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Frames5&6GTOperation&Maintenance

GTBASIC WORKING PRINCIPLE (BRAYTON CYCLE)

GASTURBINETHEBASICWORKINGPRINCIPLE
(BRAYTONCYCLE)

GAS TURBINES CLASSIFICATIONS


|

Application
y Fixedspeed electricalpowergeneration
y Variablespeed mechanicaldrives,pumps,compressors

Design
y Industrial,heavyduty,robustlonglife
y Aircraftderivative,lightweight,deratedforstationary
applications

Rotor
y Singleshaft(usuallygeneratorapplications)
y Dualshaft(usuallymechanicaldrives)
y Threeshaft(aeroderivativetypes)

Cycle
y Simplecycle
y Regenerative
y Combinedcycle

SEQUENCEOFOPERATION
AIR
FUEL
EXHAUST

EXHAUST

FUEL

AIR

HEAVY DUTY  ONE SHAFT GAS TURBINE


B.V
FS5001
W251
V63

EGT (T3)

EGT (T4)

Starter
Motor

IGV
CDP

T1

NHP

NPT

GT F5 Single Shaft

TWO SHAFT INDUSTRIAL GT WITH 2ND STAGE NOZZLES

6
Combustor
Inlet

5
3

Compressor

Turbine

net
Power output
Turbine work

CLASSIFICATIONS OF GAS TURBINE


BASED ON THE MANUFACTURER
General Electric (GE) (Nouvo Pignone)
Frame 5 15-25 MW
Frame 6 33-45 MW
Frame 7 50-150 MW
Frame 9 100-250 MW
Westinghouse
Model 251 35-50 MW
Model 501 100-150 MW
Model 701 100 -150 MW (50 Hz)
ABB
Model GT8 47 MW
Model GT13E 148 MW

ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINES


1. Short time to start up- It is able to reach full running
speed within few minutes (about 15 minutes for
medium size).
2. Does not need a lot of accessories like steam turbines
3. Need very little cooling water
4. Can be transported to the site as self contained units.
5. Gas turbines can operate on different kinds of fuels
natural gas, LPG, diesel, fuel oil, etc. It is used in
locations where natural gas is cheap and available.
11

ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINES


6. The speed of the turbine can be changed to
match the requirements of the driven
equipment. This is very useful when driving
centrifugal compressors.
7. Gas turbines run smooth, unlike internal
combustion engines (gas engines or diesel
engines). This allows much lighter base plates
and support structures.
8. Gas turbines have a very high starting torque
and can be started up when the driven
equipment is loaded. Gas engines and electric
motors have poor starting torque.

12

DISADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINES


1. Cost is much greater than for a similar-sized ICE (very
high-performance, strong, heat-resistant materials
needed);
2. Use more fuel when idling compared to ICE- not so
good unless in continual operation.
3. High efficiency of gas turbines can be achieved
through high turbine inlet temperatures of up to 1300
C. This process requires expensive material and
complex technologies for blade cooling. Therefore gas
turbines of highest efficiency are very maintenance
intensive.
13

IDEAL CYCLE
Efficiency = output/input
| Output = Turbine power Compressor power = K.E.
| Input = Fuel energy
|

Ways to Improve the Overall Efficiency and The


Output
| Regeneration
| Turbine reheat
| Compressor intercooling
| Steam or water injection
|

2. Inter cooling
9

Intercooler

Combustor
4.5

Inlet

2
3

Compressor 1

Compressor 2

Turbine

Power
Turbine

net
output
work

Adding intercooler between LP comressor (compressor 1) and


HP compresssor (compressor 2) increase the amount of air
which enters the combustion chambers

REHEAT CYCLE

A GAS TURBINE CYCLE WITH STEAM INJECTION

IMPROVEMENT OF THE BASIC CYCLE


1. REGENERATION

The exhaust gases is used to heat the water before


it enters the boilers in steam generation cycle

IMPROVEMENT OF THE BASIC CYCLE


1. Regeneration
9
Regenerator

5.5
3.5
Inlet

4.5

Combustor

Compressor

Turbine

Power
Turbine

net
output
work

The exhaust gases is used to heat the air before


it enters the combustion chambers

COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS


|

The major components that make up a combined cycle


are the gas turbine, the HRSG and the steam turbine

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION IN A COMBINED


CYCLE POWER PLANT.

