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Ajax Interview Questions

1) Explain about what is Ajax?


Ajax has culmination of languages such as asynchronous java script and
XML. This has interrelated web development languages which help in
creating outstanding web pages. This language is used in increasing servers
responsiveness due to client side responsiveness. This increases the speed,
functionality, responsiveness, and usability. This technology helps in loading
the content behind the scene which will not affect the front side of the
language.
2) Explain the functionality of the webpage?
Some of the languages which are used in the combination of the webpage
are.
1) Javascript will be present on the client browser
2) For client to server combinations following languages are used such as
standard HTTP and XMLHTTP.
3) Server side scripting is used whenever there is a request from the client
side. This server side scripting can use any preferred language for working in
the back end.
4) Different languages and features are present which can help the client and
solve the problem.
3) Explain about the Response time when we are using this language?
Response time is also known as latency which can be described as the time
taken or interval between the time taken to process the request generated
from the client on the server. Proper handling of the XMLHttprequestobject
might be the cause for some delays between the client and server request.
4) Explain about the onreadystatechange property?
Onreadystatechange property is very useful in Ajax. It stores information
received from the client. It stores the function which can process the request
generated from the client side in the server thereby reducing the time lag
and increasing the efficiency of the process.
5) Explain about the readystate property?
Readystate property holds the response of the server to the query generated
from the client side. Each time the readystate property changes
onreadystatechange function will be executed. Some of the values for the
readystate property are as follows if the status is zero the request is not
initialized, 1 the request has been set up, 2 the request has been sent, 3 the
request is in process, 4 the request is complete.
6) Explain about sending a request to the server?
To send a request to the server we should use the open () and send ()
method. Open() method has three arguments of which the first one defines
which method to use which would help in sending the request. The second
argument explains about the URL of the server side script. The third
argument or request determines how the request should be handled whether
asynchronously or not. Send () method is useful to send a request to the
server to determine functionality.

7) If there is an input in the text field what are all the functions which get
executed?
The following functions are executed when there is an input in the text field.
1) Defines the url which we should be sent to the server
2) A parameter is added to the content of the input field.
3) A parameter is added to prevent the server from the cache.
4) When a change is triggered statechange is executed
5) An XMLHTTP object with a given URL gets executed
6) A request to the server is sent through HTTP.
8) Explain how friendly Ajax is with SEO?
Ajax is a combination of many languages and it is not so friendly with search
engine indexing because it uses Javascript for much part of its code. This
problem occurs with websites which have dynamic data present in it. Search
engines generally do not index Javascript present in web pages. Careful
indexing should be done where there is dynamic data and presence of
javascript.
9) Explain about web analytics problem with Java?
Many search engines load a new page whenever new or updated content is
loaded in the website. Whenever there is a check out or content updation
websites load giving the scope for search engines to index the new content
or updation. Ajax alters the process of indexing because it is unable to track
new content addition.
10) Explain about the multimedia functions of ajax?
Ajax lacks built in multimedia functions. It is not so supportive of inbuilt
applications but uses other browser functionalities and plugin`s such as SVG,
Quicktime and flash pugin. General multimedia for ajax is achieved through
mashup and hack. These multimedia functions can be obtained from outside
which helps in building excellent applications.
11) Explain about direct ajax frameworks?
Direct ajax frameworks require CSS, HTML and ajax expertise. Authoring
should be done in HTML and framework directly deals with HTML elements.
Many of the frameworks and API`s are provided are many purposes such as
commonly including functions (COM), event handling, DOM, and altering
graphic rich elements. These frameworks are used for shopping frameworks
but not for web based applications.
12) What does an ajax component frameworks provides?
The following features are provided for ajax component frameworks. They
are
Cusomization Applications, skinning facilities, extensibility and programmatic
control.
These functions are very rich in application but they are a bit slower in
execution with less control.
13) Explain the disadvantage of ajax related to browser integration?
Dynamically created pages created by ajax does not support back button
which takes the user to the previous pages. There are various solutions to

this problem out of which one solution is to use iframes. Also users can
bookmark a certain application in its state. User can maintain the
applications as the state of the application changes
14) State the difference between GET and POST?
You would use GET when the request is idempotent, meaning that multiple
requests generate the same result. In general use GET to retrieve data from
the server, in other words try to change the state on the server with a GET
call. Use POST methods anytime you are changing the state on the server
with a GET call. In POST you are required to set the content-Type header on
the XMLHttpRequest.
15) Explain about security of the Ajax based web applications?
The XMLHttpRequest object is subjected to the browsers security sandbox.
Any resources requested by the XMLHttpRequest object must reside within
the same domain from which the calling script originated from which the
calling script requested. XMLHttpRequest cannot request services due to
security restriction, outside the domain from which the script was originally
served.
16) Explain about clearPreviousResults?
The clearPreviousResults function performs two tasks removing the results
header task that appears at the top and clearing any rows from the results
table. The nest task is to clearPreviousResults is to delete any rows that may
already be in the table displaying the search results. Any results rows are
child nodes of the tbody node.
17) Explain about the getElementsByTagName and parseResults function?
You use the tag method to retrieve all the property elements in the XML
document as an array and assign the array to the local variable properties.
Once you have the array of property elements you can iterate over each
element in the array and retrieve the data. With parseResultsfunction you
can get the next element in the array and assign it to the local property.
AJAX Interview questions and Answers
What is the disadvantage of AJAX?
What are the benefits of AJAX over Java applet?
How is encoding handled in AJAX?
Why is AJAX a comfortable fit with JAVA?
What is synchronous request in AJAX?
What is AJAX and what problem does it solve?
Answer - Ajax is a set of client side technologies that allows asynchronous communication between .....
Ajax Interview questions with answers posted on August 12, 2008 at 18:00 pm by Rajmeet Ghai
Explain ASP.NET Ajax Framework.
Answer - ASP.NET Ajax Framework is used for implementing the Ajax functionality......
Explain limitations of Ajax.
Answer - Back functionality cannot work because the dynamic pages dont register themselves to the browsers history
engine..........
What is the role of Script Manager in Ajax?

Answer - Script Manager, as the name suggests is used to manage the client side script of Ajax.............
List out differences between AJAX and JavaScript.
Answer - Ajax is Asynchronous Java Script and XML. Here on sending request to the server, one neednt wait for the
response.................
Describe how to create AJAX objects.
Answer - Ajax Objects can be created by the following syntax:.............
Define JSON.
Answer - JSON is JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a safe and reliable data..........
Explain in brief abo XMLHttpRequest object
Answer - XMLHttpRequest object is used to transfer data between a client and a server.......
Describe the formats and protocols used by AJAX.
Answer - Ajax uses HTTPs GET or POST. AJAX also uses XMLHttpRequest protocol for requesting to the web server...............
What are the security issues with AJAX?
Answer - AJAX function calls are sent in plain text to server. These calls may easily reveal database...............
Describe how to handle concurrent AJAX requests.
Answer - JavaScipt Closures can be used for handling concurrent requests. A function can be written.............
When should AJAX NOT be used?
Answer - If the page is expected to be shown in a search engine like Google. Since Web crawlers dont execute...............
How do you know that an AJAX request has completed?
Answer - By determining the readyState property value of XMLHttpReqyest, One can know if the request...............
How do I handle the back and forward buttons?
Answer - In order to store changes in the browsers web history (enabling back and forward buttons)..............
Ajax Interview questions with answers posted on March 11, 2009 at 19:00 pm by Rajmeet Ghai

What is the disadvantage of AJAX?


The disadvantages of AJAX are:

Search engines would not be able to index an AJAX application.

The server information can not be accessed within AJAX.

AJAX is not well integrated with any browser.

ActiveX requests are enabled only in IE 5 and IE6

Data of all requests is URL-encoded, which increases the size of the request.

What are the benefits of AJAX over Java applet?


The following are the benefits of AJAX over Java applet:

AJAX applications are loaded in seconds, where as Applets takes longer time. The reason is, Applet applications
are tend to load large libraries.

AJAX provides standard look and feel for web applications, where as Applets provides GUI based look and feel.

AJAX features can increase from a conventional web application, where as Applets uses complete programming
process right from the scratch.

Java version changes enable incompatibilities between Applet and java environments used by the browser,
where as in AJAX incompatibilities are not the constraints.

How is encoding handled in AJAX?


AJAX encoding can be done in two ways:
encodeActionURL() method is used for full page refresh
encodeResourceURL() method is used for partial page refresh

Why is AJAX a comfortable fit with JAVA?


AJAX is a comfortable fit because, using Java Enterprise Edition the following tasks can be performed:

AJAX client pages can be generated to server incoming AJAX requests

Server side state is managed for AJAX clients

AJAX clients can be connected to enterprise resources

What is synchronous request in AJAX?


Synchronous AJAX is a process that makes a java script to halt or stop the processing an application until a result is sent by a
server. The browser is frozen, while the request is processed. The response time is 99.99% quick and fast enough. In case of
intrusion for a request or transfer of the file, the browser freezes may be for two minutes until the time is out for the request. The
advantages of using synchronous AJAX are, simple to code and can be used in the events onunload and onbeforeunload.

Understanding AJAX
AJAX is an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. If you think it doesn't say much, we agree. Simply put, AJAX can be
read "empowered JavaScript", because it essentially offers a technique for client-side JavaScript to make background server
calls...........
What Is AJAX? History of AJAX, Advantages of AJAX
With AJAX, only the necessary data is transferred back and forth between the client and the web server. This minimizes the network
utilization and processing on the client........
Technologies That Make Up AJAX
AJAX is a general umbrella term. AJAX itself stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.................
What Is ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX?
AJAX-style communications between client and server. This communication is over web services. Asynchronous communication. All
client-to-server communication in the ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX framework is asynchronous................
The components in the ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX packaging
ASP.NET AJAX Futures Community Technology Preview (CTP) The ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX framework contains a set of functionality
that is experimental in nature. This functionality will eventually become integrated with the RTM/Core code.
Potential benefits of using Ajax
AJAX makes it possible to create better and more responsive websites and web applications...............
Potential problems with AJAX
Search engines may not be able to index all portions of your AJAX application site.........
Who Benefits from AJAX?
AJAX is employed to improve the users experience. A request is made for the initial page rendering. After that, asynchronous
requests to the server are made. An asynchronous request is a background request to send or receive data in an entirely nonvisual
manner.............
What Is ASP.NET AJAX?
ASP.NET AJAX is the name of Microsofts AJAX solution, and it refers to a set of client and server technologies that focus on
improving web development with Visual Studio...............
Other AJAX Libraries
The ASP.NET AJAX Framework can coexist with script and controls from other libraries, although given the dynamic nature of the
JavaScript language, it is possible to extend types so that they conflict with each other.................
Balancing Client and Server Programming with ASP.NET AJAX
With AJAX, much of the logic surrounding user interactions can be moved to the client. This presents its own set of challenges.
Some examples of AJAX use include streaming large datasets to the browser that are managed entirely in JavaScript..................
ASP.NET Interview questions part 3 includes following questions with answers

