the axis of bending moment. In practice, the
anchoring bars should be used in such a fashion that the bending moment
capacity of these anchor bars are equal in both the orthogonal directions.
The mild steel plate should be checked for strength to transfer the anchoring
tension of the bars to the web of the H-pile .
.MILD STEEL PLATE
WELDED TO PILE

SK 10/30 Plan of circular pile


showing location of anchor bars for
moment connection as in Case 2.

ANCHOR BARS WELDED


TO MILD STEEL PLATE

For a circular steel pile using 6 no. anchor bar on a circle of diameter D
which is diameter of circular pile, diameter of each anchor bar is given by:

<I>= 0.92 ( -M )~
Dfy

10.5.2 Column-to-foundation/pile cap/raft


Case 1: Column bars always in compression

Z:r:
o,_
-

(!)

lilz
lilw

~-'

O..n_

::E<

8-'

CASE 1

SK 10/31 Connection of column to


foundation - no tension in bars.

Design of Connections 477


No check necessary for anchorage bond length.
The column bars should be taken down to bottom reinforcement mat of
foundation.
Case 2: Significant tension in column bars due to foundation fixity bending
moment and/ or direct axial tension load

\/

:r:

z>-

~~

~_J
Wn_

1--ce
_J

~--

SK 10/32 Connection of column to


foundation - significant tension in
bars.

-..,..-

"'

"

"'

CASE 2

I= tension anchorage length (effective anchorage length of a bend may be


used)

10.5.3 Wall-to-foundation/pile cap/raft


Case 1 (same condition as in Section 10.5.2, Case 1)
Use same principle as in 10.5.2, Case 1.
Case 2 (same condition as in Section 10.5.2, Case 2)
Use same principle as in Section 10.5.2, Case 2.

10.5.4 Column-to-column connection


Case 1: Column bars always in compression
I

= compression lap length

478

Reinforced Concrete
A

..--~2

~10

.~'

Ul

Ul

_,

Ul

Ul

Ul

u__

KICKER

*I
T

_..

"

S :S200 IF

ct,

ct

AND 2 >20
AND C < 15+1 OR15 ~ 2

SK 10/33 Column-to-column
connection.

The links at the lap will be at a maximum spacing of 200 mm if bars lapped
are greater than 20 mm in diameter and cover is less than 1.5 times bar
diameter.
Case 2: Significant tension in column bars due to bending moment or axial
tension

I = tension anchorage length if cover is at least 2 times diameter of lapped


bars

Design of Connections 479


I

= 1.4

x tension anchorage length for corner bars where cover to either


face is less than 2 times diameter of lapped bars
I = 1.4 x tension anchorage length if adjacent laps are less than 75 mm or
6 times bar diameter away

10.S.S

Wall-to-wall connection

U-BAR

U-BAR

SK 10/35 Type 1 - plan of wall at intersection.


SK 10/34 Type 1 - plan of wall at corner.

- (

- -

"

('-.
v

v <:

"

/}
v

' "'-VERTICAL U-BARS


D

LAPPED WITH HORIZON TAL .


BARS IN THE LAYER UNDER
l

b
[\.

~ b

SK 10/36 Type 2 - plan of wall at corner.

SK 10/37 Type 3 - plan of wall at corner.

Type 1 and Type 2 connections are efficient for significant reversible


bending moment at connection. If horizontal bars are designed to carry
significant tension at junction, then lap length is given by:
I

= tension anchorage

lap length

480

Reinforced Concrete
Type 3 connection may be used where nominal horizontal reinforcement is
required to prevent cracking and to contain vertical reinforcement. The
lap length is given by:
l = 15 times bar diameter or 300 mm, whichever is greater
If the loading causes the corner of the wall to open up then Type 2

Note:

connection becomes most efficient. Moreover, with Type 2 detailing the


horizontal bars could be of different diameters at the inside and the
outside faces.

10.5.6 Column-to-beam connection


10.5.6.1 External columns
Case 1: Beam assumed simply supported

"

/)

lsc
-

U-BAR WITH 50%


OF AAEA AT MIDSPAN

"
COLUMN
BARS OMITTED FOR CLARITY

SK 10/38 Connection of beam to


column - Case 1.

l = tension lap length

See Section 10.3.2 for design of tension lap length.


Case 2: Beam assumed fixed to column
/1

length required by design calculations <::: 0.15 span <::: tension lap
length

r = radius of bend (special radius may be necessary)


Check bearing stress inside bend (see Step 22 of Section 2.3).
12 = tension lap length (see Section 10.3.2)
13 = tension anchorage length (to be checked if available within depth)

Design of Connections 481


L,

"
/

r~

(/

'

J "

"

"'

/\

II/

SK 10/39 Connection of beam to


column - Case 2.

/')

so

L2

..:__U-BAR AREA DETERMJNED


BY DES[GN CALCULATJONS

Case 3: Beam assumed fixed to column (no reversal of moment)

L,

so

SK 10/40 Connection of beam to


column - Case 3.

OF COLUMN

If /3 in Case 2 is less than tension anchorage length, use detail in Case 3.


/1

= tension

anchorage length

r = radius of bend
Check bearing stress inside bend (see Step 22 of Section 2.3).
length required by design calculations
length

/2

13

= 12

14

= tension

2:

x bar diameter of effective anchorage


lap length (see Section 10.3.2)

0.15 span

2:

tension lap

482 Reinforced Concrete


Case 4: Beam assumed fixed to column (ductile connection for reversible
moment)

SK 10/41 Ductile column/beam


connection - Case 4.

Where bending moments at connection are very large and reversible, e.g.
at knee of a portal frame, use detail in Case 4.
11

= tension

lap length (see Section 10.3.2)

12 = designed length
13

= tension

2'.:

0.15 span

2'.:

tension lap length

anchorage length

May be provided with a hook at end to get full effective anchorage length.

r = radius of bend
Check bearing stress inside bend (see Step 22 of Section 2.3).
14 = tension anchorage length
15 = tension anchorage length
A, = same area of steel as beam design bottom steel at column

10.5.6.2 Internal columns


Connection uses straight splice bars at intersection.
Splice bars for secondary beam may be placed inside splice bars of main
beam.
11 = tension lap length (see Section 10.3.2)
/2 =

designed length

tension anchorage length

Design of Connections 483

so
SPLICE BARS FOR
BEAMS

~SECONDARY

"

r;
v

/)
......

SK 10/42 Internal column beams from both orthogonal


directions.

//

L,

LMAIN BE AM

SPLICE 6ARS
FOR MA IN BEAM

10.5.7 Wall-to-beam connection


The same principles apply as in Section 10.5.6.

10.5.8 Wall-to-slab connection

.)

L,

VU-BAR
v

<.'\.

"

,,/)

"

"

L2

SK 10/43 Connection of slab to


wall. (Slab assumed simply
supported.)

so

10.5.8.1 Slab simply supported on wall


11 = 4 x thickness of slab or 600mm or 0.1 x span, whichever is the
greatest

U-bars are same diameter as bottom bars.


/2

= tension

lap or 500 mm, whichever is greater

10.5.8.2 Slab restrained by wall-moment connection

484

Reinforced Concrete
Case 1: Small diameter bars
0.3 SPAN

As

U-BAR WITH
ALTERNATE LDNG
LEGS

50

SK 10/44 Connection of slab to


wall - Case 1 (Slab rigidly
connected to wall.)

OF WALL

=the greatest of designed length, tension anchorage length, 4 x thickness


of slab, 600mm, or 0.1 x span

/1

12 = tension lap length

= tension anchorage length allowing for bends


Check bearing stress inside bend.

/3

Case 2: Large diameter bars

.
b

0.3 SPAN
L1

/As

-~

Q
b

,,

/A5 /2

L.

- "....

50

SK 10/45 Connection of slab to


wall - Case 2 (Slab rigidly
connected to wall.)

/1

= same

12

= tension lap length

as in Case 1

13 = tension anchorage length allowing for a bend


Check bearing stress inside bend.

Design of Connections 485


Note: Case 2 detail is used when tension anchorage length cannot be accommodated within bend of U-bar in Case 1.

10.5.9 Column-to-wall connection

Case 1: No significant tension in column bars

-- r'\-

r---

L,
,_

,-

KICKER

'
1~

SK 10/46 Wall-to-column
connection.

/1

'
'
'V

= compression lap length

12 = compression anchorage length

Case 2: Significant tension in column bars


/1

12

= tension
= tension

lap length (see Section 10.3.2 for design of lap length)


anchorage length

10.5.10 Slab-to-beam connection


The same principles apply as in Section 10.5.8.1.

Chapter 11

General Figures, Tables and Charts

487

Fig. 11.1 Coefficient for moment of inertia of cracked sections with (a) equal
reinforcement on opposite faces and (b) tension reinforcement only.

(1)

O'
0070 1:----1----+----l-+-+---+7<----i

0070

0..

g
:I
(".)

00601

0060

oo5ol

._ OJ40 I

lL..

lL..

0040

!:!:!

!:>!

~ 0030 I
'-'

0030

'-'

0-020,

I II

I /

I I

<!:

It:

'I I

;'

0050

....

0-0201
11.1 /

/I /

11111/

m=E5 1Ee
le= FbdJ

m =f5s I Ee

k =Fbd3

"

Al I

OO 10 I /////

08

REINFORCEMENT RATIO

100 =4Jbd

0~ '

04

'

0-8

REINFORCEMENT RATIO

1'.2

'

1~6

1oo~Aslbd

/.o

Fig. 11.2 Values of

Ve -

design concrete shear stress.

3.0r------.----...-----.------.----......,---,,.-.--..,.----,,--..-.,---..,.--,--,--~--.---~~-.~--. 3.0

or over

2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1

2.0

2.0

"O

..c

22s
--- - - 1 -- - - - - d d==
250
1

d
f-------+----d"

= 300

=:....... < I"- ~

4od --- -.., . . _

--y. < I~ -Y..A /

/I

1. 9
1. B
1. 7
1 .6

I',/-..,,....._ A'../ ~qL IY--. .C-- ... A

<Jl

I .S
-----~---~I .4

<C

0
0

1. 3
1. 2

,....,

I. I

I . 0--- -- ------

I. 0

f cu = 2SN/mm

0. 4

0.6

0.7

0.8

vc

0.9
N/mm

1.0

I.I

1.2

I. 3

0.9
O.B
0.7
0.6
5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0. 1

I 10.
...L..J
I. 4

Q
0

=
0

a
~

ttCI

~
Y'
~

Ill

(i"'
VJ

Ill

=
Q.

n::r

Ill

::I.
VJ

tg
\Cl

Fig. 11.3 Values of

Ve -

design concrete shear stress.

=
O'
~

0.

3.0

or

ove~:c------r-----T'"-----,-----1"------ir----;--r--;---,~,---;,.---;T--;-----,,..-----~-~ 3.0

2.9
2.B
2.7
2.6
2.5

2.4
2.3
2.2
2. 1
---~---2.0

2.0

1. 9
1. B
1. 7

- r'U
..0

d -

-----

nn

1. 6
1. 5

or

"'

<1'.
0
0

-- -1.4

1. 3
.2
1. 1

...-<

----~---1

1. 0
0.9

1. 0

0.8

~/ I

llfcul= 30N/m\11

~IJ!l
0. 1

0.4

0.5

0.6

0. 7

0.8

0.9

v
c

N/mm

1.0

1. 1

1.2

1. 3

1. 4

r
~

Fig. 11.4 Values of

Ve -

design concrete shear stress.

3.or~~~--ir-~~~,-~~~-.~~~~.-~~~-r~~~~r-c:--~~--:r-~-~~=--,...,...~~~~~~~~~- 3. 0
or over

i---~-t~~~-t-~~~t-~~-t~~~-+-~~~l-~--1l-l-J~(__A..-_j.'.____/...j__)_'.____JL__J2.9
2.8
2.7
~~-j-~~~--i1--~~+-+-~-+-~---Ac--.~~~.,l.--~.J-~__...(__~~~1--12.6

r-~~-t~~~-T-~~~t-~~--t~~~-+-~-l-~~'---/-'.__..,A'..._,~~--+./--~~-+-~~-L-J2.5
2.4
2.3

r----t--'"--=--l.:='"'*"----++---A----,f-.JL.Jh~-F-+-~--+------1-_J2. 2
2. 1

---r----ati'l!lJ-:'-""'--i--""""-.;:;::-7'f<;::--+-jl~~~~-F-~~---+------1-_J2. 0
1. 9

"O

==?.lill':::'---"'"'"":-f~:::--~<:::"-t~~~~~L--F---:J~~.~--11------11----____;L-_Ji.s
1. 7
1.6

..0

rf}

<i::

a
~

rl

."'

fcu

3SN/mm 2

~"'

s"'
~

Fig. 11.5 Values of

Ve -

design concrete shear stress.

~
~

er

6'
....
n
~

3, 0
or over

3.0
2.9
2.B
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2. 1
2.0
1. 9

2.0

1. 8
1. 7

"O

.0

1 .6
1. 5
1. 4
1. 3
1. 2
1.1
1. 0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0. 1

"'

<(

0
0

,.....,
1. 0

fcu

0.4

0.5

0.6

0. 7

0.8

0.9

vc

1.0

N/mm

1. 1

>

1.2

40N/mm 2

1. 3

1. 4

0.
("'.)
I 0

Q
~

I ;:;-

Table 11.1 Area of steel reinforcement for various spacings.


Diameter
(mm)

6
8
10
12
16
20
25
32
40
50

Perimeter
(mm)

18.8
25.1
31.4
37.7
50.3
62.8
78.5
100.5
125.7
157.1

Area
(mm 2)

28.3
50.3
78.5
113.1
201.l
314.2
490.9
804.2
1256.6
1963.5

Area of steel reinforcement for different spacings (mm2 /m)

Weight
(kg/m)

0.222
0.395
0.616
0.888
1.579
2.466
3.854
6.313
9.864
15.413

50mm

75mm

lOOmm

125mm

150mm

200mm

250mm

300mm

566
1006
1570
2262
4022
6284
9818

377
670
1046
1508
2681
4189
6544
10722

283
503
785
1131
2011
3142
4909
8042
12566

226
402
628
904
1608
2513
3926
6433
10052
15708

188
335
523
754
1340
2094
3272
5361
8377
13090

141
251
392
565
1005
1571
2454
4021
6283
9817

113
201
314
452
804
1256
1963
3216
5026
7854

94
167
261
377
670
1047
1636
2680
4188
6545

a
=
~

'"I

e:..
'Tl

<iQ'

c'"I
~

:!'

...,
g;
~

"'

=
0.
('J
=~

::l.

"'

Reinforced Concrete

494

Table 11.2 Sectional properties.


AREA

TVPE OF SECTION

8
~

TORSIONAL CONSTANT

MOMENT OF INERTIA

A=rt0 2/4

I =TT 0 /64

A:~(Of-oj J

I:

A=0828h2

'= lyy:0.0547h

4
lz="D /32

lf (o;-o;]

lz =ft

(O~

-o; l

Q.411.h

lz=nh4/32

(Approximately)

Q.577h

~11
,EB

A=Q.866hz

'"" = lyy= 00601 h

lz: nh 4 /32
(Approximately)

IV

.f.~b

~uE_.

1..=n bh,

3
lz =05Cb h

lyy=n hb,

C=Cocfficicnt in table 22

3
l''=n bh ;\<B-b)t/f
2
bh~ - xl

(..-hj)~b

A:bh

h12

~w-

"

~z

-x

;,

_ .

lz = o.s cerif' a.set/( h-htl

C = Coefficient in table 2 2

1f htB3

( l.-2hf) ~ b

3
lxx= ij bh i<B-blKf

Jj

"' ;" ;1}

+(8-b)hf (X-hj/2)
lyy=ft(h-hf)b

bn

A=bh.(8-b)hf
2
2
[ bh .( B -blh 1I
X
2[bh.(B-b)hjJ

2(8-b)hf (h/2-h112)

3
lz=C0ti'1.o.scb (h-2hfl

A:bh+2hj(8b)
lyy=

i"' e3.i\(h-2h1 )bl

Ixx=n 0Hi..fibh 3
A:BHbh

3
lyy = n He1-d hb

H12

C =Coefficient in table 2 2

lz=

z
~
I.~t

A1=Arca of closed cell on

of wall.

