Gene to Protein, part 2

14-10-14 下午4:35

Gene to Protein, part 2
Due: 3:00pm on Monday, September 29, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

The Genetic Code
DNA is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and the mRNA is translated to proteins on the ribosomes. A sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA
molecule is called a codon. As you can see in the table, most codons specify a particular amino acid to be added to the growing protein chain. In addition, one
codon (shown in blue) codes for the amino acid methionine and functions as a “start” signal. Three codons (shown in red) do not code for amino acids, but
instead function as “stop” signals.

Part A - Understanding the genetic code
Use the table to sort the following ten codons into one of the three bins, according to whether they code for a start codon, an in-sequence amino acid, or a
stop codon.
Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. How to interpret the table of codons
The table of codons shows the start codon in blue and the three stop codons in red. All other codons (shown in black) appear in the middle of the
amino acid sequences that make up proteins.
To read the table, locate the first letter in the codon on the left side of the table, then locate the second letter along the top, and the third letter down
the right side of the table. Follow those letters across and down to identify the amino acid associated with that three-letter codon.

Hint 2. What is the start codon?
Identify the start codon.
ANSWER:
AUG

Hint 3. What are the stop codons?
Enter the three stop codons, separated by commas.
ANSWER:
UAG, UGA, UAA

ANSWER:

http://session.masteringbiology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557

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UAG. Amino acids are specified by the string of codons. What amino acid sequence does the following mRNA nucleotide sequence specify? 5′ − AUGGCAAGAAAA − 3′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. and thus begins with a methionine.masteringbiology. Which of the following is the correct division of the codons for the sequence given? Look for the correct placement of spaces. Labels indicating directionality (for example. subdivide the sequence into the individual three-letter codons. AUG. ANSWER: 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ − A UGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGC AAG AAA A − 3′ − AUG GCA AGA AAA − 3′ − AUGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGCA AGAA AA − 3′ http://session. How to approach the problem First. you first need to subdivide the sequence into codons of three nucleotides each. Met-Ser-Thr-Lys-Gly). Example mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGUCGACUAAGGGA − 3′ Codon sequence AUG UCG ACU AAG GGA Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) Met Ser Thr Lys Gly Hint 3. refer to the table of codons to find the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon. Nearly every protein-coding sequence ends with one of the three stop codons (UAA. 5’ → 3’) are not needed when writing amino acid sequences. This can be done by placing a space between each codon. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Nearly every mRNA gene that codes for a protein begins with the start codon.g. An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example mRNA sequence. and UGA). Hint 1.Translation of mRNA During translation. Can you identify the individual codons in the mRNA sequence? To identify the amino acids specified by the mRNA sequence. Part B . Hint 2. separated by hyphens (e.Gene to Protein.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 2 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . nucleotide base triplets (codons) in mRNA are read in sequence in the 5’ → 3’ direction along the mRNA. Then.. which do not code for amino acids but signal the end of translation.

1. Hint 1. the mRNA must first be transcribed from a sequence of DNA. 2. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 4. separated by hyphens (e. An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example DNA sequence. transcribe the DNA sequence to determine the mRNA sequence. subdivide the mRNA sequence into the individual three-letter codons in the 5’ to 3’ direction. A 3’→ 5’ direction in DNA is transcribed in a 5’ → 3’ direction in RNA. How to approach the problem Follow these steps to convert a DNA sequence into an amino acid sequence.The role of DNA in determining amino acid sequences Before a molecule of mRNA can be translated into a protein on the ribosome. ANSWER: Ala ANSWER: Met-Ala-Arg-Lys Correct An amino acid sequence is determined by strings of three-letter codons on the mRNA. Uracil (U) takes the place of thymine (T) in RNA to pair with A on the DNA. Then. and to use U to pair with A. Remember to first determine the mRNA sequence that is complementary to the DNA template strand’s sequence. Met-Ser-His-Lys-Gly).. The mRNA is translated in a 5’ → 3’ direction. What amino acid sequence does the following DNA nucleotide sequence specify? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. each of which codes for a specific amino acid or a stop signal. Can you decode GCA? Which amino acid does the codon GCA code for? Express your answer using the three-letter abbreviation of the amino acid. Be sure to remember the following: The mRNA strand is complementary to the DNA strand.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 3 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . 3. Example DNA sequence (template strand) 3′ − TACGAATCAGCTGTA − 5′ Complementary DNA sequence 5′ − ATGCTTAGTCGACAT − 3′ mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGCUUAGUCGACAU − 3′ Codon sequence AUG CUU AGU CGA CAU http://session. Next. Part C . Hint 2. refer to the table of codons to identify the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon.Gene to Protein.g. Be sure to write the mRNA sequence in a 5’ to 3’ direction.masteringbiology. The RNA is assembled in an antiparallel direction to the template strand of DNA. First.

masteringbiology. Part A True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid. Then answer the questions. Activity: The Triplet Nature of the Genetic Code Click here to view this animation. What mRNA sequence is transcribed from the DNA sequence? What mRNA nucleotide sequence would be transcribed from the DNA sequence in this problem? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ ANSWER: 5′ 3′ 3′ 5′ − ATGTCTTGCCAT − 3′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 5′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 3′ ANSWER: Met-Ser-Cys-His Correct Before mRNA can be translated into an amino acid sequence. Part B http://session. The codons specified by the mRNA are then translated into a string of amino acids. Hint 1.Gene to Protein. the mRNA must first be synthesized from DNA through transcription. What is a codon? ANSWER: True False Correct A codon is a group of three bases that can specify only one amino acid.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 4 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . part 2 Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) 14-10-14 下午4:35 Met Leu Ser Arg His Hint 3. Base pairing in mRNA synthesis follows slightly different rules than in DNA synthesis: uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in pairing with adenine (A).

