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PUMPED STORAGE PLANT

Seminar
By
Nilanjana Sen.
4th Year.
B.Power Engg.
Roll - 27

INTRODUCTION
Pumped Storage Power Plants are a
special type of power- plants, which
work as conventional hydropower
stations for part of the time.
When the plants are not producing
power, they can be used as pumping
stations which pump water from tail
race side to the high level reservoir.
The working of the power station
can be distinguished as the
generating phase when the turbines
and generators are electrical power
and the pumping phase when the
pump and motors are in operation.

HOW PUMPED STORAGE


Water is pumped up to the top reservoir at night, when demand for
WORKS
power across the country is low.
When there's a sudden
demand for power, the
"head gates" are
opened, and water
rushes down the tunnels
to drive the turbines,
which drive the powerful
generators. The water
then collects in the
bottom reservoir, ready
to be pumped back up
later.
Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as pump and turbine
(usually a Francis turbine design).

LOAD CURVE FOR


PUMPED STORAGE
PLANT

Figure:1 Hypothetical Load Curve

Figure: 2 Actual Load Curve

HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENT

The history of pumped storage plant can be traced as far back


as 1882, in which year the 1st hydroelectric plant making use of
pumped storage started functioning at Zurich in
Switzerland.
In 1931, the 1st reversible pump-turbine was installed at
Baldeneyesee in Germany.
The 1st major reversible diagonal turbine (Deriaz) was
installed at Niagara in 1955.
In Europe, in 1962, Ffestiniog (Great Britain) with a
total capacity of 360 MW and Provindenza (Italy) with a
head of 284 m, were the major landmarks in the progress of
pumped storage plants.

CLASSIFICATION
FOUR UNIT INSTALLATION four different units viz.
pump,
motor,
coupled
Both
the generator
reservoirsand
onturbine;
a singlepump
river,&inmotor
a tandem
together
were
independent
of turbine & generator coupled
chain
manner.
H
IGH
HEAD
F
RANCIS TURBINE very common because of its
together.
H
D
ORIZANTAL
P
AILY
URE Closed
daily cycle
cycle
pump
ofplant
pumping
situated
- - Volume
at&left
generation
end
of water
& turbine
Two
reservoirs
on
two
separate rivers close to each
high
efficiency
and
high
speed.
M
EDIUM
HEAD
flowing
to
the
lower
reservoir
= The water
pumped
at right end; generator/motor in between
-- generally
other
and
flowing
at different
elevations.
W
EEKLY
reservoir
weekly
cycle
where
pumping
is confined
to
to
the
higher
in
1
cycle
of
operation.
Tpreferred
HREE
UNIT
INSTALLATION

three
units
viz.
pump,
due
to
good
visibility,
favorable
conditions
of
Pslack
ELTON
TURBINE
L
OW
HEAD
annotartificially
common.
periods.
Higher
reservoir
constructed
pool
with&
turbine
erections
andweekend
generator
& dismantling
which
for
canrepairs
function
& check-up.
as a motor;
pump
M
IXED
Total
in a1 high
cycle level
> unit.
Total
the
help
of TURBINE
dykes
allgeneration
around,
on
plateau
K
APLAN
turbine
were
coupled
directly
to
generator/motor
EASONAL
that
pumping
done lowest
during &
lean demand &
VSpumping
ERTICAL
hill-top
pump
situated
during
period.
or
on a leveled
and theatlower
reservoir on a
generation
during
unithigher
at top;demand.
turbine
intermediate
natural
river.INSTALLATION
Tgenerator/motor
WO
UNIT
in
two
units viz. generator
position
moreas
compact.
which
can operate
a motor coupled to a turbine which also
Theas
lower
reservoir is a natural lake while the higher
operates
a pump.
reservoir reservoir is artificial.

ADVANTAGES
Relatively low capital cost; thus economic source of
peaking capacity.
Rugged & dependable; can pick up load rapidly in a matter
of few minutes.
Readily adaptable to automation as well as remote-control.
Hydel power is free from effects of environmental
pollutionthus contributing a part in curbing air & water
pollution.

ADVANTAGES (contd..)
Allow great deal of flexibility in operational schedules of
system.
Power required for pumping is available at a cheaper
rate(slack hours rate); power produced can be sold at prime
rate(peak hours rate) - this compensates the low hydraulic
efficiency.
They allow entire thermal or nuclear power generation to take
up base load; thus load factor improves giving overall greater
system efficiency.
Little effect on the landscape.

PROBLEMS OF
OPERATION
Once it's used, it can't be used again until the water is
pumped back up.
Cavitation problems; powerhouse location has to be so fixed
that pump operates under submerged conditions(magnitude
depends on specific speed & net head).
Reversing of direction of flow gives rise to runner cracking
due to fatigue.
Trash racks vibrate violently during pumping operation.
Flow during pumping mode tends to lift the machine axially
causing tensile stresses in bearings; specially guide vanes.

TOPOGRAPHY
For an economic operation, an important criterion is the ratio of
the length, L, between the two pools along the water passage to
the head difference, h, between them, i.e

L
h
The less the value of L / h , more economic is the prospect of
the plant. Some typical ratios :

Vianden
Ludington
Horn berg

2.9
4.0
4.3

EFFICIENCY OF PUMPED
STORAGE PLANTS
o

Now if Q is the discharge and H the gross head,

Q (H - hf ) * 0.736 * t
75
And Ep = Q (H + hf ) * 0.736
75
p
Then o = Eg = (H hf ) * t * p
Ep
( H + hf )
( 1 k ) * t * p
If hf = kH, then o =
(1+k)
Then, Eg =

Overall efficiency comes out to be 72 %

t = Overall efficiency of
generation ;0.88

p = Overall efficiency of
pumping operation ;0.85
= speed
hf = frictional head loss
k = constant ; 0.02 0.03

SOME FACTS
In 2000 the United States had 19.5 GW of
pumped storage capacity, accounting for
2.5% of base load generating capacity. PHS
generated (net) - 5.5 GWh of energy because
more energy is consumed in pumping than is
generated; losses occur due to water
evaporation, electric turbine/pump efficiency,
and friction.
In 1999 the EU had 32 GW capacity of
pumped storage out of a total of 188 GW of
hydropower and representing 5.5% of total
electrical capacity in the EU.

PROJECT
EXAMPLES

Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric


Power Stations

174 MW, reversible Deriaz turbines, Niagara Falls (1957).

Luding
The 1872 MW plant houses six vertical Francis-type pumpton

generating units which are recognized as some of the largest in


the world from the perspectives of physical size and unit rating.

Ffestiniog Pumped
The lower power
Storage Plant
station has 4 water
turbines which
generate 360 MW
of electricity within
60 seconds of the
need arising

Some Pumped
Storage Plants
Around The World

Australia
Bendeela (1977), 80 MW
Kangaroo Valley (1977), 160 MW

France
Grand Maison (1997), 1070 MW
Montzic (1983), 920 MW
Super Bissorte (1978), 720 MW

United States
Castaic Dam (1978), 1566 MW
Bear Swamp (1972), 600 MW
Blenheim-Gilboa (1973), 1200 MW

India
Bhira, Maharashtra, 150 MW
Kadamparai, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 400 MW (4 x 100
MW)
Nagarjuna Sagar PH, Andhra Pradesh, 810 MW (1 x 110
MW + 7 x 100 MW)
Purulia Pumped Storage Project, Ayodhya Hills, Purulia,
West Bengal, 900 MW
Srisailam Left Bank PH, Andhra Pradesh, 900 MW (6 x
150 MW)
Tehri Dam, Uttranchal (under construction), 1000 MW

THANK YOU!!!