81 :Length of each side of closed cell on


t =Thickness of each side of closed cell on

y
B

~
,
I

1"1

t;: ~--x'

-=2i~~
e

Shear "centre

A: 2Bhf (H2~)b,,
X:[B2h!'(H2h})blJ2)
A

e.

tthj(H-hj) 2
4lxx

3
I'' =n bwH t<B-bwlti'f

B>hf

lyy=} e3hfn(H2hf)i}..,
o28hf(X-812) 2

Iz .c0.?1

(H2hfl > bw

(H-2hf )(x-bwl2) 2

C(H-2hfl~

c :Coefficient in table 2-2

It..

t.

General Figures, Tables and Charts


Table 11.3 Basic span/effective depth ratios for rectangular and flanged
beams.

Support conditions Rectangular section Flanged beam with


bwfb :S 0.3
Cantilever
Simply supported
Continuous

7
20

26

5.6
16.0
20.8

495

Reinforced Concrete

496

Chart 11.4 Modification factor for compression reinforcement.

14

12

v
0

~
~

OS

...---

15

i.---

25
3
100 As/{ bd I

3-S

45

Cc = Modi tication fador for Compression Reinforcement

Chart 11.5 Modification factor for tension reinforcement.

2
18

fs=

l6

---100

1 4

- --150

12

--- --- 200

_-_::~ ::=::-=::--~

@1
08

06

250
- ---- 300
350

04
02
0
0

3
M/lbd2J

N/mm

Ct =Modification factor for Tension Reinforcement

General Figures, Tables and Charts

497

Table 11.6 Nominal cover (mm) to all reinforcement including links to meet
durability requirements.

Lowest grades of concrete (N/mm2 )

Condition of exposure

30

35

40

45

50

25

20

20

20

20

35

30

25

20

Severe: subject to alternate


wetting and drying and freezing

40

30

25

Very severe: subject to sea water


spray, deicing salts, etc.

50

40

30

60

50

Mild: protected against


aggressive environment
Moderate: sheltered from rain
and freezing, subject to
condensation, or, continuously
under water

Extreme: exposed to abrasive


action by machinery or vehicles
or water-carrying solids with
pH ::s 4.5

Table 11.7 Nominal cover (mm) to all reinforcement including links to meet
specified periods of fire resistance.

Fire
resistance
(hours)

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0

Beams

Slabs

Columns

Simply
supported

Continuous

Simply
supported

Continuous

20
20

20
20
20

20

20

20

20
20

20
40
60

70

30
40
50

25
35
45
55

25
35
45

20
20
20
25
25
25

Note: cover in excess of 40 mm may require additional measure to reduce risk


of spalling

.,.z.o

prt.O

poGA

""'

p<IJI

-""'

1.104
1.022
0.953
0.895

IMlh
28.47
24..0S
22.08
20.34
18.79

1<4-95
13.89
12.95
12.14
11.42

0.847
0.808
o.n5
0.7"1
0.723

17A3
18.24
15.18
1Utl
13.42

1.000
0.915
0.841
o.nB
0.726
0.583
0.647
0.617
0.576

12.40
11AI
1G.87
9.98
9.33

0.803
0.763

8.78
8.29
7.85
7M
7,03

0.656
0.639
0.623
0.610
0.563

10.TT
1G.19
9.67

<4-78
4.38

0.523
0."15
0.433
0.395
0.362

0.160
0.144
0.130
0.119
0.111

4.00
3.89
3.41
3.17
2.95

0.332
0.306
0.283
0.283
0.245

8.38

8.19
5.93
5.50
li.19

0.547
0.514
0.483
0.456
0.430

0.101

2.55
2.29
2.05
1.86
1.89

0.214
0.190
0.170
0.154
0.140

4.55
4.20
3.82
3.49
3.21

0.386
0.348
0.317
0.290
0.267

1.80
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00

1.55
1M
1.33
1.24
1.18

0.129
0.119
0.114
0.110
0.107

2.97
2.78

2.A2
2.27

0.2"1
0.229
0.214
0.200
0.188

2.20
2.40
2.80
2.80

1,03

0.103

2.03
1.83
1.87
1.53
1A1

""'
1.1>15

Cl.Oii
0.10
0.15
0.20
D.211

0.944
0.861
0.767
0.694

0.30
0.35
0.40
OM
0.80

7.73
8.114
5.93
li.11
4.38

0.633
0.587
0.492
0.424
0.364

0.55
G.80
0.815
0.70
0.78

3.TT

6.31
li.73

2.82
2.47
2.17

0.313
0.270
0.234
0.204
0.180

0.80
G.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

1.83
1.74
1.67
1A3
1.31

1.10
1.20
1.30
1NJ
1.80

1.12

3.00
3.20

3AO
3.80
3.80
4.00
8.00
8.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

3.25

9.511
8.87
8.17
7.55
8.95

5.22

""'
1.095

1.062

o.~

Q.910
0.861

o.m

0.701
O.Bn

.,...cl

IMlh
22.87
20.79
19,07
17.52
18.15

"'1111
19.27
17.54
18.03
1<4-68
13.49

IMlh
111.88
14.Zt
12.90
11.ee
1G.81

IMlh
1153
12.11
1G.80
9.71
8.68

--

""'

1.053
0.983
0.926
0.878
0.838
0.805

o.m

0.753

IMlh
30.Gl'
27.34
74IJ7
23.13
21A1
19.89
18.55
17.37
111.32
111.39

"""-""'

1.078
1.<XJT
0.948
0.900
0.860
0.827
0.799
o.n5

IMlh
33.17
30.81
28.0I
28.91

"""-""'

24.00

22.32
20.84

19.53
18.37
17.33

1.098
1.025
0.966
0.918
O.Bn
0.844
0.815
0.791

o.m

-i

Di

Qc

:;i:l
(1)
(")

::i

(!Cl

:;;...
(")

0.702
0.685
0.669
0.656
0.644

12.68
12.02
11.42
1G.87
1G.38

0.733
0.715
0.699
0.686
0.674

14.55
13.80
13.13
12.51
11.911

0.754
0.l'JIS
0.721
0.707
0.895

18.41
15.57
14.1'1
1<4-13
13.50

0.753
0.737
0.723
0.711

0.633
0.624
0.615
O.f!IJ7
0.586

9.93
9.51
9.13
8.78

0.663
0.653
0.644
0.637
0.629

11M
10.97
1G.53
10.13
9.78

0.684
0.674
0.685
0.657
0.860

12.93
12.40
11.91
11A7
11.05

0.700
0.690
0.681
0.673
0.666

';:;;.,

7111

0.617
0.808
0.586
0.525
0.489

9,09

8.51
8.00
7.55
7.11

0.637
0.626
0.617
0.609
0.590

10.30
9.85
9,07
8.58
8.10

0.653
0.642
0.632
0.624
0.617

33

UI

0.533
0.4(fT
0.447
0.412
0.382

4.29
4.00
3.75
3.53
3.32

0.355
0.332
0.311
0.292
0.276

li.51
li.17
U8

8.87
8.21
5.92
5.59
5.30

0.553
0.520
0.491
0.464
0.440

7.89
7.32
6.93
8.87

03

0.457
0.429
0.403
0.380
0.359

6.23

0.611
0.805
0.575
0.544
0.5i7

0.168
0.152
0.138
0.127
0.117

2.98
2.70
2.48
2.28
2.09

0.247
0.224
0.204
0.188
0.174

3.90
3.54
3.24
2.99
2.TT

0.323
0.294
0.269
0.248
0.229

<4-79
4.38
4.00
3.89
3.42

0.397
0.362
0.332
0.306
0.284

11.88
li.18
,<4.74
4.38
4.o7

0.469
0.428
0.393
0.364
0.338

1.31
1.22
1.14
1.oa
1,01

0.114
0.112
0.110
0.106
0.107

1.95
1.82
1.71
1.61
1.52

0.161
0.151
0.142
0.133
0.126

2.55
2.41
2.28
2.13
2.G1

0.214
0.200
0.167
o.1n
0.167

3.19
2.99
2.81
2.85
2.80

0.265
0.248
0.233
0.220
0.209

3.80
3.58
3.35
3.16
2.99

0.315
0.295
0.278
0.262
0.248

0.79

0.102

1.19
0.97
0.82
0.72
0.57

0.112
0.109
0.106
0.104
0.102

ua
1.30
1.10
0.911
0.78

0.131
0.115
0.112
0.110
0.107

1.97
1.82
1.37
1.19
0.94

0.163
0.134
0.116
0.114
0.111

2.35
1.94
1.65
1A3
1.13

0.195
0.161
0.136
0.119
0.114

...

2.55

9.20
8.TT
8.03
7.70
7NJ
7,07
8.43

8.87
11.39

<4-97

8A8

7.36
6.13

8.34
li.90

U8

a3
::i

"'I

=
II

t.;J

;:o:..

II
0
~
~

QC

O'

;::!
(1)

0.
("')
0

::i

~....
(1)

O.D5

0.10
0.15
G.20
0.25

11""1.0

pm0.4

8111

"""

13.47
12.08
10.78
9.54
BM

G.30
11.35
0.40
0.45

7.49

o.ao

4.14

0.111

3.83

o.ao

3.D1

0.111

2.58

0.70
0.75

o.ao

8.81

5.88
4Jl7

xiii
1.036
0.932
0.835
0.748
0.6'3

0.610
0.548
0.472
0.403
0.343

"""

1U6
14.05
12.85
11.39
1G.27
9.31

8.A8

7.77
7.17
8.811

"""

1.0ZT
0.941
0.869
0.Bal

20.41
1Ull
18.98
15.54

0.760
0.720

14.30
13.22
12.28
11.46
10.74

xiii

19.D3
17.25
15All
14.22
12.97

0.693
0.649
0.614
0.585
0.543

11.1G.84
10.12
9.41
8.79

O.B87

8.25
7.78
7.33
8.95
6.50

0.618
0.601
0.581
0.574
0.539

10.10

8.08

7.78
7.44
7.12

0.5/Jll

5.02
4.73

0.504
0.472
0.443
0.416
0.392

8.82

0.565

6.47

0.537

"""

xiii

0.660
0.631

2U9

1.()62
0.976
0.905
o.~

0.798
0.760

1.73
1.55
1.40
1.28
1.17

0.164
0.154
0.146
0.139
0.134

3.66
3.38
3.10
2.97
2.88

0.304
0.279
0.257
0.238
0.225

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.D1

0.126
0.120
0.116
0.112
0.110

2.31
2.D4
1Jl2
1.84
1.50

0.207
0.194
0.184
0.176
0.170

4.22

0.300

5.88

3.80

0.315
0.286
0.261
0.240

5.34

4.89
4JJO
4.18

0.486
0.443
0.405
0.373
0.345

1.80
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00

0.111
0.84

0.107
0.105
0.104
0.103
0.101

1.38
1.27
1.18
1.10
1.D4

0.185
0.161
0.158
0.155
0.152

2.88
2.46
2.14
2.01

0.227
0.220
0.213
0.208
0.2a3

3.66
3.80
3.37
3.18
2.98

0.320
0.298
0.279
0.262
0.247

G.92

0.148
0.145
0.142
0.140
0.138

1.79
1.82
1.47
1.35
1.25

0.196
0.190
0.186
0.182
0.179

2.88

0.229
0.221
0.214
0.209
0.205

o.ao
0.911

1.00

G.88

0.79
0.71
0.64

o.ao
0.47
OM

2.20
2.40

0.83

2.80

0.78

2.80

0.111
G.64

3.00

3.20
3.40
3.80
3.80
4.00

0.111

OM
G.52
G.49
0.45

0.36

5.00
5.00
7.00

G.30

8.00

G.22

10.00

0.17

0.25

0.137
0.136
0.135
0.134
0.133
0.130
0.128
0.126
0.125
0.124

5.89
5.34

3.45
3.15
2.89

2.211

1.18
1.CJI
1.D1
0.911

0.90
0.71

o.sa
G.49
OA3

0.34

2.40
2.19
2.01
1.115

0.595
0.578

9.21

....

8.81

8.11
7JJO

7.24
6.73
8.20
5.74
5.34

3.50

3.17

2.90
2.88
2A8

1.72
1.81
1.51
1A2
1.34

0.202
0.199
0.196
0.194
0.192

2.211

0.164
0.161
0.158
0.157
0.155

1.DB

0.185
0.181
0.178
0.176
0.173

1.40
1.15
0.97
OM

0.73
G.64

o.so

.,..s.o

--

1.022
0.949
0.891

"""
33.25
29.93
27.31
2S.D3
23.04

xiii

21.31
19.80
18.AB
17.31
18.29

0.858
0.819
0.787
0.760
0.738

1.038
0.964
0.905

o.m

18.99
17.83
16.43
15.38

0.705

M.48

0.843
0.806
0.773
0.746
0.724

0.685
0.669
0.642
0.631

13.83
12.90
12.24
11.64
11.10

0.704
0.688
0.6'3
0.661
0.650

15.37
14.55
13.11
13.14
12.53

0.719
0.7'J'J
0.688
0.675
0.664

0.621
0.612
0.604
0.597
0.591

10.S0
10.15
9.74
9.35
9.00

0.640
0.631
0.623
0.616
0.609

11.98
11.41
11.01
10.88
10.18

0.654
0.645
0.631
0.630
0.623

0.579
0.558
0.514
0.476
0.443

8.37

0.598

7.82
7.33
5.91
6.45

0.5119
0.500
0.573
0.535

9.47
8.85
8.31
7.83
7.40

0.612
0.602
0.593
0.596
0.500

0.413
0.386
0.363
0.342
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6.04
5.87
5.34
5.04
4.77

0.501
0.470
0.442
0.418
0.395

7.02
8.83
6.28
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0.574
0.560
0.519
0.491
0.466

0.290
0.263
0.240
0.229
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4.30
3.91
3.58
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23.57
21.50
19.87
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8.82

4.28
3.92
3.64

0.421
0.384
0.352
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0.220
0.216
0.213
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2.50
2.35
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2.82
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0.282
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0.191
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1.22
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0.586
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1.096
0.991
0.901
0.626
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11.32
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0.716
0.676
0.644
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12.49
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0.559
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0.571
0.562
0.555
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4.78

0.542
0.502
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0.347
0.338
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2.75
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0.318
0.309
0.302
0.296
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0.446
0.418
0.393
0.370
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5.81
5.57
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0.522
0.490
0.462
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0.282
0.275
0.270
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3.05
2.78
2.51
2.31
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0.312
0.304
0.297
0.292
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3.78
3.42
3.12
2.97
2.88

0.337
0.327
0.319
0.313

0.227

2.31
2.09
1.91
1.75
1.62

4.50
4.09
3.73
3.43
3.18

0.373
0.346
0.337
0.330
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1.03
0.98
0.80
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0.224
0.222
0.221
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1.41
1.33
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0.258
0.255
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1.75
1.85
1.58

0.283
0.280
0.277
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2.47
2.31
2.17
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0.303
0.299
0.295
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2.98
2.78
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0.319
0.314
0.310

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0.304

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G.52
G.44
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0.213
0.210
0.208
0.206
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0.93
0.77
0.85
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0.242
0.238
0.235
0.233
0.231

1.23
1.01
0.86
0.75
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0.264
0.259
0.255
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1.52
1.25
1,07
0.93
0.74

0.280
0.275
0.271
0.268
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1.82
1.50
1.27
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0.294
0.287
0.283
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0.328
0.310
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0.284
0.275

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4.36
3.99
3.85

0.437
0.396
0.362
0.341
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0.268
0.262
0.257
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3.38
3.14

