Gene to Protein, part 2

14-10-14 下午4:35

Gene to Protein, part 2
Due: 3:00pm on Monday, September 29, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

The Genetic Code
DNA is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and the mRNA is translated to proteins on the ribosomes. A sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA
molecule is called a codon. As you can see in the table, most codons specify a particular amino acid to be added to the growing protein chain. In addition, one
codon (shown in blue) codes for the amino acid methionine and functions as a “start” signal. Three codons (shown in red) do not code for amino acids, but
instead function as “stop” signals.

Part A - Understanding the genetic code
Use the table to sort the following ten codons into one of the three bins, according to whether they code for a start codon, an in-sequence amino acid, or a
stop codon.
Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. How to interpret the table of codons
The table of codons shows the start codon in blue and the three stop codons in red. All other codons (shown in black) appear in the middle of the
amino acid sequences that make up proteins.
To read the table, locate the first letter in the codon on the left side of the table, then locate the second letter along the top, and the third letter down
the right side of the table. Follow those letters across and down to identify the amino acid associated with that three-letter codon.

Hint 2. What is the start codon?
Identify the start codon.

Hint 3. What are the stop codons?
Enter the three stop codons, separated by commas.


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Part B . Met-Ser-Thr-Lys-Gly). How to approach the problem First. and thus begins with a methionine. UAG. Hint 第 2 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . separated by hyphens (e. This can be done by placing a space between each codon. refer to the table of codons to find the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon. Can you identify the individual codons in the mRNA sequence? To identify the amino acids specified by the mRNA sequence. AUG. Then. subdivide the sequence into the individual three-letter codons. 5’ → 3’) are not needed when writing amino acid sequences. What amino acid sequence does the following mRNA nucleotide sequence specify? 5′ − AUGGCAAGAAAA − 3′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example mRNA sequence.g. nucleotide base triplets (codons) in mRNA are read in sequence in the 5’ → 3’ direction along the mRNA. Amino acids are specified by the string of codons. Labels indicating directionality (for example. Hint 2. ANSWER: 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ − A UGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGC AAG AAA A − 3′ − AUG GCA AGA AAA − 3′ − AUGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGCA AGAA AA − 3′ http://session. and UGA). Example mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGUCGACUAAGGGA − 3′ Codon sequence AUG UCG ACU AAG GGA Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) Met Ser Thr Lys Gly Hint 3. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Nearly every mRNA gene that codes for a protein begins with the start codon.masteringbiology. which do not code for amino acids but signal the end of translation. Which of the following is the correct division of the codons for the sequence given? Look for the correct placement of spaces. Nearly every protein-coding sequence ends with one of the three stop codons (UAA.Translation of mRNA During translation. you first need to subdivide the sequence into codons of three nucleotides each.Gene to Protein.

each of which codes for a specific amino acid or a stop 第 3 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 4. An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example DNA sequence. How to approach the problem Follow these steps to convert a DNA sequence into an amino acid sequence. Hint 2. subdivide the mRNA sequence into the individual three-letter codons in the 5’ to 3’ direction. First. Then. Uracil (U) takes the place of thymine (T) in RNA to pair with A on the DNA.Gene to Protein. Next.g. The RNA is assembled in an antiparallel direction to the template strand of DNA. What amino acid sequence does the following DNA nucleotide sequence specify? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. Remember to first determine the mRNA sequence that is complementary to the DNA template strand’s sequence. separated by hyphens (e. The mRNA is translated in a 5’ → 3’ direction. Hint 1. transcribe the DNA sequence to determine the mRNA sequence. Be sure to remember the following: The mRNA strand is complementary to the DNA strand. 1. refer to the table of codons to identify the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon. Met-Ser-His-Lys-Gly).masteringbiology. Be sure to write the mRNA sequence in a 5’ to 3’ direction.. 2. and to use U to pair with A. Example DNA sequence (template strand) 3′ − TACGAATCAGCTGTA − 5′ Complementary DNA sequence 5′ − ATGCTTAGTCGACAT − 3′ mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGCUUAGUCGACAU − 3′ Codon sequence AUG CUU AGU CGA CAU http://session. Can you decode GCA? Which amino acid does the codon GCA code for? Express your answer using the three-letter abbreviation of the amino acid. 3. Part C . ANSWER: Ala ANSWER: Met-Ala-Arg-Lys Correct An amino acid sequence is determined by strings of three-letter codons on the mRNA. the mRNA must first be transcribed from a sequence of DNA.The role of DNA in determining amino acid sequences Before a molecule of mRNA can be translated into a protein on the ribosome. A 3’→ 5’ direction in DNA is transcribed in a 5’ → 3’ direction in RNA.

What is a codon? ANSWER: True False Correct A codon is a group of three bases that can specify only one amino acid.masteringbiology. Part B http://session. The codons specified by the mRNA are then translated into a string of amino 第 4 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . Activity: The Triplet Nature of the Genetic Code Click here to view this animation. Hint 1. part 2 Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) 14-10-14 下午4:35 Met Leu Ser Arg His Hint 3. Base pairing in mRNA synthesis follows slightly different rules than in DNA synthesis: uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in pairing with adenine (A). Part A True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid. the mRNA must first be synthesized from DNA through transcription.Gene to Protein. What mRNA sequence is transcribed from the DNA sequence? What mRNA nucleotide sequence would be transcribed from the DNA sequence in this problem? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ ANSWER: 5′ 3′ 3′ 5′ − ATGTCTTGCCAT − 3′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 5′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 3′ ANSWER: Met-Ser-Cys-His Correct Before mRNA can be translated into an amino acid sequence. Then answer the questions.

