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WISDOM OF JESUS

The Syriac is made directly from the Greek following a MS resembling Codex Alex. Whilst in general it ienders the ideas

and expressions of the original with fidelity, it diverges there- from far more than the Latin. It adds explicita and other explanatory words, inserts the proper names (Cain, etc.) in

chap.

10, transfers a number of Greek words, gives iree transla-

tions, mistranslates and omits. On the attempt to refer it to an

Aramaic original see Hasse.

for the Armenian cp Welte and F. H. Reusch Liher Sapient.

For the Arabic version cp Hasse,

H. Reusch Liher Sapient. For the Arabic version cp Hasse, grrerc etc., 1858 ; these also

grrerc etc., 1858 ; these also both come from o& Greek. Fo; general works on the Jewish conception of wisdom see

For lists of critical and expository

to 1860 see Bretschneider and

26. Bibliography. Grimm. Among these the following may

and 26. Bibliography. Grimm. Among these the following may WISUOM L ITERATURE , $ 15. works
and 26. Bibliography. Grimm. Among these the following may WISUOM L ITERATURE , $ 15. works
and 26. Bibliography. Grimm. Among these the following may WISUOM L ITERATURE , $ 15. works

WISUOML ITERATURE, $ 15.

Among these the following may WISUOM L ITERATURE , $ 15. works up be mentioned :

works up

be mentioned : Rabanus Maurus,

t856,

the earliest extant commentator (in Migne); Grotius, Annoia-

tiones, 1664; Cornelius :ILapide, Comment. in lib?. Sap., 1613;

Cappellus

tions); J.’ M. Faher, Prolusiones, 1776-77 and 1786-87; J. G.

M. Faher, Prolusiones, 1776-77 and 1786-87; J. G. in VT, 1689 (scattered observa- Hasse, Salonro’s

in VT, 1689 (scattered observa-

and 1786-87; J. G. in VT, 1689 (scattered observa- Hasse, Salonro’s Weisheit, 1785 ; J. G.

Hasse, Salonro’s Weisheit, 1785 ; J. G. Eichhorn, Einleitung

i. d. Apocr. Schr. d. AT, 1795; C. G. Bretschneider, Lih. d. Apocr. Schr. d. AT, 1795; C. G. Bretschneider, Lih.

Sapient., 1804 ; C. L. ’W. Grimm (in Kurzgc? exeget. Hand-

d. AT), 1860 (very full and judicious,

supernedes his work of 1837). Since 1860 have appeared com- mentaries by E. C. Rissell, 1880(in the volume on the Apocrypha

F. W. Farrar, 1888 (in Wace’s

Apocryplra), and Siegfried (in Kautzsch’s Apokr.) ; articles in

Smith‘s DB (by B. F. Westcott); M‘Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia: Herzog-Hauck, RE (by E. SchOrer, see also his GJV, etc.=Hisi. of the Iewish People, etc.); Hastings’ DB (by Siegfried); and annotated editions by W. J. Deane (The

6uch

z. d. dpokr.

editions by W. J. Deane (The 6uch z. d. dpokr. added to the Lange series) Book
added to the
added to the

Lange series)

Deane (The 6uch z. d. dpokr. added to the Lange series) Book of Wisdom, 1881), W.
Deane (The 6uch z. d. dpokr. added to the Lange series) Book of Wisdom, 1881), W.
Deane (The 6uch z. d. dpokr. added to the Lange series) Book of Wisdom, 1881), W.

Book of Wisdom, 1881), W. R. Churton(in his Uncanonicaland Apocvphal Scriptures, 1884), and C. J.Bal1 (in his Variorum

Scriptures, 1884), and C. J.Bal1 (in his Variorum Apocrypha, 1892). On the ethical ideas see Kiibel,

Apocrypha, 1892). On the ethical ideas see Kiibel, ‘Die Ethi- schen Anschauungen d. Weisheit Salomonis,’ in St. Kr. (1865).

C. H. T.

WISDOM

SIRACH.

OF

JESUS.

See

E CCLESIASTICUS ,

WISE MEN (D%?n), Gen. 418. See M AGIC, 5 3,

STARS, 9

5,

(D%?n), Gen. 418. See M AGIC , 5 3, S TARS , 9 5, Z OROASTRIANISM

ZOROASTRIANISM ;

cp

also

WISDOM

LITERATURE,

2.

WITCH (9&?2), Dt. 1810, WITCHCRAFT (OD?),

2 d 3rf.
2 d 3rf.
WITCH (9&?2), Dt. 1810, WITCHCRAFT (OD?), 2 d 3rf. I S. 1523. See M AGIC ,

I S. 1523.

See MAGIC,

cords,’

RVw. ‘new bowstrings’ (o*ni o’m;, yCfhthiirim Zuhim), Judg.

WITHES, GREEN, AVmS green

167.

[moist]

On the meaning of +, Zah, see COLOURS,0 17 ; for YW,

the meaning of +, Zah, see COLOURS, 0 17 ; for YW, ydihev, see C ORD

ydihev, see C ORD.

WITNESS.

Bowstrings of ‘green’ gut, not yet dried,

are probably meant.

The part played by witnesses in Jewish

legal procedure has been dealt with in L AW AND

JUSTICE, § 108 Palmyr. im ; see Cook, Arum. GZoss., 5.11.). as) witness.’ &hid
JUSTICE,
§ 108
Palmyr. im ; see Cook, Arum. GZoss., 5.11.).
as) witness.’ &hid

The Hebrew word is iy, ‘24 the Aramaic sEhdd (R~ZO); and in two passages in OT these two terms are treated as synonymous (Gem 3147. iy I/ ~yi??;Job

16 19, iy 11 mg). The Arabic word is dhid or fahid (cp

The root

iahida (=Aram. sehid; cp iqg with Ar. Sarudu) seems

to have meant originally to be present (cp the use of Iuhrrdin Koran, Sur 7413). and then to bear (be present

is both a witness in general, and

one who witnesses to the truth of his creed by dying

(see Sur. 471 3969:l. The original meaning of the Hebrew root was perhaps (as Gen. 31 47 Job 16 19 suggest) the same as in Arabic.

describes how a heap of stones was witness

(7’; was present to remind) of some transaction ; Dt. 31 19 21 says that the song of Moses was witness to (iy; existed or was

present to remind) the Israelites of a great achievement. For other instances of the use of iy in a similar sense see RDR where, however, the idea of the root is taken to be that & ‘reiterating, hence emphaticallyaffirming.’

& ‘reiterating, hence emphaticallyaffirming.’ Gen. 31 44 485’2 The word used in the NT is pdpzus
& ‘reiterating, hence emphaticallyaffirming.’ Gen. 31 44 485’2 The word used in the NT is pdpzus
& ‘reiterating, hence emphaticallyaffirming.’ Gen. 31 44 485’2 The word used in the NT is pdpzus

Gen. 31 44 485’2

The word used

in the

NT is pdpzus

(pdrprup-).
(pdrprup-).

It

was employed by Christians, as by Muhammedans, to describe (I) simply one who witnessed to the truth, and

then (2) particularly one who gave evidence of the truth by dying, and so ‘
then (2) particularly one who gave evidence of the truth
by dying, and so ‘ a
For (I ) see Acts 1’22.
sense (2) in the NT.
martyr. ’
The word is already used in the second
So in Acts 22 zo (AV ; RV ‘witness ’),
sa: are
e?ro rb afwir Zre+&ou
TOG p+vpds
uou ; Rev. 2 ‘3
(AV, R V ‘witness’), ~vrirras
p~;pTUspow,
6 arur6s [pow],
6s &~errdu% rap’ 6piv. Rev. 176 (EV), ai, &Soy 7jv yvvaka
wrKuouuav ir rot a&w r~viyiov, ltar ex row arparos ~v

waprdpov ‘Iquoir.

5349

WONDERS

In ancient times the heroes of mankind were commonly represented as being distinguished from other men by (amongst other characteristics) the manner in which they entered and departed life. They were not born in the usual way, or, if so, out of due course ; they disappeared from life in a mysterious way, or they showed themselves superior to death by dying cheerfully under painful circumstances. Thus both by

their birth and by their death they witnessed to their

superiority. This was specially the case with founders of religions. But the faithful were also called upon to bear witness. While, however, the master gave evidence of the truth of his claims by the wonderful words and works of his whole life, the faithful could in most cases only witness to the truth of them by follow- ing the master’s teaching even unto death. Disciples, therefore, in some cases, sought and actually found martyrdom ; in other cases they are represented by tra- dition as having so suffered, whether they did so or not. The idea of witness by miracle and martyrdom is confined

as having so suffered, whether they did so or not. The idea of witness by miracle

to no single religion. Cp W ONDERS. M. A. C.

WIZARD (’JJR!), Lev. 2027.

WIZARD (’JJR!), Lev. 2027. See M AGIC , 4, iii. WOLF (381 ; Ay~oc ; Zupur).
WIZARD (’JJR!), Lev. 2027. See M AGIC , 4, iii. WOLF (381 ; Ay~oc ; Zupur).

See MAGIC,

4, iii.

WOLF (381;

Ay~oc; Zupur).

This is the usual

word for ‘wolf,‘ though

in Is. 1322 RV renders

o’:?,
o’:?,

’iyyim, and

SBOT oyp,

’iyyim, and SBOT oyp, tannim, by ‘wolves’ ; see

tannim,

by

‘wolves’ ; see

JACKAL, and, on the variety of terms for wild animals, CAT. In Is. 116 a notable reference is made to the wolf, which as a type of ferocity is brought into contrast with the lamb.2 The full force of the phrase employed is that the wolf will, as it were, become a g5r or client

with the lamb.2 The full force of the phrase employed is that the wolf will, as

of

the lamb (cp

S TRANGRR).

The wolf (Canis Iup~s)has a very wide range, ex- tending practically throughout North America (N. of Mexico), Europe, and Asia. Many local varieties occur, which have been by various authorities raised to the rank of species. The wolf is still found in Palestine (and Arabia, cp Doughty, Ar. Des. 1327). It is there somewhat lighter in colour and has a stronger and stouter build than in Europe, rarely moves in packs, and prowls, sometimes in pairs, round the sheepfolds

a stronger and stouter build than in Europe, rarely moves in packs, and prowls, sometimes in
a stronger and stouter build than in Europe, rarely moves in packs, and prowls, sometimes in

at night.