1.58
1.43
1.30
1.20
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0.242
0.237
0.233

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0.173
0.172
0.171
0.170
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0.33
0.27
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0.20
0.18

0.186
0.164
0.163
0.162
0.160

0.294
0.278
0.265
0.255
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4.215

0.459
0.428
0.400
0.375
0.353

7.15
8.82
6.53
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1.20
1.30
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0.94
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0.74
0.87
0.81

0.147
0.142
0.138
0.135
0.132

2.04

1.81
1.62
1.47
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0.232
0.222
0.214
0.207
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0.129
0.127
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0.198
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0.36
0.34
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0.123
0.122
0.121
0.120
0.119

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0.78
0.69
0.63
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0.183
0.180
0.178
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0.24
0.23
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0.20
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0.118
0.117
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0.54
0.51
0.48
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0.15
0.12
0.10

0.115
0.114
0.113
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20.19
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17.32
18.18
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10.98
10.80
10.08
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3.25
2.97
2.72
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21.97

0.596
0.586
0.581
0.575
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0.179
0.170
0.164
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8.00
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9.72
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1.88
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1.29
1.18
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3.80
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0.765
0.747
0.717
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0.579
0.572
0.564
0.558
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0.556
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0.541
0.512
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0.80
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18.81
18.41
14.37
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1.070
0.976
0.901
0.843

0.578
0.563
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0.530
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0.789
0.732
0.701
0.676
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0.666
0.651
0.638
0.627
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7.88
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8.79
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2.80
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1.056
0.963
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23.88

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14.215
13.411
12.73
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0.455
0.409
0.368
0.336
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1.040
0.948
0.874
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0.654
0.639
0.626
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4.93
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32.73
29.23
211.47

12.85
11.93
11.29
10.71
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11.83
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0.279
0.248
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0.277
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0.425
0.389
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0.194
0.186
0.181
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1.23
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2.82
2.41
2.24
2.08

0.304
0.292
0.282
0.273
0.266

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1.30
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0.73
0.118
0.80

0.166
0.161
0.158
0.155
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1.83
1.83
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1.33
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0.255
0.246
0.240
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0.150
0.149
0.147
0.146
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0.143
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0.80
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0.70
0.75
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1.80
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10.00

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18.33
13.70
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0.562
0.506
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7.84
8.92
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0.538
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0.512
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0.802
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18.12
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12.81
11.89
10.75
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0.695
0.669
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8.63

0.570
0.556
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21.92

19.62
17.53
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0.724
0.689
0.661
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11.58
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0.590
0.576
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8.97
8.68
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0.538
0.531
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8.79

0.420
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0.386
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5.88
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8.82

4.41
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0.486
0.454
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3.77
3.51
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0.396
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2.81
2.37
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0.361
0.354
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2.19
2.03
1.68
1.78
1.85
1.88

0.303
0.298
0.293
0.289
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2.90

0.111

0.226
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0.220
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2.70
2.53
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0.358
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0.343
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0.77
0.70
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0.213
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0.281
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0.138
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0.42
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0.197
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0.78
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4.10
3.72
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15.48
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4.57

5.48
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28.84
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0.677
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0.988
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7.68
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18.93
17.37
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0.696
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0.804
0.590
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0.552
0.546
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0.583
0.556
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9.47
9.05
8.87
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0.520
0.512
0.488
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7.71
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0.433
0.423
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5.80

0.390
0.381
0.374
0.389
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8.71
8.30
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0.600

0.530
0.523
0.517
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4.28

0.483
0.451
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3.83
3.47
3.18
2.93
2.71

0.413
0.404
0.396
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5.13
4.81
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1.72
1.81
1.52
1.43
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0.336
0.333
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2.13
1.98
1.87
1.77
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0.360
0.357
0.354
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2.53
2.37

0.380
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2.23

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2.10
1.98

0.370
0.361

0.254
0.252
0.249
0.246
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0.82
0.87

0.292
0.288
0.285
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1.07

0.319
0.314
0.311
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0.340
0.335
0.331
0.328
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1.57
1.29
1.10
0.98
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0.358
0.352
0.347
0.344
0.340

o.ao
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o.81
0.84

20.78

0.306
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22.94

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13.53
12.81
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11.58
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0.717
0.699
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15.42
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0.739
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8.99
8.60
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0.616
0.580
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10.116
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0.647
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11.59
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0.670
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13.59
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0.361
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10.81
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0.640
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0.80
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1.98
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1.65
1.50
1.37

0.215
0.206
0.199
0.193
0.189

3.81
3.39
3.05
2.78
2.54

0.300
0.287
0.275
0.265
0.257

5.43
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4.42
4.03
3.70

0.386
0.349
0.332
0.318
0.307

6.84

0.486
0.44J
0.405
0.373
0.347

8.03
7.46
6.87
6.35
5.89

0.546
0.530
0.488
0.451
0.419

9.04
8.43
7.80
7.39

0.561
0.552
0.545
0.525
0.489

0.58
0.53
0.50
0.46
0.44

0.121
0.120
0.119
0.117
0.116

1.26
1.17
1.09
1.02
0.95

0.185
0.182
0.179
0.177
0.175

2.34
2.18
2.03
1.80
1.78

0.251
0.245
0.241
0.237
0.233

3.41
3.17
2.96

0.336
0.326
0.318
0.311
0.306

5.49
5.13
4.81
4.51
4.24

0.390
0.365
0.347
0.339
0.331

6.43

2.61

0.298
0.291
0.284
0.279
0.274

5.67
5.35
5.06

0.457
0.429
0.403
0.380
0.359

0.39
0.35
0.32
0.29
0.27

0.115
0.114
0.113
0.112
0.111

0.85
0.70
0.64
0.59

0.171
0.169
0.167
0.165
0.164

1.60
1.44
1.31
1.21
1.12

0.228
0.223
0.220
0.217
0.214

2.33
2.11
1.92
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1.64

0.266
0.260
0.255
0.251
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2.53
2.33
2.15

0.296
0.288
0.282
0.277
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3.80
3.44
3.14
2.88
2.67

0.320
0.311
0.304
0.298
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3.74
3.44
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0.340
0.3JIJ
0.322
0.315
0.310

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0.23
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0.55
0.52
0.48
0.46
0.43

0.162
0.161
0.160
0.160
0.159

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0.97
0.91
0.86
0.81

0.212
0.210
0.209
0.208
0.206

1.52
1.42
1.34
1.26
1.19

0.245
0.243
0.241
0.239
0.237

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1.87
1.76
1.86
1.57

0.270
0.267
0.264
0.262
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2.48
2.32
2.18
2.06
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0.289
0.286
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0.280
0.277

2.97

2.61
2.46
2.32

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0.301
0.298
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0.34
0.28
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0.21
0.16

0.156
0.155
0.153
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0.64
0.53

0.202
0.199
0.197
0.196
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0.94

0.231
0.227
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1.23
1.01
0.86
0.75
0.60

0.252
0.248
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1.53
1.26
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0.269
0.264
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1.83
1.50
1.28
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0.88

0.283
0.277
0.273
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0.266

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3.42
2.85
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0.226
0.203
0.186
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0.86
0.76
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0.620
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0.271
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1.68
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0.53
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0.139
0.137
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0.35
0.32
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0.10
0.15
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0.871
0.794
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0.35
0.40
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12.67
11.63
10.74
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0.649
0.619
0.595
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0.511
0.471
0.441
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8.72
8.21
7.75
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5.04
4.65
4.31
4.01
3.74

0.396
0.379
0.385
0.353
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0.237
0.230
0.224
0.219
0.215

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2.96
2.67
2.43
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0.94
0.89

0.211
0.209
0.206
0.204
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0.134
0.133
0.132
0.131
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0.79
0.72
0.66
0.60
0.56

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0.895
0.819
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15.97
14.60
13.44
12.44
11.57

0.703
0.657
0.638
0.615
0.596

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16.50
15.21
14.10
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0.716
0.681
0.652
0.629
0.610

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18.39
16.97
15.75
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0.726
0.691
0.663
0.640
0.621

0.558
0.544
0.532
0.522
0.513

10.82
10.16
9.57
9.05
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0.579
0.566
0.554
0.544
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11.56
10.90
10.31
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0.594
0.581
0.569
0.559
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13.76
12.94
12.21
11.56
10.97

0.605
0.592
0.580
0.570
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6.91
6.45
6.00
5.61
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0.491
0.462
0.443
0.428
0.414

8.16
7.43
7.09
6.72

0.527
0.520
0.514
0.504
0.477

9.31
8.88
8.49
8.13
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0.542
0.535
0.529
0.524
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10.45
9.97
9.53
9.13
8.76

0.554
0.547
0.541
0.535
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0.326
0.314
0.304
0.296
0.289

4.66
4.18
3.79
3.46
3.18

0.392
0.375
0.362
0.351
0.342

5.99
5.39
4.89
4.48
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0.446
0.425
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0.395
0.384

7.21
6.59
5.99
5.48
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0.510
0.468
0.448
0.432
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8.10
7.54
7.03
6.49
5.99

0.521
0.514
0.499
0.464
0.450

2.111
1.92
1.80
1.69
1.59

0.284
0.279
0.276
0.272
0.269

2.95
2.74
2.57
2.41
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0.335
0.329
0.324
0.319
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3.82
3.56
3.33
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0.375
0.368
0.361
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4.69
4.37
4.09
3.84
3.62

0.409
0.400
0.392
0.385
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5.55
5.18
4.55
4.30

0.437
0.427
0.418
0.411
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0.199
0.197
0.195
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0.192

1.42
1.29
1.18
1.08
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0.264
0.260
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1.84
1.68
1.55
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0.309
0.303
0.299
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2.64
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0.370
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0.52
0.46
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0.191
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0.87
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0.290
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1.74
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0.320
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2.14
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0.344
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2.55
2.38
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0.363
0.360
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0.16
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0.125
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0.32
0.26
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0.185
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0.241
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0.83
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9.77
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11.90
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14.77
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0.56
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4.26
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0.126
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19.93
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1.20
1.30
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1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
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5.00
8.00
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8.00
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3.92
3.60
3.32
3.07
2.67
2.35

2.10
1.89
1.71
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1.034
0.951
0.880
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17.40

1.074
0.992
0.922
0.864

30.49
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0.953
0.895

5.78
5.21
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22.42
20.87
19.51
18.30
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23.29
21.20
19.31
17.60
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0.808
0.775
0.747
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0.977
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19.72
17.86
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26.18
24.18

1.035
0.933
0.836
0.749
0.672

0.30
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31.44
28.98
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17.56
15.77
14.06
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0.10
0.15
0.20
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25.42

34.09
30.99
28.44

2.83

2.67

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0.15
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0.40
0.411
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0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
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1.103
1.004
0.917
0.844
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26.58
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21.85
19.88
18.16

0.587
0.508
0.429
0.358
0.297

11.47
10.39
9.47
8.51
7.56

0.665
0.620
0.583
0.529
0.470

14.17
12.99
11.98
11.11
10.35

0.732
0.691
0.657
0.629
0.606

0.247
0.209
0.183
0.163
0.149

6.72

0.418
0.372
0.332
0.298
0.266

9.68
9.05
8.34
7.70
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0.586
0.563
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0.479
0.443

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9.49
8.16
6.89
5.76
4.76
3.97
3.30
2.37
2.05

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23.02
20.87
18.88
17.10
15.53

5.98
5.34
4.76
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19.58
17.65
15.84
14.19
12.73

17.49
15.86
13.91
12.27
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xlh
1.060
0.960
0.868
0.789
0.721

xlh
1.027
0.922
0.823
0.733
0.654

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1.037
0.951
0.879
0.820

30.12
27.22
24.79
22.62
20.71

16.65
15.35
14.23
13.24
12.38

0.771
0.732
0.699
0.672
0.649

19.06
17.62
16.37
15.28
14.32

11.63
10.95
10.35
9.82
9.33

0.630
0.613
0.599
0.586
0.575

8.79
8.26

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1.062
0.976
0.90.5
0.846

33.67
30.37
27.70
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1.012
0.940
0.882

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37.23
33.53
30.61
28.02
25.75

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23.24

1.063
0.996
0.924
0.866

0.798
0.760
0.727
0.701
0.678

21.43
19.85
18.47
17.26
16.20

0.819
0.780
0.748
0.721
0.699

23.n
22.05
20.54
19.22
18.05

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0.796
0.764
0.7;fl
0.715

13.47
12.71
12.03
11.42
10.87

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0.642
0.628
0.615
0.604

15.26
14.42
13.66
12.98
12.37

0.680
0.663
0.649
0.636
0.625

17.02
16.09
15.26
14.51
13.83

0.696
0.679
0.665
0.652
0.641

7.33
6.92

0.547
0.514
0.483
0.456
0.430

10.37
9.92
9.50
9.09
8.63

0.595
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0.578
0.565
0.537

11.80
11.29
10.82
10.39
9.99

0.615
0.607
0.599
0.592
0.585

13.21
12.84
12.12
11.84
11.20

0.631
0.622
0.614
0.607
0.601

0.90
0.85
0.90
G.95
1.00

1.81
1.61
1.411
1.33
1.22

0.138
0.130
0.124
0.119
0.114

3.91
3.55
3.23
2.97
2.74

0.243
0.224
0.211
0.200
0.191

6.60
6.13
5.71
5.34
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0.411
0.381
0.355
0.332
0.311

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.04
0.91
0.81

0.108
0.103
0.10.0

2.37
2.08
1.86
1.68
1.53

0.177
0.167
0.159
0.153
0.148

4.42
3.95
3.55
3.21
2.93

0.275
0.246
0.226
0.215
0.206

6.20
5.60
5.09
4.66
4.29

0.386
0.348
0.317
0.290
0.267

7.ll2
7.12
6.52
5.99
5.54

0.486
0.443
0.4()5
0.373
0.345

9.28
8.52
7.85
7.25
6.73

0.574
0.530
0.488
0.451
0.419

10.41
9.72
9.10
8.45
7.87

0.589
0.580
0.566
0.525
0.489

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
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1.40
1.29
1.20
1.12
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0.144
0.141
0.139
0.136
0.134

2.69
2.49
2.32
2.17
2.03

0.199
0.193
0.189
0.184
0.181

3.96
3.68
3.43
3.20
3.01

0.247
0.231
0.224
0.218
0.213

5.14
4.90
4.49
4.22
3.97

0.320
0.298
0.279
0.262
0.247

6.27

7.35

5.86
5.50
5.18
4.89

0.390
0.365
0.342
0.322
0.304

6.48
6.11
5.76

0.457
0.429
0.403
0.380
0.35S

2.20

1.81
1.63
1.48
1.36
1.26

0.175
0.170
0.167
0.164
0.161

2.68
2.42
2.20
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0.205
0.199
0.194
0.190
0.186

3.55
3.20
2.91
2.67
2.47

0.229
0.221
0.214
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0.205

4.39
3.98
3.63
3.33
3.08

0.273
0.247
0.231
0.225
0.220

5.20
4.72
4.32
3.98
3.69

0.323
0.294
0.269
0.248
0.232

6.89

2.40

0.94
0.84

2.60

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2.80
3.00

0.70
0.65

0.131
0.129
0.126
0.125
0.123

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
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0.60
0.56
0.53
0.50
0.47

0.122
0.121
0.120
0.120
0.119

1.17
1.09
1.02
0.96
0.91

0.159
0.158
0.156
0.155
0.154

1.73
1.62
1.52
1.43
1.35

0.184
0.181
0.179
0.177
0.176

2.30
2.14
2.01
1.89
1.79

0.202
0.199
0.196
0.194
0.192

2.86
2.67
2.51
2.36
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0.216
0.212
0.209
0.207
0.204

3.43
3.20
3.00
2..83
2.67

0.227
0.224
0.220
0.217
0.215

5.00

0.37
0.30

0.116
0.115
0.114
0.113
0.112

0.71
0.59
0.50
0.43
0.34

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0.147
0.145
0.144
0.142

1.06
0.87
o.74
0.64
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0.170
0.166
0.164
0.162
0.160