What is Shared (static) member? | What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service? | What is Option Strict used for? |
Define Boxing and Unboxing. | What does WSDL stand for? | Define ViewState in ASP.NET. | What is the lifespan for items stored in
ViewState? | Define EnableViewState property. | What are Delegates? | What are Classes? | What is Encapsulation? | Different
types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET? | What methods are fired during the page load? | Explain
ADO.NET.
ASP.NET Interview questions part 4 includes following questions with answers
Define Server-side and Client-side code in ASP.NET. | What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid? | Where
does VS.NET store Web application projects? | Describe Web applications life cycle | Define class module and a code module. |
Steps to execute a stored procedure from Web Application | Describe exception handling in ASP.NET | What are the exceptionhandling ways in ASP.NET?
Structuring content in Plone
How to display information from data source in SharePoint site?
Here, we will learn to apply nice formatting to data that is displayed on our page. We will learn to do this by making use of
Cascading Style Sheets. We will also learn how to format our data automatically, depending on the data values (a technique known
as conditional formatting). Then we will learn to filter and sort our data, use formulae to perform calculations, and how to split our
data up into multiple pages.
Rich user interfaces and AJAX
Rich user interfaces can be achieved by using a combination of dynamic HTML elements such as HTML and JavaScript. However,
the scope of such an interface is limited to client-side behavior and has minimal functional implications due to the lack of server-side
interactions.
AJAX in JBoss portal
AJAX has gained tremendous popularity in the traditional web application development world due to the richness and agility that it
brings to user interfaces. Portals, such as JBoss portal, can also gain signifi cantly from AJAX, in terms of implementation of both
behavior and functionality.
JSR-168 AJAX limitations
Before we look at the features and options provided by the new specifi cation, let's look at how traditional JSR-168 portlets
functioned. As shown in the following fi gure, the "Action" request invoked the processAction method on the server, which
implemented controller logic to route it to the correct view.
JSR-286 and AJAX
Among the set of features that the new portlet specifi cation JSR-286 introduces to make things easier for AJAX implementations,
are the options to directly communicate with the portlet through shared render parameters and resource serving.
Developing an AJAX portlet
Implement AJAX functionality in one of the portlets, using asynchronous server calls and dynamic HTML.
AJAX support for markup
JBoss portal supports markup through tags on layouts and renderers of the pages. Special tags are added to layout JSPs that
facilitate the placement of AJAX features on a page. Similarly, renderers are used to interpret the tags and to render AJAX-driven
content. The obvious advantage is the in-built support for the auto-creation and control of AJAX components on portal pages.
AJAX support for content
Whereas the layout and renderer contribute to AJAX behavior at the markup level, JBoss portal's support for object-level confi
guration can be leveraged to provide AJAX support at the page level. The object property inherits a confi gured behavior from its
parent. Currently, two features are offered for AJAX-driven content
Considerations for AJAX implementations
Although AJAX is an exciting technology and provides signifi cant advantages in terms of performance, usability, and
implementation, there are certain scenarios where using AJAX is not a good fi t. This is especially true when a lot of custom
development is involved in using AJAX libraries.
Overview of ADO.NET architecture.
Data Provider provides objects through which functionalities like opening and closing connection, retrieving and updating data can
be availed.............
What are basic methods of Dataadapter?
This method executes the SelectCommand to fill the DataSet object with data from the data source...........
Click here to share knowledge by answering these questions
1.

Explain AJAX in detail.

2.

Explain ASP.NET Ajax Framework.

3.

Is is possible to implement Ajax in browsers that do not support the XmlHttpRequest object?

4.

Do AJAX technology work on web servers other than IIS?

5.

Explain limitations of Ajax.

6.

What is the role of ScriptManager in Ajax?

7.

Which request is better with AJAX, Get or Post?

8.

List out differences between AJAX and Javascript.

9.

List out browsers that support AJAX.

10.

What are the different frameworks available In AJAX?

11.

Are there any security issues with AJAX?

12.

Does AJAX work with Java?

13.

Is AJAX a programming language?

14.

Are Ajax applications easier to develop than traditional web applications?

15.

Describe how to create AJAX objects.

16.

Define JSON.

17.

What are the objects used by AJAX programs?

18.

Describe the basic fundamental of AJAX.

19.

Name the API functions that allow connection between the client and server.

20.

Describe when to use Java applet instead of AJAX.

21.

Which one should we use between HTTP GET or Post for AJAX calls?

22.

Is the server or the client in control in AJAX?

23.

Explain in brief about XMLHttpRequest object.

24.

Describe the formats and protocols used by AJAX.

25.

What AJAX framework do you recommend for PHP applications?

26.

What kinds of applications is Ajax best suited for?

27.

Describe how to handle concurrent AJAX requests.

28.

When should AJAX NOT be used?

29.

Explain how to test AJAX code.

30.

List out the differences between AJAX and JavaScript.

31.

What problem does Ajax solve?

32.

What are issues with AJAX?

33.

Is AJAX code cross browser compatible?

34.

How do you know that an AJAX request has completed?

35.

How do I handle the back and forward buttons?

1. Why so JavaScript and Java have similar name?


A. JavaScript is a stripped-down version of Java
B. JavaScript's syntax is loosely based on Java's
C. They both originated on the island of Java
D. None of the above

2. When a user views a page containing a JavaScript program, which machine actually executes the script?
A. The User's machine running a Web browser
B.

The Web server

C. A central machine deep within Netscape's corporate offices


D. None of the above

3. ______ JavaScript is also called client-side JavaScript.


A. Microsoft
B. Navigator
C. LiveWire
D. Native

4. __________ JavaScript is also called server-side JavaScript.


A. Microsoft
B.

Navigator

C. LiveWire
D. Native

5. What are variables used for in JavaScript Programs?


A. Storing numbers, dates, or other values
B.

Varying randomly

C. Causing high-school algebra flashbacks


D. None of the above

6. _____ JavaScript statements embedded in an HTML page can respond to user events such as mouse-clicks, form input,
and page navigation.
A. Client-side
B.

Server-side

C. Local
D. Native

7. What should appear at the very end of your JavaScript?


The <script LANGUAGE="JavaScript">tag
A.

The </script>

B.

The <script>

C. The END statement


D. None of the above

8. Which of the following can't be done with client-side JavaScript?


A. Validating a form
B.

Sending a form's contents by email

C. Storing the form's contents to a database file on the server


D. None of the above

9. Which of the following are capabilities of functions in JavaScript?


A. Return a value
B.

Accept parameters and Return a value

C. Accept parameters
D. None of the above

10. Which of the following is not a valid JavaScript variable name?


A. 2names
B.

_first_and_last_names

C. FirstAndLast
D. None of the above

11. ______ tag is an extension to HTML that can enclose any number of JavaScript statements.
A. <SCRIPT>
B.

<BODY>

C. <HEAD>
D. <TITLE>

12. How does JavaScript store dates in a date object?


A. The number of milliseconds since January 1st, 1970
B.

The number of days since January 1st, 1900

C. The number of seconds since Netscape's public stock offering.


D. None of the above

13. Which of the following attribute can hold the JavaScript version?
A. LANGUAGE
B.

SCRIPT

C. VERSION
D. None of the above

14. What is the correct JavaScript syntax to write "Hello World"?

A. System.out.println("Hello World")
B.

println ("Hello World")

C. document.write("Hello World")
D. response.write("Hello World")

15. Which of the following way can be used to indicate the LANGUAGE attribute?
A. <LANGUAGE="JavaScriptVersion">
B.

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScriptVersion">

C. <SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScriptVersion">
D. <SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScriptVersion"!>

JavaScript statements</SCRIPT>

JavaScript statements</SCRIPT>

16. Inside which HTML element do we put the JavaScript?


A. <js>
B.

<scripting>

C. <script>
D. <javascript>

17. What is the correct syntax for referring to an external script called " abc.js"?
A. <script href=" abc.js">
B.

<script name=" abc.js">

C. <script src=" abc.js">


D. None of the above

18. Which types of image maps can be used with JavaScript?


A. Server-side image maps
B. Client-side image maps
C. Server-side image maps and Client-side image maps
D. None of the above

19. Which of the following navigator object properties is the same in both
A. navigator.appCodeName
B.

navigator.appName

C. navigator.appVersion
D. None of the above

20. Which is the correct way to write a JavaScript array?


A. var txt = new Array(1:"tim",2:"kim",3:"jim")
B.

var txt = new Array:1=("tim")2=("kim")3=("jim")

C. var txt = new Array("tim","kim","jim")


D. var txt = new Array="tim","kim","jim"

Netscape and IE?

21. What does the <noscript> tag do?


A. Enclose text to be displayed by non-JavaScript browsers.
B.

Prevents scripts on the page from executing.

C. Describes certain low-budget movies.


D. None of the above

22. If para1 is the DOM object for a paragraph, what is the correct syntax to change the text within the paragraph?
A. "New Text"?
B. para1.value="New Text";
C. para1.firstChild.nodeValue= "New Text";
D. para1.nodeValue="New Text";

23. JavaScript entities start with _______ and end with _________.
A. Semicolon, colon
B.

Semicolon, Ampersand

C. Ampersand, colon
D. Ampersand, semicolon

24. Which of the following best describes JavaScript?


A. a low-level programming language.
B.

a scripting language precompiled in the browser.

C. a compiled scripting language.


D. an object-oriented scripting language.

25. Choose the server-side JavaScript object?


A. FileUpLoad
B.

Function

C. File
D. Date

26. Choose the client-side JavaScript object?


A. Database
B.

Cursor

C. Client
D. FileUpLoad

27. Which of the following is not considered a JavaScript operator?


A. new
B. this
C. delete
D. typeof

28. ______method evaluates a string of JavaScript code in the context of the specified object.
A. Eval
B.

ParseInt

C. ParseFloat
D. Efloat

29. Which of the following event fires when the form element loses the focus: <button>, <input>, <label>, <select>,
<textarea>?
A. onfocus
B. onblur
C. onclick
D. ondblclick

30. The syntax of Eval is ________________


A. [objectName.]eval(numeric)
B. [objectName.]eval(string)
C. [EvalName.]eval(string)
D. [EvalName.]eval(numeric)

31. JavaScript is interpreted by _________


A. Client
B.

Server

C. Object
D. None of the above

32. Using _______ statement is how you test for a specific condition.
A. Select
B. If
C. Switch
D. For

33. Which of the following is the structure of an if statement?


A. if (conditional expression is true) thenexecute this codeend if
B.

if (conditional expression is true)execute this codeend if

C. if (conditional expression is true)

{then execute this code>->}

D. if (conditional expression is true) then {execute this code}

34. How to create a Date object in JavaScript?


A. dateObjectName = new Date([parameters])
B.

dateObjectName.new Date([parameters])

C. dateObjectName := new Date([parameters])


D. dateObjectName Date([parameters])

35. The _______ method of an Array object adds and/or removes elements from an array.
A. Reverse
B.

Shift

C. Slice
D. Splice

36. To set up the window to capture all Click events, we use which of the following statement?
A. window.captureEvents(Event.CLICK);
B.

window.handleEvents (Event.CLICK);

C. window.routeEvents(Event.CLICK );
D. window.raiseEvents(Event.CLICK );

37. Which tag(s) can handle mouse events in Netscape?


A. <IMG>
B. <A>
C. <BR>
D. None of the above

38. ____________ is the tainted property of a window object.


A. Pathname
B.

Protocol

C. Defaultstatus
D. Host

39. To enable data tainting, the end user sets the _________ environment variable.
A. ENABLE_TAINT
B.

MS_ENABLE_TAINT

C. NS_ENABLE_TAINT
D. ENABLE_TAINT_NS

40. In JavaScript, _________ is an object of the target language data type that encloses an object of the source language.
A. a wrapper
B.

a link

C. a cursor
D. a form

41. When a JavaScript object is sent to Java, the runtime engine creates a Java wrapper of type ___________
A. ScriptObject
B. JSObject
C. JavaObject
D. Jobject

42. _______ class provides an interface for invoking JavaScript methods and examining JavaScript properties.
A. ScriptObject
B. JSObject
C. JavaObject
D. Jobject

43. _________ is a wrapped Java array, accessed from within JavaScript code.
A. JavaArray
B.

