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11/18/2015

WirelessCalculators

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Wireless Calculators
AWirelessSystem(moreorless!)

Key:Greenisgood,Redisbad.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PowerBudgettotalpowerofyoursystemindBm.
FreeSpaceLosspowerlossoverdistance.
SystemPerformanceHowfarwillitgo,willitgetthereorwhatismyOperatingMargin?
FresnelZonesHowmuchmorethanLOSorhowhighshouldmyantennabe?
PowerConversiondBmtomilliWattsandmilliWattstodBm

PowerBudget
UsethiscalculatortowalkthroughallthefactorsthatmakeupyourPower
Budget.The'PowerBudget'isthethetotalpowerbeingoutputfromthe
wirelesssystemandisthesumof:
PLUSRadioTransmitPower(Aabove)
MINUScablesandconnectorslosses(Babove)
PLUSantennagain(Cabove).
Enteroneparameterineachcolumn(orleaveblank)dependingonwhat
youknowandthecalculatorwillsupplytheappropriateconversions
automatically.Upto2decimalplacesmaybeenteredas0.xxor.xx.
Note:ConnectorlossisgenerallysmallUNLESSyou'vegotlotsof'emin
whichcaseyouareprobablyintroubleanyway,oryourcableisVERY
short.Justleavethelineblankifyouarefeelinglazy.
Calculationsandequationsused.
RadioandAntenna

TransmitPower
AntennaGain
mW
dB(i)
OR
dBm
CableLoss
CableProperties
(per100ftorm)
dB(100ft)
OR
dB(100m)
ConnectorLoss
FrequencyinMHz
MHz.
2400
Budget

CableLength

Power
dB

feet

dB

OR
meters

No.ofConnectors
No.

Calculate

dB

dB

FreeSpaceLoss
Lossofpoweroverdistance(assumingnoFRESNELEffectandnothingin
theway).Thisaveryidealisedcalculationandinpracticeeverything
interfereswiththesignalbutitwillgiveyouareasonableapproximationof
theactuallossoverdistance.
EnterthesystemFrequencyinMHzandthedistanceineither
Kilometers(Km)orMilesbelowandthenclickthe'Calculate'button.1
GHz=1000MHze.g.2400=2.4GHz.
Calculationsandequationsused.
Frequency
Distance
MHz
Km
2400
OR
Miles

Result
Calculate

dB

FresnelZones
Defineshowmuchclearanceyouneed(yesyouneedmorethansimple
LineofSight)andforlongerlinks>3Km(2miles)whetheryoumay
haveagroundclearanceproblemfromourfriendlyplanet.M.Fresneland
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11/18/2015

WirelessCalculators

histheories.
EntertheTotallinkdistance(inMilesorKilometers),ifyoudonotenter
anObstacledistance(inMilesorKilometers)thecalculatorwillusethe
midpointforallcalculations(Note:assumesantennasatsameheight).
FinallyenterthesystemFrequencyinMHzandthenclickthe'Calculate'
button.1GHz=1000MHze.g.2400=2.4GHz.
Thecalculatorwillgeneratetheradiusofthe1stFresnelzoneonly(atthe
obstablepointorthemidpoint),the60%(noobstacle)radiusandthe
heightoftheeffectiveearthcurvatureatthemidpointoftheTotallink
distanceusingtheeffectiveearthradius.
Calculationsandequationsused.
TotalLink
Obstacle
1stFresnelZoneRadius
Distance
Km
Km
m
OR

OR

at

ft

at
Km

Miles
Miles
Frequency

MHz
2400

Calculate

Miles

60%NoObstacleRadius
m
EarthHeight(midpoint)