1.40
1.15
0.98
0.85
0.67

0.185
0.181
0.178
0.176
0.173

1.75
1.44
1.22
1.o&
0.84

0.196
0.191
0.188
0.186
0.182

2.09
1.72
1.46
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0.206
0.200
0.196
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6.00
7.00
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0.22
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0.740
0.710
0.685
0.664

0.565

14.17
13.35
12.62
11.96
11.37

0.633
0.618
0.605
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15.79
14.89
14.09
13.36
12.71

0.647
0.632
0.619
0.607
0.597

9.53
9.10
8.70
8.23
7.80

0.556
0.548
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0.512
0.485

10.84
10.35
9.91
9.50
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0.574
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0.559
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12.12
11.58
11.09
10.53
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0.588

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8.39
7.66
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0.522
0.476
0.437
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0.373

9.47
8.83
8.17
7.56
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0.551
0.543
0.508
0.470
0.437

6.55
6.13
5.75

4.27

0.348
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0.330
0.322
0.316

0.407
0.381
0.358
0.345
0.337

1.078
0.974
0.883
0.806
0.743

26.17
23.63
21.29
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1.104
0.999
0.909
0.834
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29.65
26.70
24.10
21.81
19.82

1.019
0.928
0.854
0.795

0.30
0.35
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0.45
0.50

9.20
7.89
6.60

0.566
0.491
0.411
0.340
0.283

11.01
9.91
8.99
8.02
7.07

0.635
0.589
0.552
0.499
0.440

13.53
12.33
11.31
10.44
9.69

0.692
0.651
0.618
0.591
0.5611

15.86
14.53
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11.57

0.725

0.629
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18.12
16.65
15.39
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0.748
0.710
0.679
0.654
0.632

6.24
5.50

0.388
0.344
0.312
0.287
0.267

9.03
8.37
7.68
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0.550
0.521
0.477
0.438
0.403

10.82
10.17
9.59
9.07
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0.589
0.574
0.560
0.549
0.533

12.52
11.78
11.13
10.54
10.01

0.615
0.599
0.586

5.99
5.54
5.11
4.74
4.41

0.372
0.346
0.329
0.315
0.303

8.01
7.50
7.04
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0.498
0.466
0.438
0.411
0.387

1.048
0.956
0.882
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0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75

3.60
2.99
2.17
1.90

0.241
0.211
0.189
0.173
0.162

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
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1.69
1.52
1.37
1.26
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0.153
0.146
0.141
0.137
0.133

3.44
3.13
2.86
2.44

0.251
0.238
0.228
0.219
0.212

1.10
1.20
1.30
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1.50

1.00
0.88
0.78
0.71
0.65

0.127
0.123
0.120
0.118
0.116

2.12
1.88
1.68
1.52
1.39

0.201
0.193
0.186
0.181
0.177

3.87
3.44
3.09
2.81
2.57

0.284
0.270
0.258
0.250
0.243

5.55
4.96
4.47
4.07
3.73

0.347
0.328
0.312

0.300

7.03
6.38
5.82
5.32

0.290

4.88

0.437
0.396
0.362
0.341
0.328

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
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0.59
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0.51
0.45

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0.113
0.112
0.110
0.110

1.28
1.19
1.10
1.03
0.97

0.174
0.171
0.169
0.167
0.165

2.37
2.20
2.05
1.92
1.81

0.237
0.232
0.228
0.224
0.221

3.44
3.20
2.98
2.79
2.63

0.282
0.275
0.269
0.264
0.260

4.51
4.19
3.91
3.66
3.45

0.318
0.309
0.302
0.296
0.291

2.20
2.40

0.108
0.107
0.108
0.105
0.105

0.87
0.78
0.71
0.65
0.60

0.162
0.160
0.158
0.156
0.155

1.61
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1.33
1.22
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0.216
0.212
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2.35
2.12
1.94
1.78
1.65

0.253
0.248
0.243
0.240
0.237

3.08
2.79
2.54
2.34
2.16

0.282
0.275
0.270
0.265
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3.82
3.45
3.15
2.90
2.68

0.305
0.297
0.291
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4.55

3.00

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0.36
0.33
0.30
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3.20
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3.60
3.80
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0.26
0.24
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0.104
0.104
0.103
0.103
0.103

0.56
0.52
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0.154
0.153
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1.05
0.98
0.92
0.87
0.82

0.202
0.199
0.198
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1.53
1.43
1.35
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0.234
0.232
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1.88
1.77
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0.258
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0.277
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2.98
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0.293
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0.101
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0.34
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0.148
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0.64
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0.94
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1.24
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0.242
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1.54
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0.259
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1.83
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0.273
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2.60
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20.34
18.73
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19.45
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0.655

38.65
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17.43
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0.870
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33.15
29.77
26.91
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5.99
5.57
5.18
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5.09
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3.78
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0.325
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17.39
15.49
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1.013
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0.799
0.702
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19.35
17.27
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1.030
0.921
0.821
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22.63
20.24
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1.054
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25.92
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20.70
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1.073
0.961
0.865
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29.22
26.16
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0.742

32.53
29.13
26.04
23.35
21.07

1.103
0.985
0.889
0.813
0.754

35.90
32.09
28.70
25.77
23.28

ps4.0

p=S.O

p=6.0

,.,,

--
0994
0.897
0.822
0.764

0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50

8.90
7.61
6.23
5.03
4.07

0.544
0.473
0.394
0.329
0.278

10.54
9.41
8.47
7.50
8.46

0.602
0.556
0.520
0.467
0.414

12.84
11.62
10.59
9.73
8.99

0.650
0.610
0.578
0.552
0.531

14.99
13.84
12.50
11.53
10.69

o.6n
0.639
0.609
0.585
0.564

17.08
15.59
14.33
13.25
12.32

0.895
0.659
0.629
0.606
0.586

19.14
17.51
16.12
14.93
13.90

0.709
0.673
0.644
0.621
0.602

21.18
19.40
17.89
16.59
15.46

0.719
0.683
0.655
0.632
0.613

0.1!6
0.80
0.65
0.70
0.75

3.34
2.79
2.38
2.07
1.83

0.242
0.217
0.198
0.185
0.175

5.59

3.80
3.41

0.371
0.338
0.312
0.292
0.276

8.35
7.64
6.90
6.24
5.68

0.513
0.475
0.440
0.412
0.390

9.97
9.34
8.78
8.28
7.72

0.548
0.534
0.522
0.511
0.480

11.51
10.79
10.17
9.61
9.10

0.570
0.556
0.544
0.534
0.525

13.00
12.21
11.51
10.89
10.33

0.585
0.572
0.560
0.550
0.541

14.47
13.80
12.83
12.14
11.53

0.597
0.584
0.572
0.562
0.553

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

1.63
1.47
1.34
1.24
1.14

0.168
0.162
0.157
0.153
0.150

3.o9
2.62
2.59
2.39
2.22

0.264
0.254
0.245
0.238
0.232

5.19
4.78
4.42
4.11
3.84

0.371
0.356
0.343
0.332
0.322

7.14
6.61
6.14
5.73
5.36

0.453
0.433
0.416
0.402
0.389

8.65
8.24
7.77
7.31
6.86

0.517
0.510
0.483
0.460
0.445

9.82
9.36
8.94
8.56
8.21

0.533
0.526
0.520
0.515
0.509

10.97
10.46
10.00
9.57
9.19

0.545
0.538
0.532
0.527
0.522

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

0.99
0.88
0.79
0.71
0.65

0.145
0.141
0.138
0.135
0.134

1.95
1.73
1.56
1.41
1.30

0.223
0.216
0.210
0.206
0.202

3.38
3.02
2.73
2.49
2.28

0.307
0.296
0.287
0.279
0.274

4.75
4.26
3.65
3.52
3.24

0.369
0.354
0.342
0.332
0.324

6.09
5.47
4.96
4.54
4.18

0.420
0.401
0.386
0.374
0.364

7.42
6.68
6.06
5.55
5.11

0.464
0.442
0.424
0.410
0.398

8.50
7.83
7.16
6.56
6.04

0.513
0.487
0.457
0.441
0.427

1.80
1.70
1.80
1.90

0.60
0.55
0.52
0.48
0.45

0.132
0.131
0.129
0.128
0.128

1.20
1.11
1.Gl
0.97
0.91

0.199
0.197
0.195
0.193
0.191

2.11
1.96
1.83
1.72
1.62

0.269
0.265
0.261
0.258
0.255

2.99
2.79
2.60
2.44
2.30

0.318
0.312
0.307
0.303
0.299

3.87
3.80
3.37
3.16
2.96

0.356
0.349
0.343
0.338
0.334

4.74
4.41
4.13
3.88
3.66

0.388
0.380
0.373
0.367
0.362

5.60
5.22
4.89
4.59
4.33

0.416
0.407
0.399
0.392
0.386

3.00

0.40
0.36
0.33
0.30
G.28

0.125
0.122
0.120
0.118
0.117

0.82
0.74
0.67
0.62
0.57

0.188
0.186
0.184
0.183
0.182

1.45
1.31
1.20
1.10
1.02

0.251
0.247
0.244
0.242
0.240

2.0S
1.87
1.71
1.57
1.46

0.293
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0.285
0.282
0.279

2.67
2.42
2.21
2.04
1.89

0.326
0.321
0.316
0.312
0.309

3.28
2.97
2.72
2.51
2.32

0.353
0.347
0.341
0.336
0.333

3.89
3.53
3.22
2.97
2.75

0.376
0.368
0.362
0.357
0.353

3.20
3.40
3.80
3.80
4.00

0.26
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.20

0.116
0.115
0.114
0.113
0.112

0.53
0.47
0.44
0.42

0.181
0.180
0.179
0.178
0.178

0.95
0.89
0.84
0.79
0.74

0.238
0.237
0.235
0.234
0.233

1.36
1.27
1.19
1.13
1.07

o.2n
0.275
0.273
0.271
0.270

1.76
1.65
1.1!6
1.46
1.38

0.306
0.303
0.301
0.299
0.298

2.16
2.03
1.90
1.80
1.70

0.329
0.326
0.324
0.322
0.320

2.57
2.40
2.26
2.13
2.02

0.349
0.346
0.343
0.340
0.338

5.00
8.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

0.16
0.13
0.11
0.10

0.109
0.108
0.106
0.105
0.104

0.33
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.16

0.175
0.174
0.173
0.172
0.171

0.59
0.48
0.41
0.36
0.28

0.229
0.227
0.225
0.224
0.222

0.84
0.69
0.59
0.51
0.41

0.265
0.262
0.260
0.258
0.256

1.09
0.90
0.77
0.67
0.53

0.292
0.288
0.285
0.283
0.281

1.34
1.11
0.94
0.82
0.65

0.313
0.306
0.305
0.303
0.300

1.59
1.31
1.12
0.97
0.77

0.330
0.325
0.322
0.319
0.316

2.00
2.20

2.40
2.60
2.80

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4.87
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25.30

15.83
13.83
12.20

1.032
0.928
0.831
0.742
0.6'14

1.069
0.972
0.883
0.IKJ5
0.739

0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50

10.74
9.18
7.75
6.48
5.38

0.593
0.508
0.429
0.358
0.297

12.99
11.81
10.75
9.57
8.51

0.683
0.637
0.594
0.529
0.470

15.93
14.66
13.56
12.61
11.77

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75

4.47
3.73
3.15
2.70
2.34

0.247
0.206
0.174
0.149

7.56
6.73
6.01
5.39
4.85

0.418
0.372
0.332
0.298
0.268

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

2.05
1.81

0.114
0.104

4.40
4.00
3.66
3.37
3.12

0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

17.541

0.129

2.70
2.37
2.11
1.90
1.72

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21.74
19.66
17.71
15.94
14.38

Nobh
19.57

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32.5
29.58
27.09
24.86

Nobh
36.10
32.82
30.11
27.70
25.58

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20.19

22.89

1.092
1.010
0.940
0.883

0.716
0.681
0.652
0.628

18.80
17.21
16.00
14.94
14.00

O.lm
0.763
0.729
0.701
0.677

21.16
19.65
18.31
17.14
16.10

0.835
0.795
0.762
0.734
0.710

23.67
22.02
20.56
19.28
18.14

0.859
0.819
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11.03
10.19
9.39
8.66
8.01

0.607
0.563
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0.479
0.443

13.17
12.43
11.77
11.18
10.54

0.656
0.639
0.623

0.689
0.672

17.12
16.21
15.39
14.64
13.97

0.714
0.696

0.583

15.18
14.35
13.61
12.94
12.34

0.243
0.221
0.203

7.43
6.90

0.186

9.89
9.29
8.74
8.24
7.78

0.547
0.514
0.483
0.456
0.430

11.78
11.28
10.78
10.22
9.71

0.620
0.611
0.596
0.565

0.172

6.01
5.63

0.411
0.381
0.355
0.332
0.311

0.149

4.97

0.131
0.117
0.110
0.105

4.44

0.275
0.246
0.221
0.201
0.184

6.98
6.30
5.73
5.24
4.82

0.386
0.348
0.317
0.290
0.267

8.79
8.01
7.33
6.74
6.23

20.94
19.05
17.39

6.43

4.00
3.63
3.32

0.758

24.04

22.00

0.610

22.77
21.38
20.13

o.m
0.753

14.89
14.27
13.70
13.17
12.68

0.663
0.653
0.644
0.6:11
0.629

0.48';
0.443
0.405
0.373
0.345

1Q.46
9.59

0.578

8.83

0.488
0.451
0.419

11.81
11.05
10.24
9.50
8.85

0.617
0.606
0.566
0.525
0.489

7.06
6.60
6.19
5.50

0.390
0.365
0.342
0.322
0.304

8.27
7.75
7.29
6.87
6.50

0.457
0.429
0.403
0.380
0.359

4.94
4.47
4.09
3.76
3.48

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0.247
0.226
0.208
0.192

5.85
5.31
4.86
4.15

0.323
0.294
0.269
0.248
0.229

0.179

0.214
0.200
0.187
0.177
0.167
0.131
0.115
0.112
0.110
0.107

0.537

8.16
7.57

5.79
5.40
5.05
4.74
4.47

0.320
0.298
0.279
0.262
0.247

2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00

2.05
1.85
1.68
1.53
1.41

0.115
0.111
0.107
0.104
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3.04
2.74
2.50
2.29
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0.168
0.152
0.138
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4.00
3.62
3.30
3.03
2.80

0.221
0.200

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00

1.31

0.100

1.96
1.83
1.71
1.61
1.52

0.114
0.112
0.110

2.60
2.43
2.28
2.15
2.03

0.144
0.134
0.126
0.119
0.115

3.24
3.02

1.19

0.102

1.58
1.30
1.10
0.95

0.109
0.106
0.103
0.102

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

24.38

0.644
0.835
0.626
0.618
0.611

0.247
0.229
0.214
0.200
0.188

0.108

0.878
0.838
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0.983
0.926

13.35
12.79
12.27
11.80
11.35

4.14
3.87
3.62
3.41

0.107

26.15

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0.655

0.656
0.643
0.631

4.46

0.100

0.758
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0.733
0.715
0.699
0.686
0.674

0.169
0.157
0.146
0.136
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1.57

1.034
0.964
0.906

Nobh
39.70
36.09
33.12
30.50
28.19

19.02
18.02
17.12
16.31
15.57

3.06
2.83
2.64
2.46
2.31

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
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0.980
0.910
0.851

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0.940
0.869
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28.90
26.31

0.182
0.168
0.155

5.83

0.681

0.530

4.46

2.84

0.167
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2.67
2.53

0.148
0.140

3.86
3.61
3.39
3.20
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1.96
1.62
1.37
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23.48
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32.10
29.04
28A2
24.08
22.03