Gene to Protein.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 5 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence. Part C If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA. ANSWER: Deletion. One deletion mutation. One addition mutation. so the reading frame would eventually be restored.masteringbiology. An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence. None. One addition and one deletion mutation. Part E If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted. Determine how the two sequences differ. Think about how the genetic code is organized into "words. Correct The original sequence has lost the base C. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Which of the following statements about mutations is false? Hint 1. What types of mutation can occur in a gene sequence? ANSWER: Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins. Addition. A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein. Part D Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? Hint 1. Correct A knock-out mutation refers to the loss of a protein's function but not necessarily to its complete absence. how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? http://session. what kind of mutation has occurred? Hint 1." ANSWER: One addition and two deletion mutations. Correct This combination results in no net change in the number of bases. Both addition and deletion.

Occasionally. Three. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 1. Part A .com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 6 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . ANSWER: An addition mutation A deletion mutation. There are two general categories of point mutations—frameshift mutations (also called base-pair insertions or base-pair deletions) and base substitution mutations (shown in the diagram).3' Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift. Hint 1. an error in replication. which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? Hint 1.Gene to Protein. Determine the reading frame of the codons in the mutated sequence. known as a point mutation. How to approach the problem In order to determine the type of point mutation contained in a DNA sequence.Base substitution mutations and frameshift mutations If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors. base substitution.ACTACGTGA . Correct The second and third codons in the new sequence are different from the original codons. it is helpful to write the mutated sequences below the correct http://session. Think about the effects of different mutations on a codon sequence. Correct If the mutations occur within the same codon. Sort the items into the appropriate bins. Part F If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein. Point Mutations DNA polymerase is very accurate and rarely makes a mistake in DNA replication.masteringbiology. ANSWER: One. however. None. is introduced. None. or neither). as compared to the correct sequence shown above. only that codon (amino acid) will be altered. Two. An addition mutation and a deletion mutation. the replicated strand would have the following sequence of nucleotides: 5' .

ACTACGTGT . one nucleotide in a replicating DNA sequence is substituted for another.3' 5' .ACTTACGTGA .com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 7 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . ANSWER: 5' . Correct Sequence ATGCAT Substitution 1 ATCCAT Substitution 2 ATGCTT Frameshift 1 ATGGCAT Frameshift 2 ATCAT Frameshift mutations will change the number of nucleotides in a sequence. Hint 2. Each type is defined by how it affects protein synthesis. How many bases are in each mutated segment? The correct DNA sequence contains nine bases. missense mutations. The three types of base substitution mutations are nonsense mutations. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 sequence so you can see the differences.ACTAAGTGA . Which of the mutated sequences also contain(s) nine bases? Select all that apply. and silent mutations. These hotspots are locations in the DNA sequence where mutations occur more often than in other places. Part B .3' 5' . base substitution mutations will change the composition of the sequence but not the number of nucleotides.Gene to Protein. Certain forms of cancer occur because of mutations in DNA sequences that are located in so-called mutational hotspots. The table below displays examples. http://session.masteringbiology. The result of the mutation depends on how the substituted nucleotide base alters the string of amino acids coded by the mutant DNA. A frameshift mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase leaves out a nucleotide or adds an extra nucleotide to the sequence.3' ANSWER: All attempts used. which results in the production of a mutant strand of DNA. correct answer displayed A base substitution mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong nucleotide base as it synthesizes a new strand of DNA.ACTCGTGA .3' 5' .Types of base substitution mutations When a base substitution mutation occurs.

Drag the labels to their appropriate locations to identify the type of point mutation shown. This change in turn alters the mRNA sequence when the DNA is transcribed. Hint 2. Use the codon table above to determine how each mutation would affect the amino acid coding for each segment. missense mutation: the new base leads to the insertion of a different amino acid than had been coded for. silent mutation: the new base does not change the amino acid sequence coded for by the original DNA strand. There are three possible outcomes that can result: nonsense mutation: the new base changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Label the four mutated DNA segments shown below according to the type of point mutation each represents. How to approach the problem All base substitution mutations alter one base within the DNA sequence. Hint 1.masteringbiology.Gene to Protein. ending protein synthesis and resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein. possibly altering the resulting protein’s structure. ANSWER: ANSWER: http://session. The effect of this nucleotide substitution on the translation of the mRNA to a protein will depend on what amino acid is now coded for by the altered base sequence.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 8 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . causing a new base pair to form as the DNA replicates. You will have to refer to the table of amino acid codons to predict which of the three possible outcomes will occur for each mutant DNA segment. How do the three types of base substitution mutations differ? Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences.

or they can have no effect at all. Part C . which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene? Hint 1. the resulting protein would most probably be nonfunctional. You need to consider how base substitution mutations typically affect proteins compared to how frameshift mutations typically affect proteins. incorrect amino acids would be inserted from the point where the frameshift mutation occurred on. Point mutations can be beneficial to an organism but are more commonly neutral or harmful. Hint 2. During protein synthesis.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 9 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . a frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene is generally the most severe type of mutation. Score Summary: http://session. How to approach the problem You know that each type of genetic mutation will affect the sequence of the gene. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Point mutations in DNA sequences can profoundly affect protein synthesis.masteringbiology. Which mutation will affect an amino acid sequence the least? Of the mutations listed below.Gene to Protein.Severity of point mutations Generally speaking. which one will likely change the amino acid sequence of the protein coded by the gene the least? ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene Correct A frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene would affect every codon after the point where the mutation occurred. which will in turn affect the protein it codes for to varying extents. For this reason.

You received 0 out of a possible total of 3 points. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Your score on this assignment is 0.Gene to Protein. http://session.masteringbiology.0%.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2980557 第 10 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .

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