JavaClass

C. JavaObject
D. JavaPackage
44. A ________ object is a reference to one of the classes in a Java package, such as netscape.javascript .
A. JavaArray
B. JavaClass
C. JavaObject
D. JavaPackage

45. The JavaScript exception is available to the Java code as an instance of __________
A. netscape.javascript.JSObject
B. netscape.javascript.JSException
C. netscape.plugin.JSException
D. None of the above

46. To automatically open the console when a JavaScript error occurs which of the following is added to prefs.js?
A. user_pref(" javascript.console.open_on_error", false);
B.

user_pref("javascript.console.open_error ", true);

C. user_pref("javascript.console.open_error ", false);


D.

user_pref("javascript.console.open_on_error", true);

47. To open a dialog box each time an error occurs, which of the following is added to prefs.js?
A. user_pref("javascript.classic.error_alerts", true);
B.

user_pref("javascript.classic.error_alerts ", false);

C. user_pref("javascript.console.open_on_error ", true);

D. user_pref("javascript.console.open_on_error ", false);

48. The syntax of a blur method in a button object is ______________


A. Blur()
B.

Blur(contrast)

C. Blur(value)
D. Blur(depth)

49. The syntax of capture events method for document object is ______________
A. captureEvents()
B.

captureEvents(args eventType)

C. captureEvents(eventType)
D. captureEvents(eventVal)

50. The syntax of close method for document object is ______________


A. Close(doc)
B.

Close(object)

C. Close(val)
D. Close()

9: All of them except D is a correct answer as a function can return a value,


accept variables and then return a value or just accept values.
32: Switch can also be used to test for conditions.
48: Question also has no correct answer as blur() cannot be capitalized.
50: Same as 48, capitalization of a method will invalidate that methods use.
Close() != close().
What's AJAX ?

AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a newly coined term for two powerful browser features that have
been around for years, but were overlooked by many web developers until recently when applications such as
Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps hit the streets.
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, or Ajax (pronounced "Aye-Jacks"), is a web development technique for
creating interactive web applications using a combination of XHTML (or HTML) and CSS for marking up and
styling information. (XML is commonly used, although any format will work, including preformatted HTML, plain
text, JSON and even EBML).
The Document Object Model manipulated through JavaScript to dynamically display and interact with the
information presented
The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. In some Ajax frameworks and
in some situations, an IFrame object is used instead of the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data with the web
server.
Like DHTML, LAMP, or SPA, Ajax is not a technology in itself, but a term that refers to the use of a group of
technologies together. In fact, derivative/composite technologies based substantially upon Ajax, such as AFLAX, are
already appearing.
Ajax applications are mostly executed on the user's computer; they can perform a number of tasks without their
performance being limited by the network. This permits the development of interactive applications, in particular

reactive and rich graphic user interfaces.


Ajax applications target a well-documented platform, implemented by all major browsers on most existing
platforms. While it is uncertain that this compatibility will resist the advent of the next generations of browsers (in
particular, Firefox), at the moment, Ajax applications are effectively cross-platform.
While the Ajax platform is more restricted than the Java platform, current Ajax applications effectively fill part of
the one-time niche of Java applets: extending the browser with portable, lightweight mini-applications.
Ajax isnt a technology. Its really several technologies, each flourishing in its own right, coming together in
powerful new ways. Ajax incorporates:
* standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS;
* dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model;
* data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT; * asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest;
* and JavaScript binding everything together.
Whos Using Ajax ?

Google is making a huge investment in developing the Ajax approach. All of the major products Google has
introduced over the last year Orkut, Gmail, the latest beta version of Google Groups, Google Suggest, and
Google Maps are Ajax applications. (For more on the technical nuts and bolts of these Ajax implementations,
check out these excellent analyses of Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps.) Others are following suit: many of
the features that people love in Flickr depend on Ajax, and Amazons A9.com search engine applies similar
techniques.
These projects demonstrate that Ajax is not only technically sound, but also practical for real-world applications.
This isnt another technology that only works in a laboratory. And Ajax applications can be any size, from the very
simple, single-function Google Suggest to the very complex and sophisticated Google Maps.
At Adaptive Path, weve been doing our own work with Ajax over the last several months, and were realizing
weve only scratched the surface of the rich interaction and responsiveness that Ajax applications can provide. Ajax
is an important development for Web applications, and its importance is only going to grow. And because there are
so many developers out there who already know how to use these technologies, we expect to see many more
organizations following Googles lead in reaping the competitive advantage Ajax provides.
Moving Forward
The biggest challenges in creating Ajax applications are not technical. The core Ajax technologies are mature, stable,
and well understood. Instead, the challenges are for the designers of these applications: to forget what we think we
know about the limitations of the Web, and begin to imagine a wider, richer range of possibilities
Should I consider AJAX?

AJAX definitely has the buzz right now, but it might not be the right thing for you. AJAX is limited to the latest
browsers, exposes browser compatibility issues, and requires new skill-sets for many. There is a good blog entry by
Alex Bosworth on AJAX Mistakes which is a good read before you jump full force into AJAX.
On the other hand you can achieve highly interactive rich web applications that are responsive and appear really fast.
While it is debatable as to whether an AJAX based application is really faster, the user feels a sense of immediacy
because they are given active feedback while data is exchanged in the background. If you are an early adopter and
can handle the browser compatibility issues, and are willing to learn some more skills, then AJAX is for you. It may
be prudent to start off AJAX-ifying a small portion or component of your application first. We all love technology,
but just remember the purpose of AJAX is to enhance your user's experience and not hinder it.
Does AJAX work with Java?

Absolutely. Java is a great fit for AJAX! You can use Java Enterprise Edition servers to generate AJAX client pages
and to serve incoming AJAX requests, manage server side state for AJAX clients, and connect AJAX clients to your
enterprise resources. The JavaServer Faces component model is a great fit for defining and using AJAX
components.
Won't my server-side framework provide me with AJAX?

You may be benefiting from AJAX already. Many existing Java based frameworks already have some level of AJAX
interactions and new frameworks and component libraries are being developed to provide better AJAX support. I
won't list all the Java frameworks that use AJAX here, out of fear of missing someone, but you can find a good list
at www.ajaxpatterns.org/Java_Ajax_Frameworks.

If you have not chosen a framework yet it is recommended you consider using JavaServer Faces or a JavaServer
Faces based framework. JavaServer Faces components can be created and used to abstract many of the details of
generating JavaScript, AJAX interactions, and DHTML processing and thus enable simple AJAX used by JSF
application developer and as plug-ins in JSF compatible IDE's, such as Sun Java Studio Creator.
Where should I start?

Assuming the framework you are using does not suffice your use cases and you would like to develop your own
AJAX components or functionality I suggest you start with the article Asynchronous JavaScript Technology and
XML (AJAX) With Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition.
If you would like to see a very basic example that includes source code you can check out the tech tip Using AJAX
with Java Technology. For a more complete list of AJAX resources the Blueprints AJAX home page.
Next, I would recommend spending some time investigating AJAX libraries and frameworks. If you choose to write
your own AJAX clients-side script you are much better off not re-inventing the wheel.
AJAX in Action by Dave Crane and Eric Pascarello with Darren James is good resource. This book is helpful for the
Java developer in that in contains an appendix for learning JavaScript for the Java developer.
Did Adaptive Path invent Ajax? Did Google? Did Adaptive Path help build Googles Ajax applications?

Neither Adaptive Path nor Google invented Ajax. Googles recent products are simply the highest-profile examples
of Ajax applications. Adaptive Path was not involved in the development of Googles Ajax applications, but we have
been doing Ajax work for some of our other clients.
Is it possible to set session variables from javascript?

It's not possible to set any session variables directly from javascript as it is purely a client side technology. You can
use AJAX though to asyncronously...
Cannot parse XML generated by JSP I am generating an XML using JSP, when i run the JSP in IE it shows the XML
as per DOM, but when i try to parse it using Javascript , the command xmldoc.documentElement...
This is working code I am using, it might help you. if (!isIE) xmldoc = req.responseXML; else { //IE does not take
the responseXML as...
What do I need to know to create my own AJAX functionality?

If you plan not to reuse and existing AJAX component here are some of the things you will need to know.
Plan to learn Dynamic HTML (DHTML), the technology that is the foundation for AJAX. DHTML enables
browser-base real time interaction between a user and a web page. DHTML is the combination of JavaScript, the
Document Object Model (DOM) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
* JavaScript - JavaScript is a loosely typed object based scripting language supported by all major browsers and
essential for AJAX interactions. JavaScript in a page is called when an event in a page occurs such as a page load, a
mouse click, or a key press in a form element.
* DOM - An API for accessing and manipulating structured documents. In most cases DOM represent the structure
of XML and HTML documents.
* CSS - Allows you to define the presentation of a page such as fonts, colors, sizes, and positioning. CSS allow for a
clear separation of the presentation from the content and may be changed programmatically by JavaScript.
Understanding the basic request/response nature of HTTP is also important. Many subtle bugs can result if you
ignore the differences between the GET and OIst methods when configuring an XMLHttpRequest and HTTP
response codes when processing callbacks.
JavaScript is the client-side glue, in a sense. JavaScript is used to create the XMLHttpRequest Object and trigger the
asynchronous call. JavaScript is used to parse the returned content. JavaScript is used to analyze the returned data
and process returned messages. JavaScript is used to inject the new content into the HTML using the DOM API and
to modify the CSS.
Do I really need to learn JavaScript?

Basically yes if you plan to develop new AJAX functionality for your web application.
On the other hand, JSF components and component libraries can abstract the details of JavaScript, DOM and CSS.
These components can generate the necessary artifacts to make AJAX interactions possible. Visual tools such as
Java Studio Creator may also use AJAX enabled JSF components to create applications, shielding the tool developer

from many of the details of


AJAX. If you plan to develop your own JSF components or wire the events of components together in a tool it is
important that you have a basic understanding of JavaScript. There are client-side JavaScript libraries (discussed
below) that you can call from your in page JavaScript that abstract browser differences. Object Hierarchy and
Inheritance in JavaScript is a great resource for a Java developer to learn about JavaScript objects.
Do Ajax applications always deliver a better experience than traditional web applications?

Not necessarily. Ajax gives interaction designers more flexibility. However, the more power we have, the more
caution we must use in exercising it. We must be careful to use Ajax to enhance the user experience of our
applications, not degrade it.
What JavaScript libraries and frameworks are available?