0.721
0.679
0.645
0.616
0.593

17.82
16.40
15.18
14.12
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0.760
0.720
0.687
0.660
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20.25
18.70
17.35
16.18
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0.788
0.748
0.716
0.689
0.666

10.38
9.51
8.72
8.01
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0.513
0.526
0.482
0.443
0.408

12.37
11.64
11.00
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0.618
0.601
0.587
0.574
0.539

14.24
13.43
12.71
12.06
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0.224
0.209
0.197
0.187
0.179

6.82
6.31
5.86
5.48
5.10

0.377
0.349
0.324
0.302
0.282

9.11
8.54
8.01
7.53
7.10

0.504
0.472
0.443
0.416
0.392

2.39
2.10
1.88
1.69
1.54

0.166
0.157
0.150
0.144
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4.50
3.99
3.57
3.23
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0.249
0.226
0.213
0.203
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6.34
5.70
5.17
4.72
4.33

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
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1.30
1.21
1.13
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0.137
0.134
0.131
0.129
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2.71
2.51
2.33
2.18
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0.189
0.184
0.179
0.175
0.172

2.20
2.60
2.80
3.00

0.94
0.85
0.77
0.71
0.65

0.125
0.122
0.120
0.119
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1.82
1.64
1.49
1.37
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3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00

0.61
0.57
0.53
0.50
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0.117
0.116
0.115
0.114
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6.00
7.00
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0.37
0.30
0.26
0.22
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0.111
0.110
0.109
0.108
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1.072
0.985
0.914
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39.21
35.35
32.28
29.50
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22.63
20.94
19A7
18.19
17.05

0.f1J8
0.769
0.737
0.711
0.688

24.98
23.16
21.56
20.16
18.92

0.824
0.786
0.754
0.727
0.705

0.647
0.631
0.616
0.604
0.593

16.05
15.16
14.36
13.64
12.98

0.669
0.652
0.638
0.625
0.614

17.83
16.85
15.97
15.18
14.46

0.685
0.669
0.655
0.642
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10.94
10.45
9.90
9.37
8.88

0.583
0.574
0.547
0.518
0.491

12.39
11.85
11.35
10.90
10.48

0.605
0.596
0.588
0.581
0.574

13.81
13.21
12.67
12.16
11.70

0.621
0.612
0.604
0.597
0.591

0.350
0.315
0.286
0.261
0.240

6.G1
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6.63
6.09
5.62

0.443
0.402
0.367
0.336
0.310

9.51i
8.72
8.G1
7.38
6.84

0.528
0.482
0.443
0.408
0.378

10.87
10.09
9.31
8.62
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0.579
0.558
0.514
0.476
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3.99
3.70
3.44
3.22
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0.227
0.220
0.213
0.208
0.203

5.21
4.85
4.53
4.25
3.99

0.288
0.268
0.250
0.235
0.228

6.36
5.94
5.56
5.23
4.93

0.351
0.328
0.307
0.289
0.273

7A7
6.99
6.58
6.18
5.84

0.413
0.386
0.363
0.342
0.323

0.167
0.163
0.159
0.157
0.154

2.69
2A2
2.21
2.02
1.87

0.196
0.190
0.186
0.182
0.179

3.58
3.21
2.92
2.68
2.48

0.219
0.212
0.206
0.201
0.197

4A2
3.99
3.64
3.34
3.08

0.244
0.229
0.222
0.217
0.212

5.24
4.76
4.35
3.99
3.69

0.290
0.263
0.240
0.240
0.224

1.17
1.10
1.G3
0.97
0.91

0.153
0.151
0.150
0.148
0.147

1.74
1.62
1.52
1.43
1.35

0.176
0.174
0.172
0.171
0.169

2.30

2.15
2.02
1.90
1.79

0.194
0.191
0.189
0.187
0.185

2.87
2.68
2.51
2.36
2.23

0.206
0.205
0.202
0.200
0.198

3.43
3.20
3.00
2.83
2.67

0.220
0.216
0.213
0.210
0.206

0.72
0.59
0.50
0.43
0.34

0.143
0.141
0.139
0.138
0.137

1.06
0.87
0.74
0.64
0.51

0.164
0.161
0.158
0.157
0.155

1A1
1.15
0.98
0.85
0.67

0.179
0.175
0.172
0.170
0.168

1.75
1.44
1.22
1.06
0.84

0.190
0.186
0.183
0.160
0.177

2.09
1.72
1.46
1.'Zl
1.01

0.200
0.195
0.191
0.189
0.185

0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25

19.50
17.45
15.48
13.63
11.94

1.024
0.919
0.819
0.727
0.646

21.511
19.45
17.43
15.58
13.94

1.055
0.954
0.861
0.760
0.711

25.04
22.68
20.49
18.53
16.79

1.094
0.996
0.908
0.834

0.30
0.35
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0.45
0.50

10A7
8.92
7A7
6.18
5.07

0.518
0.493
0.413
0.341
0.260

12.53
11.32
10.28
9.09
8.02

0.654
0.608
0.568
0.502
0.443

15.29
14.00
12.89
11.93
11.10

0.58
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75

4.16
3A1
2.85
2A2
2.10

0.231
0.195
0.170
0.152
0.139

7.08
6.26
5.51i
4.95
4.44

0.391
0.346
0.307
0.274
0.245

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.9!5
1.00

1.84
1.64
1.48
1.35
1.23

0.129
0.121
0.116
0.111
0.107

3.99
3.61
3.28
3.01
2.77

1.10
1.20
1.30
1AO
1.50

1.o&

0.101

2AO

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28.Sli

1.027
0.941
0.869

35.86

1.051
0.966
0.894
0.835

32.20

29.34

26.80

1.089
1.002
0.930
0.872

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0.935
0.862
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21.49
19.78
18.30
17.02
15.90

0.755
0.718
0.687
0.662
0.641

23.71
21.85
2G.24
18.85
17.83

0.789
0.732
0.701
0.676
0.655

0.604
0.589
0.576
0.564
0.554

14.91
14.04
13.27
12.57
11.95

0.623
0.608
0.595
0.584
0.574

16.55
15.80
14.75
13.99
13.30

0.638
0.623
0.610
0.598
0.588

10.06
9.54
8.98
8A7
8.D1

0.546
0.527
0.497
0.468
0.443

11.36
10.87
10.39
9.96
9.51

0.565
0.557
0.550
0.544
0.525

12.88
12.11
11.59
11.11
10.67

0.579
0.572
0.564
0.558
0.552

0.328
0.310
0.296
0.284
0.275

7.19
6.50
5.88
5.36
4.92

0.397
0.359
0.337
0.323
0.312

8.60
7.82
7.16
6.58
6.06

0.475
0.433
0.396
0.364
0.343

9.89
9.07
8.34
7.70
7.13

0.542
0.502
0.461
0.425
0.394

3A7
3.22
3.01
2.82
2.65

0.268
0.262
0.252
0.248

4.54
4.22
3.93
3.69
3.47

0.303
0.295
0.288
0.283
0.278

5.80
5.21
4.88
4.56
4.29

0.332
0.323
0.315
0.308
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6.64
6.19
5.78
6.43
5.11

0.367
0.347
0.338
0.330
0.323

0.206
0.202
0.199
0.197
0.195

2.37
2.14
1.95
1.79
1.66

0.242
0.237
0.233
0.230
0.227

3.10
2.80
2.56
2.35
2.18

0.270
0.264
0.259
0.254
0.251

3.84
3A7
3.17
2.91
2.69

0.293
0.285
0.280
0.275
0.271

4.57
4.13
3.77
3A7
3.21

0.312
0.304
0.297
0.292
0.287

1.06
0.99
0.93
0.88
0.83

0.193
0.192
0.190
0.189
0.188

1.54
1.44
1.35
1.28
1.21

0.224
0.222
0.221
0.219
0.218

2.03
1.89
1.78
1.68
1.58

0.248
0.246
0.243
0.242
0.240

2.51
2.34
2.20
2.07
1.96

0.267
0.264
0.262
0.259
0.257

2.99
2.79
2.62
2.34

0.283
0.280
0.277
0.274
0.272

0.65
0.54
OAS
0.40
0.31

0.185
0.182
0.181
0.179
0.178

0.95
0.78
0.66
0.58
0.46

0.213
0.210
0.208
0.206
0.204

1.25
1.03
0.87
0.78
0.80

0.234
0.230
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0.225
0.223

1.54
1.27
1.08
0.94
0.74

0.250
0.246
0.243
0.241
0.238

1.84
1.51
1.29
1.12
0.89

0.264
0.259
0.255
0.253
0.249

1.071
0.967
0.876
0.798
0734

14.62
13.30
12.18
11.22
10.40

0.682
0641
0.607
0.500
0.557

0.363
0.323
0.292
0.269
0.250

9.85
8.79
8.01
7.33
6.71

3.53
3.20
2.92
2.69
2.49

0.235
0.224
0.214
0.206
0.200

0.120
0.116
0.114
0.111
0.109

2.16
1.91
1.71
1.55
1.41

0.61
0.56
0.52
0.49
0.46

0.108
0.107
0.106
0.105
0.104

0.41
0.37
0.33

0.103
0.101
0.101

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1.096
0.991
0.901
0.826
0.765

Nlbh
31.6
28.50
25.71
23.24
21.10

1.010
0.920
0.840
0.786

35.10
31.57
28.52
25.83
23.50

16.98
15.54
14.30
13.24
12.32

0.716
0.676
0.644
0.618
0.598

19.26
17.88
16.33
15.16
14.14

0.739
0.700
0.669
0.644
0.622

0.534
0.486
0.443
0.405
0.371

11.52
10.82
10.19
9.58
8.91

0.578
0.553
0.549
0.530
0.492

13.24
12.46
11.78
11.13
10.57

6.16
5.64
5.20
4.82
4.46

0.344
0.325
0.309
0.296
0.285

8.29
7.74
7.24
6.79
6.38

0.459
0.428
0.400
0.375
0.353

0.190
0.182
0.176
0.172
0.168

3.92
3.49
3.13
2.84
2.60

0.268
0.255
0.245
0.237
0.230

5.62
5.D1
4.52
4.11
3.77

1.30
1.20
1.12
1.05
0.99

0.165
0.162
0.160
0.158
0.157

2.40

2.22
2.07
1.94
1.82

0.225
0.220
0.217
0.213
0.211

0.88
0.79
0.72
0.66
0.61

0.154
0.152
0.150
0.149
0.148

1.83
1.47
1.34
1.23
1.14

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00

0.57
0.53
0.50
0.44

0.147
0.146
0.145
0.144
0.144

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

0.35
0.29
0.24
0.21
0.17

0.141
0.140
0.139
0.138
0.137

1.041
0.936
0.840
0.755
0.683

12.05
10.81
9.78
8.57
7.50

0.625
0.578
0.540
0.474
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0.227
0.198
0.177
0.162
0.152

6.56
5.71
4.99
4.40
3.92

1.74
1.58
1.41
1.29
1.19

0.144
0.137
0.133
0.129
0.125

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.02
0.90
0.80
0.72
0.66

1.80
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.20
2.40

1.018
0.910
0.608
0.713
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10.16
8.64
7.16
5.83
4.88

0.558
0.477
0.396
0.325
0.289

0.55
0.80
0.65
0.70
0.76

3.78
3.11
2.62
2.25
1.96

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.46
0.50

2.80
2.80
3.00

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Nlbh
38.80
34.64
31.32
28.AO
25.88

Nlbh
28.18
25.43
22.89
20.83
18.66

Nlbh
24.83
22.35
20.05
17.97
16.17

Nlbh
21.46
19.25
17.14
15.22
13.51

Nlbh
19.44
17.36
15.34
13.43
11.88

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0.257

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1.040
0.948
0.874
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0.883
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0.688
0.651
0.621
0.597
0.578

20.24
18.50
17.02
15.75
14.65

0.702
0.665
0.637
0.613
0.594

22.30
20.41
18.80
17.42
16.22

0.712
0.677
0.848
0.625
0.606

12.18
11.42
10.75
10.15
9.62

0.561
0.547
0.535

13.70
12.86
12.11
11.45
10.86

0.577
0.564
0.552
0.542
0.533

15.18
14.28
13.45
12.72
12.07

0.590
0.576
0.564
0.554
0.545

9.11
8.54
7.96
7.44
6.97

0.504
0.472
0.451
0.435
0.421

10.32
9.84
9.39
8.93

5.47

0.427
0.409
0.393
0.380
0.369

8.45

0.525
0.518
0.512
0.494
0.487

11.48
10.95
10.46
10.01
9.61

0.538
0.531
0.525
0.519
0.514

4.84
4.33
3.92
3.57
3.28

0.350
0.336
0.325
0.316
0.309

6.19
5.55
5.03
4.23

0.399
0.381
0.368
0.357
0.347

7.52
6.76
6.13
5.61
5.17

0.440
0.42{)
0.404
0.391
0.380

8.79
7.96
7.23
6.62
6.10

0.486
0.454
0.435
0.421
0.408

0.371
0.357
0.352
0.347

5.85
5.27
4.93
4.63
4.37

0.398
0.390
0.382
0.376
0.371

19.87
17.81

31.22
27.95
24.96
22.32
20.07

9.66

0.642
0.601
0.568
0.542
0.521

16.07
14.60
13.36
12.31
11.41

0.670
0.631
0.600
0.575
0.555

18.17
16.57
15.21
14.05
13.05

8.87
7.96
7.14
6.44
5.84

0.-WO
0.447
0.415
0.389
0.368

10.62
9.94
9.34
8.66
7.96

0.538
0.524
0.512
0.479
0.449

0.249
0.239
0.232
0.225
0.220

5.34
4.90
4.53
4.21
3.92

0.350
0.336
0.324
0.314
0.305

7.32
6.76
6.27

3.45
3.08
2.78
2.53
2.33

0.291
0.280
0.272
0.266
0.260

1.012
0.902
0.797
0.699
0.611

21.36
19.116
16.87
14.85
13.06

1.027
0.918
0.818
0.729

0.30
0.33
0.40
0.48
0.50

9.85
8.34
6.76
5.41
4.34

0.538
0.481
0.381
0.315
0.265

11.54
10.28
9.23
7.98
6.82

0.594
0.547
0.510
0.445
0.393

5.86
5.oa

0.351
0.319
0.295
0.276
0.261

""'

a655

22.03
19.59
17.40
15.50
13.89
12.55
11.42
10.47

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1.049
0.939
0.842
0.761
0.694

po6.0

30.91
27.63
24.76
22.31

1.067
0.955
0.860
0.781
0.719

0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25

Nbh
24.64

Nbh

Nbh
37.84
33.88
30.29
27.18
24.53

xlh
1.082
0968
0.873
0796
0.735

Nbh
19.40
17.28
15.21
13.23
11.43

Nbh
27.93
24.99

22.28

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34.53

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1.107
0.968
0.892
0.816
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2.49
2.16
1.90