THE TURBINE BASIC COMPONENTS

| 1.Axialflowcompressor(rotor+stator)
| 2.Combustionchamber(s)+transitionpieces
| 3.Turbinerotor(turbinewheelsfixedtotheshaft+

turbinefixednozzles)

23

THE TURBINE BASIC COMPONENTS

1. Single Shaft

THEROLEOFAIRCOMPRESSORINTHEGASTURBINE

Thecombustionchamber(combustion,dilution)

Coolingpurposes(tocoolturbineblades)

Bearingcoolingandsealingair

Tooperatethepneumaticcontrolsystem

27

AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION


|

1. Axial flow and compression occur parallel to the rotational axis of


compressor

2. Axial compressor consists of a series of rotor blades and stator


vanes

3. A rotor and the following stator make up a stage

4. Several stages are combined to make up the complete compressor

5.Kinetic energy of the rotor is transferred to the air

6. Stator vanes are placed to the rear of the rotor blades

7. Stator vanes receive the air at high velocity and act as a diffuser,
changing kinetic energy to pressure.

8. Stator vanes have a secondary function of directing air flow to the


next stage of compressor at the desired angle.
28

PRESSURE AND VELCITY IN AXIAL FLOW


COMPRESSOR

Rotating blades transfer


the kinetic energy of the
rotor to the airflow
Stationary vanes
convert the airflow
kinetic energy to
pressure

AXIAL COMPRESSOR &GTSECTION VIEW


Turbine wheels
Compressor
last stage

Compressor casing
Bearing # 1

Axial compressor
First stage
Inlet guide vanes

31

VARIATION OF VELOCITY, AND PRESSURE


THROUGH AN AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

EXTERNAL CAUSES AND EFFECTS


OF SURGE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Restriction in suction or discharge of a system.


Process changes in pressure, temperature, or gas
composition.
Internal plugging of flow passages of compressor
(fouling).
Inadvertent loss of speed.
Instrument or control valve malfunction.
Malfunction of hardware such as variable inlet
guide vanes.
Operator error
Maldistribution of load in parallel operation of
two or more compressors.
Improper assembly of a compressor, such as a
mispositioned rotor.

COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
1.Thecombustionchamberconsistsofanoutercasing,aninner
perforatedliner,afuelinjectionsystem,andastartingignitionsystem.
2.Thefunction:Thecombustionprocesshappeninsideit.Thiswilladd
heatenergytotheflowinggases,therebyexpandingandaccelerating
thegasesintotheturbinesection
3.Whenthefuelheatisadded,thevolumeofthegasisincreasedand,
remainingthesame,thiscausesanaccelerationofgasestooccur.
4.Interactionofoxygenmoleculesandmoleculesoffuelwhichare
heatedtoignitiontemperaturesresultsincombustion
5.Thecombustionchambermustcoolhotcombustionproductstoa
temperaturewhichtheturbinesectioncomponentscanwithstand
(dilution)
34

COMPONENTS
All combustion chambers contain the same basic
elements:
| A casing
| A perforated inner liner.
| A fuel injection system.
| Some means for initial ignition.
| A fuel drainage system to drain off unburned fuel
after engine shutdown.
|

TYPES OF COMBUSTORS

TYPESOFCOMBUSTIONCHAMBERS
|

THERE ARE THREE COMMON DESIGNS

1. SINGLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

37

TYPESOFCOMBUSTIONCHAMBERS
|

2. ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER

38

TYPESOFCOMBUSTIONCHAMBERS
|

3. MULTI-COMBUSTION CANS

40

3. MULTI-CAN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS

Transition piece

Combustion
chamber liner

Turbine nozzle

3. MULTI-CAN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

43

COMBUSTION LINER &TRANSITION PIECE

45

THE TURBINE PRINCIPLE


|

Pressureofhotgasesleavingthecombustionchamberis
convertedtovelocityatthenozzlesformedatthetrailingedge
oftheturbinestatorsvanesandrotorblades.

Theturbinestatorvanesactasnozzles,increasingvelocityand
decreasingpressure.

Theturbinestatorvanesalsodirectthegasesattheoptimum
angleintotheturbinerotorblades.