Part C If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA. Think about how the genetic code is organized into "words. An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence. Correct The original sequence has lost the base C. One deletion mutation. Both addition and 第 5 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . what kind of mutation has occurred? Hint 1. Correct This combination results in no net change in the number of bases. Correct A knock-out mutation refers to the loss of a protein's function but not necessarily to its complete absence. Determine how the two sequences differ.masteringbiology. Part E If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted. What types of mutation can occur in a gene sequence? ANSWER: Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Which of the following statements about mutations is false? Hint 1. Addition. One addition mutation. One addition and one deletion mutation. how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? http://session. A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein. so the reading frame would eventually be restored.Gene to Protein. Part D Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? Hint 1. None. ANSWER: Deletion. A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence." ANSWER: One addition and two deletion mutations.

Correct The second and third codons in the new sequence are different from the original codons. None. ANSWER: An addition mutation A deletion mutation. An addition mutation and a deletion mutation. How to approach the problem In order to determine the type of point mutation contained in a DNA sequence. There are two general categories of point mutations—frameshift mutations (also called base-pair insertions or base-pair deletions) and base substitution mutations (shown in the diagram). Determine the reading frame of the codons in the mutated sequence. or neither). Point Mutations DNA polymerase is very accurate and rarely makes a mistake in DNA replication. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 第 6 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .Base substitution mutations and frameshift mutations If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors. Three. ANSWER: One. is introduced. Sort the items into the appropriate bins. as compared to the correct sequence shown above. Hint 1. only that codon (amino acid) will be altered. known as a point mutation. None.Gene to Protein. the replicated strand would have the following sequence of nucleotides: 5' . an error in replication.3' Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift. Occasionally. it is helpful to write the mutated sequences below the correct http://session.masteringbiology. Two. which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? Hint 1. however. Think about the effects of different mutations on a codon sequence. Part A .ACTACGTGA . base substitution. Correct If the mutations occur within the same codon. Part F If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein.

Each type is defined by how it affects protein synthesis. and silent mutations. A frameshift mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase leaves out a nucleotide or adds an extra nucleotide to the sequence.masteringbiology. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 sequence so you can see the 第 7 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .3' ANSWER: All attempts used.3' 5' .Gene to Protein. which results in the production of a mutant strand of DNA.3' 5' . Part B .ACTACGTGT . Hint 2. ANSWER: 5' .ACTTACGTGA . missense mutations. The table below displays examples.Types of base substitution mutations When a base substitution mutation occurs.3' 5' . How many bases are in each mutated segment? The correct DNA sequence contains nine bases. http://session.ACTAAGTGA . base substitution mutations will change the composition of the sequence but not the number of nucleotides. correct answer displayed A base substitution mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong nucleotide base as it synthesizes a new strand of DNA. Which of the mutated sequences also contain(s) nine bases? Select all that apply.ACTCGTGA . Correct Sequence ATGCAT Substitution 1 ATCCAT Substitution 2 ATGCTT Frameshift 1 ATGGCAT Frameshift 2 ATCAT Frameshift mutations will change the number of nucleotides in a sequence. The result of the mutation depends on how the substituted nucleotide base alters the string of amino acids coded by the mutant DNA. The three types of base substitution mutations are nonsense mutations. Certain forms of cancer occur because of mutations in DNA sequences that are located in so-called mutational hotspots. These hotspots are locations in the DNA sequence where mutations occur more often than in other places. one nucleotide in a replicating DNA sequence is substituted for another.

Hint 2. possibly altering the resulting protein’s structure. The effect of this nucleotide substitution on the translation of the mRNA to a protein will depend on what amino acid is now coded for by the altered base sequence. ending protein synthesis and resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.masteringbiology. missense mutation: the new base leads to the insertion of a different amino acid than had been coded for. How to approach the problem All base substitution mutations alter one base within the DNA sequence. silent mutation: the new base does not change the amino acid sequence coded for by the original DNA strand. You will have to refer to the table of amino acid codons to predict which of the three possible outcomes will occur for each mutant DNA segment. Use the codon table above to determine how each mutation would affect the amino acid coding for each segment. Hint 1. ANSWER: ANSWER: http://session. This change in turn alters the mRNA sequence when the DNA is transcribed.Gene to Protein. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Label the four mutated DNA segments shown below according to the type of point mutation each 第 8 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . How do the three types of base substitution mutations differ? Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Drag the labels to their appropriate locations to identify the type of point mutation shown. There are three possible outcomes that can result: nonsense mutation: the new base changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon. causing a new base pair to form as the DNA replicates.

which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene? Hint 1. or they can have no effect at all. incorrect amino acids would be inserted from the point where the frameshift mutation occurred on. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Point mutations in DNA sequences can profoundly affect protein synthesis. You need to consider how base substitution mutations typically affect proteins compared to how frameshift mutations typically affect proteins. How to approach the problem You know that each type of genetic mutation will affect the sequence of the gene. During protein synthesis. the resulting protein would most probably be nonfunctional. Which mutation will affect an amino acid sequence the least? Of the mutations listed below.masteringbiology. which one will likely change the amino acid sequence of the protein coded by the gene the least? ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene Correct A frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene would affect every codon after the point where the mutation occurred. For this reason. Part C . Score Summary: http://session.Gene to Protein.Severity of point mutations Generally 第 9 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . a frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene is generally the most severe type of mutation. which will in turn affect the protein it codes for to varying extents. Point mutations can be beneficial to an organism but are more commonly neutral or harmful. Hint 2.

http://session. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Your score on this assignment is 0. You received 0 out of a possible total of 3 第 10 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .masteringbiology.0%.Gene to Protein.

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