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What is information technology and why is it important to a


Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and
other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store,
secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.in Business the applications
include databases like SQL Server, transactional systems such as real-time order
entry, email servers like Exchange, Web servers like Apache, customer
relationship management and enterprise resource planning systems. These
applications execute programmed instructions to manipulate, consolidate,
disperse or otherwise affect data for a business purpose.
Innovation is the great way to success in this digital age. Online shopping, digital
marketing, social networking, digital communication and cloud computing etc are
the best examples of change which came through the wave of information
technology. Now accurate business planning, effective marketing, global sales,
systematic management, real time monitoring, instant customer support and
long term business growth cannot be achieved at the optimum level without IT.

2. Explain how you might use fishbone diagrams, Pareto charts, and
XY charts in problem solving. Be specific, and describe the
advantages of each tool.
Fishbone: A fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that represents the possible
causes of a problem as a graphical outline. When using a fishbone diagram, an
analyst first states the problem and draws a main bone with sub-bones that
represent possible causes of the problem and identifies four areas to investigate:
environment, workers, management, and machines. In each area, the analyst
identifies possible causes and draws them as horizontal sub-bones. For example,
too hot is a possible cause in the environment bone. For each cause, the analyst
must dig deeper and ask the question: What could be causing this symptom to
occur? For example, why is it too hot? If the answer is insufficient air conditioning
capacity, the analyst indicates this as a sub-bone to the too hot cause. In this
manner, the analyst adds additional sub-bones to the diagram, until he or she
uncovers root causes of a problem, rather than just the symptoms.
Pareto Charts: Pareto charts are a widely used tool for visualizing issues that
need attention. A Pareto chart is drawn as a vertical bar graph. The bars, which
represent various causes of a problem, are arranged in descending order, so the
team can focus on the most important causes.
XY Charts (Scatter Diagrams): The XY chart, sometimes called a scatter diagram,
is another problem-solving tool. Often, an analyst looks for a correlation between
two variables. If there is no correlation between the variables than you would
look elsewhere for the source of the problem. However, if it indicates a strong
relationship between the variables then that information would be extremely
valuable in the problem-solving process.

3. What are task patterns, and how can you recognize them?
Task patterns establish the sequence of work in a project. You can recognize task
patterns by looking carefully at the wording of the task statement. Words like
then , when , or and are action words that signal a sequence of events.

4. Provide examples of closed ended, open-ended and range-ofresponse questions

Close-ended questions are: (you can answer a closed ended question with only a "yes"
or "no" response)

Are you feeling better today?

May I use the bathroom?
Is the prime rib a special tonight?

open-ended questions: (require more than just one word answers.)

What were the most important wars fought in the history of the United
What are you planning to buy today at the supermarket?
How exactly did the fight between the two of you start?

Range-of-response-Questions: (closed-ended questions that ask the person to

evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a
numeric scale.)

What are three types of sampling, and why would you use them?
What is the Mandela Effect? Why is it significant?

5. What is structured English?

Structured English is a subset of standard English that describes logical
processes clearly and accurately, and when used must conform to the following
Use only the three building blocks of sequence, selection and iteration.
Use indentation for reliability.
Use a limited vocabulary, including standard terms used in the data dictionary
and specific words that describe the processing rules.

6. Define a use case and a use case diagram, and give examples
A use case represents the steps in a specific business function or process in UML
(Unified Modelling Language). An external entity, called an actor, initiates a use
case by requesting the system to perform a function or process. For example, in
a medical office system, a patient (Actor) can make an appointment (Use Case).

A use case diagram is a visual summary of several related use cases within a
system or sub-system. For example, consider a small auto-service department;
the service department involves customers, service writers who prepare work
orders and invoices, and mechanics who perform the work.

7. Explain the relationship between logical and physical design

Logical design is, the part of the design phase of the SDLC in which all functional
features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described
independently of any computer platform. A logical design for a network is an
abstract functional specification for a telecommunications solution. A logical
design lacks specific details such as technologies and standards and focuses on
the needs at a general level. A logical network design can be a view of any part
of a network. An entire enterprise educational network can be a composition of
many logical designs. The primary relation between logical network design and
physical network design is that of iterative production of a solution from the
identification of a problem. The logical design of a network can be reimplemented with new technology, and yet the logical design remains the same.
Logical designs can span generations of technology, while a physical design is
one realization of a logical design.

8. Explain each of the data validation rules mentioned in this

Data validation rules include the following:

Sequence checks are used when the data must be in some predetermined
Existence checks are used for mandatory data items.
Data type checks test to ensure that a data item fits the required data
Range checks test data items to verify that they fall between a specified
minimum and maximum value.
Reasonableness checks identify values that are questionable, but not
necessarily wrong.
Validity checks are used for data items that must have certain values.
Combination checks are performed on two or more fields to ensure that
they are consistent or reasonable when considered together.
Batch controls are totals used to verify batch input and might involve
checking data items such as record counts and numeric field totals.

9. What is a DBMS? Briefly describe the components of a DBMS.

A DBMS provides an interface between a database and users who need to access
the data. In addition to interfaces for users, database administrators, and related
systems, a DBMS also has a data manipulation language, schema, and physical
data repository.

Explain the difference between a LAN and a WAN, define
the term topology and draw a sketch of each wired and wireless
network model. Also describe the IEEE 802.11g and 802.11n
amendments, and multiple input-multiple output (MIMO)
The difference between a LAN and WAN is in the area they cover. WANs cover
great distances, whereas LANs are local. Topology means model, a topology of a
network is model of how a network is configured and arranged.

Wired network models;

hierarchical ,




Wireless network models;

Four IEEE amendments are:

802.11b, midrange speed (11Mbps), uses 2.4 Ghz spectrum.

802.11a, fast speed (54Mbps), uses higher 5 Ghz spectrum
02.11g, like a hybrid between a and b, fast speed (54Mbps) but 2.4 Ghz
spectrum.This is currently the most popular amendment.
802.11n, not yet released, proposes speeds of 248 Mbps using MIMO
technology. The 802.11n amendment could revolutionize wireless

Who must receive training before a new information system
is implemented?
New personnel may have to be hired or current employees may need to be
trained to run the new system. So basically the staff must receive the training
before a new information system is implemented with proper time and training
facilities. In addition, if the group is small, trainees can learn from the questions
and problems of others. A training program must address the job interests and
skills of a wide range of participants. For example, IT staff personnel and users
require very different information. Problems often arise when some participants
have technical backgrounds and others do not. A single program will not meet
everyones needs.