By day it frequents the rocky valleys.

Naturally it plays a large part in the life of the Israelites,

and the references to its boldness and ferocity are

frequent

(cp Gen. 4927 Jer. 56 Ezek. 2227 Hab. 18

frequent (cp Gen. 4927 Jer. 56 Ezek. 2227 Hab. 18

Zeph. 33). However, if the cubs be removed at a very early age they are susceptible of training, though they can rarely be trusted with strangers.

The word for wolf’ is

frequently used as a personal

and clan name (cp Cook, Aram. Gloss. S.V. >xi,and

see zEEB),3 and it has accordingly been held that it was

see zEEB),3 and it has accordingly been held that it was

a totem- animal among certain communities (at least) of

the ancient Seniite~.~ For the wolf in Semitic legend

the ancient Seniite~.~For the wolf in Semitic legend

and folklore see WRS, Kinship, 198, Rel. Sem.(2)88.

WOMAN (?@e),Gen. 222. See F AMILY, especially

A.

E. S.

55
55

4 - 6;

M ARRIAGE ,

esp.

$3

4-7;

L AW ,

$

14a;

SLAVERY ; and cp ADAM. esp.

36.

WONDERS.

The

EV

shows some uncertainty

as

to the translation of the Hebrew and Greek synonyms.

mipufh, is rendered by ‘wonder’ in Dt. 131 [z]

28 46 EV, but in Ex. 7 9 Dt. 29 3 EV by miracle.’ The mean- ing of the root is uncertain, but see BDB and cp helow under (5).

(I)

Dt. 29 3 EV by ‘ miracle.’ The mean- ing of the root is uncertain, but
Dt. 29 3 EV by ‘ miracle.’ The mean- ing of the root is uncertain, but
According to Hommel (Sirugetltiere, 303$), 2t$ is the jackal ; see on the other hand
According to Hommel (Sirugetltiere, 303$), 2t$ is the jackal ;
see on the other hand ZDMG, 1880, p. 373, and cp J A CKA L .
The Ass. cognate zi6u appears to denote also a bird of prey.
a Compare the contrast in Mt. 10 16, ‘sheep in the midst of
wolves ’ and Acts 20 29 where Paul at Miletus warns the ’ flock
1
again&the Adror ,¶ape&.
a The fact that the name ‘wolf‘ is given to a sickly child,
‘that their human fragility may take
on as it were a temper of
the kind of those animals’ (cp Doughty, Ar. Des. 1329) does
not weaken the above argument, since, in some cases, this name
is horne not by individuals but by whole clans (cp Kin. rg7J).
See Robertson Smith, J. Phil. 97s $ and cp Frazer,
4
Pcruranias, 2 r9jJ

5350

WONDERS

(2) R&, &le’; lit. ‘wonder,’ so EV Is. 29 14 ; cp Judg. 6 13,
(2) R&, &le’; lit. ‘wonder,’ so EV Is.
29 14 ; cp Judg.
6 13,
niplclE’oth, AV ‘miracles,’RV ‘wondrous works.’
(3) niN, ‘bfh: lit.
28 46 etc.
In Nu.‘;1
‘sign,’ so commonly in EV, Dt. 13 I, [2]
22 Ut; 11 3, gV ‘signs,’ AV ‘miracle:
(4) Gdvap~r,!it. power. In hlk. Y 39, AV ‘miracle, RV
‘ mighty work. Cp Acts 2 22 ‘a man, approved by God
among
you, by miracles (RV ‘mighty works ’), wonders,, and signs,
Guvkpeu~ dpaur rai qpa‘ors-a suggestive passage.
In Acts Y 13 19 II I Cor. 12 I O 2 8 Gal. 3 ?, EV ‘miracles’; but
in Heb. 2 4, AV ‘miracles,’RV ‘powers.
(5) rdpas, Acts222 ti8 1512 Heh.24, EV ‘wonders.’
Two
derivations are noted in Grimm-Thayer
(Lexicon, s.v.), neither
of which can he pronounced very satisfactory. They are : (I)
‘apparently akin
to the verb mpdw ; accordingly something so
strange as to cause it to be “watched or “observed”” (2)
connected ‘with drnjp &orpad, etc., hence “a sign ii the
hcavens.” ’ If the Heb. miphPfh (I, above) he connected with
AI. ’?#ha ‘to suffer evil ’ (see BDB, S.U. n9N), we might perhaps
compare for
rdppar
the root TFL~PW to suffer distress ; the idea
would then he ‘a calamity or catastrophe=a portent.’
(6) q?pdov, lit. ‘sign,‘ like (3) above.
So in Mk. 8 IIJ
Lk.
11 16 29,K Mt. 12 383 16 14 Jy 2 18 6 o I Cor. 122 Acts 2 22
Peb. 24.
But
AV
‘wonder,
RV
’sign,
Rev. 12 I.
EV
miracle,’ Lk. 238 Acts4 16 22 ; AV ‘miracle,’ RV ‘sig;,’
Jn.
45410412rr23326226?gr
916 1147 1237 Acts68 86 1512
Rev. 13 14 16 14 19 20.
The original idea in the word ‘wonder’ (Lat.
‘ miraculum,’ Angl. ‘ miracle ’) seems to have been that

of turning aside through a feeling of fear or awe (see Skeat, EtymoZ. Dirt., S.D. ). The savage ‘ignorant of the very rndiments of science, and trying to get at the meaning of life by what the senses seem to tell’ (to quote Tylor, Anthrop. 343) would often turn aside when he came face to face with something new, un- expected, or extraordinary.

It is

more than simple novelty. One degree beyond novelty is surprise, or the shock of what is both novel and Wonder contains surprise, attended with a new and distinct

effect, the effect of contemplating something that rises far above

us with a feeling of

common experience, which elevates

superiority’ (Alexander Bain, The Eiiiofioiis and the WiZZ,

‘The emotion named Wonder is founded on relativity.

85,f: I18991).
85,f: I18991).

A wonder’ then is something which cannot be

explained from the ordinary experience of mankind in

at a given time, but, as Hobbes pointed out

general

(Leviathan, chap. 27), seeing admiration and wonder are consequent to the knowledge wherewith men are endued, some more, some less, it followeth that the same thing may be a miracle to one and not to another.’ As regards many of the wonders that .surrounded them (the wonder of life, the wonder of creation) primitive men would be very much on a level and would all be satisfied with a fanciful explanation : but with regard to others (the wonder or effect of certain herbs, for instance) some men would soon, at first by chance, attain some measure of knowledge and thereby them- selves become relatively wonderful and wonder-workers

(medicine-men, obi - men). In the eyes of his admirers, however, the man who is relatively wonderful, soon grows to be very much more than this. Obviously, therefore, there is a very close connection between wonders or miracles and myths; the growth and development of both would go on almost, if not quite, simultaneously. Obviously, too, the wonder is closely connected with exorcism and sorcery.

If

the marvellous results are ascrihed to a supernatural being at enmity with the observers, the art is sorcery; but if ascribed to

a friendly supernatural being, the marvellous results are classed

‘Exorcism and sorcery pass insensibly into

as miracles (Herbert Spencer, Principles ofSocioZogu(3l, 1 24”).

(Herbert Spencer, Principles ofSocioZogu(3l, 1 24”). The very word in English, as we have seen, indicates
(Herbert Spencer, Principles ofSocioZogu(3l, 1 24”). The very word in English, as we have seen, indicates

The very word in English, as we have seen, indicates the way we must take if we wish to understand the meaning of wonders. It is clear that a thorough exzmination of the subject would involve an investiga- tion into the evolution of ideas in general, into psychology, anthropology, comparative religion and mythology. If Dr. Bacon in his new definition of higher criticism is thinking of the comparative method, such an investigation would indeed come within the province of that science. If a new definition of the

higher criticism may be permitted so late,’ he says,

the higher criticism may be permitted so late,’ he says, ‘ we should call it the
‘

we should call it the sfudv of tKe origin and develop- ment of ideas (Triple Tradition of the Exodus, xxxiii. ).

ideas ’ (Triple Tradition of the Exodus, xxxiii. ). 5351 WONDERS In any case, in view

5351

WONDERS

In any case, in view of the results of the comparative method of study,’ it is impossible to treat the subject of wonders or miracles on the old lines. Here, however, it need only be pointed out that it is now evident that no religion can be isolated and treated separately : that myths, and wonders, whether natural (cp below) or supernatural, are not peculiar to any one system ; and that the ideas of primitive man, or the savage, have left their mark even on the most advanced religions. Comparative mythology shows that man has given explanations of the universe which indicate that the mind moves everywhere along very similar lines. Comparative religion teaches that even when men had attained to no small degree of general culture they still demanded outward and visible signs of the efficacy of their faith. The sage, or the founder of a religion, who claimed to enlighten his fellows, was expected to produce evidence, apart from his teaching, that he was endowed in a peculiar and extraordinary way. As a witness to his superiority, he was expected to perform wonders (or give a sign, cp [3] and [6] above). And as such a one was in most eases, owing to his superior knowledge, on a higher level than his contemporaries, he was, no doubt, often as a matter of fact able to do things which to them appeared wonderful ; he may often have been able to cure diseases, perhaps even to restore to life a body that was to all appearance lifeless; he was, no doubt, often able to exercise a remarkable influence over men’s minds, and perhaps to cure certain mental diseases. It is difficult to calculate the effect that such a display of power would haye on those who did not understand its nature. It is easy, on the other hand, to understand that such evidence of a power out of the common having beed furnished, wonders of a different nature would also be ascribed to the master by his disciples, especially after his decease. His works and his teaching would seem to combine to suggest that he did not ’belong to the life of the earth ; he must be a favourite of one of the deities, or of the Deity, or a son of one of the deities, or of the Deity, or even an actual deity come in the flesh. The wonders with which he would now be ac- credited would no longer be relative and natural, but absolute and supernatural (i.e., miracles). It would be represented, especially after his decease, that the manner of his appearance in the world, and of his disappearance from it when his mission had been accomplished, were alike remarkable : that if his mother was human, his father was divine, that if he seemed to die like other men, it was not so in reality. He would no longer be described as merely healing diseases, physical and psychical, by natural, but little understood, means. He has become superior to the laws of nature. He walks upon the sea and stills its waves, commands the wind and the storm, cures instantane- ously the deaf, the dumb, and the blind, brings to life those who have actually died.