Thevelocityreferredtoisvectoredinatangentialdirection
ratherthanaxial.Thisslowsthegasflowaxially,reducingits
reactivepower,butaddsshaftpowertotherotorsystem.
46

TURBINE ENGINE (GAS GENERATOR)PARTS

47

PATHS OF PRESSURE,TEMP.&VELOCITY IN F5GT

48

FIRING TEMPERATURE INCREASE WITH


BLADE MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT

THE TURBINE STATOR (TURBINE FIXED


NOZZLES)

First stage fixed nozzle assembly

FRAME 6 - THE TURBINE ROTOR (TURBINE


WHEELS)
Rotating blades
first stage

Rotating blades
third stage

Rotating blades
second stage

THE TURBINE BLADES - HOW IT IS FIXED TO


THE TURBINE WHEEL (OR DISC)?

GAS TURBINES TECHNOLOGY

54

LOAD GEAR BOX

55

THE TURBINE BEARINGS

56

THE TURBINE BEARINGS

Sliding surface bearing

TILTING PADS RADIAL BEARING

THE TURBINE BEARINGS

What is the function of the bearing?

To carry the turbine rotor in casing frame and keep it in its correct
running position. There are two different kinds of bearings: radial and
thrust bearings.

What is the most common type of bearings?

Journal bearing or tilting pad bearings (Radial bearing)

Tilting pad bearing & Taper land (Thrust bearing)

59

SELF EQUALIZING TILTING PADS THRUST


BEARING COMPONENTS

TILTING PADS THRUST BEARING

What is active bearing and un-active bearing?

27. Generator Components

PRESSURE

MECHANICAL

INCREASE

ENERGY

COMPRESSOR
GAS

GAS
Suction Pressure = Ps
Suction Temperature = Ts
Suction Velocity = Us

Discharge Pressure = Pd
Discharge Temperature = Td
Discharge Velocity = Ud
63

COMPRESSION METHODS

Compressors

Continuous Flow

Intermittent Flow
Positive Displacement

Reciprocating

Rotary

Mechanical
Piston

Sliding Vane
Liquid Piston
Helical Lobe
Straight Lobe

Dynamic

Ejector

Radial
Flow

Mixed
Flow

Axial

Centrifugal

Mixed
Flow

Axial
64
flow

TYPICAL APPLICATION RANGES OF COMPRESSOR TYPES

65

CROSS SECTION OF HORIZONTAL SPLIT


Discharge volutes
Impellers
Drive coupling

Impeller inlet
labyrinth seals
Shaft and
labyrinth seal
Journal bearing

Casing
(horizontally split
flange)
Compressor
discharge nozzle

Thrust bearing

Compressor
inlet nozzle

66

PICTURE OF HORIZONTAL SPLIT

67

PICTURE OF BARREL TYPE COMPRESSOR

68

69

ROTOR SHAFT WITH IMPELLERS

70

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

DIAPHRAGMS

71

72

Thrust Load &Thrust Control


Pressure Thrust on Impeller

73

ON THE DISC SIDE THE IMPELLER IS EXPOSED TO


DISCHARGE PRESSURE AND ON THE OTHER PARTLY TO THE
SAME PRESSURE PARTLY TO SUCTION PRESSURE.

THUS A THRUST FORCE IS CREATED TOWARDS SUCTION.

74

75

THRUST LOAD &THRUST CONTROL

II- IMPELLER ARRANGEMENTS

in a back-to-back
arrangement and
changing the flow
path of the gas
within the casing
minimizes axial
thrust (Figure 18).

This arrangement
is used when a
high-pressure rise
Figure 18
is required within
Back-to-back impeller arrangement
a single casing.
76

THRUST LOAD &THRUST CONTROL

II- IMPELLER ARRANGEMENTS

In double flow
arrangement, which
doubles the
maximum flow
capability of the
compressor but in
turn reduces the
discharge pressure
( Figure 19).

Figure 19 Double flow arrangement


77

THRUST LOAD &THRUST CONTROL

THRUST BEARINGS

NOTE
Thrust bearing failure is one of the
worst types of failure that can occur
in a dynamic compressor.
Due to the high rotational speeds and
the close clearances between the
stationary and rotating elements, any
contact due to shaft movement results
in instant compressor failure.

78

MAIN COMPRESSOR TROUBLES


a) Surge
-

Surging occurs when the inlet flow rate is less


than the minimum recommended rate or when
the back pressure cannot be overcomed by the
compressor discharge

b) Stonewall (Choked Flow)


-

Stonewall occurs when the compressor operates


at maximum flow and minimum head.
Stonewall causes a drop in Pd and an increase
79
in vibration.

ANTI-SURGE CONTROL
Possible damages caused by surging can be ...

