Gene to Protein, part 2

14-10-14 下午4:35

Gene to Protein, part 2
Due: 3:00pm on Monday, September 29, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

The Genetic Code
DNA is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and the mRNA is translated to proteins on the ribosomes. A sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA
molecule is called a codon. As you can see in the table, most codons specify a particular amino acid to be added to the growing protein chain. In addition, one
codon (shown in blue) codes for the amino acid methionine and functions as a “start” signal. Three codons (shown in red) do not code for amino acids, but
instead function as “stop” signals.

Part A - Understanding the genetic code
Use the table to sort the following ten codons into one of the three bins, according to whether they code for a start codon, an in-sequence amino acid, or a
stop codon.
Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. How to interpret the table of codons
The table of codons shows the start codon in blue and the three stop codons in red. All other codons (shown in black) appear in the middle of the
amino acid sequences that make up proteins.
To read the table, locate the first letter in the codon on the left side of the table, then locate the second letter along the top, and the third letter down
the right side of the table. Follow those letters across and down to identify the amino acid associated with that three-letter codon.

Hint 2. What is the start codon?
Identify the start codon.

Hint 3. What are the stop codons?
Enter the three stop codons, separated by commas.


第 1 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页)

AUG.g. How to approach the problem First. Can you identify the individual codons in the mRNA sequence? To identify the amino acids specified by the mRNA sequence. Hint 2. 5’ → 3’) are not needed when writing amino acid sequences. This can be done by placing a space between each codon. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Nearly every mRNA gene that codes for a protein begins with the start codon. Met-Ser-Thr-Lys-Gly). An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example mRNA sequence.Gene to Protein. Which of the following is the correct division of the codons for the sequence given? Look for the correct placement of spaces. ANSWER: 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ 5′ − A UGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGC AAG AAA A − 3′ − AUG GCA AGA AAA − 3′ − AUGG CAA GAA AA − 3′ − AU GGCA AGAA AA − 3′ http://session. refer to the table of codons to find the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon. Hint 1. and UGA). Part B .Translation of mRNA During 第 2 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . What amino acid sequence does the following mRNA nucleotide sequence specify? 5′ − AUGGCAAGAAAA − 3′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. Labels indicating directionality (for example. which do not code for amino acids but signal the end of translation. nucleotide base triplets (codons) in mRNA are read in sequence in the 5’ → 3’ direction along the mRNA. Nearly every protein-coding sequence ends with one of the three stop codons (UAA. Amino acids are specified by the string of codons. Example mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGUCGACUAAGGGA − 3′ Codon sequence AUG UCG ACU AAG GGA Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) Met Ser Thr Lys Gly Hint 3.. UAG. you first need to subdivide the sequence into codons of three nucleotides each.masteringbiology. Then. subdivide the sequence into the individual three-letter codons. and thus begins with a methionine. separated by hyphens (e.

refer to the table of codons to identify the three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid that corresponds to each codon. transcribe the DNA sequence to determine the mRNA sequence. and to use U to pair with A. An example problem This chart shows how to decode an example DNA sequence. The mRNA is translated in a 5’ → 3’ direction. Hint 1.The role of DNA in determining amino acid sequences Before a molecule of mRNA can be translated into a protein on the 第 3 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 4. Hint 2. Then. 1. Uracil (U) takes the place of thymine (T) in RNA to pair with A on the DNA. subdivide the mRNA sequence into the individual three-letter codons in the 5’ to 3’ direction.g. Be sure to write the mRNA sequence in a 5’ to 3’ direction. Be sure to remember the following: The mRNA strand is complementary to the DNA strand. A 3’→ 5’ direction in DNA is transcribed in a 5’ → 3’ direction in RNA. How to approach the problem Follow these steps to convert a DNA sequence into an amino acid sequence. What amino acid sequence does the following DNA nucleotide sequence specify? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations. ANSWER: Ala ANSWER: Met-Ala-Arg-Lys Correct An amino acid sequence is determined by strings of three-letter codons on the mRNA. the mRNA must first be transcribed from a sequence of DNA..masteringbiology. 3. Met-Ser-His-Lys-Gly). separated by hyphens (e. Remember to first determine the mRNA sequence that is complementary to the DNA template strand’s sequence. Can you decode GCA? Which amino acid does the codon GCA code for? Express your answer using the three-letter abbreviation of the amino acid. 2. Next. each of which codes for a specific amino acid or a stop signal. Example DNA sequence (template strand) 3′ − TACGAATCAGCTGTA − 5′ Complementary DNA sequence 5′ − ATGCTTAGTCGACAT − 3′ mRNA sequence 5′ − AUGCUUAGUCGACAU − 3′ Codon sequence AUG CUU AGU CGA CAU http://session. First. The RNA is assembled in an antiparallel direction to the template strand of DNA.Gene to Protein. Part C .