‘Principles of myth-formation, belonging properly to the mental state of the savage, were by its
‘Principles of myth-formation, belonging properly to the mental state of the savage, were by its

‘Principles of

myth-formation, belonging properly to the mental state of the

savage, were by its aid [the doctrine of miraclesl’continued in strong action in the civilised world. Mythic episodes which Europeans would have rejected contemptuously if told of savage

to be adapted to appropriate

deities or heroes, only required

local details, and to be set forth as miracles in the life of some superhuman personage to obtain as of old a place of credit

and honour in history’ (Tylor,

Writings in which miracles figure are not historical ’in the

This process went on even in the middle ages.

the This process went on even in the middle ages. Pvinr/tiue CuZfzre,P) 1-71 f;). modern and

Pvinr/tiue CuZfzre,P)1-71f;).

even in the middle ages. Pvinr/tiue CuZfzre,P) 1-71 f;). modern and scientific sense of the word.

modern and

scientific sense of the word.

of the OT and NT narratives in which ‘wonders’

figure have been treated in special articles, and from various

points of view. See, for instance, C

REATION , D ELUGE , DEnioxs,

Many

1 Prof. Cheyne *as one of the first critics to apply this method in the
1 Prof. Cheyne *as one of the first critics to apply this
method in the case of hiblical study. See in EBW, the articles
‘Cosmogony’(G446&),
‘Deluge’(7 54 68), ‘Jonah’ (13 7363),
also Th. Rem. ZII-ZI~ (~877). For more recent examples see
C
See also S. A. Cook
‘Israel and Totemism,
T EMPTATION.
in IQJ?, April 1902 ; A. S. Peake, a;t. ‘Unclean,’in Hastings’

Dl’.

REATION, D ELUGE, J ONAH, P URIM, etc., and cp DEM~NS!

5359

WOOD

WORMWOOD

DLVINATION,MAGIC, PLAGUES, ACTS, GOSPELS (cp JESUS),

hlackap,M AGIC , P LAGUES , A CTS , G OSPELS (cp J ESUS ), Hugo

Hugo

LAZARUS,hl~sv,NATIVITY,

SHKITUALGIFTS TEXPTATION.See further R. W.

The Mbinprr ~chooland its

Winckler

See further R. W. The Mbinprr ~chool and its Winckler Israpis, Geschichte 2 (1900) ; Th.

Israpis,

Geschichte

2 (1900) ; Th.

The following works, amongst others, have to he taken

Evolution of the Idea of God; Clodd,

IV~urder~laubeln Heia’enium und in der alien Kirche (1901);

]es2’.
]es2’.

Suprmatrml Rcl. (new ed. IPS). Cp 0. Holtzmann, Leben

account of: Grant Allen,

Myfhr nnd Dreanrs; Frazer Golden &ugh; Huxley, Hume,

also Science and Hebrew TrAdition and Science and Christian

Tradition;

Hebrew TrAdition and Science and Christian Tradition; Lang, CusCona and Myth, and Jlyth, Ritual, and

Lang, CusCona and Myth, and Jlyth, Ritual, and

Relig-ion ; Lubbock (.4vehury), On@ of CiviZisation ((5)

1889); J. M. Robertson, Christianity and Mvthology (19~);

Herbert Spencer The Study of Sociology (CSS)and Principles

.of Sociology; ‘fylor, Ear& Hist. of Mankind ((31, 1878),

Antltmopology (188r), Primitive Culture

Darwin,

((4, 1891).

(188r), Primitive Culture Darwin, ((4, 1891). Desrcnt of Man ; Quatrefages, ’The Hi6lilan Species

Desrcnt ofMan ; Quatrefages, ’The Hi6lilan Species

.(ZSS) ; Tolstoy, What is Religion ?

WOOD

(Yy), Gen. 6 14.

; Tolstoy, What is Religion ? WOOD (Yy), Gen. 6 14. See F OREST , and

See FOREST, and the special

articles. WOOF (3V),Lev. 1348 RVmg. ‘knitted stuff.’

7. ; €PION).
7.
; €PION).

W EAVING,

WOOL (%$, &w

The sources of wool

“available in ancient times to the inhabitants of Palestine were three in number- the sheep, the camel, and the

were three in number- the sheep, the camel, and the .goat ; but, except where another

.goat ; but, except where another animal is distinctly mentioned (Mk. 16 Mt. 34 I S. 1913), we may assume that the wool of the sheep is meant. An Arabic saying .(cp Bochart. Hieruz. 2442) declares that the best wool is that of the nakcrd (see S HEE P) ; it was this wool

that of the nakcrd (see S HEE P ) ; it was this wool which hlesha,
that of the nakcrd (see S HEE P ) ; it was this wool which hlesha,

which hlesha, king of Moab, sent as tribute to the king

which hlesha, king of Moab, sent as tribute to the king o f I s r

of Israel (2 K. 34 RV).

Wool is probably the worst

conductor of heat of all the materials used for clothing, and for this reason aniongst others has from the earliest times been used as a covering. The finest wool is that

cut from the young sheep of about eight months old, and is known as lambs wool (Prov. 2723 26) ; later .shearings yield the wether wool, which is either unwashed or washed, the animal in the latter case being washed before submitting to the shears. As is still the case in pastoral countries, the annual sheep-shearing was in ancient times an occasion of great gatherings and

rejoicings ( I S. 25n 2 S. 1323;

The wool is usually cut a few days after the washing, by which time it has dried. A skilful shearer will remove the whole of the fleece in a continuous sheet, which is then sorted according to its quality. The wool-stapler, whilst doing this, removes the larger and more conspicuous impurities, bits of straw, etc. The wool is then carefully washed with soft water and soap, and dried. At this stage it is still in the condition of

i e d . At this stage it is still in the condition of see F
i e d . At this stage it is still in the condition of see F

see F EASTS, 5 2f:).

matted locks as they come from the body of the animal, and before it can ke woven it must be teazed, combed

.and

EV the wool of Damascus was especially prized at Tyre

spun into a thread (see W EAVING). According to

(Ezek. 27 18) ; 6, however, substitutes

hliletus,’ and Davidson says, ‘possibly, wool of Zachar.’

It

On the prohibition to wear ‘a mingled stuff, wool and

(Lev. 1919 Dt. 2211t). see L IHEN, 7,

linen together’

is a matter for the textual critic (see JAVAN, 5 Ig).

is a matter for the textual critic (see JAVAN, 5 Ig). n. 2, and Crit. Bib.

n. 2, and Crit. Bib. ad Zoc.

WORD (0Aoroc).

WORLD.

On the Word’ see LOCOS.

‘The .words are: ( I ) YTK, &e:,Gen. 124; I s. 28; (3) Dip, ‘8him;Ps. 73 12 ; (4) +, hiled,

s. 28; (3) Dip, ‘8him;Ps. 73 12 ; (4) +, hiled, t&Z, (2) Ps. 17 1.1
t&Z, (2)
t&Z,
(2)

Ps. 17 1.1 ; (5) Slv, /iPrleZ, Is. 38 IT ; (6) a&,

(8) K~U~W,Jn. 18 36 ; (9) o;rovp&q, Heb. 25.

WORM.

Worm

is the rendering of

Hebrew words :- I . D?, ~cis(~4s)in Is. 518,t where obviously the larva

1
1

Wool is a modified

where obviously the larva 1 ‘ Wool is a modified form of hair, distinguished hy it?

form of hair, distinguished hy it? slender

soft, and wavy or ciirly structure, and by t ‘ehighly imhricated

‘At what point indeed

it can he said that an animal fibre ceases to be hair and becomes wool it is impossible to determine, because in every characteristic

the one class by imperceptible gradations merges into the other, so that a continuous chain can be formed from the finest and

softest merino to

or serrated surface of its filaments’

the rigid bristles of the wild hoar.’-Ency.

Brit.&)),S.V. ‘wool.’