Thrust Bearing Failure


Rubbing of labyrinth strips causing higher clearances and
consequentely higher leakages / thrust forces
Rubbing of impellers / blades
Failure of blading on axial compressors due to excess stress/heating
Damage to suction filter, silencers, process armatures etc.
80

SURGE EFFECT ON G.T. AIR COMPRESSOR

81

BASIC ANTISURGE CONTROL SYSTEM


The antisurge controller UIC-1 protects the compressor
against surge by opening the recycle valve
Opening of the recycle valve lowers the resistance felt
by the compressor , This takes the compressor away
from surge
The essence of the surge protection is to determine when
and how much to open or close the recycle valve
Rc

VSDS

Rprocess
Rprocess+valve

Compressor

Suction

F Ps P
1 1 1
T T dT
U
1
I
C

Discharge
2

qr
Surge parameter based on invariant
coordinates Rc and qr
y
y

82

Flow measured in suction ('Po)


Ps and Pd transmitters used to calculate Rc

GAS TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION

Control
Devices P&I

83

MEASUREMENT
Things that are measured include:
| Pressure, temperature, level, flow,
humidity, speed, motion, position, weight,
density, conductivity, pH, light, quality,
quantity, and more.
Devices that process or do the measuring are
called:
| Sensors, transducers, transmitters,
indicators, displays, recorders, data loggers,
and data acquisition systems.
84

FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS


These are the devices the controller operates:
|

Pneumatic valves, solenoid valves, rotary valves,


motors, switches, relays, variable frequency
drives.

85

THE PRESSURE GAUGE PANEL


Placedintheauxiliarycompartment,mountedonit:thepressuregauges,
pressureswitchesandtestvalvearefitted.
1)

LUBEOILHEADER

2)

AUX.LUBE OIL PUMP DISCHARGE

3)

EMERGENCYLUBEOILPUMPDISCHARGE

4)

MAINLUBEOILPUMPDISCHARGE

5)

COMPRESSORDISCHARGE

6)

HYDRAULICOILHEADER

7)

TRIPOILHEADER

8)

MAINFILTERDIFFERENTIAL

9)

TRIPOILFILTERDIFFERENTIAL

10)

HYDRAULICOILFILTERNO.1DIFFERENTIAL

11)

HYDRAULICOILFILTERNO.2DIFFERENTIAL

86

CPD & FUEL GAS PRESSURE TRANSMITTER (96CD../FG.)

Thetransmitterconsistsofacasinginwhichamembraneonwhichthe
compressordischargepressureisacting.Internally,themembraneis
connectedtofourstraingauges(lengthsensitiveresistances),whichisDCfed
fromtheSpeedtronicpanel.

Achangeincompressordischargepressurewillresultinachangeofoutput
dcvoltageofthebridge.

87

FLAME DETECTORS (28FD..)

Theflamedetectionsystemcomprises2primary&2secondarydetectors

1.beforestartingtheturbine,allflamedetectorsmustsignal"noflame
present";ifnotstartingisnotpossible.
2.duringthestartingsequenceandoperation,atleastoneprimarydetector
mustsignal"flamepresent"topreventtheturbinefromtripping.
3.duringstartingandoperationanalarmwillsoundwhenoneofthedetectors
failstoseeflame.

88

GAS TURBINE SPEED PICKUPS (77NH...,77HT...)


|

whenatoothpassesthepickuptip,themagneticfieldofthepermanent
magnetwillchangethroughwhichavoltageisgenerated.Thishappens60
timesperrevolutionofthegearwheel,resultingin:

89

SEISMIC VIBRATION PICKUPS (39V...)

Thepickupsaresocalledseismicorvelocitypickups.Theyproducea
signalwhichisproportionaltothevibrationvelocityinrespecttospace.
ThesignalsaresenttotheSpeedtronicpanelwheretheypassfilters,to
comparewiththefixedalarmandtripvalues.

90

DISPLACEMENT VIBRATION PICKUPS (39VS.,77RP.,96VC.)

Thebearingsareequippedwith"proximityprobes".Theyarenoncontactingdevices,
measuringthedisplacementmotionandpositionofanobservedsurfacerelativeto
theprobemountinglocation.Theyoperateonthe"EddyCurrent"principle.
Connectedtotheprobe,wefindanoscillator/detector/amplifiercombination,
frequentlycalled"Proximitor".Itisasignalconditioningdevice,whichsendsaradio
frequencysignaltoanEddycurrentproximityprobe,demodulatestheprobeoutput,
andprovidesoutputsignalsproportionaltoboththeaverageanddynamicprobegap
distances.