There are many libraries/frameworks out there (and many more emerging) that will help abstract such things as all
the nasty browser differences. Three good libraries are The Dojo Toolkit, Prototype, and DWR.
* The Dojo Toolkit contains APIs and widgets to support the development of rich web applications. Dojo contains
an intelligent packaging system, UI effects, drag and drop APIs, widget APIs, event abstraction, client storage APIs,
and AJAX interaction APIs. Dojo solves common usability issues such as support for dealing with the navigation
such as the ability to detect the browser back button, the ability to support changes to the URL in the URL bar for
bookmarking, and the ability to gracefully degrade when AJAX/JavaScript is not fully support on the client. Dojo is
the Swiss Army Knife of JavaScript libraries. It provides the widest range of options in a single library and it does a
very good job supporting new and older browsers.
* Prototype focuses on AJAX interactions including a JavaScript AJAX object that contains a few objects to do
basic tasks such as make a request, update a portion of a document, insert content into a document, and update a
portion of a document periodically. Prototype JavaScript library contains a set of JavaScript objects for representing
AJAX requests and contains utility functions for accessing in page components and DOM manipulations.
Script.aculo.us and Rico are built on top of Prototype and provide UI effects, support for drag and drop, and include
common JavaScript centric widgets. If you are just looking to support AJAX interactions and a few basic tasks
Prototype is great. If you are looking for UI effects Rico and Script.aculo.us are good options.
* Yahoo UI Library is a utility library and set of widgets using the APIs to support rich clients. The utility library
includes support for cross-browser AJAX interactions, animation, DOM scriptging support, drag and drop, and cross
browser event support. The Yahoo UI Library is well documnented and contains many examples.
* DWR (Dynamic Web Remoting) is a client-side and server-side framework that focuses on allowing a developer to
do RPC calls from client-side JavaScript to plain old Java objects in a Java Enterprise Edition web container. On the
server side DWR uses a Servlet to interact with the Java objects and returns object representations of the Java
objects or XML documents. DWR will be easy to get up and running and plays well with other Java technologies. If
you are looking for a client-side and server-side framework that integrates well use DWR.
* Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is client/server framework provided by Google that allows a developer to write an
AJAX application in pure Java. The GWT takes care of the details of generating all the client-side code using a
Java-to-JavaScript compiler. One of the key benefits of the GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is that it allows
you to debug your applications in what is known as GWT hosted mode using an embedded browser (IE on Windows
and Mozilla/Gecko on Linux) that is tied to the toolkit. In GWT hosted mode you setup through the code and debug
it as it is running on both the client and server. The GWT contains a default set of widgets and widget containers. An
application is built by coding a set of widgets and containers together much like would be done in a Swing
application. The GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is limited to Linux and Windows XP/2000 though the web
applications it generates are compatible with the latest generation of the mainstream browsers.
There are many new and emerging libraries for JavaScript and this list only reviews some of the more common
libraries. When making a choice choose the library which suites your needs the best. While it might be better to
choose one, there is nothing stopping you from using more than one framework. For a more extensive list of clientside frameworks see: Survey of AJAX/JavaScript Libraries.
What is the difference between proxied and proxyless calls?

Proxied calls are made through stub objects that mimic your PHP classes on the JavaScript side. E.g., the helloworld
class from the Hello World example.
Proxyless calls are made using utility javascript functions like HTML_AJAX.replace() and HTML_AJAX.append().

Should I use XML or text, JavaScript, or HTML as a return type?

It depends. Clearly the 'X' in AJAX stands for XML, but several AJAX proponents are quick to point out that
nothing in AJAX, per se, precludes using other types of payload, such as, JavaScript, HTML, or plain text.
* XML - Web Services and AJAX seem made for one another. You can use client-side API's for downloading and
parsing the XML content from RESTful Web Services. (However be mindful with some SOAP based Web Services
architectures the payloads can get quite large and complex, and therefore may be inappropriate with AJAX
techniqes.)
* Plain Text - In this case server-generated text may be injected into a document or evaluated by client-side logic.
* JavaScript - This is an extension to the plain text case with the exception that a server-side component passes a
fragment of JavaScript including JavaScript object declarations. Using the JavaScript eval() function you can then
create the objects on the client. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), which is a JavaScript object based data
exchange specification, relies on this technique.
* HTML - Injecting server-generated HTML fragments directly into a document is generally a very effective AJAX
technique. However, it can be complicated keeping the server-side component in sync with what is displayed on the
client.
Mashup is a popular term for creating a completely new web application by combining the content from disparate
Web Services and other online API's. A good example of a mashup is housingmaps.com which graphically combines
housing want-ads from craiglist.org and maps from maps.google.com.
Are there Usability Issues with AJAX?
The nature of updating a page dynamically using data retrieved via AJAX interactions and DHTML may result in
drastically changing the appearance and state of a page. A user might choose to use the browser's back or forward
buttons, bookmark a page, copy the URL from the URL bar and share it with a friend via an email or chat client, or
print a page at any given time. When designing an AJAX based application you need to consider what the expected
behavior would be in the case of navigation, bookmarking, printing, and browser support as described below.
* Navigation - What would be the expected behavior of the back, forward, refresh, and bookmark browser buttons in
your application design. While you could implement history manipulation manually it may be easer to use a
JavaScript frameworks such as Dojo that provides API's history manipulation and navigation control.
* Bookmarking and URL sharing - Many users want to bookmark or cut and paste the URL from the browser bar.
Dojo provides client-side for bookmarking and URL manipulation.
* Printing - In some cases printing dynamically rendered pages can be problematic.
Other considerations as a developer when using AJAX are:
* Browser Support - Not all AJAX/DHTML features are supported on all browsers or all versions of a browser. See
quirksmode.org for a list of browser support and possible workarounds.
* JavaScript disabled - You should also consider what happens if the user disables JavaScript. Additionally, there are
several legitimate reasons why JavaScript and CSS support may be unavailable on a user's web browser.
* Latency - Keep in mind latency in your design. A running application will be much more responsive than when it
is deployed.
Latency problems: myth or reality?
* Accessibility - Guaranteeing your site is accessible to people with disabilities is not only a noble goal, it is also
requited by law in many markets. Some marvelous enabling technology is available to help people use the Web in
spite of disabilities including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities. With a little
forethought, and comprehension of some well documented best practices, you can assure that your application is
compatible with that enabling technology.
Degradability is the term used to describe techniques used by web applications to adapt to the wide range of web
browser capabilities. Many AJAX libraries have automatic degradability built in. But if you are coding your own
custom AJAX functionality, simply taking some care to follow the best practices promoted by standards bodies like
the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and grass root movements like the Web Standards community and many
others, your application can run usefully on browsers that are incapable of AJAX behaviors. Granted, your
application may loose some of the "wow factor" on these less capable browsers, but your application will still be
usable.

Remember to not design with AJAX just for the sake of coolness. The reason you built your application is so people
will use it. And people will not use your application if your application is not compatible with their web browser.
Are there any frameworks available to help speedup development with AJAX?

There are several browser-side frameworks available, each with their own uniqueness...
Is Adaptive Path selling Ajax components or trademarking the name? Where can I download it?

Ajax isnt something you can download. Its an approach a way of thinking about the architecture of web
applications using certain technologies. Neither the Ajax name nor the approach are proprietary to Adaptive Path.
Should I use an HTTP GET or POST for my AJAX calls?

AJAX requests should use an HTTP GET request when retrieving data where the data will not change for a given
request URL. An HTTP POST should be used when state is updated on the server. This is in line with HTTP
idempotency recommendations and is highly recommended for a consistent web application architecture.
How do I debug JavaScript?

There are not that many tools out there that will support both client-side and server-side debugging. I am certain this
will change as AJAX applications proliferate. I currently do my client-side and server-side debugging separately.
Below is some information on the client-side debuggers on some of the commonly used browsers.
* Firefox/Mozilla/Netscape - Have a built in debugger Venkman which can be helpful but there is a Firefox add on
known as FireBug which provides all the information and AJAX developer would ever need including the ability to
inspect the browser DOM, console access to the JavaScript runtime in the browser, and the ability to see the HTTP
requests and responses (including those made by an XMLHttpRequest). I tend to develop my applications initially
on Firefox using Firebug then venture out to the other browsers.
* Safari - Has a debugger which needs to be enabled. See the Safari FAQ for details.
* Internet Explorer - There is MSDN Documentation on debugging JavaScript. A developer toolbar for Internet
Explorer may also be helpful.
While debuggers help a common technique knowing as "Alert Debugging" may be used. In this case you place
"alert()" function calls inline much like you would a System.out.println. While a little primitive it works for most
basic cases. Some frameworks such as Dojo provide APIs for tracking debug statements.
How do I provide internationalized AJAX interactions?

Just because you are using XML does not mean you can properly send and receive localized content using AJAX
requests. To provide internationalized AJAX components you need to do the following:
* Set the charset of the page to an encoding that is supported by your target languages. I tend to use UTF-8 because
it covers the most languages. The following meta declaration in a HTML/JSP page will set the content type:
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
* In the page JavaScript make sure to encode any parameters sent to the server. JavaScript provides the escape()
function which returns Unicode escape strings in which localized text will appear in hexadecimal format. For more
details on JavaScript encoding see Comparing escape(), encodeURI(), and encodeURIComponent().
* On the server-side component set the character encoding using the HttpServletRequest.setCharacterEncoding()
method. Before you access the localized parameter using the HttpServletRequest.getParameter() call. In the case of
UTF this would be request.setCharactherEncoding("UTF-8");.
A server-side component returning AJAX responses needs to set the encoding of the response to the same encoding
used in the page.
response.setContentType("text/xml;charset=;UTF-8");
response.getWriter().write(" <response>invalid </response>");
For more information on using AJAX with Java Enterprise Edition technologies see AJAX and Internationalization
and for developing multi-lingual applications see Developing Multilingual Web Applications Using JavaServer
Pages Technology.
Some of the Google examples you cite dont use XML at all. Do I have to use XML and/or XSLT in an

Ajax application?

No. XML is the most fully-developed means of getting data in and out of an Ajax client, but theres no reason you
couldnt accomplish the same effects using a technology like JavaScript Object Notation or any similar means of
structuring data for interchange.
Are Ajax applications easier to develop than traditional web applications?
Not necessarily. Ajax applications inevitably involve running complex JavaScript code on the client. Making that
complex code efficient and bug-free is not a task to be taken lightly, and better development tools and frameworks
will be needed to help us meet that challenge.
When do I use a synchronous versus a asynchronous request?

Good question. They don't call it AJAX for nothing! A synchronous request would block in page event processing
and I don't see many use cases where a synchronous request is preferable.
How do I handle concurrent AJAX requests?
With JavaScript you can have more than one AJAX request processing at a single time. In order to insure the proper
post processing of code it is recommended that you use JavaScript Closures. The example below shows an
XMLHttpRequest object abstracted by a JavaScript object called AJAXInteraction. As arguments you pass in the
URL to call and the function to call when the processing is done.
function AJAXInteraction(url, callback) {
var req = init();
req.onreadystatechange = processRequest;
function init() {
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
return new XMLHttpRequest();
} else if (window.ActiveXObject) {
return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
}
}
function processRequest () {
if (req.readyState == 4) {
if (req.status == 200) {
if (callback) callback(req.responseXML);
}
}
}
this.doGet = function() {
req.open("GET", url, true);
req.send(null);
}
this.doPost = function(body) {
req.open("POST", url, true);
req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "
application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
req.send(body);
}
}
function makeRequest() {
var ai = new AJAXInteraction("processme",
function() { alert("Doing Post Process");});

ai.doGet();
}
The function makeRequest() in the example above creates an AJAXInteraction with a URL to of "processme" and an
inline function that will show an alert dialog with the message "Doing Post Process". When ai.doGet() is called the
AJAX interaction is initiated and when server-side component mapped to the URL "processme" returns a document
which is passed to the callback function that was specified when the AJAXInteraction was created.
Using this closures insures that the proper callback function associated with a specific AJAX interaction is called.
Caution should still be taken when creating multiple closure objects in that make XmlHttpRequests as to there is a
limited number of sockets that are used to make requests at any given time. Because there are limited number of
requests that can be made concurrently. Internet Explorer for example only allows for two concurrent AJAX requests
at any given time. Other browsers may allow more but it is generally between three and five requests. You may
choose to use pool of AJAXInteraction objects.
One thing to note when making multiple AJAX calls from the client is that the calls are not guaranteed to return in
any given order. Having closures within the callback of a closure object can be used to ensure dependencies are
processed correctly.
There is a discussion titled Ajaxian Fire and Forget Pattern that is helpful.
What do I do on the server to interact with an AJAX client?

