Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

MECH 215 Instrumentation and

Measurement
Week 7, Lecture 1
Strain Measurement - Introduction

January 14, 2009

Page 1

Strain Measurement
Proper design of mechanical components requires
consideration of load-carrying capacity and
allowable deflections.
Any object that is subject to a load develops internal
forces that act to balance the external loads.
These internal forces are called stress.

January 14, 2009

Page 2

Strain Measurement

0=

January 14, 2009

Page 3

Strain Measurement
We can theoretically analyze and predict stress due
to external forces, but we cannot measure stress
directly.
We can only measure the effect of stress, which is
strain.
Luckily stress and strain are linearly related for most
standard engineering materials (at least over a
limited range).

January 14, 2009

Page 4

Strain Measurement

FN
a =
Ac

a = normal stress
FN = normal applied load
Ac = cross-sectional area

January 14, 2009

Page 5

Strain (Deformation)
Normal Strain under axial loading
B

B
L

L
A (area)

= L/L (dimensionless)
January 14, 2009

Page 6

Strain Measurement

a =

L
L

a = axial strain
L = original length (unloaded)
L = change in length (loaded)

January 14, 2009

Page 7

Strain Measurement
Strain units are
10-6 m/m

s (microstrain)
or

10-6 in/in

Stress is related to strain by,

a = E m a
E m = Youngs modulus (modulus of elasticity,
Hooks law) and depends on the
material under load.

January 14, 2009

Page 8

Strain Measurement

The link from Load to Strain


Force;

Torque;

Pressure;

Cause stress

Stress causes strain

Vibrations.

We cant measure this!

We can measure this!

Is there a known relationship between stress and strain?


January 14, 2009

Page 9

Stress vs. Strain


By plotting stress, ( = P/A) versus strain ( = L/L), a curve
results which is characteristic of the material properties and
independent of the dimensions.

January 14, 2009

Page 10

Ductile Material

Aluminum Alloy

(450 MPa)
Rupture
300

B
0.002

January 14, 2009

Necking

0.2

Page 11

Brittle Material

Rupture

Cast Iron

January 14, 2009

Page 12

Hookes Law
=E

or

E=/

E = modulus of elasticity (same units as stress, )


Different: Y, U, B, B
Same: E

Tempered steel

High-C steel
Low-C steel
Iron

January 14, 2009

Page 13

Strain Measurement
Axial versus Lateral Strain
As solids are deformed in the axial direction due to
an applied load, they also deform in the lateral
direction (the cross-sectional area must decrease or
increase) because the total volume (for constant
mass and density) must be conserved.
This lateral strain is also a property of the material
under load and is called Poissons ratio.

January 14, 2009

Page 14

Strain Measurement
Poissons ratio.

p =

January 14, 2009

lateral strain
axial strain

L
=
a

Page 15

Poissons Ratio

Unloaded
January 14, 2009

Loaded
Page 16

Poissons Ratio

Unloaded

January 14, 2009

Loaded

Page 17

Load Stress
Uniaxial Extension/Compression - Simplified
B

F
x

F
B

Example: A truss
Uniaxial state of stress
Load is from external
force

January 14, 2009

axial

F
=
A

Where A= area
of cross section

Page 18

Stress Strain
Uniaxial Extension/Compression
Axial Strain

L
F

Lateral Strain

x
D

x =

D/2

An axial stress will


produce both axial and
lateral strain!
Poissons Ratio (greek nu):
January 14, 2009

L
L
D
D =
D

x =

D
D


=
E

Lateral Strain
=
Axial Strain
Page 19

Load Stress

Uniaxial Bending
Example: A Cantilever Beam Subject to Bending

January 14, 2009

Page 20

Load Stress
Biaxial Stress Case
y (axial direction)

X (hoop direction)
Example: A pressure Vessel
Biaxial Stress Case
Load is from pressure

January 14, 2009

hoop = 2 axial

P r
=
t

Page 21

Biaxial Stress Case


Stress Strain
Stresses

y =

x
E

y =

y
E

v x
y =

E
E

Corresponding
strains

x =
January 14, 2009

x
E

x =

v y
E

x =

x
E

v y
E
Page 22

Stress Strain
Biaxial Stress Case
x
y

y =

x
E

y
E

y
E

x
E

Rearranged, we can use our strains to figure out stresses

y =

January 14, 2009

E ( y + x )
1

x =

E ( x + y )
1 2
Page 23

Load (Force, Torque...) Stress Strain


Resistance Change Signal
force;

torque;

pressure;

vibrations ...

Link 1:

cause stress
Link 2:

stress causes strain


Link 3:

Strain creates Resistance change


Link 4:

Resistance change creates Signal


January 14, 2009

Page 24

Strain Measurement

xy = G xy
G = modulus of rigidity

xy = shear stress
xy = shear strain
January 14, 2009

Page 25

Resistance Strain Gauges


There are many ways to measure strain.
Good strain sensors should
1. Have good spatial resolution (sensor should
measure strain at a specific point).
2. Be unaffected by changes in ambient conditions.
3. Have a high frequency response for dynamic
strain measurements.

January 14, 2009

Page 26

Strain Measurement
If a strain gauge is bonded to a solid that is
subsequently loaded, the strain gauge will deform
with the solid.
The resistance of the strain gauge then changes as
it is deformed.
The amount of resistance change depends on how
the gauge is deformed, the gauge material, and the
gauge design.

January 14, 2009

Page 27

Strain Measurement
This concept has been refined so that gauges are
now available that are small, have good resolution,
have low mass, have a high frequency response
and are relatively immune to ambient effects.
Strain gauges have found use in load cells, pressure
transducers and torque meters.

January 14, 2009

Page 28

Next Time

Strain Measurement Resistance Strain Gauges

January 14, 2009

Page 29