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1 Explain the structure of PNP and NPN transistor in detail?
This NPN transistor is made with two layers of N material and
sandwiched layer of P.
Transistor is composed three regions:
It is a heavily doped and it is an n type material and having
more free electrons.
It supplies charge carriers (electrons and holes).
It is always forward biased with respective to base to
supply large no of majority carriers.
It is a another region composed of lightly doped n type
It has a few holes and having capable of carrying electrons.
It is lightly doped and very thin.
It is reverse bias & provide high resistance in collector
It is the n type material but not heavily doped and has
free electrons.

It is moderately doped.

Most of emitter carriers diffuse with the n base region and are
attracting with the collector region
Some of the electrons are attracted by the holes in the base
region and move to the collector side.
In an NPN transistor the emitter current is equal to sum of base
current and collector current.
In the NPN transistors current flows from collector to emitter.
The working principle of an NPN transistor is such that when you
increase current to the base terminal, then the transistor turns
ON and it conducts fully from the collector to emitter. When you
decrease the current to the base terminal, the transistor turns ON
less and until the current is so low, the transistor no longer
conducts across the collector to emitter, and shuts off.


It is exact opposite to the NPN transistor.
It is made up with two layers P type materials and
sandwiched with one N type material.
The direction of current flow from emitter to current.
It is always reverse biased.
The working principle of a PNP transistor is such that when
the current exists at the base terminal of the transistor,
then the transistor is shut off. When there is no current at
the base terminal of the PNP transistor, then the transistor
turns on.

Number of electrons in base region is very small hence no

of holes combined with electrons in n type base is very
small, to constitute base current (IB).
Remaining holes (more than 95%) cross over collector
region to generate collector current (IC).
The relation of PNP transistor is

2) What are the different modes of operation of a transistor and

explain the operation of n-p-n transistor under active mode?
The three different modes of operation of a transistor are
Active region
When a transistor is in the fully-off state (like an open switch), it is
said to be cut-of.
When it is fully conductive between emitter and collector (passing
as much current through the collector as the collector power
supply and load will allow), it is said to be saturated.
Bipolar transistors dont have to be restricted to these two extreme
modes of operation. As we learned in the previous section, base
current opens a gate for a limited amount of current through the
collector. If this limit for the controlled current is greater than zero
but less than the maximum allowed by the power supply and load
circuit, the transistor will throttle the collector current in a mode
somewhere between cut-off and saturation. This mode of operation
is called the active mode.
In Active region emitter base junction is forward biased and
collector base junction is reverse biased.
In saturation region emitter base junction is forward biased and
collector base junction is forward biased

In cut-off region emitter base junction is reverse biased and

collector base junction is reverse biased.
In this mode transistor has zero current.

3) Explain the input and output characteristics of a transistor in

Configuration with a neat graph.

Input Characteristics:
Keep output voltage VCE = 0V by varying VCC.
Varying VBB gradually, note down base current IB and baseemitter
voltage VBE.
Step size is not fixed because of nonlinear curve. Initially vary
VBB in
steps of 0.1V. Once the current starts increasing
vary VBB in steps of 1V up to 12V.
Repeat above procedure (step 3) for VCE = 5V.
Output Characteristics:
Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
Keep emitter current IB = 20 A by varying VBB.
Varying VCC gradually in steps of 1V up to 12V and note down
collector current IC and Collector-Emitter Voltage (VCE).
Repeat above procedure (step 3) for IB = 60A, 0A.

Plot the input characteristics by taking VBE on X-axis and IB on Yaxis at a constant VCE as a constant parameter.
Plot the output characteristics by taking VCE on X-axis and taking IC
on Y-axis taking IB as a constant parameter.

4) Briefly explain Common Base & Common collector Configuration

of a Transistor.
Common-base transistor amplifiers are so-called because the
input and output voltage points share the base lead of the
transistor in common with each other, not considering any
power supplies.
The current gain of a common-base amplifier is always less
than 1.
The voltage gain is a function of input and output
resistances, and also the internal resistance of the emitterbase junction, which is subject to change with variations in DC
bias voltage.
Suffice to say that the voltage gain of a common-base
amplifier can be very high.