91

92

93

KEY PHASOR PROBE


| GT,compressorandgearboxhaveeachbeenprovided

withanadditionalaxialprobe,whichfunctionsasakey
phasor.
| Eachprobeobservesagroove,machinedintheshaft.
Thegrooveprovidesasocalledonceperturnevent
whichwillprovideavoltagepulseeverytimethe
groovepassesthekeyphasorprobe.
| Thekeyphasorpulseprovidesareferencemarkfor
phaseangle,frequencymeasurementsandallvibration
dataacquisition.
94

95

ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVO VALVES (MOOG)

Theservovalveistheinterfacebetweentheelectrical(Speedtronic)&the
mechanicalsystems.Itconvertstheelectricalsignalcontrolsystemtoa
hydraulicsignali.e.anoilflowcausingpistondisplacement.

Servovalvesareusedtocontrolthedirectionandrateofmovementofthe
pistons,positioningthegasandliquidfuelvalvesandtheIGVs.

96

LVDT POSITION TRANSMITTERS

Thepositionofthevalvestemsofthegasfuelcontrolvalve,thestop/speed
ratiovalveandoftheinletguidevanesismeasuredbypositiontransmitters
calledlinearvariabledifferentialtransformers

TheLVDTconsistsofaprimarytransformerwinding,poweredfroma7V,3.2
kHzACsource.Thesecondarywindinggeneratesanoutputsignalbetween
0.7and3.5V,dependingonthepositionofthecoreinbetweentheprimary
andsecondarywindings.

97

IGNITION TRANSFORMER 95TR1&SPARK PLUGS 95SP1,10

Sparkplugsoncombustionchambers1and10.

98

EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLES FOR TX (TTXD...)

Thereare(13/fr5)(18/fr6)thermocouplesincorporatedinthetemperature
controlandprotectionsystem.Thethermocoupleitselfisajointoftwometal
alloys(ChromelandAlumel).

99

100

TURBINE WHEELSPACE THERMOCOUPLES (TTWS)

101

BEARING METAL TEMPERATURE (RTD,BT)

102

DEVICE CODING SYSTEM


|

ThedevicesintheDeviceSummaryandonthePipingSchematicshavebeen
codedaccordingtothefollowingAmericanstandards:

NEMAstandardSM32

AmericannationalStandardInstituteC37.2

IEEEInternationalStandards

Nexttothenumbertwocharactersareusedtoindicatetheapplicationofthe

device.

Examples:

20CB1solenoidvalveforCompressorBleed

63PF1pressureswitchVentilationfan

45FT1FiredetectorTurbinecompartment

96FG1pressuretransmitterFuelGas

103

DEVICE CODING SYSTEM

104

DEVICE SUMMARY (INSTRUMENTATION LIST)


|

TAGNO.SCHDESCRIPTIONITEM

REV.




5ES1

CD

EMERGENCYSTOPPUSHBUTTON

Extrainformation:

Make

ABB

Model

P411/5312

TIpartno

3047.2231.010

63QA2

LO

11122

Keyresettype

LOWLUBEOILPRESSUREAUX.PUMPSTART09260

ContactType:

SPDT

Action:

NOOA

Setting:

Decreasingopenat0.8+ 0.1Bar

(Reset):

(Increasingcloseat1.l+0.1Bar)

Make:

CustomControl

Model:

646GEA2

TIpartno:

3032.1229.000

77HT2 CD

TURBINEROTOROVERSPEEDMAGNETICPICKUP05460

GapSetting

CoilResistance :

170210ohms

1.3t0.1mm

Make

Airpax

Model

0851010404

105

P&IDLEGEND

106

ALARM &TRIP LIST

107

CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM

108

LUBE OIL SYSTEM

109

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

110

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

111

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

112

TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS


1.Thestartingsystem
Thesystemconsistsofanelectricstartingmotortowhichatorqueconverteris
connected.Viaarejectable jawclutch,theaccessorygearboxandtheaccessory
coupling,thegasturbineisdriven.
2.Thelubeoilsystem
Themajoritemsofthissystemare:themainpump,theauxiliarypump,the
emergencypump,filters,coolers,controllersandprotectiondevices.
3.Thetripoilsystem
Thissystemisfedfromthemainlubeoilsystem.Assoonasthelubeoilsystem
ispressurized,thetripoilsystemwillenableopeningthefuelstopvalveandthe
inletguidevanes.Incaseofatripsituation,thetripoilsystempressurewill
immediatelyfalltozeroviasolenoidvalves,causingthefuelsupplytobecutoff
andtheIGV'stocloseimmediately.
4.Thefire/gasprotectionsystem
113
Thesystemcontainsseveralthermalandopticalfiredetectors,whichareable
toactivatethefirefightingequipment.

TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS


5.Thehydraulicoilsystem
Highpressurepumpsandservovalvesforthefuelvalvearethemain
componentsofthe
system.ThesystemservesthegasfuelcontrolvalvesandtheIGVcontrol
system.
6.Thegasfuelsystem
Thissystemconsistsofanoffbasefuelgassupplysystemandanonbase
controlsystem.Thelattersystemconsistsofcontrolandshutoffvalvesforgas
fuelsupplycontrolandforDryLowNOxoperation.
7.Thesteaminjectionsystem
ToreducetheNOxemissionsasteaminjectionsystemmaybeimplemented.
Thissystemcontainsthenecessaryvalvesforwaterdrainage,preheatingand
controllingtheamountofsteam.Steaminjectioncanalsobeusedforpower
augmentation.
114

TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS


8.Theliquidfuelsystem
Anaccessorygearboxdrivenpumppressurizesthefuel.Aservocontrolledby
passvalveperformscontrol.Viaafilter,fuelisdirectedtoaflowdividerfor
equaldistributiontothecombustionchambers.
9.Theatomizingairsystem
Foroptimumcombustionoftheinjectedliquidfuel,thissystemprovides
atomizingair,whichisinjectedintothefuelnozzle.Thesystemcomprisesa
centrifugaltypemaincompressorandascrewtypeauxiliarycompressorbeing
drivenbythestartingmotor.Asthisairistakenfromtheaxialflowcompressor,
theairiscooledbackinacooler.
10.Compressorwashingsystem
Afouledcompressorcanbecleanedintwoways:offlinecleaningandonline
cleaning.Systemsforbothcleaningmethodshavebeenprovided.Bothsystems
willreceivewater/detergentfromanoffbasewashskid.
115

TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS


11.Thecoolingandsealingairsystem
Thissystemisfedwithcompressedair,whichistakenfromthecompressoron
severalplaces.Theairissent,viainternalchanneling,tothehotpartsand
bearingsofthegasturbine.Valves,filtersandpneumaticcylindersarepartsof
thissystem.
12.Heatingandventilationsystem
Thesystemwilltakecareofacontinuousflowofairthroughtheauxiliary
compartmentandaroundtheturbine.Whentheturbineisstopped,theheating
systemwillprovidewarmairtocirculatethroughtheauxiliarycompartmentto
preventanycondensation.
13.Inletandexhaustsystem
Thissystemprovidescleanairtothegasturbineandexhauststhehotgasesto
thestack.Thesystemconsistsoftheairinletfilter,theinletducting,theinlet
plenum,theexhaustplenumandtheexhaustducting.
116

STARTING SYSTEM
Starting system fall into two categories:
1. Those that drive the gas generator directly and
2. Those that drive the gas generator through an
intermediate gear box
Starters may be:
1. Diesel or gas engine
2. Steam turbine
3. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic motors
117

118

GAS/DIESEL ENGINES
y

Available up to 3 MW

Usually turbocharged

Variable speed capability

Typical operating speed is

600-1800 rpm

Easy start from (dead bus)

119

ELECTRIC MOTORS
y
y
y
y
y
y
y

Variable speed drive motors are available


High efficiency / Low maintenance
Poor starting torque
Require pressurized or explosion proof
enclosures
High current draw during start-up
No emissions
Relatively expensive
120

STEAM TURBINES

Used where excess process steam is available


from plant operations and may be directly
coupled or driven through a gearbox

121

STARTING SYSTEM
What is the function of starting system?
1. Drive the gas generator compressor to purge the gas
generator and exhaust duct of any volatile gases prior
to initiating the ignition cycle.
2. To rotate the gas generator until it reaches its self
sustaining speed (about 25% of full speed)
3. To rotate the gas generator, after shutdown for cooling