What mRNA sequence is transcribed from the DNA sequence? What mRNA nucleotide sequence would be transcribed from the DNA sequence in this problem? 3′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ ANSWER: 5′ 3′ 3′ 5′ − ATGTCTTGCCAT − 3′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 5′ − TACAGAACGGTA − 5′ − AUGUCUUGCCAU − 3′ ANSWER: Met-Ser-Cys-His Correct Before mRNA can be translated into an amino acid sequence. Hint 1. part 2 Amino acid sequence (three-letter abbreviation) 14-10-14 下午4:35 Met Leu Ser Arg His Hint 3. Activity: The Triplet Nature of the Genetic Code Click here to view this animation.Gene to Protein. the mRNA must first be synthesized from DNA through transcription. Part A True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.masteringbiology. What is a codon? ANSWER: True False Correct A codon is a group of three bases that can specify only one amino acid. Base pairing in mRNA synthesis follows slightly different rules than in DNA synthesis: uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in pairing with adenine (A). Part B 第 4 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . The codons specified by the mRNA are then translated into a string of amino acids. Then answer the questions.

so the reading frame would eventually be restored. Both addition and deletion. Correct A knock-out mutation refers to the loss of a protein's function but not necessarily to its complete absence.Gene to Protein. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Which of the following statements about mutations is false? Hint 1. A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated 第 5 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . Correct The original sequence has lost the base C. what kind of mutation has occurred? Hint 1.masteringbiology. One addition mutation. ANSWER: Deletion. how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? http://session. What types of mutation can occur in a gene sequence? ANSWER: Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins. One addition and one deletion mutation. Part D Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? Hint 1. Correct This combination results in no net change in the number of bases. Addition. Think about how the genetic code is organized into "words. None. An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence." ANSWER: One addition and two deletion mutations. Part E If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted. Determine how the two sequences differ. Part C If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA. A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence. One deletion mutation.

as compared to the correct sequence shown above. Correct The second and third codons in the new sequence are different from the original codons. it is helpful to write the mutated sequences below the correct http://session. Occasionally. only that codon (amino acid) will be altered.Base substitution mutations and frameshift mutations If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors. ANSWER: One. Sort the items into the appropriate bins. Correct If the mutations occur within the same codon. Part F If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein. Three.Gene to Protein. Two. base substitution. the replicated strand would have the following sequence of nucleotides: 5' . is introduced. Determine the reading frame of the codons in the mutated sequence. Think about the effects of different mutations on a codon sequence. Point Mutations DNA polymerase is very accurate and rarely makes a mistake in DNA replication. None. None.masteringbiology. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Hint 1. known as a point mutation.ACTACGTGA . Hint 1. however.3' Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift. There are two general categories of point mutations—frameshift mutations (also called base-pair insertions or base-pair deletions) and base substitution mutations (shown in the diagram). an error in replication. How to approach the problem In order to determine the type of point mutation contained in a DNA 第 6 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . or neither). Part A . which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? Hint 1. An addition mutation and a deletion mutation. ANSWER: An addition mutation A deletion mutation.