The ratio of a transistors collector current to emitter current

is called .
The value for any transistor is always less than unity, or in
other words, less than 1.

5) Explain the operation of a transistor as a switch?

Generally switch is used to on or off the current.
Transistor can act as a switch in active region.
Transistor can act as switch when it is given a pulse to the transistor
then the current passes through it.
When led is passed on a circuit, when pulse given to it the led glows.
When pulse is absent then led will be in off. It will not glow.
There are three types of modes they are
Active mode-amplifier
Cut-off mode----------|
Saturation mode--- | Act as switch
active mode:
the value of voltages resistances are adjusted so
that active region.
the input is controlled by the input pulse.
Off state:
No connective current
Input pulse is zero.
Both the base and emitter at zero volts so zero forward bias to base
emitter junction.
Vbe<0.7(silicon transistor)
It is not forward bias
It is a diode
When base current is zero
In this it a reverse bias.
By Kirchhoff law
In this led will not glow when these are and true then it is in off state.
On state:
Pulse is present here and be voltage increases and base current is starts
Ib increases then Ic is also increases.


6. Draw the circuit diagram of CE amplifier and explain its working?

In electronics, a common emitter amplifier is one of three basic singlestage bipolar-junction-transistor (BJT) amplifier topologies, typically
used as a amplifier.
In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the
collector is the output, and the emitter is common to both, hence its
name. The analogous field-effect transistor circuit is the common source
amplifier, and the analogous tube circuit is the common cathode
Common emitter amplifiers give the amplifier an inverted output and
can have a very high gain that may vary widely from one transistor to
the next.
The gain is a strong function of both temperature and bias current, and
so the actual gain is somewhat unpredictable.
Stability is another problem associated with such high gain circuits due
to any unintentional positive feedback that may be present.
Other problems associated with the circuit are the low input dynamic
range imposed by the small-signal limit; there is high distortion if this

limit is exceeded and the transistor ceases to behave like its smallsignal model.
One common way of alleviating these issues is with emitter
degeneration. This refers to the addition of a small resistor (or any
impedance) between the emitter and the common signal source. This
impedance reduces the overall trans conductance of the circuit by a
factor of, which makes the voltage gain.
The voltage gain depends almost exclusively on the ratio of the resistors
rather than the transistor's intrinsic and unpredictable characteristics.
The distortion and stability characteristics of the circuit are thus
improved at the expense of a reduction in gain.

7) Write the differences between the BJT and FET?

Transistors can be categorized according to their structure, and two of
the more commonly known transistor structures, are the BJT and FET.
BJT, or Bipolar Junction Transistor, was the first kind to be commercially
BJTs conduct using both minority and majority carriers, and its three
terminals have corresponding names the base, emitter, and collector.
It basically consists of two P-N junctions the base-collector and the
base-emitter junctions. A material called the base region, which is a thin
Intervening semiconductor separates these two junctions.
BJTs basically function as regulators of currents.
A small current is regulating a larger current. However, for them to
properly operate as current regulators, the base currents and the
collector currents must be moving in the right directions.
FET, or Field-effect Transistor, also controls the current between two
points, but it uses a different method to the BJT.
As the name suggests, FETs function is dependent on the effects of
electric fields, and on the flow, or movement, of electrons in the course
of a particular type of semi-conductor material.
FETs are sometimes referred to as unipolar transistors, based on this
FET uses either holes (P channel), or electrons (N channel), for
conduction, and it has three terminals source, drain, and gate with
the body connected to the source in most cases.

In many applications, FET is basically a voltage controlled device, due

to the fact that its output attributes are established by the field that is
dependent on the applied voltage.

8) Explain how transistor is used as an amplifier?

Transistor as an amplifier
A transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as
an amplifier.