or caterpillar of some clothes-moth is intended. See MOTH. 2. y>in, t&‘ (also ny$n and
or caterpillar of
some clothes-moth
is intended.
See
MOTH.
2. y>in, t&‘ (also ny$n and ny%n, from a root
(1863) ;
Trede,
meaning ‘ to gnaw’ [Del. Neb. Lang. 66f. ; PruZ. 1151;
cp niy$nn,!and niy&
as applied to the teeth), arid
3. m!, rimmdh
(cp Ar. yamma ‘ berotten,’ ,immaP”
Cp also
XI.
A. C.
See
‘rottenness ’), are the words most commonly employed,
and- as in vulgar speech- indicate not so mnch earth-
worms (which indeed are found in Palestine, cp below),
as any elongated crawling animal. 6 renders generally
by UK~X~E,and in Job uaxpia, and less often uij\l.is,
Vg. vermis, putredo, tinpa. The tZ& which was bred
in the manna (Ex. 1620, in n. 24 virnmdh) means
obviously the larva of those flies which breed in organic
matter. In hot countries flies breed with extraordinary
rapidity, and maggots not uncommonly appear in sores,
etc. ; whence several allnsions are made in the OT and
Apocrypha to their parasitical tendencies and especially
to their habit of preying upon the dead (Job 75 2126
3420 but cp d Is. 1411,cp also I Macc. 262 Ecclus.
1011193).‘ In this connection we find in pre-Christian
times the first reference to the ‘ fire and worm ’ which
afterwards became popularly connected with the notions
of a future punishment (Is. 6624 ; cp Ecclus. 717 Judith
1617 and Mk. 9448).
Death by worms, regarded with special horror by the ancients
(Herod.4205), is said to have Iieen the fate of Antiochus
Epiphanes (2 Macc. 9 5fX) and of Herod Agrippa (Acts 12 23) :
hut it must not he forpotte; that such statements about eminent
hut unpopular characters were frequently made by their political
opponents in order to discredit their memory. Cp DISEASES,
adJn., and HEKOD.5 12, ad@=.
The reference to the destruction of vineyards (Dt.
2839). or of gonrds (Jon. 4 7), by a
‘worm,’ probably
indicates some beetle- or rather insect - larva- which
injures roots or other parts of plants ; but it may refer
to certain members of the Myyriapoda (Centipedes),which
have similar destructive habits and are very numerous
in Palestine. With the former we may compare the
Gk. ?$, Tc and Lat. cunvoZvvuhs, a kind of vine-weevil
(cp Pliny, “2247).
Wood-worms, the larm of wood-boring beetles, though un-
mentioned in MT, are referred to in Bar. 6 19 [20],in Prov. 124
@, where a bad woman is likened to 2v .$$A? ur&A?t (=a-
.~
-I
i*ninryz), also 25zoa e,&ump 6s [&I ipariy Kai UK&A?~
66Ao oGrws A6rq bv8pb5 BA~KTPLKap8iav and the Vg. of 2 S. 23 8
(ips; est quasi tenerrimus ligni vermicuds, qui octingentos inter-
fecit impetu uno).
Finally we may note the metaphorical use of ‘ worm’ to denote
a man of low estate
or in a miserable position
Job 256 Ps.
22 EL71 Is. 41 14
KC~TOsaOris.
[not 651,
cp I(. 13654 : &me UK~;~V[&i yaiy
4. y11 hci, @dZ2
dye:,
AV ‘worms of the earth’
(Mi. 7 17),
might
possibly
refer to true earth-worms
(Oligochzta) ; but the literal meaning is ‘ crawling things
wool from
(cp 6 U~POYTESrev) of the earth,’ and it is more likely
that serpents are intended (so RV, cp Dt. 3224).
Of the 0lisoch;eta a dozen species from Palestine have been
described, all belonging to the genus
Allolobojho~ato which
fourteen out of the nineteen British species belong.
kive of the
dozen-viz.,
A. rdiginora, A. chlorotica, A.,Wida, A. veneta,
A. E. S.
and A. rosea- are also British. They are not found in the arid
and sandy regions, hut are hy no means uncommon in the more
fertile districts.
Cp TOLA,COLOURS,8 14.
5.
lp,~4vi.6,Hos. 5 12AVw. (K~VT~OV[BAQ]=lt$P?).
The
word properly means
‘ rottenness’ (see BDB) ; in Prov. 12 4
1430, however, @ gives UK~A?~,ais, just as in Job it renders
D? by ualrpia (see above). wi&& also occurs in the Hebrew of
Heb. 1 z ; (7)
fi ;
Ecclus.
43 20, where Taylor UQR 10471 ; Wisdom of Ben Sira
See
E ARTH.
IxiiJ)
adopts the rendering ‘skin-bottle,’ and refers to Geiger’;
the
following
view of Job 13 28 (~UK~S,45). which he apparently favours.
The
text, however, is moSt probably corrupt ; for >pi, we should read
nh?& briikfith,rendering ‘and he congeals ponds by his cold.’
A. E. s.-s. A. c.,1-4;T. K. c., 5.
WORMWOOD
(?;g$ Dt. 2918 [17]
Prov. 54
Jer.
3 15 [14l 23 15 Lam. 3 15 19 Am. 5 7 F 12 ; 2 and 1+rvBos Rev.
In the difficultpassage Job19 26, ‘worms destroy this body,’
io mention of worms is made by the MT; cp RV, and see
1
D 6
JOB
col. 2474.
2 in this last verse AV has ‘hemlock.’

RESURRXT~~N,SIMON

Antecedwts
Antecedwts
5353
5353

5354

WORSHIP

WRITING

8 II t). The Hebrew word Zua'ritrMis in @ variously rendered rrrrpia Dt. 29 18 [17] Lam. 3 19 Am. 6 12, phi Prov. 5 4 Lam. 3 15 LvL'yiac Jer. 9 15 [14],&SumJer. 23 15,and $(,or Am. 5 7.1 The'word 8$tvBor nowhere occurs in @ ; but Aq. had b$.iv%rov for la'iincZk in Prov. 5 4 Jer. 23 15 Lam. 3 19 (?), for r8S in Jer. 9 15 [141. Vg. has amaritudo in Dt. 29 18, hut everywhere else a6sirrthium -a renderiiig which is also supported by Pesh. and Tg.

amaritudo in Dt. 29 18, hut everywhere else a6sirrthium -a renderiiig which is also supported by
amaritudo in Dt. 29 18, hut everywhere else a6sirrthium -a renderiiig which is also supported by
The origin of the word Za'a'ncih is obscure, and the references to it in OT

The origin of the word Za'a'ncih is obscure, and the references to it in OT are so purely symbolical, that we learn nothing but that it was an edible substance of extreme bitterness ; it is usually coupled with wNj, YZ, or 3g, mi YS (see GALL), and once with a??iip

of extreme bitterness ; it is usually coupled with wNj, YZ, or 3g, mi YS (see
of extreme bitterness ; it is usually coupled with wNj, YZ, or 3g, mi YS (see
of extreme bitterness ; it is usually coupled with wNj, YZ, or 3g, mi YS (see

mt~irim(Lam. 315, see BITTER H ERBS). But a con- sensus of ancient tradition is in favour of the identifica- tion with wormwood, and it may well denote the product of one or more species of Artemisia (perhaps Artemisia juduica) of which as many as seven are enumerated by Tristram (ZWP 331)as found in Palestine.

(perhaps Artemisia juduica) of which as many as seven are enumerated by Tristram (ZWP 331) as

WORSHIP.

See T EMPLE,

N.

M.- W.

5s 348 ;
5s 348 ;

T. T. -D. SACRIFICE ;

also SYNAGOGUE,PRAYER, and SALUTATIONS.

WORSHIPPER

KEEPER.

(NGWKOPOC). RV SeeFRINGES.
(NGWKOPOC).
RV
SeeFRINGES.

I . h4,gidiZ, I K. 717.f

TEMPLE-

See NEOCOROS.

WREATH.

2.
2.

a$), ZaycZh, I K. 7 29 30 36, RV 'wreaths of hanging work' ; but the meaning is doubtful and even the reading uncertain. See under LAVER, 9 I.

WREATHEN WORK.

( I ) niy, 'mh, EX. 2814,

WREATHEN WORK . ( I ) niy, 'mh, E X . 2814,

etc.

See CORD.

etc. See C O R D . (2) ??XW, s&ikcZh, I K. 7 17, etc. See

(2) ??XW, s&ikcZh, I K.717,etc.

See NET, 5.

WRESTLING.

It is reasonable to assume that the

early Hebrews had wrestling-matches. The story of Jacob wrestling with the JZihim or divinity (Gen. 3224-31) seems to presuppose this. If the cycle of Jacob- narratives were as near to the original folk-tales as the cycle of Samson-narratives, we should perhaps have found Jacob indulging like Samson in sportive exhibi- tions of his strength, for the ancestors of the Hebrews (not Samson alone) were imagined as endowed with Herculean strength (cp Gen. 2910 3145$ 3226). It is, however, no sport- this wrestling of Jacob with the divine being ; it is the conquest of the god of an already conquered people which has to be effected. This is the historical meaning of the story. Penuel was possibly the citadel of S UCCOTH (q.x ), and within the precinct of the citadel was the sanctuary (see GIDEON, 5 2). The Jacob-tribe had 'contended with men' and had pre- vailed '-Le., had conquered Succoth and Penuel externally (Judg. 8 16 f.) ; but its admission to full religious privileges had, according to the myth, to be obtained by force. Sargon carried away the deities of conquered places ; hut the Jacob-tribe meant to remain at Snccoth and Penuel, and consequently had to convert a hostile divinity into a friend. Cyrus did the like at Babylon by geniality towards the priesthood (CYRUS, 9: 6) ; the Jacob-tribe chose to describe its victory in the symbolic language of mythology. The myth grew pale, and the later writers did not understand it. Hosea thought that Jacob's conduct was blameworthy ; a later writer modified the story by the statement that Jacob 'wept and made supplication to him,' and it is this later writer whom modern preachers justifiably follow, for he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.'

he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled
he has shown them how to ' turn dross into gold.' The word rendered ' wrestled

The word rendered ' wrestled ' in Gen. 32

(pJw! II.25 1241 ; 'ci&i&, p?:,
(pJw! II.25 1241 ;
'ci&i&,
p?:,

'i6akak,

\pJ$g, 2). 26 [zjl)has been connected by some with p?!,

2). 26 [zjl) has been connected by some with p?!, ' dust, as if= ' to

' dust, as if= ' to dust oneself' ; others compare MH

'to entangle.'

Rut probably the word is corrupt (see Cvit. Bia.).

1 The translator seems in this last case to have read n>Spt and in the two cases in Jer. to have wrongly connected the word with root my.