0.229
0.205
0.187
0.175
0.165

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

1.70
1.53
1.40
1.28
1.18

0.158
0.153
0.148
0.145
0.142

3.19
2.91
2.67

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.03
0.91
0.81
0.74
0.67

0.137
0.133
0.130
0.128
0.126

2.00
1.78
1.60
1.45
1.33

0.211
0.205
0.199
0.195
0.192

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00

0.62
0.57
0.53
0.49
0.46

0.123
0.120
0.118
0.116
0.114

1.23
1.14
1.06
0.99
0.93

0.189
0.187
0.185
0.183
0.182

2.15
2.00
1.86
1.75
1.65

0.256
0.252
0.249
0.248
0.243

3.04
2.83
2.84
2.48
2.33

0.303
0.298
0.293
0.289
0.286

3.91
3.84
3.41
3.20
3.01

0.340
0.334
0.328
0.324
0.319

4.79
4.46
4.17
3.92
3.69

2.20

0.41
0.37
0.34
o.31
0.28

0.111
0.109
0.107
0.105
0.104

0.84
0.75
0.69
0.63
0.59

0.179
0.177
0.176
0.174
0.173

1.47
1.33
1.22
1.12
1.04

0.239
0.236
0.233
0.231
0.229

2.09
1.89
1.73
1.59
1.48

0.281
0.276
0.273
0.270
0.261

2.70
2.24
2.06
1.91

0.313
0.307
0.303
0.299
0.296

3.31
3.00
2.74
2.53
2.34

0.339
0.333
0.328
0.323
0.320

3.92
3.55
3.25
2.99
2.77

0.361
0.354
0.348
0.344
0.340

0.28
0.25
o.23
0.22

0.103
0.102
0.101
0.100

0.55
o.51
0.45
0.43

0.172
0.171
0.171
0.170
0.169

0.97
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.76

0.228
0.226
0.225
0.224
0.223

1.37
1.29
1.21
1.14
1.08

0.265
0.263
0.262
0.260
0.259

1.78
1.67
1.57
1.48
1.40

0.294
0.291
0.289
0.288
0.286

2.18
2.04
1.92
1.81
1.71

0.317
0.314
0.312
0.310
0.306

2.58
2.42
2.27
2.15
2.03

0.336
0.333
0.331
0.328
a326

0.34
0.28
0.24
0.20
0.16

0.167
0.166
0.165
0.164
0.163

0.60
0.49
0.42
0.36
0.29

0.220
0.217
0.216
0.215
0.213

0.85
0.70
0.60
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10.21
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0.506
0.476
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11.75
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115.53
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0.652
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0.354
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10.72
9.79
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0.533
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12.29
11.33
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0.369
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10.89
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0.145
0.144
0.142
0.141

1.84
1.49
1.35
1.24
1.15

0.197
0.194
0.191
0.189
0.187

2.39
2.15
1.97
1.81
1.67

0.232
0.228
0.224
0.221
0.218

3.12
2.82
2.57
2.37
2.19

0.259
0.254
0.249
0.245
0.242

3.85
3.49
3.18
2.92
2.71

0.282
0.275
0.270
0.265
0.261

4.59
4.15
3.79
3.48
3.22

0.301
0.293
0.287
0.282
0.277

0.58
0.54
0.51
0.48
0.45

0.140
0.139
0.139
0.138
0.138

1.07
1.00
0.94
0.88
0.84

0.186
0.184
0.183
0.182
0.181

1.55
1.45
1.36
1.29
1.21

0.216
0.214
0.213
0.211
0.210

2.04
1.90
1.79
1.68
1.59

0.239
0.237
0.235
0.233
0.232

2.52
2.35
2.21
2.06
1.97

0.258
0.255
0.253
0.251
0249

3.00
2.80
2.83
2.48
2.35

0.274
0.271
0.268
0.266
0.264

0.35

0.136
0.134
0.133
0.133
0.132

0.66
0.54
0.46
0.40
0.32

0.178
0.175
0174
0173
0.171

0.95
0.79
0.67

0.205
0.202
0.200
0.199
0.197

1.25
1.03
0.88
0.78
0.60

0.226
0.222
0.220
0.218
0.216

1.55
1.28
1.08
0.94
0.75

0.242
0.238
0.235
0.233
0.231

1.84
1.52
1.29
1.12

0.256
0.251
0.248
0.246
0.243

18.()9
16.53
15.20
14.06
13.07

0.707
0.667
0.635
0.608
0.586

0.504
0.456
0.414
0.377
0.345

12.21
11.45
10.75
9.94
9.21

6.29
5.75
5.29
4.69
4.55

0.324
0.307
0.292
0.280
0.270

0.180
0173
0.168
0.163
0.160

3.96
3.53
3.17
2.88
2.63

1.32
1.22
1.14
1.06
1.00

0.157
0.155
0.153
0.151
0150

2.60
2.80
3.00

0.89
0.80
0.73
0.67
0.62

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
5.00
8.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

0.551
0.466
0.384
0.312
0.256

13.07
11.70
10.45
9.10
7.91

0.617
0.569
0.520
0.453
0.393

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75

3.95
3.23
2.70
2.31
2.02

0.215
0.187
0.167
0.153
0.143

6.86
5.91
5.14
4.52
4.02

o.ao
0.65
0.90
0.95
1.00

1.78
1.60
1.45
1.32
1.22

0.136
0.130
0.125
0.122
0.119

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.05
0.92
0.82
0.74
0.67

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00

0.62
o.57
0.53

2.20

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32.94
29.84
27.17

11.12
9.37
7.71
6.20
4.93

2.40

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1.019
0.928
0.854
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1.037
0.932
0.835
0.749
0.876

0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.60

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P"6.0

0.913
0.839
0.779

1089
0.985
0.894
0.818
0.757

1.016
0.908
0.805
0.709
0.624

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Nlbh
37.06
33.37
30.13
27.26
24.78

Nlbh
26.84
24.14
21.63
19.37
17.39

0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25

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33.!6
30.30
27.32
24.67
22.37

Nlbh
23.48
21.04
18.n
16.59
14.70

Nlbh
21.45
19.15
16.90
14.78
12.83

o.29

0.25
0.21
0.17

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1.066
0.962
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3.25

3.03
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o.se
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1.109
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40.56

36.44

5.45

o.89

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0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25

21.41
19.06
16.77
14.58
12.58

1.011
0.901
0.795
0.696
0.607

Nlbh
23.37
20.85
18.44
16.21
14.23

0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50

10.79
9.05
7.29
5.78
4.59

0.532
0.451
0.370
0.304
0.253

12.54
11.14
9.89
8.45
7.18

0.587
0.539
0.492
0.427
0.375

14.94
13.47
12.24
11.20
10.32

0.635
0.593
0.559
0.533
0.511

17.14
15.55
14.21
13.08
12.11

0.663
0.623
0.592
0.567
0.546

19.26
17.54
16.09
14.85
13.78

0.681
0.644
0.614
0.589
0.569

21.35
19.49
17.91
16.56
15.40

0.695
0.659
0.629
D.606
0.586

23.41
21.41
19.70
18.24
16.98

0.706
0.670
0.841
0.618
0.599

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75

3.71
3.07
2.60
2.24
1.97

0.218
0.194
0.178
0.166
0.157

6.13
5.29
4.62
3.65

0.334
0.303
0.280
0.262
0.247

9.29
8.25
7.37
6.63
6.00

0.483
0.425
0.394
0.369
0.349

11.27
10.53
9.77
8.93
8.15

0.529
0.515
0.486
0.452
0.427

12.85
12.04
11.33
10.69
10.(19

0.553
0.539
0.527
0.516
0.502

14.38
13.49
12.71
12.01
11.38

0.570
0.556
0.544
0.534
0.525

15.88
14.91
14.05
13.29
12.60

0.583
0.569
0.557
0.547
0.538

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

1.76
1.59
1.44
1.33
1.22

0.150
0.145
0.141
0.137
0.135

3.29
2.99
2.74
2.53
2.35

0.236
0.227
0.220
0.214
0.209

5.47
5.02
4.63
4.30
4.01

0.333
0.319
0.306

7.48
6.90
6.40
5.96
5.57

0.406
0.388
0.374
0.361
0.351

9.40
8.71
8.10
7.56
7.08

0.468
0.447
0.429
0.414
0.401

10.81
10.30
9.72
9.13

0.517
0.510
0.483
0.460
0.445

11.99
11.42
10.91
10.45
9.96

0.530
0.523
0.517
0.512
0.495

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1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.06
0.94
0.83
0.75
0.68

0.130
0.126
0.121
0.117
0.114

2.05
1.82
1.64
1.49
1.38

0.201
0.195
0.190
0.186
0.183

3.52
3.14

4.92

6.28
5.63
5.10
4.65
4.28

0.380
0.364
0.351
0.341
0.333

5.67
5.22

0.420
0.401
0.386
0.374
0.364

8.94
8.05
7.30
6.68
6.16

0.456
0.434
0.417
0.403
0.392

Oo
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3.98
3.63
3.33

0.334
0.321
0.310
0.302
0.295

7.82

2.58
2.37

0.277
0.267
0.260
0.254
0.249

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00

0.63
0.!18
0.54
0.50
0.47

0.111
0.108
0.106
0.105
0.103

1.25
1.16
1.09
1.02
0.96

0.181
0.178
0.177
0.175
0.174

2.19
2.03
1.90
1.78
1.67

0.244
0.241
0.238
0.235
0.233

3.08
2.86
2.68
2.51
2.37

0.290
0.285
0.281
0.278
0.274

3.96
3.69
3.45
3.23
3.05

0.326
0.320
0.315
0.311
0.307

4.83
4.50
4.21
3.95
3.73

0.356
0.349
0.343
0.338
0.334

5.70
5.31
4.97
4.67
4.40

0.382
0.374
0.368
0.362
0.357

2.20

0.42

0.100

2.60
2.80
3.00

0.85
0.77
o.70
0.65
0.60

0.171
0.169
0.168
0.167
0.166

1.50
1.36
1.24
1.14
1.05

0.229
0.226
0.224
0.222
0.220

2.12
1.92
1.75
1.61
1.49

0.269
0.265
0.262
0.259
0.257

2.73
2.48
2.26
2.08
1.93

0.301
0.296
0.292
0.288
0.285

3.34
3.03
2.77
2.55
2.36

0.326
0.321
0.316
0.312
0.309

3.95
3.!18
3.27
3.02
2.79

0.348
0.342
0.336
0.332
0.328

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00

0.56
0.52
0.49
0.46
0.44

0.165
0.184
0.163
0.163
0.162

0.98
0.92
0.86
0.81
0.77

0.218
0.217
0.216
0.215
0.214

1.39
1.30
1.22
1.15
1.09

0.255
0.253
0.252
0.251
0.249

1.80
1.68
1.58
1.49
1.41

0.283
0.281
0.279
0.278
0.276

2.20

2.06
1.94
1.83
1.73

0.306
0.303
0.301
0.299
0.298

2.60
2.44
2.29
2.16
2.05

0.325
0.322
0.320
0.318
0.316

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
10.00

0.34
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.17

0.160
0.159
0.158
0.157
0.156

0.61
0.50
0.42
0.37
0.29

0.211
0.209
0.208
0.206
0.205

0.86
0.71
0.60
0.53
0.42

0.245
0.242
0.241
0.239
0.237

1.11
0.92
0.78
0.68
0.54

0.271
0.268
0.265
0.284
0.261

1.36
1.12
0.96
0.83
0.66

0.292
0.288
0.285
0.283
0.281

1.61
1.33
1.13
0.99
0.78

0.309
0.305
0.302
0.299
0.296

Nlbh

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1.025
0.916
0.815
0.725
0.649

26.65
23.82
21.16
18.77
16.70

1.045
0.936
0.838
0.755
0.688

29.93
26.78
23.86
21.26
19.03

1.062
0.951
0.855
0.776
0.712

33.23
29.74
26.54
23.72
21.30

1.076
0.963
0.868
0.790
0.729

38.53
32.70
29.21
26.16
23.55

1.089
0.974
0.878
0.802
0.742

35.67
31.88
28.58
25.78

1.100
0.963
0.887
0.811
0.752

39.84

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2.40

4.08

2.83

0.298

0.290

4.40

8.57
6.84
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0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
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N.iR'
42.01
36.70
31.59
26.95

22.98
19.22
15.93
13.30
11.25
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0.858
0.952
1.039
1.115
1.179
1.245
1.300
1.353
1.391
1.419

N.iR'
48.49
42.61
37.15
32.36
28.32
24.99

22.18
19.31
16.94
15.01

zlR
0.834
0.923
1.002
1.()68
1.122
1.164
1.200
1.246
1.283
1.313

N.iR'
59.37
52.34
46,02

40.57
36.00

32.21
29.07
26.45
24.24

22.06

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0.1)5
0.892
0.966
1.027
1.075
1.113
1.143
1167
1.186
1212

N.iR'
70.41
62.05

54.74
48.50
43.28
36.94
35.32
32.28

29.70
27.50

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0.786
0870
0.943
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1.048
1.085
1.113
1.137
1.156
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N.iR'
81.79
71.78
63.42
56.33
50.41

45.49
41.37
37.91
34.96
32.42

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0.855
0.927
0.985
1.Q.31

81.54
72.07
64.11
ST.47

0.843
0.915
0.973
1.018

1.066
1.094
1.117
1.136
1.151

51.96
47.34
43.44
40.11
37.25

1.()53
1.081
1.104
1122
1.137

N.iR'
104.41
91.32
80.73
71.87
64.50

zlR
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58.38
53.25
48.91

1.043
1.071
1.093
1.112
1.127

45.21

42.02

0.834
0.906
0.963
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1.151
1.169
1.183
1.194
1.216

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00

7.34
5.70
4.ST
3.80
3.23

1.467
1.507
1.533
1.551
1.564

12.11
10.09
8.64
7.54
6.69

1.356
1.385
1.405
1.420
1.431

18.26
15.49
13.41
11.81
10.54

1.262
1.296
1.321
1.339
1.354

23.82
20.38
17.76
15.71
14.07

1.199
1.238
1.266
1.288
1.304

28.30
25.08
21.94
19.46
17.47

1.176
1.194
1.226
1.249
1.268

32.ST
28.94
26.02
23.13
20.80

1.162
1.180
1.193
1.219
1.239

36.80

2.20
2.40

2.81
2.48
2.22
2.01
1.83

1.574
1.581
1.587
1.592
1.596

6.01
5.41
4.91

9.52
8.67
7.97
7.36
6.85

1.365
1.374
1.381
1.388
1.393

12.74
11.63
10.70
9.91
9.22

1.317
1.328
1.336
1.344
1.350

15.84
14.48
13.34
12.36
11.51

1282
1.294
1.304
1.312
1.319

18.88
17.28
15.92
14.76
13.76

1.255
1.268
1.279
1.288
1.295

21.88

4.13

1.440
1.453
1.465
1.475
1.484

20.04
18.48
17.14
15.98

1.233
1.247
1.259
1.268
1.276

1.601
1.604
1.607
1.609
1.611

3.75
3.44
3.17
2.94
2.73

1.493
1.501
1.507
1.512
1.516

6.29
5.82

4.25

1.65
1.50
1.36
1.27
1.18

5.07
4.76

1.399
1.4Q.3
1.407
1.411
1.414

8.49
7.86
7.32
6.85
6.43

1.357
1.362
1.367
1.371
1.374

10.60
9.83
9.16
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8.06

1.327
1.333
1.338
1342
1.346

12.88
11.76
10.96
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1.303
1.310
1.316
1.321
1.325

14.73
13.67
12.74
11.93
11.22

1.285
1.292
1.298
1.304
1.308

4.50
4.75
5.00
5.50
6.00

1.11
1.04
0.96
0.87
0.79

1.613
1.615
1.616
1.618
1.620

2.56

2.03
1.84

1.519
1.522
1.525
1.529
1.533

4.48
4.24
4.02
3.64
3.33

1.416
1.419
1.421
1.424
1.427

6.07
5.74
5.44
4.94
4.52

1.377
1.380
1.383
1.387
1.390

7.60
7.19
6.82
6.19
5.67

1.350
1.353
1.356
1.360
1.364

9.10
8.62
8.18
7.42
6.80

1.329
1.332
1.335
1.340
1.344

10.519
10.03
9.52
8.64
7.92

1.312
1.316
1.319
1.324
1.329

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7.00
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8.00
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1.622
1.623
1.624
1.625
1.626

1.69
1.55
1.44
1.34
1.26

1.536
1.539
1.541
1.543
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3,07

0.66
0.61
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1.430
1.432
1.434
1.435