How many bases are in each mutated segment? The correct DNA sequence contains nine bases.masteringbiology.3' 5' .3' 5' . correct answer displayed A base substitution mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong nucleotide base as it synthesizes a new strand of DNA.Types of base substitution mutations When a base substitution mutation occurs. and silent mutations. Which of the mutated sequences also contain(s) nine bases? Select all that apply. Certain forms of cancer occur because of mutations in DNA sequences that are located in so-called mutational 第 7 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .ACTTACGTGA . missense mutations. These hotspots are locations in the DNA sequence where mutations occur more often than in other places. which results in the production of a mutant strand of DNA. Hint 2. one nucleotide in a replicating DNA sequence is substituted for another. The three types of base substitution mutations are nonsense mutations.3' ANSWER: All attempts used. The table below displays examples. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 sequence so you can see the differences. http://session. Correct Sequence ATGCAT Substitution 1 ATCCAT Substitution 2 ATGCTT Frameshift 1 ATGGCAT Frameshift 2 ATCAT Frameshift mutations will change the number of nucleotides in a sequence.ACTCGTGA . base substitution mutations will change the composition of the sequence but not the number of nucleotides. Part B . Each type is defined by how it affects protein synthesis. ANSWER: 5' .ACTAAGTGA . The result of the mutation depends on how the substituted nucleotide base alters the string of amino acids coded by the mutant DNA.ACTACGTGT .Gene to Protein. A frameshift mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase leaves out a nucleotide or adds an extra nucleotide to the sequence.3' 5' .

part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Label the four mutated DNA segments shown below according to the type of point mutation each represents. Drag the labels to their appropriate locations to identify the type of point mutation shown. Hint 2. missense mutation: the new base leads to the insertion of a different amino acid than had been coded 第 8 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . The effect of this nucleotide substitution on the translation of the mRNA to a protein will depend on what amino acid is now coded for by the altered base sequence. ANSWER: ANSWER: http://session. How to approach the problem All base substitution mutations alter one base within the DNA sequence. ending protein synthesis and resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein. causing a new base pair to form as the DNA replicates. Hint 1. How do the three types of base substitution mutations differ? Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. There are three possible outcomes that can result: nonsense mutation: the new base changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon.masteringbiology.Gene to Protein. You will have to refer to the table of amino acid codons to predict which of the three possible outcomes will occur for each mutant DNA segment. possibly altering the resulting protein’s structure. This change in turn alters the mRNA sequence when the DNA is transcribed. silent mutation: the new base does not change the amino acid sequence coded for by the original DNA strand. Use the codon table above to determine how each mutation would affect the amino acid coding for each segment.

How to approach the problem You know that each type of genetic mutation will affect the sequence of the gene.Gene to Protein. incorrect amino acids would be inserted from the point where the frameshift mutation occurred on.Severity of point mutations Generally speaking. the resulting protein would most probably be nonfunctional. You need to consider how base substitution mutations typically affect proteins compared to how frameshift mutations typically affect proteins. which one will likely change the amino acid sequence of the protein coded by the gene the least? ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene ANSWER: a base substitution at the beginning of the gene a base substitution at the end of the gene a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene Correct A frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene would affect every codon after the point where the mutation occurred. Score Summary: http://session. For this reason. a frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene is generally the most severe type of mutation. or they can have no effect at all. Hint 2. which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene? Hint 1. Which mutation will affect an amino acid sequence the least? Of the mutations listed below.masteringbiology. Point mutations can be beneficial to an organism but are more commonly neutral or harmful. Part C . which will in turn affect the protein it codes for to varying extents. During protein 第 9 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) . part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Correct Point mutations in DNA sequences can profoundly affect protein synthesis. 第 10 ⻚页(共 10 ⻚页) .Gene to Protein.masteringbiology. part 2 14-10-14 下午4:35 Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 3 points.