ft

ft

SystemPerformance
Thiscalculatorwillgiveyouoneofthreeanswers:
1. IfyouleavedistanceblankitwillapplythedefinedSADfactor(ordefaultto
30%)totheOperatingMarginandsupplythemax.distance(inKmandMiles)
atwhichtheMarginoperates.
2. IfyouenterthedistanceitwillcalculatetheOperatingMarginandtheSAD
factor.
3. IfyouenterdistancebutleaveRXorTXantennagain(orboth)blankitwill
applythechosenSADfactor(ordefaultitto30%ifnonesupplied)and
generatetherequiredantennapower.Ifbothareleftblankitwillcalculatea
symmetricalantennagain.
ToRESETanyparameterjustsetittoBLANKbeforeclicking'Calculate'
Notes:RXSensitivityisALWAYSexpressedasanegativedBm(dBm)andisthe
lowestpowerofsignalyourradiocanhandle.Itsburiedsomewhereinyourradio
specandwillbetypicallyintherangeof70to110dBm.Don'tguessor'fudge'
thisnumber.
Note:IfyousolveforTXantenna(youleaveitblank)anddefineaspecificSAD
factoritisappliedtotheTXbudgetandanyTXantennavaluewillincludethis
factor.IfyouthenclickCalculateagainwithoutchanginganything,theSADfactor
willbecalculatedtoincludethesuppliedTXantennavalueandthusmayshowa
lowervaluethantheoriginalone.
Calculationsandequationsused.
Frequency
Distance
Km
2400
MHz

FSLoss

TXAntenna
dB

TotalTX

RXAntenna
dB
SADFactor
%

TotalRX

dB

OR
Miles

TXPower

TXCable
dBm

dBm

dB

OR
mW
RXSensitivity
dBm
89
Margin
Calculate

RXCable
dB
RXPower
dBm

dB
Theoretical
dB

milliWattstodBm(andviceversa)
PowerinmilliWattstodBm(andviceversa).Enterthe'TransmitPower'
(AorGabove)inmilliWattsORthe'PowerRatio'indBmandclickthe
appropriate'Calculate'button.1Watt=1000milliWatts.
Calculationsandequationsused.
TransmitPower

mW
Calculate

Result

PowerRatio

Result

dBm

dBm

Calculate

mW

Power Budget Calculations

1. mWtodBm=10Log10(mW)
2. feettometers=.3048
3. meterstofeet=3.28

4. Calculatornormalisesalldistancestokilometersandmeters
5. Connectorsloss=0.10*squareroot(frequencyinGHz)

Free Space Calculations

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Free Space Calculations

1. Freespaceloss=36.56+20Log10(Frequency)+20Log10(Distanceinmiles)
2. Calculatornormalisesalldistancestomiles
3. MilestoKilometers=1.609
4. Kilometerstomiles=0.621

Fresnel Zone Calculations

1. Calculatornormalisesalldistancestokilometersandmeters
2. MilestoKilometers=1.609
3. Kilometerstomiles=0.621
4. feettometers=.3048
5. meterstofeet=3.28
6. 1stFresnelZoneradius(Km)=17.3xSqrroot((ObstacleDistancex(TotalLinkObstacleDistance))/(FrequencyinGHzxTotalLink))
7. 1stFresnelZoneradius(miles)=72.6xSqrroot((ObstacleDistancex(TotalLinkObstacleDistance))/(FrequencyinGHzxTotalLink))
8. Obstaclefreeradius=0.6x1stFresnelZoneradius
9. RadiusofnthFresnelzone(meter)=sqrroot((nxwavelengthxObstacledistancex(TotalLinkObstacleDistance))/TotalLink)
10. wavelength(meters)=speedoflight(299,792,458m/s)/frequencyinHz
11. Earthcurvaturecalculation=(TotalLink)2/(8*effectiveearthradius)
12. effectiveearthradius=4/3*Earthradius
13. Earthradius=3963miles,6378Km

System Performance Calculations

1. Calculatornormalisesalldistancestomilesandfeetduringcalculations.
2. Freespaceloss=36.56+20Log10(Frequency)+20Log10(Distinmiles)
3. mWtodBm=10Log10(mW)
4. dBmtomW=10(dBm/10)
5. RXPower=MarginRXsensitivity
6. Theoreticalmargin=TXpowerbudget+RXpowerbudgetfreespaceloss
7. SADfactor=Theoreticalmargin/TXpowerbudget*100andshowsthepercentageofsparepowerontransmission.

dBm to milliWatts Calculations

1. mWtodBm=10Log10(mW)
2. dBmtomW=10(dBm/10)

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