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

HYDRAULIC CONVERTOR

Input speed is
constant value

Output speed is
variable value

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM

What is the function of lubricating oil system in


the turbine?
To provide the required clean pressurized
lubricating oil to all required points in the turbine
with suitable temperature (bearing, spacer gear
coupling and gearboxes in the system).
This lubricating oil perform two jobs:
1. Lubricate the parts
2. Cooling of these parts
144

TURBINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM


1. Gas turbines generally have separate external circulation systems.
2. Bearings are used to support the weight of the shafts, rotors and
prevent them from vibrating radially.
3. Without a lubricant, the bearing surface would wear out quickly.
4. Oil is supplied to bearing through machined holes and grooves.
5. The oil forms a film between the rotating shaft and the bearing that
separates them. This reduces friction and heat.
6. Some heat is generated and the lubricant must carry it away.
7. To re-use this oil, it must be cooled, cleaned and re-pressurized.
145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

Lubrication-, Control- and Seal Oil Systems


Oil Pumps

Drivers of pumps:
Direct (shaft driven)

or

Steam turbine

or

Electric motor

155

156

157

158

159

Lubrication-, Control- and Seal Oil Systems


Oil Pumps

Main oil pump shaft-driven (MAN Standard):

Shaft-driven pumps are


gearor
screw type

160

161

162

163

164

Lubrication-, Control- and Seal Oil Systems


Temperature Control Valve

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

15 C
172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

192

COMPRESSOR &GTSECTION VIEW


Turbine wheels
Compressor
last stage

Compressor casing
Bearing # 1

Axial compressor
First stage
Inlet guide vanes

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

2ND STAGE NOZZLE CONTROL


|

WhyNozzles
y

Startup
y
y

SecondstageNozzlesallowtheHPturbinetorunatitsoptimal
speedforbetterfuelefficiency.TheyremainatEGTlimit

Nozzlesareopenduringstartup
CloseatNHPidlespeed

WhichGTshasthem
y
y

GeneralElectricFS3002andFS5002
NuovoPignonePGT5andPGT10

204

TWO SHAFT INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE

205

206

2ND STAGE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY

207

TRIP OIL SYSTEM

208

209

210

211

212

213

214

215

216

217

218

219

Same for 20FG-1 (Gas Stop Valve)

220

Fuel system
| The

purpose of the fuel system is to deliver


fuel to the individual combustors of the
turbine under the following conditions:
1- At the required pressure,
2- In the right quantity to meet the load
demand.
3- Free of contaminants which may be
harmful to the turbine

222

223

FUEL SYSTEM
.

225

226

227

EMISSIONS DURING COMBUSTION


|

NOx is the combination of NO (approximately 90%), NO2 and other


nitrogen oxides that are emitted from the combustion process in a gas
turbine. The major cause for NOx production is a very high
temperature during combustion, i.e. in the center of the flame in the
combustion chamber (thermal NOx).

NOx and moisture in the air forms Nitric Acid (HNO3) and Nitrous
Acid (HNO2).

SOx, a combination of SO2 (approximately 95%) after combustion in a


gas turbine, and SO3 with moisture in the air forms Sulphuric Acid
(H2SO4) and sulphurous Acid (H2SO3).

These acids are the main cause of ACID RAIN.

As a result of several chemical reactions and sunlight (UV rays) NO2


also contributes to the development of Ozone (O3) in the lower
atmosphere. Ozone is the main cause of SMOG.

TECHNIQUES FOR EMISSION CONTROL OF:

NOx

- Water- or Steam Injection


- Catalytic Combustion
- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) end of pipe
- Dry Reduction Techniques

SOx

- Sulphur Content in Fuel

CO

- Design of Combustion Chamber (Combustion


Efficiency)

CO2

- Efficiency of a Process
- Type of fuel

UHC / VOC

- Design of Combustion Chamber (Combustion


Efficiency)

Dust

- Fuel and Air Composition

Smoke

- Design of Combustion Chamber


- Fuel Composition

230

NOX PRODUCTION RATE

232

233

234

235

236

237

238

239

240

241

242

243

244

245

246

247

248

CDP closes the bleed valve (spring loaded to open)

249

250

251

252

253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

261

Dry Gas Seal System


The Dry Gas Seal system supplies
filtered,
and
flow- controlled
process gas to the shaft seals of the compressor.
The seal gas leakage through the shaft seals
is released to a safe area, usually a flare system
and an overhead vent
262

