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Define if it is supposed to be a one time negotiation (with low probability of second inteacting
with the same company or person).

Define if negotiations are supposed to be surely repeated again in future.

Determine the purpose, terms and subjects of the negotiations.

Determine the nonnegotiable subjects, terms, and what can be modified.

Know your opponents well, study their attitudes and backgrounds (including cultural traits), and
prepare accepting an appropriate negotiation models.

Analyze the interests of the parties and clearly set negotiation goals for your side.

Define the value of these negotiations for your party and prioritize your goals.

Define the format and scale of negotiations.

Define if negotiations are expected to be mild or hard, to get properly psychologically and
methodically prepared, to select appropriate negotiation methods.

Define and formulate what are the best possible results of these negotiations for your side.

Define and formulate what is the tolerable compromise of these negotiations for your side.

Define and formulate what are unacceptable results of these negotiations for your side.

Evaluate potential losses of your side if the negotiations fail.

Evaluate potential losses of the opposing side if the negotiations fail.

Define the boundary to which you can fall back while making concession on your interests.

Define the conditions when your side should stop and terminate the negotiations.

Define your current position in terms of strengths and weaknesses.

Define strengths and weaknesses of the opposing party.

Define who will represent your side on negotiations; ensure they have all the necessary expertise
and authority. Assign clear negotiation roles to make your delegation strong enough to make necessary

Make sure that representatives of the opponents also have all the necessary authority and rank
to participate in negotiations with you.

Define what opposing party wants to reach and how you can deliver it to them.

If you are a host side of negotiations arrange the best possible conference room, pleasant
atmosphere and minimum of distractions, if required organize traveling and accommodations duly.

Define the system of values peculiar to the opposing party and be ready to explain your
arguments in terms of their value system.

Compose a negotiation worksheet to guide you on subjects you need to consider.


Never negotiate with a person who is not qualified or authorized to negotiate properly each side
should be represented equally.

Real meaning of the term negotiations implies that their outcome is supposed to be a win-win
solution where all parties are satisfied, so no ultimatums are allowed and no unilateral victory can be

When making an offer you should give your opponents a chance to knock you down a little.
Perhaps, this is a core principle of any negotiations.

Confrontational positions cannot lead to compromise, so think to understand how to meet

interests of the opposing party without harming your own interests.

Always remember about etiquette basics and common sense to avoid or overcome simple
troubles which can make big obstacles in negotiating wrong psychological and emotional aspects
(incorrect interior, placement of chairs, body language etc.) and difficulties in communication (different
languages, different meanings of the same words, etc).


The most irreconcilable controversy usually happens around conflicting views related to personal
opinions, beliefs, values and ideology, as well as around allocation of resources (money, time, quantity,
technologies etc).

Negotiation includes series of offers and counteroffers. If you make an offer and opposing party
declines it, you dont do another offer immediately, but you wait for their counteroffer. In other words
you dont lower your own demands without having the opposing party to lower theirs.

Actually, negotiation is a normal part of our daily life, so all of us possess some negotiation skills
which refer to a number of psychological and communicational aspects, however, some advanced
negotiation skills and attitudes can be learned from appropriate trainers.

Strongly avoid any references to politics, ideology and egos as matters which may easily create
personal antipathy and conflicts. Always treat the opponents with respect and dignity.

Control stress and tension as you should represent and maintain the best of your professional
attitudes, while strong emotions should be neglected as hampering progress towards rapport and
rational consent.

Never let the negotiations become interpersonal in nature, you need to negotiate over things and
services, not over any personal matters. Good interpersonal relations can be used to build mutual trust
between opposing sides and to create a friendlier atmosphere, however using them as leverage is not

Never enter a negotiating process until both parties are completely clear on negotiated subjects
and accepted terms.

Never put statements on paper unless youre completely agree with them. When an item is
written on paper it is stronger than when said only in word written items can be used by opposing side
as leverage against you.

Stay sensitive, quick and flexible while handling the challenges of negotiations, but when
adapting to changing situation do not lose sight of the objectives.

Negotiations ideally should improve or at least not harm the relationship between the parties, so
even if negotiations are formally failed (parties havent made an agreement) you need to shake hands
firmly, with a sincere respect and smile, and express your expectancies to renegotiate and reach the
deal eventually.

Spiraling negotiation: Start the session by making a basic minimal agreement (even if it is not
directly related to your objectives), and use it as a basis for elaborating your arguments and building
further progress towards success in a step-by-step manner.

Adjusting your position: Reformulate the proposals in a different way re-explaining them in
compromised terms, however, without changing the final result.

Reaching common understanding: Try to clarify the vision of opposing side through asking
them for more information.

Coaxing: Enlarge a prize for the opposing side offer them some more alternatives without
changing the terms of agreement.

Card game: Negotiations are figuratively compared with playing cards the more trump cards
you can get and hold, the stronger your chances to win. Save your strongest arguments up to critical
moment and know how to use them wisely.

Know your opponents: Dont attribute them more power than they may actually have.
Remember that they work under pressure as well as you; they have their own deadlines, problems,
fears, objectives etc. Deliver them an offer to satisfy their deep-laid motives and needs.

Have all the necessary data sources at hand and all necessary facts in your mind. Dont let the
opponents get you being uncertain in essentials and unprepared in some details.
Engage support from all kinds of experts whose knowledge can be helpful.


The real talent of a good negotiator is making the opponents think that the final agreement was
all their idea.

The best negotiators are often quiet listeners who never interrupt their opponents let them go
first and patiently listen to what they say.

Never take opponents first offer, even if it seems better than youd hoped to get. Dont lose selfcontrol demonstrate mild disappointment and politely decline, expressing your hope to find a better
compromise after you tell them some of your arguments and counteroffers.

Do not to hesitate to ask questions, because if you dont ask, you dont get. As long as you
have some convincing arguments, dont be afraid to set high targets, but of course keep your mind clear
and stay realistic.

Dont let yourself be bluffed. Dont let opponents to force a deal anyhow.

Dont accept opponents problems as their arguments, because very often negotiators
try to represent their problems (which actually are their weaknesses) as arguments to explain reasons
why they cannot deliver you what you want. Stay attentive and benevolent, suggest them your
assistance and advice to solve these troubles in context of your co-operation, but dont let them to
make their problems yours!

Close the session of negotiations with confirmation of obtained agreements. Formalize

agreements orally and in writing before ending the negotiation. Do not leave behind any loose ends and