Jer. to have wrongly connected the word with root m y . Hos. 12 2J [3x]
Jer. to have wrongly connected the word with root m y . Hos. 12 2J [3x]

Hos. 12 2J [3x]belongs to Hosea, who blames Jacob ; the continuation 1s in Z)ZL pg [S-IO]. Vz.4-6 r5-71 are eulogistic of Jacob. The expression 'turn dross into gold' is from Gunkel, whose treatment of the story shows much insight, though he has missed the probable historical origin of the story.

whose treatment of the story shows much insight, though he has missed the probable historical origin
a
a
whose treatment of the story shows much insight, though he has missed the probable historical origin
has missed the probable historical origin of the story. a In Gen.308 the right word is

In Gen.308 the right word is used-vi%,

hU,
hU,

prop. 'to be

twisted together' ; see NAPHTALI,3. 0 4.

be twisted together' ; see NAPHTALI, 3. 0 4. Cp, further, MANASSEH, In the N'T adXv

Cp, further, MANASSEH,

In the N'T adXv ' wrestling' is used as a figure for a spiritual struggle (Eph. 6 12) ; we might have expected pdxv (Delitzsch, in his Heb. NT, renders np??~); the

pdxv (Delitzsch, in his Heb. NT, renders np??~) ; the Christian's struggle not being against flesh
pdxv (Delitzsch, in his Heb. NT, renders np??~) ; the Christian's struggle not being against flesh

Christian's struggle not being against flesh and blood can hardly be called a ' wrestling. ' But the word came naturally to his lips. The palaestra was not, it seems, forbidden to Christians ; the writer of 2 Macc. 4128 (cp CAP) was naturally more sensitive, and denounces the priests of Jerusalem who, in the Hellenising movement under Antiochus Epiphanes, ' hastened to take part in the unlawful provision for thepaLzstra.' The word is happily adopted by RV, following the precedent of ' synagogue ' ; primarily it means a wrestling school. Wrestling was a favourite exercise in ancient Egypt

(Wilk. Anc. Eg. 2437 5292). It is said to have been

(Wilk. Anc. Eg. 2437 5292). It is said to have been introduced into the Olympic contests
(Wilk. Anc. Eg. 2437 5292). It is said to have been introduced into the Olympic contests
(Wilk. Anc. Eg. 2437 5292). It is said to have been introduced into the Olympic contests

introduced into the Olympic contests in the eighteenth Olympiad, from which date it continued to form one of

the five games of the pmtaihZon.

WRITING. In the study of writing it is important

to remember that the word has several meanings, 1. The !vhich must be carefully distinguished. In its widest sense, it includes both ideo-

Ideographic

writing consists in the use of symbols to represent visible objects or the ideas which are associated with those objects ; by phonetic writing is meant the use of symbols to represent the sounds or combinations of sounds, which constitute some particular language. When each symbol denotes a single sound, the writing is said to be aIplzadetic; when each symbol denotes a syllable, the writing is called syZZu6ic. It is probable that writing was at first purely ideographic ; but the oldest systems of writing known to us, namely, the hieroglyphic writing of Egypt and the cuneiform writ- ing of Babylonia, consist of ideographic and phonetic symbols combined in various ways. Both in Egypt and in Babylonia the art of writing was practised con- siderably more than three thousand years before the Christian era. With these systems, however, we are not at present concerned, since there is no reason to believe that they were at any time in use among the ancient Hebrews, who, like their neighbours, the Moab- ites, the Phcenicians, and the Aramaeans. employed a purely alphabetic system, consisting of twenty-two letters, usually known as the Semitic a@hudet. From the Phcenicians this alphabet was borrowed, with certain important modifications, by the Greeks; from the Greeks it passed on to the other nations of Europe, so that in popular language the term ' writing ' is confined to alphabetic writing. When we speak of the writing of Egypt and Babylonia, we are liable to forget that in this case ' writing' means something quite different from that which we ordinarily understand by it. The origin of the Semitic alphabet is extremely obscure. In the ancient world the invention was 2. origin. commonly ascribed to the Phcenicians,l sometimes to the Aramaeans2 or the Egyptians;3 but these theories seem to have been based upon mere conjecture, as was the case with so many other beliefs current among the ancients respect- ing the origin of arts, institutions, and the like.' In

T. K. C.

of arts, institutions, and the like.' In T. K. C. alphabet' graphic and phonetic writing. modem

alphabet'graphic and phonetic writing.

In T. K. C. alphabet' graphic and phonetic writing. modem times also the theory of the
In T. K. C. alphabet' graphic and phonetic writing. modem times also the theory of the
In T. K. C. alphabet' graphic and phonetic writing. modem times also the theory of the
In T. K. C. alphabet' graphic and phonetic writing. modem times also the theory of the

modem times also the theory of the F'hcenician origin of the alphabet has been frequently maintained, and many scholars have endeavoured to show that the Phce- nicians simply adapted to their own use certain of the

nicians simply adapted to their own use certain of the 1 Plin. Nut. Hist. 5 IZ

1 Plin. Nut. Hist. 5 IZ [13](see also 757) ; Lucan, Pharsal.

Hist. 5 IZ [13] (see also 7 57) ; Lucan, Pharsal. 3 220. 2 Diod. Sic.

3 220.

2
2

Diod. Sic. 5 74,Clem.Alex. Stromateis, 116. 3 Plato Phredrus, 58, 274 D . Cicero, De nat. deor. 3 22. 4 That'any genuine traditionlaboutthe origin of the alphabet should have survived must appear highly improbable when we consider that the inventors of the vowel- oints were completely foreotten, although they lived in a muc%later and a far more civilised age.

oints were completely foreotten, although they lived in a muc% later and a far more civilised
oints were completely foreotten, although they lived in a muc% later and a far more civilised
oints were completely foreotten, although they lived in a muc% later and a far more civilised

5355

5356

WRITING

phonetic signs employed in Egyptian writing. Others have supposed that the alphabet was developed out of the Babylonian cuneiform cl~aracter.~But, as Winckler has recently observed, the arguments for attributing the invention of the alphabet to the Phaenicians are far from sati~factory.~We have, it is true, no right to maintain, with Winckler, that the hypothesis is improb- able in itself, for mere generalisations, such as the statement that mercantile peoples are deficient in creative power, prove nothing at all. Nor is much to be said in favour of the rival theory put forward by him, namely, that the alphabet was invented in Babylonia, since the Babylonians, so far as we can ascertain at present, never made use of it for writing their own language. The inscriptions in the Semitic character which appear on some Babylonian and Assyrian weights and contract-tablets prove, indeed, that the alphabet was known in Babylonia ; but as these inscriptions are in the Aramaic language it would seem that the Semitic character was introduced into Babylonia by Aramzans. The arguments which Winckler derives from the shapes

of the letters are likewise very precarious. From the fact that ‘Ayin is represented by a circle he argues that this letter was not originally included in the alphabet and that the Semitic character must therefore have been invented by a people to whom the sound of ‘Ayin was unknown. But the circular form of Ayin may be ex- plained by the obvious supposition that it is meant to

as every

represent an I eye (Heb. ‘dyin),precisely

other letter seems to have been originally a rude portrait of some well-known object, the name of which happened

to bcgin with the sound intended. In some cases both

the shape and the n.xme of the letter clearly indicate

the

object chosen, and this serves to show that the

inventors of the alphabet spoke a Semitic language. But whether they were Phoenicians, Aramzans, or members of some other Semitic people it is at present impossible to decide. 4’ We are not to s!ippose that the inventors of the alphabet endeavoured to distinguish the sounds of their language with scientific precision. It would appear that when two or more consonantal sounds bore a certain resemblance t.0 one another they were sometimes represented by a single letter ; thus the ancient Semitic alphabet had only one sign for the two sibilants which were afterwards known as Sin and Shin and distin-

guished by a diacritical point (t.,d). In this case the distinction of sound must have existed from the beginning (as is proved by comparative philology), and became even more marked in later times; we may therefore assume that it existed likewise in the intermediate period, when the alphabet was invented. Since the inventors of the alphabet ignored this distinction, they may have ignored others also, and accordingly the fact that the ancient Semitic character does not discriminate

between certain sounds which are expressed by different

letters

that the alphabet originated among a people who in pronunciation assimilated these sounds to one another. Of all known inscriptions in the Semitic character the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the

the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e
the oldest which can be dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e

in Arabic (e.g., 2 and

dated with certainty, namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e and i) is -f-, no

e and i)is

namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e and i) is -f-, no proof 3. inscription
namely the in Arabic (e.g., 2 and e and i) is -f-, no proof 3. inscription
-f-,
-f-,

no proof

3.
3.

inscription of Meshd king of Moab,

inscription of Panammk,

of Meshd king of Moab, inscription of Panammk, belongs to the earlier half of the ninth

belongs to the earlier half of the ninth

century B.C. See MES HA. The

king of Ya’di, in the extreme N. of Syria, appears to have been set up about the beginning of the eighth century; it is written in a peculiar Aramaic dialect.6

1 De Rou@ M4mob.s sur rovioine izyjtienne de Z’aiphaZef 1874) ’ Masper; Hist. ancienne des
1 De Rou@
M4mob.s sur rovioine izyjtienne de Z’aiphaZef
1874) ’ Masper;
Hist. ancienne des @urUples
3 Wi. Gesclz. Isr. l(r895) ~&f:
4
5 See DHM Die altsemitischen Zmchmjhn von SenrLrchirZi

jAknicien (Pads

de r~ri~nt(5174; (Paris,’ 1893). 2 Deecke in ZDMG31 [18771102-116.

The reasons which make It necessary to suspend our judr- ment on this question are well pointed out by Lidzharski in his

Handbuch del- nordsem. Ejipajhik [1898] 1173f:

(Vienna, 18931,and cp ARAMAICLANGUAGE, S 2.