The "Content-Type" header needs to be set to"text/xml". In servlets this may be done using the
HttpServletResponse.setContentType()should be set to "text/xml" when the return type is XML. Many
XMLHttpRequest implementations will result in an error if the "Content-Type" header is set The code below shows
how to set the "Content-Type".
response.setContentType("text/xml");
response.getWriter().write("<response>invalid</response>");
You may also want to set whether or not to set the caches header for cases such as autocomplete where you may
want to notify proxy servers/and browsers not to cache the results.
response.setContentType("text/xml");
response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache");
response.getWriter().write("<response>invalid</response>");
Note to the developer: Internet Explorer will automatically use a cached result of any AJAX response from a HTTP
GET if this header is not set which can make things difficult for a developer. During development mode you may
want set this header. Where do I store state with an AJAX client
As with other browser based web applications you have a few options which include:
* On the client in cookies - The size is limited (generally around 4KB X 20 cookies per domain so a total of 80KB)
and the content may not be secure unless encrypted which is difficult but not impossible using JavaScript.
* On the client in the page - This can be done securely but can be problematic and difficult to work with. See my
blog entry on Storing State on the Client for more details on this topic.
* On the client file system - This can be done if the client grants access to the browser to write to the local file
system. Depending on your uses cases this may be necessary but caution is advised.
* On the Server - This is closer to the traditional model where the client view is of the state on the server. Keeping
the data in sync can be a bit problematic and thus we have a solution Refreshing Data on this. As more information
processing and control moves to the client where state is stored will need to be re-evaluated.
Whats with the -alpha in the install instructions?

HTML_AJAX hasn't had a stable release yet and the pear installer doesn't install non stable packages by default
unless you specify a version.
How do I submit a form or a part of a form without a page refresh?

When creating a form make sure that the "form" element "onSubmit" attribute is set to a JavaScript function that
returns false.
<form onSubmit="doAJAXSubmit();return false;" >
<input type="text" id="tf1" />
<input type="submit" id="submit1" value="Update"/>
</>
You can also submit data by associating a function with a form button in a similar way.
<form onSubmit="doAJAXSubmit();return false;" >
<input type="text" id="tf1" />
<input type="button" id="button1" onClick="doAJAXSubmit()" value="Update"/>
</>
Note that the form "onSubmit" attribute is still set. If the user hits the enter key in the text field the form will be
submitted so you still need to handle that case.
When updating the page it is recommend you wait to make sure that the AJAX update of the form data was
successful before updating the data in the page. Otherwise, the data may not properly update and the user may not
know. I like to provide an informative message when doing a partial update and upon a successful AJAX interaction
I will then update the page.
How do I test my AJAX code?

There is a port of JUnit for client-side JavaScript called JsUnit


What exactly is the W3C DOM?

The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is defined by the W3C as the following: The Document Object Model is
a platform- and language-neutral interface...
When will HTML_AJAX have a stable release?

Once all the major features are complete and the API has been tested, the roadmap gives an idea of whats left to be
done.
What parts of the HTML_AJAX API are stable?

We don't have a list right now, but most of the API is stable as of 0.3.0. There should be no major changes at this
point, though there will be lots of new additions.
What Browsers does HTML_AJAX work with?

As of 0.3.0, all the examples that ship with HTML_AJAX have been verified to work with
* Firefox 1.0+
* Internet Explorer 5.5+ (5.0 should work but it hasn't been tested)
Most things work with
* Safari 2+
* Opera 8.5+
How do I handle concurrent AJAX requests?
With JavaScript you can have more than one AJAX request processing at a single time. In order to insure the proper
post processing of code it is recommended that you use JavaScript Closures. The example below shows an
XMLHttpRequest object abstracted by a JavaScript object called AJAXInteraction. As arguments you pass in the
URL to call and the function to call when the processing is done.
function AJAXInteraction(url, callback) {
var req = init();
req.onreadystatechange = processRequest;
function init() {
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
return new XMLHttpRequest();

} else if (window.ActiveXObject) {
return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
}
}
function processRequest () {
if (req.readyState == 4) {
if (req.status == 200) {
if (callback) callback(req.responseXML);
}
}
}
this.doGet = function() {
req.open("GET", url, true);
req.send(null);
}
this.doPost = function(body) {
req.open("POST", url, true);
req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "
application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
req.send(body);
}
}
function makeRequest() {
var ai = new AJAXInteraction("processme",
function() { alert("Doing Post Process");});
ai.doGet();
}
The function makeRequest() in the example above creates an AJAXInteraction with a URL to of "processme" and an
inline function that will show an alert dialog with the message "Doing Post Process". When ai.doGet() is called the
AJAX interaction is initiated and when server-side component mapped to the URL "processme" returns a document
which is passed to the callback function that was specified when the AJAXInteraction was created.
Using this closures insures that the proper callback function associated with a specific AJAX interaction is called.
Caution should still be taken when creating multiple closure objects in that make XmlHttpRequests as to there is a
limited number of sockets that are used to make requests at any given time. Because there are limited number of
requests that can be made concurrently. Internet Explorer for example only allows for two concurrent AJAX requests
at any given time. Other browsers may allow more but it is generally between three and five requests. You may
choose to use pool of AJAXInteraction objects.
One thing to note when making multiple AJAX calls from the client is that the calls are not guaranteed to return in
any given order. Having closures within the callback of a closure object can be used to ensure dependencies are
processed correctly.
There is a discussion titled Ajaxian Fire and Forget Pattern that is helpful.
What do I do on the server to interact with an AJAX client?

The "Content-Type" header needs to be set to"text/xml". In servlets this may be done using the
HttpServletResponse.setContentType()should be set to "text/xml" when the return type is XML. Many
XMLHttpRequest implementations will result in an error if the "Content-Type" header is set The code below shows
how to set the "Content-Type".
response.setContentType("text/xml");

response.getWriter().write("<response>invalid</response>");
You may also want to set whether or not to set the caches header for cases such as autocomplete where you may
want to notify proxy servers/and browsers not to cache the results.
response.setContentType("text/xml");
response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache");
response.getWriter().write("<response>invalid</response>");
Note to the developer: Internet Explorer will automatically use a cached result of any AJAX response from a HTTP
GET if this header is not set which can make things difficult for a developer. During development mode you may
want set this header. Where do I store state with an AJAX client
As with other browser based web applications you have a few options which include:
* On the client in cookies - The size is limited (generally around 4KB X 20 cookies per domain so a total of 80KB)
and the content may not be secure unless encrypted which is difficult but not impossible using JavaScript.
* On the client in the page - This can be done securely but can be problematic and difficult to work with. See my
blog entry on Storing State on the Client for more details on this topic.
* On the client file system - This can be done if the client grants access to the browser to write to the local file
system. Depending on your uses cases this may be necessary but caution is advised.
* On the Server - This is closer to the traditional model where the client view is of the state on the server. Keeping
the data in sync can be a bit problematic and thus we have a solution Refreshing Data on this. As more information
processing and control moves to the client where state is stored will need to be re-evaluated.
Whats with the -alpha in the install instructions?

HTML_AJAX hasn't had a stable release yet and the pear installer doesn't install non stable packages by default
unless you specify a version.
How do I submit a form or a part of a form without a page refresh?

When creating a form make sure that the "form" element "onSubmit" attribute is set to a JavaScript function that
returns false.
<form onSubmit="doAJAXSubmit();return false;" >
<input type="text" id="tf1" />
<input type="submit" id="submit1" value="Update"/>
</>
You can also submit data by associating a function with a form button in a similar way.
<form onSubmit="doAJAXSubmit();return false;" >
<input type="text" id="tf1" />
<input type="button" id="button1" onClick="doAJAXSubmit()" value="Update"/>
</>
Note that the form "onSubmit" attribute is still set. If the user hits the enter key in the text field the form will be
submitted so you still need to handle that case.
When updating the page it is recommend you wait to make sure that the AJAX update of the form data was
successful before updating the data in the page. Otherwise, the data may not properly update and the user may not
know. I like to provide an informative message when doing a partial update and upon a successful AJAX interaction
I will then update the page.
How do I test my AJAX code?

There is a port of JUnit for client-side JavaScript called JsUnit


What exactly is the W3C DOM?

The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is defined by the W3C as the following: The Document Object Model is

a platform- and language-neutral interface...


When will HTML_AJAX have a stable release?

Once all the major features are complete and the API has been tested, the roadmap gives an idea of whats left to be
done.
What parts of the HTML_AJAX API are stable?

We don't have a list right now, but most of the API is stable as of 0.3.0. There should be no major changes at this
point, though there will be lots of new additions.
What Browsers does HTML_AJAX work with?

As of 0.3.0, all the examples that ship with HTML_AJAX have been verified to work with
* Firefox 1.0+
* Internet Explorer 5.5+ (5.0 should work but it hasn't been tested)
Most things work with
* Safari 2+
* Opera 8.5+
How do I handle the back and forward buttons?
While you could go out and create a custom solution that tracks the current state on your application I recommend
you leave this to the experts. Dojo addresses the navigation in a browser neutral way as can be seen in the JavaScript
example below.
function updateOnServer(oldId, oldValue,
itemId, itemValue) {
var bindArgs = {
url: "faces/ajax-dlabel-update",
method: "post",
content: {"component-id": itemId, "component-value":
itemValue},
mimetype: "text/xml",
load: function(type, data) {
processUpdateResponse(data);
},
backButton: function() {
alert("old itemid was " + oldId);
},
forwardButton: function(){
alert("forward we must go!");
}
};
dojo.io.bind(bindArgs);
}
The example above will update a value on the server using dojo.io.bind() with a function as a property that is
responsible for dealing with the browser back button event. As a developer you are capable of restoring the value to
the oldValue or taking any other action that you see fit. The underlying details of how the how the browser button
event are detected are hidden from the developer by Dojo.
AJAX: How to Handle Bookmarks and Back Buttons details this problem and provides a JavaScript library Really
Simple History framework (RSH) that focuses just on the back and forward issue.
How does HTML_AJAX compare with the XAJAX project at Sourceforge?

XAJAX uses XML as a transport for data between the webpage and server, and you don't write your own javascript
data handlers to manipulate the data received from the server. Instead you use a php class and built in javascript
methods, a combination that works very similiar to the HTML_AJAX_Action class and haSerializer combo.
XAJAX is designed for simplicity and ease of use.
HTML_AJAX allows for multiple transmission types for your ajax data - such as urlencoding, json, phpserialized,
plain text, with others planned, and has a system you can use to write your own serializers to meet your specific

needs. HTML_AJAX has a class to help generate javascript (HTML_AJAX_Helper) similiar to ruby on rail's
javascript helper (although it isn't complete), and an action system similiar to XAJAX's "action pump" that allows
you to avoid writing javascript data handlers if you desire.
But it also has the ability to write your own data handling routines, automatically register classes and methods using
a server "proxy" script, do different types of callbacks including grabbing remote urls, choose between sync and
async requests, has iframe xmlhttprequest emulation fallback capabilities for users with old browsers or disabled
activeX, and is in active development with more features planned (see the Road Map for details)
HTML_AJAX has additional features such as client pooling and priority queues for more advanced users, and even
a javascript utility class. Although you can use HTML_AJAX the same way you use XAJAX, the additional features
make it more robust, extensible and flexible. And it is a pear package, you can use the pear installer to both install
and keep it up to date.
If you're asking which is "better" - as with most php scripts it's a matter of taste and need. Do you need a quick,
simple ajax solution? Or do you want something that's flexible, extensible, and looking to incorporate even more
great features? It depends on the project, you as a writer, and your future plans.
What browsers support AJAX?