1.393
1.395
1.397
1.399
1.401

5.23
4.85

4.52
4.23
3.96

1.3iJ7
1.370
1.372
1.374
1.376

6.27
5.82
5.42

f.43(!,

4.16
3.86
3.60
3.37
3.17

1.348
1.351
1.353
1.355
1.357

7.30
6.77
6.32
5.92
5.ST

1.332
1.336
1.338
1.341
1.343

9.00
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10.00
11.00
12.00

0.50
0.47
0.45
0.40
0.37

1.626
1.627
1.628
1.629
1.629

1.18
1.12
1.o&
0.95
0.87

1.546
1.547
1.548
1.550
1.552

2.20

2.08
1.98
1.79
1.64

1.438
1.439
1.440
1.441
1.443

2.99
2.83
2.69
2.44
2.24

1.402
1.404
1.405
1.407
1.408

3.76
3.56
3.38
3.07
2.81

1378
1.379
1.380
1.382
1.384

4.51
4.27
3.69
3.38

1.359
1.3iJ1
1.362
1.364
1.368

5.26
4.98
4.73
4.30
3.94

1.344
1.346
1.348
1350
1.352

13.00
14.00
15.00
17.50
20.00

0.34
0.31
0.29

1.630
1.631
1.631
1.632
1.633

0.80
0.74
0.88
0.519
0.51

1.553
1.554
1.555
1.557
1.558

1.51
1.40
1.30
1.11
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1.446
1.446
1.451
1.455
1.459

2.06
1.91
1.79
1.53
1.34

1.409
1.411
1.412
1.413
1.415

2.!19
2.41
2.24
1.92
1.88

1.386
1.387
1.388
1.390
1.392

3.11
2.89
2.70
2.31
2.02

1.368
1.369
1.370
1.373
1.374

3.63
3.37
3.14
2.69
2.36

1.354
1.355
1.356
1.359
1.361

2.60
2.80
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00

o.25

0.22

4.49

2.40
2.27

5.42

2.84

2.65
2.48
2.33

5.08
4.78

4.06

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26.76
24.09

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MIR'
69.33
60.53
52.82
46.33
40.99

1IR
0.718
0.810
0.888
0.946
0.993

MIR'
80.13
69.82
61.00
53.63
47.59

0.706
0.798
0874
0932
0977

30-44
27.31
24.73
22.58
20.57

1.053
1.082
1105
1.124
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36.62
33.Q3
30.Q4
27.54
25A1

1.028
1.056
1.078
1096
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42.66
38.57
35.17
32.31
28.87

1.280
1.307
1.325
1.338
1.347

16.97
14.37
12.43
10.94
9.76

1.m
1.223
1.246
1.263
1.276

21.98
18.78
16.34
14.44
12.93

1133
1.169
1195
1.214
1.229

S.56
4.98
4.51
4.11
3.78

1.355
1.365
1.373
1.381
1.387

8.81
8.03
7.37
6.82
6.34

1.286
1.294
1.301
1.307
1.312

11.70
10.68
9.113
9.10
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1.500
1.503
1.505
1.507
1.SCKI

3A3
3.14
2.89
2.68
2.50

1.393
1.399
1.403
1.407
1.410

5.82
S.37
4.98
4.66
4.37

1.316
1.320
1.323
1.326
1.328

1.511
1.512
1.513
1.515
1.517

2.34

6.50
6.00

1.05
0.99
0.93
0.113
0.75

2.08
1.87
1.69

1.413
1.416
1.418
1.422
1.425

4.11
3.88
3.68
3.33
3.Q4

6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

0.69
0.63
0.59
0.55
0.51

1.518
1.519
1.520
1.521
1.522

1.56
1A3
1.33
1.24
1.16

1.428
1.430
1.432
1.433
1.434

2.80

9.00
9.50
10.00
11.00
12.00

0.48
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OA3
0.39
0.35

1.522
1.523
1.524
1.524
1.525

1.Q9
1.Q3
0.87
0.88
0.80

13.00
14.00
15.00
17.50
20.00

0.32
0.30
0.28
0.24
0.21

1.526
1.526
1.527
1.527
1.528

0.74
0.68
0.63
0.54

0.758
0.851
0.933
1.002
1.056

MIR'
58.66
51.25
44.61
38.95
34.28

23.81
21.09
18.32
16.02
14.15

1.099
1.132
1.175
1.210
1.239

1.385
1.419
1.442
1.457
1.468

11.39
9.48
8.08
7.02
6.20

3.00

2.63
2.33
2.09
1.89
1.73

1.477
1.483
1.489
1.493
1.496

3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25

1.56
1A2
1.31
1.21
1.12

4.50
4.75
5.00

1IR

0.10
o.20
0.30
0.40
Q.50

MIR'
41.85

36.42
31.17
26.40
22.32

0.873
0.962
1.041
1.106

MIR'
48.11
41.98
36.31
31.34
27.19

o.m

0.80
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00

18.67
15.39
12.79
10.79
9.21

1.169
1.229
1.276
1.312
1.339

1.20
1.40
1.80
1.80
2.00

6.85
5.28
4.24
3.53
3.02

2.20
2.40
2.80
2.80

2.20

OA7

1IR

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1IR
102.09
0.780
88.49
77.33
0856
68.14
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80.66
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MIR'
91.05
79.15
69.16
60.89
54.13

1IR
0.698
0.788
0.864
0.922
0.967

1.012
1.039
1.061
1.078
1.093

48.80

54.51
49.45

34.24

1.001
1.027
1.049
1.066
1.060

41.63
38.58

0.992
1.018
1.039
1.057
1.071

25.93
22.91
20.09
17.80
15.97

1.115
1.131
1.157
1.178
1.195

29.79
28.35
23.83
21.10
18.95

1.102
1.118
1.131
1.150
1.168

33.59
29.75
28.70
24.21
21.89

1.093
1.1CKI
1.121
1.131
1.146

1.240
1.250
1.258
1.265
1.270

14.48
13.23
12.19
11.28
10.52

1.208
1.218
1.227
1.234
1.241

17.20
15.73
14.50
13A4
12.52

1.182
1.194
1.203
1.211
1.218

19.88
16.20
16.78
15.58
14.51

1.162
1.174
1.184
1.193
1.200

7.79
7.22
6.72
6.29
5.91

1.276
1.281
1.285
1.289
1.292

9.69
8.98
8.36
7.113
7.36

1.247
1.253
1.257
1.262
1.265

11.54
10.70
9.97
9.34
8.78

1.225
1.231
1.236
1.241
1.244

13.37
12.40
11.56
10.83
10.18

1.207
1.214
1.219
1.224
1.228

1.331
1.332
1.334
1.337
1.339

S.57
5.27
5.00
4.53
4.15

1.295
1.297
1.300
1.303
1.307

6.94
6.57
6.23
5.66
5.18

1.268
1.271
1.273
1.278
1.281

8.28
7.84
7A4
6.76
6.19

1.248
1.251
1.254
1.258
1.262

9.61
9.10
8.64
7.84
7.18

1.232
1.235
1.238
1.243
1.247

2.59
2.41
2.28
2.12

1.341
1.343
1.344
1.345
1.346

3.82
3.56
3.31
3.09
2.91

1.JCKI
1.311
1.313
1.315
1.316

4.77
4.43
4.13

5.70
5.28
4.93
4.62
4.35

1.265
1.268
1.270
1.272
1.274

6.62
6.15
5.73
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3.64

1.284
1.286
1.288
1.290
1.292

1.250
1.253
1.255
1.257
1.259

1.436
1.437
1.438
1.439
1.441

2.00
1.89
1.79
1.63
1.48

1.347
1.346
1.349
1.350
1.351

2.74
2.59
2.46
2.23
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1.317
1.318
1.319
1.320
1.322

3A3
3.25
3.09
2.80
2.57

1.293
1.295
1.296
1.298
1.299

4.10
3.89
3.69
3.35
3.07

1.275
1.276
1.278
1.280
1.281

4.77
4.52

1.442
1.443
1.444
1.445
1.447

1.37
1.27
1.19
1.01
0.89

1.352
1.353
1.353
1.355
1.356

1.88
1.75
1.63
1.39
1.22

1.323

2.37
2.20
2.05
1.76
1.54

1.301
1.302
1.303
1.305
1.306

2.83
2.63
2.45
2.10
1.84

1.283
1.284
1.285
1.287
1.289

3.28
3.o&

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1.323
1.324
1.326
1.327

3.67

44..Q3

40.22
36.99

45.21

5.05

4.28

3.90
3.57

2.85

2.44
2.14

1.261
1.262
1.263
1.266
1.267
1.269
1.270
1.271
1.274
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41.70
36.15
30.76
25.84
21.65

zlR
0.695
0.794
0.885
0.966
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NIR'
47.75
41.39
35.46
30.28
26.02

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0.682
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0.865
0.936
0.991

NIR'
57.96
50.14
43.14
37.23
32.43

zlR
0.665
0.763
0.844
0.908
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NIR'
68.28
58.92
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44.01
38.56

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0.653
0.751
0.831
0.892
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NIR'
78.69
67.73
58.38
50.72
44.57

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0.643
0.742
0.821
0.881
0.925

NIR'
89.18
76.56
65.98
57.40
50.54

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0.635
0.735
0.815
0.873
0.917

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99.72
85.41
73.59
64.07
56.48

zlR
0.629
0.730
O.IKJIJ
0.867
0.910

0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00

18.10
14.76
12.12
10.12
8.63

1.093
1.152
1.198
1.231
1.256

22.60
19.88
17.29
15.02
13.14

1034
1.()66
1104
1.138
1163

28.58
25.48
22.95
20.87
19.05

0.994
1.022
1.044
1.062
1.078

34.18
30.63
27.72
25.30
23.26

0.972
0.999
1.020
1.037
1.050

39.63
35.62
32.32
29.57
27.24

0.959
0.984
1004
1.021
1.034

45.03
40.54
36.84
33.75
31.13

0.949
0.974
0.994
1.010
1.023

50.38
45.42
41.32
37.89
34.98

0.942
0.961
0.!186
1.002
1.014

1.096

30.30
26.73
23.90
21.62
19.69

1.034
1.048
1.059
1.068
1.076

15.51
14.19
13.06
12.06
11.21

1.109
1.119
1.127
1.133
1.138

17.87
16.36
15.07
13.98
13.03

1.090
1.100
1.109
1.117
1.123

1.161
1.165
1.168
1.171
1.174

10.30
9.52
8.85
8.27
7.76

1.143
1.147
1.151
1.154
1.157

11.99
11.08
10.31
9.63
9.04

1.129
1.134
1.138
1.141
1.144

6.10
s.n
5A7
4.95
4.52

1.176
1.178
1.180
1.183
1186

7.31
6.91
6.55
5.94
5A3

1.159
1.162
1.163
1.167
1.169

8.52
8.05
7.84
6.92
6.32

1.146
1.149
1.151
1.154
1.157

1.210
1.211
1213
1.214
1.215

4.16
3.86
3.59
3.36
3.16

1.188
1.189
1.191
1.192
1193

5.00
4.63
4.31
4.04
3.79

1.172
1.173
1.175
1.177
1.178

5.82
5.40
5.03
4.70
4.42

1.159
1.161
1.163
1.164
1.156

2.38
2.25
2.13
1.94
1.n

1.216
1217
1.217
1.219
1220

2.98
2.68
2.43
2.22

1194
1.195
1196
1.198
1.199

3.58
3.39
3.21
2.92
2.67

1.179
1.180
1.181
1.182
1.183

4.17
3.95
3.75
3.40
3.11

1.167
1.168
1.169
1.170
1.172

1.63
1.51
1A1
1.21
1.06

1.221
1.221
1.222
1.223
1.224

2.05
1.90
1.n
1.52
1.32

1.200
1.200
1201
1.203
1204

2.46

1.184
1.185
1.186
1.188
1.189

2.87
2.66
2.48
2.12
1.86

1.173
1174
1.174
1.176
1.177

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00

6A1
4.95
4.00
3.34
2.87

1.298
1.329
1.349
1.363
1.373

10A3
8.60
7.31
6.35
5.61

1.199
1221
1.237
1248
1.256

15.66
13.12
11.25
9.83
8.73

1121
1.147
1.156
1.179
1.189

20.03
17.16
14.91
13.09
11.65

1.071
1.099
1.123
1.138
1.149

23.52
20.69
18.23
16.14
14.47

1.054
1069

2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80

3.00

2.51
2.22
2.00
1.81
1.68

1.380
1.386
1.390
1.394
1.397

5.02
4.55
4.13
3.n
3A7

1.263
1.268
1.275
1.281
1.287

7.85
7.13
6.53
6.02
5.58

1.197
1.204
1.209
1.213
1.217

10.49
9.54
8.74
8.07
7.49

1.158
1.156
1.172
1.177
1.181

3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25

1.50
1.37
1.26
1.17
1.09

1.400
1.403
1.405
1.407
1.409

3.15
2.89
2.87
2.48
2.31

1.292
1.297
1.301
1.304
1.307

5.12
4.73
4.39
4.10
3.84

1.221
1.224
1.227
1.229
1.231

6.88
6.36
5.91
5.52
5.18

4.50
4.75
5.00
5.50
6.00

1.02
0.95
0.90
0.81
0.73

1.410
1.411
1.412
1.414
1.416

2.16
2.04
1.92
1.73
1.57

1.309
1.311
1.313
1.317
1.319

3.62
3A2
3.24
2.93
2.68

1.233
1.235
1.236
1.239
1.241

6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
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0.67
0.62
0.57
0.53
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1.417
1.418
1.419
1.420
1.420

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1.33
1.23
1.15
1.08

1.322
1323
1.325
1.326
1328

2.46
2.28
2.12
1.99
1.87

9.00
9.50
10.00
11.00
12.00

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0.38
0.34

1.421
1.421
1.422
1.423
1423

1.01
0.96
0.91
0.82
0.75

1329
1.330
1331
1.332
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13.00
14.00
15.00
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20.00

0.32
0.29
0.27
0.23
0.20

1424
1424
1.425
1.425
1.426

0.69
0.64
0.59
0.50

1334
1.335
1.336
1.337
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1107
1.121

26.93
23.73
21.20
19.04
17.10

1.043
1.057
1.()68
1.()81

13.07
11.90
10.91
10.08
9.36

1.132
1.140
1146
1.152
1.156

1.185
1.189
1.192
1.195
1.197

8.60
7.95
7.39
6.90
6.48

4.87
4.61
4.37
3.95
3.61

1.199
1.201
1.203
1.205
1.208

1.242
1244
1.245
1.246
1.247

3.32
3.08
2.87
2.68
2.52

1.76
1.66
1.58
1.43
1.31

1.248
1.249
1.249
1.250
1.251

1.21
1.12
1.04
0.89
0.78

1252
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2.82

1.(188

2.28

2.13
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41.58
35.91
30.38
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20.92

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0.614
0.714
0.808
0.892
0.962

0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
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17.33
14.00
11.45
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1.016
1.074
1.117
1.148
1.171

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87.32
73.73
62.48
53.59
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97A2
82.00
69.44
59.61
51.97

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0.571
0.682
0.764
0.821
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41.22
36.86
33.32
30.12
27.47

0.896
0.921
0.939
0.953
0.964

45.97
41.16
37.25
33.84
30.89

0.892
0.915
0.932
0.946
0.957

0.980
0.992
1.001
1.007
1.013

26.28

1.011
1.021
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23.35
20.30
17.96
16.09
14.58

22.87
20.24
18.15
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0.973
0.984
0.993
1.000
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47.44
40.81
34.60
29.20
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49.01
41.59
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0.699
0.784
0.850
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57.23
48.56
41.51
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0.588
0.693
0.776
0.839
0.884

21.18
18.33
15.88
13.68
11.95

0.969
1.000
1.030
1060
1.082

26.84
23.36

0.935
0.962
0.982
0.998
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31.59
28.08
25.03
22.56
20.53

0.917
0.942
0.961
0.976
0.987

36.43
32.52
29.20
24.02

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20.39
17.71
15.65
13.90
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20.74
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77.25
65.47
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26.36

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0.685
0.767
0.626
0.887

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0.606
0.707
0.796
0.670
0.927

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0.581
0.688
0.771
0.831
0.674