5357

WRITING

Some Phcenician and Aramaic inscriptions are perhaps

rather older than these two ; but there is no clear evidence to show how long before the ninth century the Semitic alphabet was invented. Noldeke has observed that the style of the inscription of Mesh2 seems to imply the existence of a historical literature among the Moahites of the period, and what we know of the Moabites would lead us to suppose that their civilisation was decidedly less advanced than that of their neighhours to the W. Thus we may conclude with certainty that at the time of Mesha‘ the Semitic alphabet was not a very recent in- vention. On the other hand, the fact that in the ninth century B . C . the shapes of the letters were almost identical in regions so far apart as Moab and Ya’di does not favour the view that the alphabet had been for many centuries in common use, for in that case local types would have tended to diverge more widely, as is shown by the later history of Semitic writing. More- over, the tablets discovered at Tell-el-Amarna in 1887 prove that about 1400B.C. the Canaanite princes con- ducted their official correspondence with the Egyptian court in the Babylonian language and character. It

would be very rash to

cuneiform character was then commonly employed by the natives of Canaan, for documents written in a foreign language and in an extremely difficult character can have been intelligible only to a small class of pro- fessional scribes, most of them, perhaps, slaves imported from other countries.’ But it is evident that if the Canaanite princes employed, in their correspondence with Egypt, a language which was neither that of Canaan nor that of Egypt, we may with some plausi- bility conjecture that the Canaanites at that period had na writing of their own. The OT does not supply us with the means of dis- covering how or when the alphabet became known to the Israelites. In Genesis, as has often been remarked, there is no allusion to writing of any kind, whereas Moses is.represented, even in the older parts of Exodus (JE), as practising the art (Ex. 244). But from this we cannot safely conclude more than that writing had been in use among the Israelites for some time before the period of the narrator, who probahly lived in the ninth century B.C. Nor does Judg. 514 throw any light on the question ; whatever the phrase YZD km@may mean,

conclude from this that the

the phrase YZD km@ may mean, conclude from this that the it cannot be explained as
the phrase YZD km@ may mean, conclude from this that the it cannot be explained as
the phrase YZD km@ may mean, conclude from this that the it cannot be explained as
the phrase YZD km@ may mean, conclude from this that the it cannot be explained as

it cannot be explained as the pen of the scribe,‘ since o?t$ never has this sense either in Hebrew or Aramaic. It is remarkable that the ordinary Hebrew noun for

Aramaic. It is remarkable that the ordinary Hebrew noun for scribe ’ is derived, has no

scribe is

derived, has no etymological connection with any of

the verbs which

signify ‘to write’ (~m,ppn, odi), and

writing,’ namely

write’ (~m, ppn, odi), and ‘ writing,’ namely from which ??b ‘ a this fact tends

from which

??b
??b
(~m, ppn, odi), and ‘ writing,’ namely from which ??b ‘ a this fact tends to

a

odi), and ‘ writing,’ namely from which ??b ‘ a this fact tends to support the

this fact tends to support the theory that is a foreign

word ; whether it was borrowed from the Assyrian, as some scholars suppose, is uncertain.

the

Judg. 1 IIJ) might

suggest that the word l?p, in the sense of

‘writing,’ was known already to the Canaanites before the

The name of

known already to the Canaanites before the The name of old Canaanite city l~D-fl:l~ (Josh. 15

old Canaanite city l~D-fl:l~(Josh.

the The name of old Canaanite city l~D-fl:l~ (Josh. 15 15f: Israelite invasion. hut since the
the The name of old Canaanite city l~D-fl:l~ (Josh. 15 15f: Israelite invasion. hut since the

15 15f:

Israelite invasion. hut since the root

meanings (in Hedrew to count ‘to relate,’ in Aramaic ‘to shave the hair ’), it is altogether iilegitimate to found any argu-

ment upon the name in question.

In the days of the later kings of Judah, the art of writing must have been very extensively employed, to 4. Types. judge by the frequent allusions to it in the Prophets, especially Isaiah. The oldest extant specimens of Israelite writing, namely the Siloam inscription and a number of engraved seals and gems,

1 Even in Babylonia itself, where the language of the Tell-el- Amarna tablets was actually spoken, Even in Babylonia itself, where the language of the Tell-el- Amarna tablets was actually spoken, the knowledge of the cuneiform character was, in all prohahility, confined to a small proportion of the inhabitants.

confined to a small proportion of the inhabitants. Cp KIRJATH-SErHER. 1802 has a varietyof It is
Cp KIRJATH-SErHER.
Cp KIRJATH-SErHER.

1802 has a varietyof

the inhabitants. Cp KIRJATH-SErHER. 1802 has a varietyof It is possible that 1;D in i;p-n;?p has
the inhabitants. Cp KIRJATH-SErHER. 1802 has a varietyof It is possible that 1;D in i;p-n;?p has

It is possible that 1;D in i;p-n;?p has no connection with

2
2
possible that 1;D in i;p-n;?p has no connection with 2 the e.,c., Phcen. :2~=Heh. 731. be

the

e.,c.,Phcen. :2~=Heh. 731.

be inferred from the name of the place p.DT(@?,

Heh. root 190, since Phcen. D may correspond to Heb. 7,

Heh. root 190, since Phcen. D may correspond to Heb. 7, Nu. 349). The existence of

Nu. 349).

190, since Phcen. D may correspond to Heb. 7, Nu. 349). The existence of a root

The existence of a root ygi may

‘to Ziphron,’

4 See Dr. TBS pp. xiv-xvii.

5358

WRITING

seem to belong to this period. Here the shapes of the letters closely resemble those in the inscription of king Mesha'. One of the oldest Phoenician inscriptions, that which is found on the fragments of a bronze bowl

that which is found on the fragments of a bronze bowl the Baal of Lebanon (US

the Baal of Lebanon (US i. no. 5, see

dedicated to

PHBNICIA, 0 18), exhibits much the same type. But the ordinary Phcenician writing has a decidedly 018),exhibits much the same type. But the ordinary Phcenician writing has a decidedly more modern appearance ; the down-strokes become elongated, so as

to present to the eye a series of parallel lines, and the

letters thus acquire an air of uniformity which is lacking in the older style. Another type is offered by the Aramaic inscriptions and papyri of the Persian and

by the Aramaic inscriptions and papyri of the Persian and Macedonian period. The distinctive feature of

Macedonian period. The distinctive feature of these is that certain letters (2, 1, y, 1) have open tops, as though their upper portion had been cut off. A further development of this Aramaic writing appears in the Nabataean and Palmyrene inscriptions, of the first

century B.C. and onwards, which are specially remark- able for their frequent ligatures or joining of the letters,

a feature common to all the later styles of Aramaic

writing in use among Christians. As the Aramaic language gradually superseded Hebrew and the kindred dialects spoken in Palestine, the Aramaic letters became more and more familiar to the Jews. The coins of the Hasmonaran dynasty and those struck during the two

legends

the old Hebrew character ; hut some Jewish inscrip-

in

Jewish revolts (66-70and 132-135 A.D .) bear

in Jewish revolts (66-70 and 132-135 A. D .) bear tions of about the time of
in Jewish revolts (66-70 and 132-135 A. D .) bear tions of about the time of
in Jewish revolts (66-70 and 132-135 A. D .) bear tions of about the time of
in Jewish revolts (66-70 and 132-135 A. D .) bear tions of about the time of
in Jewish revolts (66-70 and 132-135 A. D .) bear tions of about the time of

tions of about the time of Christ are in the Aramaic writing, though the language is Hebrew. The particular

variety of the Aramaic character which came into use

at

this period was called by the Jews kl'hZb mh-ubbd'

period was called by the Jews kl'hZb mh-ubbd' (ymg XI?), 'square writing,' or k2Lhthdb aJJirL

(ymg XI?), 'square writing,' or k2Lhthdb aJJirL (-TU!>?p),

writing,' or k2Lhthdb aJJirL (-TU! >?p), 'Assyrian writing,' a name probably due to the fact
writing,' or k2Lhthdb aJJirL (-TU! >?p), 'Assyrian writing,' a name probably due to the fact

'Assyrian writing,' a name probably due to the fact that it was employed by the peoples of NE. Syria.

One of the most ancient specimens of

writing is the inscription over the sepulchre of the BPnE

the square

HZzir (ivn 9m), a Jewish family, near Jerusalem the character bears much resemblance to the Nabataean, but the lines are straighter and the ligatares less

frequent. In the fully developed form of the square character the ligatures disappear altogether. There is reason to believe that at the time when the text of the OT was definitely fixed- Le., about the beginning of the second century after Christ- the square character was generally, if not invariably, employed in MSS of the OT.2 Since that period it has continued in use among the Jews with very little modification. Strangely enough, the Samaritans alone remained faithful to the old Hebrew writing, though in their attempt to adorn

it

At a period which it is impossible to determine accurately, but in any case several centuries before the Christian era, the Semitic alphabet was introduced into Arabia and employed for writing various Arabian dia- lects, as is proved by many inscriptions which have

been discovered in that country. Some of these were, until lately, known by the incorrect name Himyaritic. The alphabet in which they are written is evidently derived from that of the northern Semites ; but it con- tains several additional consonants, invented for the purpose of expressing certain Arabic sounds which

for the purpose of expressing certain Arabic sounds which they gave it a somewhat fantastic appearan~e.~
for the purpose of expressing certain Arabic sounds which they gave it a somewhat fantastic appearan~e.~
for the purpose of expressing certain Arabic sounds which they gave it a somewhat fantastic appearan~e.~

they gave it a somewhat fantastic appearan~e.~

sounds which they gave it a somewhat fantastic appearan~e.~ 1882). 1 See Chwolson, Corpus Inso. He&
1882).
1882).