Internet Explorer 5.0 and up, Opera 7.6 and up, Netscape 7.1 and up, Firefox 1.0 and up, Safari 1.2 and up, among
others.
How do I send an image using AJAX?

While it may appear that images are being sent when using AJAX with an application like Google Maps what is
really happening is that the URLs of images are being send as the response of an AJAX request and those URLs are
being set using DHTML.
In this example an XML document is returned from an AJAX interaction and the category bar is populated.
<categories>
<category>
<cat-id>1</cat-id>
<name>Books</name>
<description>Fun to read</description>
<image-url>books_icon.gif</image-url>
</category>
<category>
<cat-id>2</cat-id>
<name>Electronics</name>
<description>Must have gadgets</description>
<image-url>electronics.gif</image-url>
</category>
</categories>

Notice that the image-url element contains the location of the URL for the image representing a category. The
callback method of an AJAX interaction will parse the response XML document and call the addCategory function
for each category included in the response XML document. The addCategory function looks up a table row element
"categoryTable" in body of the page and adds a row to the element which contains the image.
<scrip type="text/javascript" >
...
function addCategory(id, name, imageSrc) {
var categoryTable = document.getElementById("categoryTable");
var row = document.createElement("tr");

var catCell = document.createElement("td");


var img = document.createElement("img");
img.src = ("images\\" + imageSrc);
var link = document.createElement("a");
link.className ="category";
link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(name));
link.setAttribute("onclick", "catalog?command=category&catid=" + id);
catCell.appendChild(img);
catCell.appendChild(link);
row.appendChild(catCell);
categoryTable.appendChild(row);
}
</script>
...
<table>
<tr>
<td width="300" bgoclor="lightGray">
<table id="categoryTable" border="0" cellpadding="0"></table>
</td>
<td id="body" width="100%">Body Here</td>
</tr>
</table>

Note that the source of the image is set to the image source. The image is loaded by a subsequent HTTP request for
the image at the URL "images/books_icon.gif" or "images/electronic_icon.gif" that occurs when the img element is
added to the categoryTable.
Will HTML_AJAX integrate with other Javascript AJAX libraries such as scriptaculous ? How would this
integration look like?

HTML_AJAX doesn't have specific plans to integrate with other JavaScript libraries. Part of this is because external
dependencies make for a more complicated installation process. It might make sense to offer some optional
dependencies on a library like scriptaculous automatically using its visual effects for the loading box or something,
but there isn't a lot to gain from making default visuals like that flashier since they are designed to be easily
replaceable.
Most integration would take place in higher level components. Its unclear whether higher level components like that
should be part of HTML_AJAX delivered through PEAR or if they should just be supported by HTML_AJAX and
made available from http://htmlajax.org or some other site. If your interested in building widgets or components
based on HTML_AJAX please let me know.
HTML_AJAX does however offer the ability to use its library loading mechanism with any JavaScript library. I use
scriptaculous in conjunction with HTML_AJAX and I load both libraries through the server.
To do this you just need to register the library with your server and load add its flag to your include line.
<?php
$this->server->registerJSLibrary('scriptaculous',
array('prototype.js','scriptaculous.js','builder.js','effects.js','dragdrop.js','controls.js','slider.js'),
'/pathto/scriptaculous/');?>
<script type="text/javascrpt" src="server.php?client=scriptaculous"></script>
When should I use an Java applet instead of AJAX?

Applets provide a rich experience on the client side and there are many things they can do that an AJAX application
cannot do, such as custom data streaming, graphic manipulation, threading, and advanced GUIs. While DHTML
with the use of AJAX has been able to push the boundaries on what you can do on the client, there are some things
that it just cannot do. The reason AJAX is so popular is that it only requires functionality built into the browser
(namely DHTML and AJAX capabilities). The user does not need to download and/or configure plugins. It is easy to
incrementally update functionality and know that that functionality will readily available, and there are not any
complicated deployment issues. That said, AJAX-based functionality does need to take browser differences into
consideration. This is why we recommend using a JavaScript library such as Dojo which abstracts browser
differences. So the "bottom line" is: If you are creating advanced UIs where you need more advanced features on the
client where you want UI accuracy down to the pixel, to do complex computations on the client, use specialized
networking techniques, and where you know that the applet plugin is available for your target audience, applets are
the way to go. AJAX/DHTML works well for applications where you know the users are using the latest generation
of browsers, where DHTML/AJAX "good enough" for you, and where your developers have
JavaScript/DHTML/AJAX skills. Many amazing things can be done with AJAX/DHTML but there are limitations.
AJAX and applets can be used together in the same UIs with AJAX providing the basic structure and applets
providing more advanced functionality. The Java can communicate to JavaScript using the Live-Connect APIs. The
question should not be should framed as do I use AJAX or applets, but rather which technology makes the best sense
for what you are doing. AJAX and applets do not have to be mutually exclusive.
What kinds of applications is Ajax best suited for?

We dont know yet. Because this is a relatively new approach, our understanding of where Ajax can best be applied
is still in its infancy. Sometimes the traditional web application model is the most appropriate solution to a problem.
Does this mean Adaptive Path is anti-Flash?

Not at all. Macromedia is an Adaptive Path client, and weve long been supporters of Flash technology. As Ajax
matures, we expect that sometimes Ajax will be the better solution to a particular problem, and sometimes Flash will
be the better solution. Were also interested in exploring ways the technologies can be mixed (as in the case of
Flickr, which uses both).
Where can I find examples of AJAX?

While components of AJAX have been around for some time (for instance, 1999 for XMLHttpRequest), it really
didn't become that popular until Google took...
What is the XMLHttpRequest object?

It offers a non-blocking way for JavaScript to communicate back to the web server to update only part of the web
page.
Does Ajax have significant accessibility or browser compatibility limitations? Do Ajax applications
break the back button? Is Ajax compatible with REST? Are there security considerations with Ajax
development? Can Ajax applications be made to work for users who have JavaScript turned off?

The answer to all of these questions is maybe. Many developers are already working on ways to address these
concerns. We think theres more work to be done to determine all the limitations of Ajax, and we expect the Ajax
development community to uncover more issues like these along the way.
How do I access data from other domains to create a mashup with Java?

From your JavaScript clients you can access data in other domains if the return data is provide in JSON format. In
essence you can create a JavaScript client that runs operates using data from a different server. This technique is
know as JSON with Padding or JSONP. There are questions as to whether this method is secure as you are retrieving
data from outside your domain and allowing it to be excuted in the context of your domain. Not all data from third
parties is accessible as JSON and in some cases you may want an extra level of protection. With Java you can
provide a proxy to third party services using a web component such as a servlet. This proxy can manage the
communication with a third party service and provide the data to your clients in a format of your choosing. You can
also cache data at your proxy and reduce trips to service. For more on using a Java proxy to create mashups see The
XmlHttpProxy Client for Java.
Does Java have support for Comet style server-side push?

Current AJAX applications use polling to communicate changes data between the server and client. Some
applications, such as chat applications, stock tickers, or score boards require more immediate notifications of
updates to the client. Comet is an event based low latency server side push for AJAX applications. Comet

communication keeps one of the two connections available to the browser open to continously communicate events
from the server to the client. A Java based solution for Comet is being developed for Glassfish on top of the Grizzly
HTTP connector. See Enabling Grizzly by Jean-Francois Arcand for more details.
How do I create a thread to do AJAX polling?

JavaScript does not have threads. JavaScript functions are called when an event happens in a page such as the page
is loaded, a mouse click, or a form element gains focus. You can create a timer using the setTimeout which takes a
function name and time in milliseconds as arguments. You can then loop by calling the same function as can be seen
in the JavaScript example below.
function checkForMessage() {
// start AJAX interaction with processCallback as the callback function
}
// callback for the request
function processCallback() {
// do post processing
setTimeout("checkForMessage()", 10000);
}
Notice that the checkForMessage will continue to loop indefinitely. You may want to vary the increment the interval
based on activity in the page or your use cases. You may also choose to have logic that would break out of the loop
based on some AJAX response processing condition.
Is the XMLHttpRequest object part of a W3C standard?

No. Or not yet. It is part of the DOM Level 3 Load and Save Specification proposal.

ow do I submit a form or a part of a form without a page refresh?


When creating a form make sure that the form element onSubmit
attribute is set to a JavaScript function that returns false.
<form onSubmit="doAJAXSubmit();return false;" >
<input type="text" id="tf1" />
<input type="submit" id="submit1" value="Update"/>
</>
You can also submit data by associating a function with a form button in a
similar way.
<form onSubmit=doAJAXSubmit();return false; >
<input type=text id=tf1 />
<input type=button id=button1 onClick=doAJAXSubmit()
value=Update/>
</>
Note that the form onSubmit attribute is still set. If the user hits the enter
key in the text field the form will be submitted so you still need to handle
that case.
When updating the page it is recommend you wait to make sure that the
AJAX update of the form data was successful before updating the data in the
page. Otherwise, the data may not properly update and the user may not
know. I like to provide an informative message when doing a partial update
and upon a successful AJAX interaction I will then update the page.
How do I test my AJAX code?

There is a port of JUnit for client-side JavaScript called JsUnit


What exactly is the W3C DOM?
The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is defined by the W3C as the
following: The Document Object Model is a platform- and language-neutral
interface
When will HTML_AJAX have a stable release?
Once all the major features are complete and the API has been tested, the
roadmap gives an idea of whats left to be done.
What parts of the HTML_AJAX API are stable?
We dont have a list right now, but most of the API is stable as of 0.3.0. There
should be no major changes at this point, though there will be lots of new
additions.
What Browsers does HTML_AJAX work with?
As of 0.3.0, all the examples that ship with HTML_AJAX have been verified to
work with
* Firefox 1.0+
* Internet Explorer 5.5+ (5.0 should work but it hasnt been tested)
Most things work with
* Safari 2+
* Opera 8.5+
Is the server or the client in control?
It depends. With AJAX the answer is more in between. Control can be more
centralized in a server-side component or as a mix of client-side and serverside controllers.
* Centralized server-side controller - When having a more centralized
controller the key is to make sure the data in client-side page is in sync with
that of the server. Some applications may keep all the state on the server
and push all updates to client DOM via a simple JavaScript controller.
* Client and server-side controllers - This architecture would use JavaScript to
do all presentation related control, event processing, page manipulation, and
rendering of model data on the client. The server-side would be responsible
for things such as business logic and pushing updated model data to the
client. In this case the server would not have intimate knowledge of the
presentation short of the initial page that would be sent to the client page
request.
There are some use cases where an entire AJAX application can be written in
a single page. Keep in mind if you choose this type of architecture that
navigation and bookmarking should be considered.
Both methods are viable depending on what you are trying to accomplish. I
tend to prefer spreading the control across the client and server.
Is Ajax just another name for XMLHttpRequest?
No. XMLHttpRequest is only part of the Ajax equation. XMLHttpRequest is the
technical component that makes the asynchronous server communication
possible; Ajax is our name for the overall approach described in the article,
which relies not only on XMLHttpRequest, but on CSS, DOM, and other
technologies.

How do I abort the current XMLHttpRequest?