0.906

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0.946
0.962

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00

6.07
4.72
3.83
3.22
2.77

1.210
1.237
1.255
1.267
1.276

9.48
7.83
6.66
5.79
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1.113
1.133
1.147
1.157
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13.81
11.55
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1.040
1.062
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17.38
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2.20
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2.43

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2.16
1.95
1.77
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1.283
1.288
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4.58
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3.79
3.49
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1.171
1.175
1.179
1.182
1.187

6.92
6.28
5.76
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1.105
1.110
1.115
1.118
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9-07
8.25
7.57
6.99
6.49

1.066
1.072
1.077
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11.17
10.17
9.33
8.62
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1.039
1.046
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13.24
12.06
11.07
10.23
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1.019
1.026
1.032
1.037
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15.04
13.85
12.80
11.83
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1.009
1.013
1.017
1.022
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3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
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1.47
1.34
1.24
1.15
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1.302
1.304
1.306
1.308
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2.93
2.69
2.48
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1.191
1.195
1.199
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4.52
4.17
3.88
3.62
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1.125
1.128
1.130
1.132
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5.96
5.50
5.12
4.78
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1.089
1.092
1.094
1.097
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7.35
6.80
6.32
5.91
5.54

1.064
1.067
1.070
1.073
1.075

8.73
8.07
7.51
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1.045
1.049
1.052
1.055
1.057

10.10
9.34
8.69
8.12
7.63

1.031
1.035
1.038
1.041
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4.50
4.75
5.00
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1.00
0.94
0.89
0.79
0.72

1.311
1.312
1.313
1.315
1.316

2.02
1.90
1.80
1.62
1.47

1.207
1.208
1.210
1.213
1.216

3.20
3.02
2.88
2.59
2.37

1.136
1.137
1.138
1.141
1.142

4.22
3.99
3.78
3.43
3.13

1.101
1.102
1.104
1.106
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5.22
4.94
4.68
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1.077
1.078
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6.21
5.87
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1.059
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1.063
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7.19
6.79
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1.045
1.047
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6.50
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0.66
0.61
0.56
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1.317
1.318
1.319
1.320
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1.35
1.24
1.16
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1.217
1.219
1.221
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2.18
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1.88
1.76
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1.144
1.145
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2.88
2.67
2.49
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1.110
1.111
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3.57
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4.24

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4.91
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1.056
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1.076
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3.52
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2.63

1.063
1.064
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13.00
14.00
15.00
17.50
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0.31
0.29
0.27
0.23
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1.324
1.324
1.325
1.325
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0.65
0.60
0.56
0.48
0.41

1.229
1.230
1.230
1.231
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1.07
0.99
0.92
0.79
0.69

1.152
1.153
1.153
1.154
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1.42
1.31
1.23
1.65
0.92

1.119
1.120
1.120
1.121
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1.76
1.63
1.52
1.30
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1.097
1.097
1.098
1.099
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2.09
1.94
1.81
1.55
1.35

1.080
1.081
1.082
1.083
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2.42
2.25
2.10
1.79
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1.068
1.069
1.069
1.071
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0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
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48.30
42.15
36.21
30.79
26.12

1iR
0.861
0.955
1.043
1.121
1.187

0.60
0.70
0.60
0.911
1.00

21.59
17.74
14.69
12.34
10.54

1.258
1.320
1.369
1.406
1.434

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
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7.76
5.92
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2.20

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0.812
0.899
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76.80
67.54

87.75
77.28
88.2'1
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0.781
0.863
0.936
0.994
1.040

87.00
76.87
68.31
61.17

88.23

0.842
0.914
0.971
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55.23
50.28
46.09
42.51
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1062
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1.113
1.132
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61.89
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1.051
1.079
1.102
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99.29

110.88
911.76
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59.52
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1065

46.88

0.793
0.879
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1.124
1.154
1.179
1.204
1.236

42.10
38.12
34.79
31.97
29.58

1.095
1.124
1.148
1.167
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46.72
44.25
40.49
37.30
34.58

1.076
1.104
1.127
1.146
1.162

19.35
16.36
14.13
12.42
11.07

1.284
1.317
1.341
1.358
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25.06
21.37
16.58
16.41
14.68

1.223
1.261
1.287
1.308
1.323

30.12
26.15
22.82
20.22
18.13

1.186
1.218
1.248
1.270
1.287

34.45
30.57
26.98
23.93
21.49

1.171
1189
1.216
1.240
1.259

38.71
34.39
30.94
27.59
24.81

1.160
1.178
1.192
1.215
1.236

5.58
5.05
4.61
4.23

1.469
1.482
1.494
1.503
1.510

9.99
9.09
8.35
7.71
7.16

1.382
1.391
1.398
1.404
1.409

13.27
12.11
11.14
10.30
9.59

1.336
1.345
1.354
1.361
1.366

16.42
15.00
13.81
12.79
11.91

1.301
1.312
1.321
1.329
1.336

19.50
17.83
16.42
15.22
14.18

1.274
1.286
1.296
1.305
1.312

22.53
20.62
19.00
17.62
16.42

1.252
1.265
1.276
1.265
1.292

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1.614
1.617
1.619
1.621
1.623

3.83
3.50
3.22
2.98
2.77

1.517
1.523
1.528
1.532
1.535

6.58
6.09
5.66
5.29
4.97

1.414
1.419
1422
1.426
1.429

8.82
8.16
7.60
7.11
6.68

1373
1.378
1.382
1.386
1.389

10.97
10.16
9.46
8.86
8.32

1.343
1.348
1.353
1.358
1.361

13.07
12.11
11.29
10.57
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1.319
1.326
1.331
1.336
1.340

15.14
14.04
13.0S
12.25
11.52

1.301
1.307
1.313
1.318
1.322

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1.12
1.05
0.99
0.88
0.80

1.625
1.626
1.627
1.629
1.631

2.59
2.44
2.30
2.06
1.87

1.539
1.541
1.544
1.548
1.551

4.68
4.42
4.19
3.80
3.47

1.431
1.433
1.435
1.439
1.441

6.30
5.95
5.85
5.12
4.89

1.392
1.395
1.397
1.401
1.404

7.85
7.43
7.05
6.39
5.85

1.365
1.367
1.370
1.374
1.378

9.37
8.87
8.42
7.64
6.99

1.343
1.348
1.349
1.354
1.358

10.87
10.29
9.77
8.87
8.12

1.326
1.330
1.333
1.338
1.342

6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

0.73
0.67
0.62
0.58
0.54

1.632
1.634
1.634
1.635
1.636

1.71
1.57
1.46
1.36
1.2'7

1.554
1.556
1.558
1.559
1.561

3.19
2.95
2.74
2.58
2.40

1.445
1.450
1.454
1.458
1.461

4.32
4.00
3.73
3.49
3.28

1.407
1.409
1.411
1.413
1.414

5.39
5.00
4.66
4.37
4.11

1.381
1.384
1.386
1.388
1.389

6.45
5.98
5.58
5.22
4.91

1.361
1.364
1.366
1.368
1.370

7.49
6.95
6.48
6.07
5.71

1.345
1.348
1.351
1.353
1.355

9.00
9.50
10.00
11.00
12.00

0.51
0.48
0.45
0.41
0.37

1.637
1.637
1.638
1.639
1.639

1.19
1.13
1.07
0.98
0.88

1.562
1.563
1.564
1.566
1.567

2.26
2.14
2.02
1.83
1.67

1.464
1.467
1.469
1.473
1.476

3.10
2.93
2.79

3.68
3.67
3.16
2.911

1.391
1.392
1.393
1.395
1.397

4.64
4.39
4.17
3.79
3.47

1.372
1.373
1.375
1.377
1.379

5.39
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2.53
2.32

1.416
1.417
1.418
1.420
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4.03

1.357
1.358
1.360
1.362
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13.00
14.00
15.00
17.50
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0.34
0.32
0.29
0.25
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1.640
1.640
1.641
1.642
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0.81
0.75
0.69
0.59
0.51

1.569
1.570
1.570
1.572
1.573

1.54
1.42
1.33
1.13
0.99

1.479
1.482
1.484
1.488
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2.14
1.98
1.85
1.58
1.38

1.422
1.423
1.424
1.426
1.428

2.67
2.48
2.31
1.98
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1.398
1.399
1.401
1.403
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3.20
2.97
2.77
2.37
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1.:JlKJ
1.381
1.382
1.385
1.386

3.72
3.45
3.22
2.76
2.41

1.368
1.367
1.368
1.371
1.372

1.077
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65.62
57.83
50.77
44.85
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27.83
24.31
21.03
18.35
16.18

1.175
1.220
1.266
1.303
1.332

35.27
31.75
28.53
26.18
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1.489
1.527
1.552
1.568
1.580

12.97
10.77
9.19
8.01
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1.375
1.403
1.422
1.437
1.452

1.589
1.598
1.602
1.606
1.610

6.23

3.00

2.87
2.53
2.26
2.04
1.86

3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.28

1.68
1.53
1.40
1.29
1.20

4.50
4.75
5.00
5.50
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2.40

2.60
2.80

54.77
48.0S
41.83
36.32
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54,07

3.48

0.651
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0.741
0.833
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0.975
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NIR'
75.53
65.97
57.53
50.38
44.48

zlR
0.725
0.817
0.893
0.954

1.065

NIR'
64.90
56.71
49.30
42.94
37.88

1.109
1.149
1.194
1.229
1.258

33.39
29.88
27.00
24.54
21.98

1.063
1.093
1.116
1.137
1.167

39.67
35.71
32.43
29.69
27.36

1.037
1066
1.008
1.106
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0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50

NIR'
48.13
41.86
35.78
30.20
25.41

zlR
0.779
0.875
0.966
1.048
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NIR'
54.38
47.45
40.95
35.24
30.45

zlR
0.762
0.856
0.939

0.80
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00

21.01
17.17
14.15
11.82
10.03

1181
1.242
1.290
1.327
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28.57
23.21
20.00
17.39
15.30

1.(XJ9

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86.27

75.28
65.71
57.71
51.13
45.75
41.32
37.63

34.53
31.89

zlR
0.713
0.804
0.880
0.940
0.985

NIR'
97.11
84.57
73.88
84.99
57.71

p=5.0
zlR
0.704
0.795
0.871
0.929
0.974

p-6.0
zlR
NIR'
0.697
108.05
0.787
93.89
0.863
82.05
0.921
72.25
0.965
64.24

1.020
1.048
1.070
1.088
1.102

51.74
46.83
42.72
39.26
38.31

1008
1.035
1.057
1.074
1.089

57.69
52.27
47.75
43.93
40.67

N
~
,__

8::
....
Q.

'"-'

::;-..,

21.88
19.63

1.111
1.127
1.148
1.170
1.186

31.32
28.CJB
25.15
22.80

1.101
1.117
1.129
1.147
1.165

1.225
1.235
1.244
1.251
1.256

17.80
16.28
14.99
13.89
12.94

1.200
1.211
1.220
1.227
1.234

20.51
18.77
17.29
16.03
14.94

1.179
1.191
1.200
1.208
1.215

.3

10.04
9.31
8.67
8.11
7.62

1.263
1.268
1.272
1.276
1.280

11.92
11.05
10.30
9.64
9.06

1.240
1.246
1.251
1.255
1.259

13.77
12.77
11.90
11.14
1o.48

1.222
1.228
1.234
1.238
1.242

00

1.309
1.312
1.314
1.317
1.320

7.19
6.80
6.45
5.85
5.36

1.282
1.285
1.287
1.291
1.295

8.511
8.09
7.88
6.97
6.38

1.262
1.265
1.267
1.271
1.275

9.89
9.36
8.88
8.06
7.38

1.245
1.248
1.251
1.256
1.259

3.96
3.67
3A1
3.19
3.00

1.322
1.323
1.325
1.326
1.327

4.94
4.58
4.27
4.00
3.76

1.297
1.300
1302
1.303
1.305

5.88
5.45
5.09
4.76
4.48

1.278
1.280
1.283
1.284
1286

6.81
6.32
5.89
5.52
5.19

1.263
1.265
1.268
1.270
1.271

2.83

2.88
2.54
2.31
2.11

1.328
1.329
1.330
1.331
1.333

3.55
3.36
3.19
2.90

1.306
1.307
1.308
1.310
1.312

4.23
4.00
3.80
3.45
3.16

1288
1.289
1.290
1.292
1.294

4.90
4.64
4.41
4.00
3.67

1.273
1.274
1.275
1.277
1.279

1.94
1.80
1.68
1.44
1.26

1.334
1.334
1.335
1.337
1.338

2.45

1.313
1.314
1.315
1.317
1.318

2.92
2.71
2.53
2.16
1.89

1.295
1.298
1.297
1.299
1.301

3.38
3.14
2.93
2.51
2.19

1.281
1.282
1.283
1.285
1.287

31.55
27.88

1.20
1.40
1.80
1.80
2.00

7.23
5.61
4.40
3.65
3.11

1.405
1.438
1.460
1.474
1.485

12.24
10.12
8.58
7.44
6A9

1.298
1.323
1.340
1.353
1.368

18.03
15.22
13.13
11.54
10.28

1212
1.243
1.264
1.280
1.293

23.19
19.74
17.14
15.13
13.53

1156
1.190
1.214
1.233
1.247

20.95
18.54
16.82

1.125
1.150
1.177
1.197
1.213

24.67

2.20
2.60
2.80
3.00

2.70
2.39
2.14
1.94
1.77

1.492
1.498
1.503
1.507
1.510

5.73
5.12
4.62
4.21
3.87

1.379
1.389
1.397
1.404
1.409

9.27
8.44
7.74
7.13
6.82

1.303
1.310
1.317
1.321
1.326

12.23
11.16
1o.26
9A9
8.83

1.258
1.267
1.274
1.281
1.286

15.05
13.75
12.65
11.72
10.91

3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25

1.80
1.45
1.33
1.23
1.15

1.513
1516
1.518
1.520
1.522

3.51
3.21
2.95
2.74
2.55

1.415
1420
1.424
1.428
1.430

6.07
5.80
5.20
4.85
4.55

1.330
1.333
1.336
1.339
1.341

8.12
7.52
7.00
8.55
8.15

1.292
1.298
1.300
1.304
1.307

4.50
4.75
5.00
5.50
8.00

1.07
1.00
0.95
0.85
0.77

1.523
1.524
1.525
1.527
1.529

2.39
2.24
2.12
1.90
1.72

1.433
1.435
1.437
1.441
1.444

4.28
4.04
3.83
3A6
3.16

1.343
1.345
1.347
1.349
1.351

5.80
5.48
5.20
4.71
4.30

8.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

0.70
0.65
0.60
0.56
0.52

1.530
1.531
1.532
1.532
1.533

1.58
1.45
1.35
1.26
1.18

1.446
1.448
1.449
1.451
1.452

2.91
2.69
2.51
2.34
2.19

1.353
1.355
1.356
1.359
1.361

9.00
9.50
10.00
11.00
12.00

0.49
OA&
0.44
0.39
0.36

1.534
1.534
1.535
1.535
1.536

1.11
1.04
0.99
0.89
0.81

1.453
1.454
1.455
1.456
1.458

2.06
1.95
1.85
1.67
1.52

1.362
1.364
1.365
1.368
1.370

13.00
14.00
15.00
17.50
20.00

0.33
0.31
0.28
0.24
0.21

1.537
1.537
1.537
1.538
1.539

0.75
0.89
0.64
0.511
OAS

1.459
1.460
1.460
1.462
1.463

1.40
1.30
1.21
1.03
0.90

1.372
1.373
1.374
1.377
1.379

2.40

0.999
1.026
1.047
1.064
1.079

-3

s:=
"'........

27.65

24.04

2.65
2.27
2.12
1.81
1.58

35.39

II
VJ

U1

z
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3
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(1)
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e!.
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Ill

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Ul

p=3.0

.,.s.o

73.14
63.03
54.70
48.00

0.648
0.747
0.826
0.887
0.932

NIR'
95.29
81.96
70.64
61.40
53.89

0.640
0.740
0.819
0.879
0.923