1 See Chwolson, Corpus Inso. He& no. 6 (St. Petershurg,

2 In the recently discovered fragments of Aquila's Greek translation of the OT (ed. F. C. Burkitt, Cambridge, 1897) the Divine name y-h-w-his written in a corrupt form of the old Hebrew alphabet, not, as we might have expected, in the square character. But it does not necessarily follow that the Hebrew MSS used by Aquila were written in the old alphabet fhrough- out; the Divine Name, which, it must be remembered, was not pronounced by the reader, may still have been written in the ancient style after the rest of the text had been modernised. 3 Tables showing the forms of the letters used by the N. Semitic nations at different periods are found in Stade's Lehr- buch der hedrriischen Grammatik (1879) and Niildeke's Kurz- @assre syuisckz Gramnratik (1880, (2)1898), hut far fuller information may be obtained from the magnificent table hy Euting in Chwolson's Corpus rnscr. Neb. See also P. Berger, Hisfoirr de Z'dc~criturcdam ranfiquW (Paris, 1891).

de Z'dc~criturc dam ranfiquW (Paris, 1891). 53.59 WRITING were not represented in the older Semitic
de Z'dc~criturc dam ranfiquW (Paris, 1891). 53.59 WRITING were not represented in the older Semitic
de Z'dc~criturc dam ranfiquW (Paris, 1891). 53.59 WRITING were not represented in the older Semitic
de Z'dc~criturc dam ranfiquW (Paris, 1891). 53.59 WRITING were not represented in the older Semitic

53.59

WRITING

were not represented in the older Semitic writing. The so-called Himyaritic inscriptions fall into two classes, according to dialect- those in Sabaean and those in Minaean. Both dialects seem to have been spoken in

S. Arabia at about the same period, and to have been carried northwards by mercantile colonists. Among these inscriptions there are very few of which the date can be ascertained even approximately. The theory of Glaser, Homniel, Sayce, and others, that the Minzean inscriptions are of enormous antiquity and that the latest of them were set up about 1000 B.c., has been completely overthrown by the discovery of a Minaran

inscription which is dated from ' the twenty-second year of king Ptolemy.' so that it cannot be older than the

of king Ptolemy.' so that it cannot be older than the third century B.c.~ The dialect

third century B.c.~ The

dialect of the so - called

Thaniiidaean inscriptions, recently discovered at Al-

grpatly

both from the Sabaean and the Minaran ; but the writinq is nearly the same. Whether D. H. Muller be right in considering the Thamiidzan character an earlier form of the Sabaean is uncertain. By the beginning of the seventh century of our era both the Thamiidaean and the Sabwan writing had become obsolete in Arabia, for the alphabet employed by the Arabs at that time- the parent of the Arabic character now in use- was derived from the Nabatzan. In Eastern Africa, however, the Sabzan alphabet left a descendant, namely the very peculiar character known as the athiopic. The names by which the letters of the alphabet were known among the Jews appear for the first time in the 5. Names of LXX text of Lam. 1-4. Here the MSS, it IS true, vary to a considerable extent ; but the letters. there can be no doubt that the names are substantially identical with those which were used by the Jews in the Middle Ages. It would seem, however, that in very early times certain of these names were

pronounced otherwise, since the names of the Greek letters, which were borrowed from the Phoenicians, sometimes diverge notably from the ordinary Jewish forms ; thus I'dppa (for rapAa) and 'PG (cp Heb. dui, * head ') appear to have a more primitive vocalisation

than

Accordingly the fact that is not a Hebrew but an Aramaic form cannot be regarded as proving anything with respect to the ultimate origin of the names. That the names were liable to undergo great change in various times and places is shown, moreover, by the Ethiopic alphabet, in which several of the names are quite different. We must not therefore be surprised to find that among the Jewish names of the letters there are some of which the meaning is altogether obscure, namely, yo, I:!, n'D,

obscure, namely, y o , I : ! , n ' D , UlB, about 150

UlB, about 150 m. NNW. of Medina, differs

' D , UlB, about 150 m. NNW. of Medina, differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and
' D , UlB, about 150 m. NNW. of Medina, differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and
' D , UlB, about 150 m. NNW. of Medina, differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and

(ayipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xsor pvs).

differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$
differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$
differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$
differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$
differs (a yipcc~A or yiph) and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$

nq '-IG qip, and >$

and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$ The order in which the
and d.1 (a p~xs or pvs). nq '-IG qip, and >$ The order in which the

The order in which the letters were arranged is shown by the acrostich poems in the OT (Pss. 25 34 37 1115

by the acrostich poems in the OT (Pss. 25 34 37 1115 6. Order Of the

6. Order

Of the
Of the

119

145 Prov. 31 10-31 Lam. 1). In Lam.

Order Of the 119 145 Prov. 31 10-31 Lam. 1). In Lam. 2-4 the order is

2-4 the order is slightly different, since

1). In Lam. 2-4 the order is slightly different, since 5 precedes p3 Among the Phoenicians

5 precedes p3 Among the Phoenicians the arrangement of the letters seems to have been the same as among the Jews, for the Greek alphabet in its primitive form corresponded to the Hebrew. By what principle the order was originally fixed it is impossible to discover. Ancient inscrintions in the Semitic alphabet, like the ., Direction of oldest inscriptions *in Greek, are the writing, written from right to left. The sole punctuation, etc. exceptions to this rule are found among the Sabaean inscriptions, a few of which are written ~0uu7p0~~66v-i.e.,in

a few of which are written ~0uu7p0~~66v-i.e., in - 1 See the papers by DHM in

-

a few of which are written ~0uu7p0~~66v-i.e., in - 1 See the papers by DHM in
a few of which are written ~0uu7p0~~66v-i.e., in - 1 See the papers by DHM in
a few of which are written ~0uu7p0~~66v-i.e., in - 1 See the papers by DHM in

1 See the papersby DHM in the Vienna Oriental

ourn (Dzc see DHM .%jig.Denk. 5360
ourn (Dzc
see DHM .%jig.Denk.
5360

Wieitev Zeitsch?:fzr die Kunde des Morgerrlandes{8 1-i~16;-

166 (1894).

Named after the Thamrid (Gk. ol @apouSqvoi), an Arabian tribe who inhabited those parts about the fourth century after Christ. The authors of these inscri tions, however, call them-

2
2

selves not Thamrid,but Li&yyrin(p&;

aus Arabien (Vienna, 1889). 3 See LAMENTATIONS.

In any case the 0.r contains very many textual corrup- tions which are due s.mply to wrong divisions of words.2 Such mistakes were greatly facilitated by the absence of special forms for final letters, like those used in the writ- ing of the later Jews, Syrians, and Arabs. In Hebrew,

writ- ing of the later Jews, Syrians, and Arabs. In Hebrew, style this is not :allowed,

style this is not :allowed, and in order to fill up a line the scribes are accustomed to ' expand ' certain letters,

especially N, 7, The letters

originally

used as consonants only, the vowels being unexpressed.

a :system must, of course, give rise

*' Ortho- to endless ambiguities, for in the Semitic

*' Ortho- to endless ambiguities, for in the Semitic 5, n, and o. of Such the
*' Ortho- to endless ambiguities, for in the Semitic 5, n, and o. of Such the
*' Ortho- to endless ambiguities, for in the Semitic 5, n, and o. of Such the

5, n, and o.

to endless ambiguities, for in the Semitic 5, n, and o. of Such the Semitic alphabet

of

Such

the Semitic alphabet were

Semitic 5, n, and o. of Such the Semitic alphabet were graphy* languages some of the

graphy* languages some of the most important gram- matical distinctions (e.g.,the difference between an active and a passire verb) often depend solely on the vowels. The reason which led the Semites to content themselves with this imperfect method seems to have been that writing was at first employed only for short and well-known formulze, such as votive inscriptions, funereal inscriptions, and the like, not for literary works

properly so-called. At length certain of the consonants

(H,
(H,

n, 1, and

At length certain of the consonants (H, n, 1, and 7) came to be used also

7) came to be used also as vowels ; hut this

modification was introduced very slowly. In Phcenician inscriptions the vowels are never expressed save in a few cases at the end of a word. In the inscription of King Meshd and the Siloam inscription the vowel-letters are inserted somewhat more freely, but very much less freely than in the present text of the OT.3 Among the Israelites, before the exile, the general rule seems to have b-en that no vowels were expressed in writing except the diphthongs au and ai (which were repre- sentd by 1 and 7 respectively), and most of the long roweis at the end of words. The use of vowel letters for 22, 5, and i in the middle of words- which is frequent in the MT-apparently came into fashion at a very late period, as a cxreful examination of 65 shows.4 The orthography of the ?resent Jewish OT is probably the result of a revision (or of several revisions) by the scribes, for in all parts of the OT the use of the vowel-letters (or, as they are often called, matres kctionis) is approxi- mately the same, thai: is to say, the oldest books do not, in this respect, differ materially from the latest. But though we find a general uniformity of spelling through- out the whole of the OT, there are numberless incon- sistencies in matters of detail, and it often happens that within the space of a few verses the same word is spelt in two or more different ways. In no case. therefore, have me any guarantee that the vowel-letters in our text go back to the time of the author, and to base historical arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~Even

arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,
arguments on the spelling is quite illegitim~tte.~ Even 1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known,

1 The Bthiopic writing, as is well known, always runs from left to right ' the oldest extant specimens of this writing, namely two inscriptions at -4ksllrn in Abyssinia, probably belong to th; sixth century after Christ. 2 See Dr. TBS xxx-xxxii. 3 Thus the Siloam inscription has WR (thrice) for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7.

for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that
for 'C"?, and Dxnl (twice) for C'lWl7. Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that

Dr. TBS p. rxxiiif: It mnst be remembered that many words which the later Jews pronounced with 8 or zi originally had the diphthong ai. Thus when we find yiy and in in the Siloam inscription, we sre not to reckon these as cases in which d was expressed by 1. J. Thus the well-known fact that the form ~17is sometimes employed in MT instead of the fem. "7 proves nothing as to the usage of the ancient Hehrew, since the 1 in this case was probablyinserted bylatescribes (cp Dr. Deut. Introd. p. lxxxviii). In htoabite the masc. form is written ~7,and in Phcenician inscriptions we find ~7 for masc. and fem. alike, the pronunciation of course varying according to the gender.

4

of course varying according to the gender. 4 is very rarely the case in copies of
of course varying according to the gender. 4 is very rarely the case in copies of
of course varying according to the gender. 4 is very rarely the case in copies of
of course varying according to the gender. 4 is very rarely the case in copies of
of course varying according to the gender. 4 is very rarely the case in copies of

is very rarely the case in copies of the OT.

Though the insertion of vowel-letters doubtless ex- cluded certain ambiguities, the writing was still very far from being an adequate representation of

Not only many of the

9. vowel-

points, etc.
points, etc.

the language.

unexpressed. At length, several centuries after the Christian era, systematic efforts were made by the Jews, the Syrians, and the Arabs to remove this practical inconvenience. It cannot be a mere accident that aniong all three nations the introduction of the so-called vowel- points took place about the same period ; but how and where the idea originated is quite uncertain. As early as the fifth century after Christ Syrian scribes had adopted the practice of distinguishing certain words, which, though spelt alike. were pronounced differently, by means of a dot placed above or below ; and it has been conjectured by Ewald and others that this was the origin both of the Syrian and of the Jewish systems of vocalisation. In any case, it would seem that at the beginning of the fifth century the vowel-points were unknown to the Jews, and that by the end of the eighth century they had been in use for some time. The Jewish scholars who introduced these signs into the text of the OT are commonly known .as the iMassoretes-i. e., traditionalists, from the late Heh. word mass5rzlh (nlbp), ' tradition.' Respecting their names and dates history is altogether silent. Though their work was of enormous importance, it must be remembered that aniong the Jews, as among the Syrians and Arabs, the vowel-points have never been regarded as an essential part of the writing ;

in particular the MSS of the Law and the Prophets,

from which lessons were read in the synagogues, appear to have been generally, if not always, written without

points, down to the present day.