Just call the abort() method on the request.
What is the minimum version of PHP that needs to be running in order to use
HTML_AJAX?
The oldest PHP version ive fully tested HTML_AJAX is 4.3.11, but it should
run on 4.2.0 without any problems. (Testing reports from PHP versions older
then 4.3.11 would be appreciated.)
Why does HTML_AJAX hang on some server installs
If you run into an HTML_AJAX problem only on some servers, chances are
your running into a problem with output compression. If the output
compression is handled in the PHP config we detect that and do the right
thing, but if its done from an apache extension we have no way of knowing
its going to compress the body. Some times setting
HTML_AJAX::sendContentLength to false fixes the problem, but in other cases
youll need to disabled the extension for the AJAX pages.
Ive also seen problems caused by debugging extensions like XDebug,
disabling the extension on the server page usually fixes that. Questions
dealing with Using HTML_AJAX, and general JavaScript development
How do I get the XMLHttpRequest object?
Depending upon the browser if (window.ActiveXObject) { // Internet
Explorer http_request = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.XMLHTTP); } else if
Are there any security issues with AJAX?
JavaScript is in plain view to the user with by selecting view source of the
page. JavaScript can not access the local filesystem without the users
permission. An AJAX interaction can only be made with the servers-side
component from which the page was loaded. A proxy pattern could be used
for AJAX interactions with external services.
You need to be careful not to expose your application model in such as way
that your server-side components are at risk if a nefarious user to reverse
engineer your application. As with any other web application, consider using
HTTPS to secure the connection when confidential information is being
exchanged.
What about applets and plugins ?
Dont be too quick to dump your plugin or applet based portions of your
application. While AJAX and DHTML can do drag and drop and other
advanced user interfaces there still limitations especially when it comes to
browser support. Plugins and applets have been around for a while and have
been able to make AJAX like requests for years. Applets provide a great set of
UI components and APIs that provide developers literally anything.
Many people disregard applets or plugins because there is a startup time to
initialize the plugin and there is no guarantee that the needed version of a
plugin of JVM is installed. Plugins and applets may not be as capable of
manipulating the page DOM. If you are in a uniform environment or can
depend on a specific JVM or plugin version being available (such as in a
corporate environment) a plugin or applet solution is great.
One thing to consider is a mix of AJAX and applets or plugins. Flickr uses a

combination of AJAX interactions/DHTML for labeling pictures and user


interaction and a plugin for manipulating photos and photo sets to provide a
great user experience. If you design your server-side components well they
can talk to both types of clients.
Why did you feel the need to give this a name?
I needed something shorter than Asynchronous
JavaScript+CSS+DOM+XMLHttpRequest to use when discussing this
approach with clients.
Is AJAX code cross browser compatible?
Not totally. Most browsers offer a native XMLHttpRequest JavaScript object,
while another one (Internet Explorer) require you to get it as an ActiveX
object.
Techniques for asynchronous server communication have been around for
years. What makes Ajax a new approach?
Whats new is the prominent use of these techniques in real-world
applications to change the fundamental interaction model of the Web. Ajax is
taking hold now because these technologies and the industrys
understanding of how to deploy them most effectively have taken time to
develop.
Is Ajax a technology platform or is it an architectural style?
Its both. Ajax is a set of technologies being used together in a particular
way.
How do I handle the back and forward buttons?
While you could go out and create a custom solution that tracks the current
state on your application I recommend you leave this to the experts. Dojo
addresses the navigation in a browser neutral way as can be seen in the
JavaScript example below.
function updateOnServer(oldId, oldValue,
itemId, itemValue) {
var bindArgs = {
url: "faces/ajax-dlabel-update",
method: "post",
content: {"component-id": itemId, "component-value":
itemValue},
mimetype: "text/xml",
load: function(type, data) {
processUpdateResponse(data);
},
backButton: function() {
alert(old itemid was + oldId);
},
forwardButton: function(){
alert(forward we must go!);}};
dojo.io.bind(bindArgs);}
The example above will update a value on the server using dojo.io.bind()
with a function as a property that is responsible for dealing with the browser

back button event. As a developer you are capable of restoring the value to
the oldValue or taking any other action that you see fit. The underlying
details of how the how the browser button event are detected are hidden
from the developer by Dojo.
AJAX: How to Handle Bookmarks and Back Buttons details this problem and
provides a JavaScript library Really Simple History framework (RSH) that
focuses just on the back and forward issue.
How does HTML_AJAX compare with the XAJAX project at Sourceforge?
XAJAX uses XML as a transport for data between the webpage and server,
and you dont write your own javascript data handlers to manipulate the data
received from the server. Instead you use a php class and built in javascript
methods, a combination that works very similiar to the HTML_AJAX_Action
class and haSerializer combo. XAJAX is designed for simplicity and ease of
use.
HTML_AJAX allows for multiple transmission types for your ajax data - such as
urlencoding, json, phpserialized, plain text, with others planned, and has a
system you can use to write your own serializers to meet your specific
needs. HTML_AJAX has a class to help generate javascript
(HTML_AJAX_Helper) similiar to ruby on rails javascript helper (although it
isnt complete), and an action system similiar to XAJAXs action pump that
allows you to avoid writing javascript data handlers if you desire.
But it also has the ability to write your own data handling routines,
automatically register classes and methods using a server proxy script, do
different types of callbacks including grabbing remote urls, choose between
sync and async requests, has iframe xmlhttprequest emulation fallback
capabilities for users with old browsers or disabled activeX, and is in active
development with more features planned (see the Road Map for details)
HTML_AJAX has additional features such as client pooling and priority queues
for more advanced users, and even a javascript utility class. Although you
can use HTML_AJAX the same way you use XAJAX, the additional features
make it more robust, extensible and flexible. And it is a pear package, you
can use the pear installer to both install and keep it up to date.
If youre asking which is better - as with most php scripts its a matter of
taste and need. Do you need a quick, simple ajax solution? Or do you want
something thats flexible, extensible, and looking to incorporate even more
great features? It depends on the project, you as a writer, and your future
plans.
What browsers support AJAX?
Internet Explorer 5.0 and up, Opera 7.6 and up, Netscape 7.1 and up, Firefox
1.0 and up, Safari 1.2 and up, among others.
How do I send an image using AJAX?
While it may appear that images are being sent when using AJAX with an
application like Google Maps what is really happening is that the URLs of
images are being send as the response of an AJAX request and those URLs
are being set using DHTML.
In this example an XML document is returned from an AJAX interaction and

the category bar is populated.


<categories>
<category>
<cat-id>1</cat-id>
<name>Books</name>
<description>Fun to read</description>
<image-url>books_icon.gif</image-url>
</category>
<category>
<cat-id>2</cat-id>
<name>Electronics</name>
<description>Must have gadgets</description>
<image-url>electronics.gif</image-url>
</category>
</categories>
Notice that the image-url element contains the location of the URL for the
image representing a category. The callback method of an AJAX interaction
will parse the response XML document and call the addCategory function for
each category included in the response XML document. The addCategory
function looks up a table row element categoryTable in body of the page
and adds a row to the element which contains the image.
<scrip type=text/javascript >

function addCategory(id, name, imageSrc) {


var categoryTable = document.getElementById(categoryTable);
var row = document.createElement(tr);
var catCell = document.createElement(td);
var img = document.createElement(img);
img.src = (images\\ + imageSrc);
var link = document.createElement(a);
link.className =category;
link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(name));
link.setAttribute(onclick, catalog?command=category&catid= + id);
catCell.appendChild(img);
catCell.appendChild(link);
row.appendChild(catCell);
categoryTable.appendChild(row);}
</script>

<table>
<tr>
<td width=300 bgoclor=lightGray>
<table id=categoryTable border=0 cellpadding=0></table>
</td>
<td id=body width=100%>Body Here</td>
</tr>

</table>
Note that the source of the image is set to the image source. The image is
loaded by a subsequent HTTP request for the image at the URL
images/books_icon.gif or images/electronic_icon.gif that occurs when the
img element is added to the categoryTable.
Will HTML_AJAX integrate with other Javascript AJAX libraries such as
scriptaculous ? How would this integration look like?
HTML_AJAX doesnt have specific plans to integrate with other JavaScript
libraries. Part of this is because external dependencies make for a more
complicated installation process. It might make sense to offer some optional
dependencies on a library like scriptaculous automatically using its visual
effects for the loading box or something, but there isnt a lot to gain from
making default visuals like that flashier since they are designed to be easily
replaceable.
Most integration would take place in higher level components. Its unclear
whether higher level components like that should be part of HTML_AJAX
delivered through PEAR or if they should just be supported by HTML_AJAX
and made available from http://htmlajax.org or some other site. If your
interested in building widgets or components based on HTML_AJAX please let
me know.
HTML_AJAX does however offer the ability to use its library loading
mechanism with any JavaScript library. I use scriptaculous in conjunction with
HTML_AJAX and I load both libraries through the server.
To do this you just need to register the library with your server and load add
its flag to your include line.
<?php
$this->server->registerJSLibrary(scriptaculous,
array(prototype.js,scriptaculous.js,'builder.js,'effects.js,'dragdrop.js,'contr
ols.js,slider.js), /pathto/scriptaculous/);?>
<script type=text/javascrpt src=server.php?
client=scriptaculous></script>
When should I use an Java applet instead of AJAX?
Applets provide a rich experience on the client side and there are many
things they can do that an AJAX application cannot do, such as custom data
streaming, graphic manipulation, threading, and advanced GUIs. While
DHTML with the use of AJAX has been able to push the boundaries on what
you can do on the client, there are some things that it just cannot do. The
reason AJAX is so popular is that it only requires functionality built into the
browser (namely DHTML and AJAX capabilities). The user does not need to
download and/or configure plugins. It is easy to incrementally update
functionality and know that that functionality will readily available, and there
are not any complicated deployment issues. That said, AJAX-based
functionality does need to take browser differences into consideration. This is
why we recommend using a JavaScript library such as Dojo which abstracts
browser differences. So the bottom line is: If you are creating advanced UIs
where you need more advanced features on the client where you want UI

accuracy down to the pixel, to do complex computations on the client, use


specialized networking techniques, and where you know that the applet
plugin is available for your target audience, applets are the way to go.
AJAX/DHTML works well for applications where you know the users are using
the latest generation of browsers, where DHTML/AJAX good enough for you,
and where your developers have JavaScript/DHTML/AJAX skills. Many
amazing things can be done with AJAX/DHTML but there are limitations. AJAX
and applets can be used together in the same UIs with AJAX providing the
basic structure and applets providing more advanced functionality. The Java
can communicate to JavaScript using the Live-Connect APIs. The question
should not be should framed as do I use AJAX or applets, but rather which
technology makes the best sense for what you are doing. AJAX and applets
do not have to be mutually exclusive.
What kinds of applications is Ajax best suited for?
We dont know yet. Because this is a relatively new approach, our
understanding of where Ajax can best be applied is still in its infancy.
Sometimes the traditional web application model is the most appropriate
solution to a problem.
Does this mean Adaptive Path is anti-Flash?
Not at all. Macromedia is an Adaptive Path client, and weve long been
supporters of Flash technology. As Ajax matures, we expect that sometimes
Ajax will be the better solution to a particular problem, and sometimes Flash
will be the better solution. Were also interested in exploring ways the
technologies can be mixed (as in the case of Flickr, which uses both).
Where can I find examples of AJAX?
While components of AJAX have been around for some time (for instance,
1999 for XMLHttpRequest), it really didnt become that popular until Google
took
What is the XMLHttpRequest object?
It offers a non-blocking way for JavaScript to communicate back to the web
server to update only part of the web page.
Does Ajax have significant accessibility or browser compatibility limitations?
Do Ajax applications break the back button? Is Ajax compatible with REST?
Are there security considerations with Ajax development? Can Ajax
applications be made to work for users who have JavaScript turned off?
The answer to all of these questions is maybe. Many developers are
already working on ways to address these concerns. We think theres more
work to be done to determine all the limitations of Ajax, and we expect the
Ajax development community to uncover more issues like these along the
way.
How do I access data from other domains to create a mashup with Java?
From your JavaScript clients you can access data in other domains if the
return data is provide in JSON format. In essence you can create a JavaScript
client that runs operates using data from a different server. This technique is
know as JSON with Padding or JSONP. There are questions as to whether this
method is secure as you are retrieving data from outside your domain and