The weak signal is applied between emitter-base junction and

output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector circuit.
The input circuit is always forward biased. To do so, a dc voltage
Vee is applied in the input circuit in additional to the signal. The dc
voltage is known as bias voltage.
As the input circuit has low resistance therefore a small change in
signal voltage causes an appropriate change in emitter current.
This causes the same change in collector current due to transistor
The collector current flowing through a high load resistance R c
produces a large voltage across it.
Thus weak signal applied in the input circuit appears in the
amplified form in the collector circuit. so it acts as a amplifier.

9. Explain the DC analysis of a transistor?

D.C Analysis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor:
A typical bipolar junction transistor circuit.
DC Analysis When doing DC analysis, all AC voltage sources
are taken out of the circuit because they're AC sources.

DC analysis is concerned only with DC sources. We also take

out all capacitors because in DC, capacitors function as open
For this reason, everything before and after capacitors are
removed, which in this circuit includes resistor, R s.
Below is the schematic of the circuit above with respective to
DC analysis:
Now let's do the calculations to find the Vbb, Rb, Ieq, and Vceq.
From this then, we can find the quiescent or just simply Qpoint of this transistor circuit.

10) Draw and explain the small signal equivalent circuit of a

There are three transistor configurations
CB,CE,CC. Each configuration will have its separate hybrid or h
parameter equivalent circuit but we will develop a general equivalent
circuit which can be for any of three configurations.
The equivalent circuits thus obtained for any type of configuration is
also called as small signal, low frequency hybrid model of a transistor
Thus h parameters equations are


Since, each term of equation has the units of volts.

we can use Kirchhoffs voltage law to find a circuit that fits this
shows this circuit.
Similarly each term of equation has the units of currents we can
use Kirchhoffs current law to find a circuit that fits this equation fig
shows this circuit

11) Explain the different amplification factors and derive the

relation between them?
The ratio of charge in output current to change in input current is known as
CAF.(current amplification factor).
In common base (CB) configuration CAF,
= IC / IE
In common emitter (CB) configuration CAF,
= IC / IB
In common collector configuration CAF
= IE / IB
Relationship between and :
We have

IB= IE(1- )

Dividing both sides by IC, we get

IB / IC = IE/ IC (1- )
1/ =1/ (1- )
= / (1- )
= / (1- )
for = IE / IB
Substituting IB= IE-

The above equation is the relation of , , .

12) determine the minimum values of current gain required to

put the transistor I saturation when vin=5v.assume , VBE(sat)=0.8
v,VCE(sat)=0.12 v ?


By applying Kirchhoff law for vin and ib

5*103 * ic=12-0.12
= ic/ib

13) A common base transistor amplifier has an input resistance of 20

and output resistance of 100k. if a signal of 400 mV is applied between
emitter and base, find voltage amplification. Assumed =1?
Signal voltage =400mV
Input resistance=20 ohms
IE = signal voltage/input resistance
= 20mA
Output voltage = vo=IC*RL=20mA*1k
= 20V
Voltage amplification(A) = output voltage/signal voltage
= 20V/400mV = 50

14) The emitter current Ie in a transistor is 3mA. If the leakage

current Icbo=5A and =0.98, Calculate the collector and base


Ie = 3 mA
ICBO = 50 x 10-6 A
A = 0.98
IC = ?
IB = ?

Ic= a.IE + ICBO

= 0.98 x 3 x 10-6 + 5 x 10-6
= 2.94 x 10-3 + 0.005 x 10-3
= 2.945 x 10-3 A
I e = I B + IC
= 3 x 10-3 2.945 x 10-3
= 0.055 x 10-3 A

15) Determine the values of emitter current and Collector Current

of a transistor having =0.98 and collect to base leakage current
(Icbo) =4A. The base current is 50 A


a = 0.98
Icbo = 4 x 10-6 A
Ib = 50 x 10-6 A
Ie =?
Ic =?


= (a.Ib/1-a) + (ICBO/1-a)
= (0.98 x 50 x 10-6/1-0.98) + (4 x 10-6/1-0.98)
=24.5 x 10-4 + 2 x 10-4
=26.5 x 10-4 A


= Ib + I c
= 50 x 10-6 + 26.5 x 10-4

= 27 x 10-11 A