Those MSS of the

Hebrew Or which are ' pointed ' fall into two principal classes, according to the method of vocalisation eni- ployed. The great majority exhibit the so-called Pales- him2 system, whilst others, of which the best-known example is the St. Petershurg Codex of the Prophets written in 916 A.D . (published in facsimile by Strack in 18761, have the Babylonian (or superlinear) vowel- points. These two systems possess so much in common that they must necessarily be derived from the same original ; but the precise relationship between them is still disputed. Both represent a very late stage in the

pronunciation of the Hebrew language, or rather they express the language, not as it was actually spoken, but as it was chanted in the synagogues of the period.3 The most important difference between the Palestinian and

the Babylonian systems is, that the Palestinian alone has

a special sign for the short vowel e (SPghdj. The Raby-

lonian system underwent considerable change in course of time, as is shown by the different forms which it assumes in our MSS ; but it was ignored altogether by the great Jewish commentators and grammarians of the

Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it

the Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it 1 See, c.g., Co. Das
the Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it 1 See, c.g., Co. Das
the Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it 1 See, c.g., Co. Das
the Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it 1 See, c.g., Co. Das
the Middle Ages, and at length sank into oblivion, until it 1 See, c.g., Co. Das
1 See, c.g., Co. Das Buch dz.r Propheien L'nPrhi6.l raP6. 2 7.
1 See,
c.g., Co. Das Buch dz.r Propheien L'nPrhi6.l raP6. 2 7.

2 .\Is0 called ' Tillerinn,' from the fact that the city of 'l'ilvzri:ts wa4 one uf the principal seats of Jewish learning from the aecond century onwards. 3 The proniinciation of Hebrew words given in the NT and

other Greek sources is often more primitive than the ronuhcia- tion expressed bv the vowel-points. It should also {e noticed that the consonant text and .the vocalisation are frequently at variance with one another, since the Former presupposes a more ancient pronunciation than the latter. Thus in the very first word of the Hebrew OT, n'eH12, the H must originally have

the Hebrew OT, n'eH12, the H must originally have been pronounced as a conionant, but is

been pronounced as a conionant, but is treated by the hfassoretes as mute.

5361 5362
5361
5362

WRITING

became known to European Hebraists in the nineteenth century. Both the Palestinian and the Babylonian systems of vocalisation are combined with an extremely elaborate system of accents, which were intended to indicate not only the place of the accent in individual words, but also the musical intonation adopted in chanting, and hence the greater or less degree of connection between the different

YEAR

parts of sentences.' A special method of accentuation is employed in the poetical books of the OT--i.e., Psalms, Proverbs, and Job.Z It is scarcely necessary to observe that for us the value of the accents consists in the light which they throw, not upon the real meaning of the text, but upon the manner in which the text was understood

text, but upon the manner in which the text was understood by the Massoretes. A. A.
text, but upon the manner in which the text was understood by the Massoretes. A. A.

by the Massoretes.

A. A. B.

X

the text was understood by the Massoretes. A. A. B. X Y YARN. See L INEN,

Y

YARN. See L INEN, I, W EAVING, and on z S. 17z~f.[ROGELIM] see BED, 5
YARN.
See
L INEN,
I, W EAVING,
and
on z S.
17z~f.[ROGELIM] see BED, 5 3.
I . py, 'Zpn, Prov.716 RV.
See LINEN, 5 ~a.
2. Ezek.
ZT 19 R V &W?), See uZAL.
3. n~p,rniheh, 1 K . 10 28 A V .
See C HARIOT, 5 5, n. 3, WEAVIAG,$ a.

Day, month, and year are all

indicated by nature itself as means for the measure- ment of time. These three units are quite independent, however, and stand in no direct or simple relationship to each other, and wherever an artificial reduction of the larger unit to terms of either of the two smaller is attempted in the absence of exact astrononiical knowledge, inaccuracies and dislocations become inevitable. These are not so great when the largest of the three units- the year- is measured in terms of the smallest- the day ; but they become serious when the middle unit- the month- is taken as the basis for establishing a ratio. The former course (making the day the unit) was taken by the Egyptians : they had observed that after 1. In Egypt. about 365 days the sun returns to the same position in the celestial sphere, and accordingly fixed their year as being 365 days. They altogether left out of account any reference to the course of the moon, although some reminiscence of it

may be preserved in

twelve equal parts of thirty days each, to which were added the five remaining days as supernumerary (the so- called epugomenai). Even thus, however, it was an artificial product that bad been manufactured from the natural year which contains 5 hours 48 minutes and 48 seconds more than 365 complete days; and the Egyptian year, which on every fourth anniversary began a day too soon, was still a vague <ear, although it was only after the lapse of 1461 Egyptian years- a so-called Sothis period (see CHRONOLOGY, Q 19)-that the differ- ence amounted to a year too many. The second course (making the month the unit) was chosen by Mohammed, whose intention in prohibiting a, In Islam. the occasional insertion of an intercalary

month was to frame a rational calendar, but who thereby only succeeded in creating another artificial product completely differing from the natural year, namely the so-called purely lunar year which with its twelve lunar months (354 to 355 days) annually begins the new year some ten or eleven days too soon.

The calendar of Israel and the Jews avoided both the extremes just indicated, which are the necessary

YEAR (?l?y,Jinih).

just indicated, which are the necessary YEAR (?l?y, Jinih). 3. much more complicated than is exhibited
just indicated, which are the necessary YEAR (?l?y, Jinih). 3. much more complicated than is exhibited
just indicated, which are the necessary YEAR (?l?y, Jinih). 3. much more complicated than is exhibited
3.
3.

much more complicated than is exhibited either in the Egyptian or in the Mohammedan: it has, however,

this advantage over both, that the Hebrews, at least in their reckoning of the years, though not always in their delimitation of them, remained in agreement with the number of the natural years. With the ancient Israelites, as probably at the outset

to

with all peoples, the year was

*. A solar say, a natural year which was sufficiently

defined for practical purposes by the

To

regular recurrence of the seasons.

this also the Hebrew word for year seems to have reference; for in @, Emih. at least, as in $VL~UT~S

reference; for in @, Emih. at least, as in $VL~UT~S a solar one, that is [&os,
reference; for in @, Emih. at least, as in $VL~UT~S a solar one, that is [&os,
reference; for in @, Emih. at least, as in $VL~UT~S a solar one, that is [&os,

a solar one, that

is

@, Emih. at least, as in $VL~UT~S a solar one, that is [&os, CLvos], annus [annulus],

[&os, CLvos], annus [annulus], jahr, year (cp Gk. yupoGv), it seems permissible to conjecture some sort of reference to a return to a starting-point, a repetition of the same circular course. The solar character of the Hebrew year, however, is demonstrated beyond all doubt by the ancient determinations of time according to the seasons of the year and the agricultural operations dependent on these. Thus, for example, the annually recurring harvest festival or feast of weeks, dated by the harvest (Ex. 2316a 3422 Dt. 16g), the feast of tabernacles, dated by the ingathering (Dt. 1613). It is proved also by indications which clearly show that stated religious or political actions- dependent in fact on the period of the year- always occurred at the same time of the year. Thus for example the autumn festival falls at the end of the year (Ex. 23166 3422) ; the going forth

at the return of the year

of the king to battle

(z S. 11 I I K. 2022 26 I Ch. 201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly

11 I I K. 2022 26 I Ch. 201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly their division of
11 I I K. 2022 26 I Ch. 201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly their division of

their division of the year into

201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly their division of the year into it is shown by the
201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly their division of the year into it is shown by the
201 z Ch. 3610). Lastly their division of the year into it is shown by the

it is shown by the ancient names of months which are unmistakably connected with the regular recurrence of phenomena of the seasons (see M ONTH , 5 1). The length of the year was hardly so accurately

determined as to render impossible all uncertainty in its Probably its limits to

on weather-

conditions and the labours necessitated by these. At least, we have no indication from the earlier times which would point to any exact deflnition of the year by any precise number of days. Not till post -exilic time does P seem to betray acquaintance with the fact that the year consists of 365 days, when he so states the

Enoch's life (Gen. 523 ; see

number of the years of

Enoch's life (Gen. 523 ; see number of the years of 5. Its length. measurement. some
Enoch's life (Gen. 523 ; see number of the years of 5. Its length. measurement. some
Enoch's life (Gen. 523 ; see number of the years of 5. Its length. measurement. some

5. Its length. measurement.

see number of the years of 5. Its length. measurement. some extent depended E NOCH ,

some

extent

depended

years of 5. Its length. measurement. some extent depended E NOCH , 6) or when he

ENOCH, 6) or when he represents the Flood, which began on the seventeenth day of the second month, as coming to an end on the twenty-seventh day of the second month of the following year (Gen. 7 II 8 14). This last procedure is certainly to be taken as showing

1
1

As to the points in which the Babylonian accentuation differs

from the Palestinian see Wickes'

of the Twenty-one &caZled

Palestinian see Wickes' of the Twenty-one &caZled 1887, pp. 142-150. Prose Books of fkr OT, Oxford,

1887, pp. 142-150.

Prose Books of fkr OT, Oxford,

It should be mentioned that Dr. Wirkes

Treafiseon fhc Accenfuafion

mentioned that Dr. Wirkes Treafise on fhc Accenfuafion regards the term ' Babylonian' as a misnomer.
mentioned that Dr. Wirkes Treafise on fhc Accenfuafion regards the term ' Babylonian' as a misnomer.

regards the term ' Babylonian' as a misnomer.

2
2

See Wickes, A

Treatise on fhr