allowing it to be excuted in the context of your domain. Not all data from
third parties is accessible as JSON and in some cases you may want an extra
level of protection. With Java you can provide a proxy to third party services
using a web component such as a servlet. This proxy can manage the
communication with a third party service and provide the data to your clients
in a format of your choosing. You can also cache data at your proxy and
reduce trips to service. For more on using a Java proxy to create mashups
see The XmlHttpProxy Client for Java.
Does Java have support for Comet style server-side push?
Current AJAX applications use polling to communicate changes data between
the server and client. Some applications, such as chat applications, stock
tickers, or score boards require more immediate notifications of updates to
the client. Comet is an event based low latency server side push for AJAX
applications. Comet communication keeps one of the two connections
available to the browser open to continously communicate events from the
server to the client. A Java based solution for Comet is being developed for
Glassfish on top of the Grizzly HTTP connector. See Enabling Grizzly by JeanFrancois Arcand for more details.
How do I create a thread to do AJAX polling?
JavaScript does not have threads. JavaScript functions are called when an
event happens in a page such as the page is loaded, a mouse click, or a form
element gains focus. You can create a timer using the setTimeout which
takes a function name and time in milliseconds as arguments. You can then
loop by calling the same function as can be seen in the JavaScript example
below.
function checkForMessage() {
// start AJAX interaction with processCallback as the callback function}
// callback for the request
function processCallback() {
// do post processing
setTimeout(checkForMessage(), 10000);}
Notice that the checkForMessage will continue to loop indefinitely. You may
want to vary the increment the interval based on activity in the page or your
use cases. You may also choose to have logic that would break out of the
loop based on some AJAX response processing condition.
Is the XMLHttpRequest object part of a W3C standard?
No. Or not yet. It is part of the DOM Level 3 Load and Save Specification
proposal.
How about some AJAX?
wijou used to use some AJAX, like Instant Search and In-Page commenting.
Pulled for compatibility reasons.
What is AJAX?
Asnychronous Javascript And XML. AJAX is used to enhance the look at feel of
online applications to provide a desktop application feel by refreshing only
portions of your browser, greatly enhancing a pages load time. In addition to
providing quicker page load times and a friendly interface, no software needs

to be installed onto your compu


What is Ajax?
Ajax is a collection of technologies available in modern web browsers that
collectively further the webs ability to be used as an application platform.
The term Ajax is actually an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and
XML, and represents the combined use of XHTML, CSS, DOM Manipulation,
XML/XSLT, JavaScript, and XMLHttpRequest. The teAJAX is an acronym for
Asynchronous Java And XML, and represents a group of various technologies
and methodologies for developing new, highly interactive and user-centric
Web applications. With AJAX technologies, the developer concentrates on
providing a rich user interface for the end-user, and by exchanging da
What is Mobile Ajax?
Ajax is a browser technology that involves the use of existing web standards
and more responsive web applications that reduce bandwidth usage by
avoiding full page refreshes and providing a more desktop application-like
user experience. The term <SPAN< div>
What about Ajax?
Ajax (short for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) glues JavaScript, HTML,
and XML together to make rich user interfaces. Microsoft created the
technical underpinnings of Ajax that were soon supported in all major
browsers. Ajax features are now seen everywhere in modern web
developm
Where can I learn more stuff about AJAX?
On the internet! Theres tons of books and good resources online. Just google
it and youll find what youre looking for! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - No. Wait, sorry let me answer that in more detail: Hell no! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -What if I want to use AJAX?
We thought of that, and the security limitations of XmlHttpRequest. Weve
set up a proxy server and we allow modules to send requests to outside
hosts through it. For more details, see the AJAX section of the Creating a
Module page. Then take a look at the step-by-step instructions in Workshop
4. The proxy is great if your module is consuming
What are the options to Mobile Ajax?
In general almost any programming language and runtime (or virtual
machine) can be used to achieve results comparable to those of Mobile Ajax
techniques. The list of alternatives varies with the focus shifting to different
features like cross platform capability, open standards usage, development
efforts, cost, and deployment methods etc depe
Which browsers support Mobile Ajax?
This is the list of currently known mobile browsers supporting Ajax, which
means they feature the XMLHttpRequest or an equivalent ActiveX (as in the
case for IE Mobile). Some of these browsers currently exist and are widely
used, others are in development and are not yet available. It should be noted
that support for the XMLHttpRequest object
Is there any standardization initiative for Ajax?
While not a standards body, the Open Ajax Alliance is bringing different

players in the industry together (and this also includes Mobile Ajax). Ajit
Jaokar is the co-author of the book Mobile Web 2.0 and also a well known
blogger at OpenGardens. His recent keynotes/talks have included the Web
2.0 exp, Java One,
Is Ajax bad for SEO?
Any content available via Ajax should also be available without Ajax if a site
is designed properly (i.e. accessible). That means search engines should still
be able to access that data even though they dont support Ajax/JavaScript.
If you cannot then it isnt a flaw in using Ajax,</SPAN< div>
Is there a Mobile Ajax checklist/minimum requirements?
The mere existence of JavaScript in the browser is not enough. There has to
be a clear distinction between JavaScript and Ajax support. There are many
examples where a web browser might very well support JavaScript, but may
still be incapable of using Ajax techniques.
What does Mobile Ajax look like?
On one hand, Mobile Ajax will be transparent to the end user. For instance, all
Nokia devices supporting the S60 and Opera browsers support Ajax - but that
makes little difference to the end user. On the other hand, Widgets are
enabled by Mobile Ajax (see below). Thus, the visual (
What is the relationship between Mobile Ajax and Mobile Widgets?
In its entirety, Ajax comprises of XMLHttpRequest + DOM Scripting +
XHTML/CSS. Functionally, two things are happening here: Data is being
fetched asynchronously and the information thus fetched is being rendered
on the client through JavaScript. Most widget engines are using the
asynchronous part uniformly but are making their own changes to
Which enterprise applications employ Mobile Ajax?
SoonR is one of the early pioneers of Mobile Ajax and seems to always be the
preferred example. The SoonR application is primarily concerned with access
to files on the desktop from a mobile device. It mainly supports Opera Mobile
and S60 3rd edition for Ajax functionality, but there also is a basic version for

If AJAX is so great, why do I need the Stampede Web 2.0 Performance Series?
While both of these solutions have similarities and a common base, the
Stampede Web 2.0 Performance Series specifically addresses the new
network intrusive applications that use AJAX, SOA and XML technologies.
If AJAX is so great, why do I need the Stampede Web 2.0 Performance Series?
While AJAX speeds up responsiveness and productivity at the client, it
actually increases the burden on the Web servers and networks in several
ways. First, with the interactive nature of these new applications, the clients
are constantly polling the systems for data. This polling paradigm causes
TCP sessions to constantly be crea
Q1. Is JSON-RPC-Java an AJAX technology?
Yes, JSON-RPC-Java is an AJAX technology. It uses the more compact JSON
format for messages instead of XML however it does use the
XMLHttpRequest object as a transport. This still falls under the original
definition of AJAX:

Why should one do Ajax on mobile phones / what problem does it solve?
Using open standard web technologies you are already familiar with means
less training and a faster time to market.
How do Flash Lite and Java compare with Mobile Ajax?
Java often requires code variations for different devices and vendors - not to
mention variations in the Java implementation itself (MIDP 1, 2, CLDC). These
variations often allow Java applications to better take advantage of device
hardware such as cameras, Bluetooth and 3D graphi
What is the difference between Ajax Platforms, Frameworks, Toolkits and
Libraries?
Ajax platforms, such as the Opera Platform or NetFronts Embedded Ajax,
when installed on the device, make it easy to develop applications and
widgets using standard web technologies - including Ajax. Theres however a
big difference between platforms on one hand and fr
What existing Mobile Ajax frameworks, toolkits and libraries should I use?
One library, specifically aimed at providing an abstraction for Ajax functions
for constrained web browsers is currently under development by
PavingWays. The library called Frost is an open source project and will be
released under a MIT license in mid-2007.
What is the role of the Apple iPhone with respect to Mobile Ajax?
While this is speculative since enough details of the iPhone are not known,
Apple has said that the iPhone will not include Java and may include Flash. It
is very likely that the web browser of the iPhone will support Ajax. If that
happens, then widgets could play a major role on t
What are the (current) hurdles in implementing and running Mobile Ajax
applications?
The biggest obstacle is the same as on the desktop: browser support. With
more browsers than on the desktop and bigger differences in their support
for web standards and technologies required by Ajax this poses a real
problem and has kept many developers from going any further than initial
tests. Another technical problem is HTTP latency. Loa
What web browsers does the Ajax-based XForms engine support?
Orbeon Forms 3.5s XForms engine supports Firefox (1.0.7 and later), IE 6,
Safari (1.3 and later), and Opera (8.5 and later).
Can I use the Rich Client System to connect to other AJAX servers?
The Rich Client System and WebORB implement an XML based protocol to
encode method invocation data. The protocol is Web Object Literal Format
(WOLF). We plan in releasing the protocol information so other application
vendors can introduce support for the Rich Client System. At this time,
WebORB is the only server capable of processing the Rich Client System
requests.
Did Echo 1.x use Ajax Technologies?
Yes and no, 1.x used some of the technologies in the Ajax package. The Echo
1.x series used a hidden browser frame (in lieu of XMLHttpRequests) to
synchronize the state of the client and the server. It did not generally make
manipulations to the client DOM, but rather only replaced entire HTML

frames in response to changes.


Why doesnt your Ajax shopping cart work with my browser?
Well, to be honest, were not sure - this system has been tested using the
latest versions of Internet Explorer, FireFox, Opera, and Avant with and
without javascript being enabled in 800600, 1024769, and 16801050
monitor resolutions and we were able to do everything. Please send us an
email at support at teratask dot com and well be happy to help you
overcome any prob
Where do you envision Webtop playing a role in the current Ajax/RIA
marketplace?
Webtop is a higher-level framework that enables the delivery not just of
single rich applications, but also of integrated application suites, including
virtual desktops on the web. Webtop takes rich Internet applications to
the next level by substantially increasing the sophistication of software that
can be delivered as a service. It also adds a level of modularity
Can I use my favorite Ajax components, such as FCKeditor and Dojo?
One of best things which happen to developers in recent years is the
booming of the open source community. There are plenty of brilliant Ajax
components and widgets available. How to leverage them simply is one of
key factors for designing ZK architecture. As depicted in Integrating
FCKeditor, we integrate FCKeditor in less than 200 lines, in
I heard Ajax is not mature and JavaScript causes severe memory leaks. Are
they true?
Manipulating DOM with JavaScript is painful, because of incompatibility
issues and buggy implementations among browsers. Inadequate use of
JavaScript does cause severe memory leaks. This is one of reason you need a
framework that prevents you from coding in JavaScript. This is one of reason
we open ZK. The more people use, the more stable the framework is.
Do I need to learn Ajax / JavaScript / XML / XHTML / DOM / CSS / etc. to use
Echo?
In short, no. Echo provides an entirely Java-based API for application
development. The only exception is in the case where the developer wishes
to extend the framework by creating components that render custom
XML/HTML/JavaScript code.