SHAFT END SEALS

DRYGASSEAL
The

stationery mounted seal


unit comprises a spring
loaded, O ring sealed carbon
face, held as an integral unit in
a stainless steel retainer.
An 'O' ring sealed rotating seat,
normally manufactured from
tungsten carbide, is profiled with
series of spiral grooves having
a depth of between 0.0025
to 0.010mm as illustrated

263

SHAFT END
SEALS

DRY
GAS
SEAL

264

265

Dry Gas Seal Systems


Working Principle

Filtered Buffer Gas (N2)

EXTERNAL
GAS

PROCESS
GAS

PCV

Filtered Seal Gas

FILTER
MODULE

N2 SECONDARY
FILTER MODULE

FO

FO
FI

FI

FI

FI

N2 buffered tandem
DGS

Process Gas + N2
to Flare
PI
FO

FO
FI

Seal Gas
= Process Gas

PI

FI

FLARE

VENT

266

N2 to Atmosphere

Dry Gas Seal Systems


Possible Calculations

Calculation of a Tandem DGS


with OB monitoring
z Leakage
z Flows
z Losses

267

Heating & Ventilation system

268

Heating & Ventilation system

269

270

271

272

273

274

275

276

277

278

279

280

281

282

283

284

285

FIRE &GAS DETECTION SYSTEM

Fire Triangle

O2
Combustible Media
Heat Source
286

FIRE &GAS DETECTION SYSTEM


System Components classification

1- Construction

Sealed Enclosures & Doors, Dampers

2- Detection

Temp. switches

Gas detectors

Flame detectors

3- Annunciation

F&G panels alarms to control

Package Sounder & Flash lights

4- Extinguishing

Actuators

Extinguishing Cylinders (CO2, FM-200,.)

287

FIRE PROTECTION P&ID

288

289

290

FIRE PROTECTION

291

GAS DETECTION
OPEN PATH GD

292

Controlsystem
|isacombinationofcomponentsperforming

Controlfunctions.
|Tocontrolmeanstomaintainaparticular

operation,statusorperformanceofa
physicalprocess
293

BASIC FUNCTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Thefunctionsprovidedbythecontrolsystemare:

1.

Sequence

2.

Control

3.

Protect

4.

Display
294

GASTURBINEMONITORINGSYSTEM
Thebasicobjectivesinmonitoringgasturbinecharacteristics:
1.Maximizeperformance
2.Reducemaintenance
3.Reduceunitdowntime
Monitoringsystemmustbeattentionto:
1.Thethermodynamicgaspath(hotgaspath)
2.Vibrationsofbearings,rotors,andgearboxes
3.Lubrication,control,andotheraccessorysubsystems

295

PLCS

ProgrammableLogicControllers(PLCs),areinthecomputerfamily.

APLCmonitorsinputs,makesdecisionsbasedonitsprogram,andcontrols
outputstoautomateaprocessormachine.

PLCsconsistofinputmodulesorpoints,aCentralProcessingUnit(CPU),and
outputmodulesorpoints.

Aninputacceptsavarietyofdigitaloranalogsignalsfromvariousfield
devices(sensors)andconvertsthemintoalogicsignalthatcanbeusedby
theCPU.

TheCPUmakesdecisionsandexecutescontrolinstructionsbasedon
programinstructionsinmemory.

OutputmodulesconvertcontrolinstructionsfromtheCPUintoadigitalor
analogsignalthatcanbeusedtocontrolvariousfielddevices(actuators).

Aprogrammingdeviceisusedtoinputthedesiredinstructions.These
instructionsdeterminewhatthePLCwilldoforaspecificinput.

Anoperatorinterfacedeviceallowsprocessinformationtobedisplayedand 296
newcontrolparameterstobeentered.

PLCS

297

ADVANTAGES OF PLCS

Smallerphysicalsizethanhardwiresolutions.
Applicationscanbeduplicatedfasterandlessexpensively.
Easierandfastertomakechanges.
PLCshaveintegrateddiagnosticsandoverridefunctions.
Diagnosticsarecentrallyavailable.
Applicationscanbeimmediatelydocumented.
Flexibleandcanbereappliedtocontrolothersystemsquickly
andeasily.
Troubleshootingaidsmakeprogrammingeasierandreduce
downtime.
Reliablecomponentsmaketheselikelytooperateforyears
298
beforefailure.

RELAY LOGIC IN A PLC


push buttons

power
supply
+24V
com.

PLC
inputs

ladder
logic

outputs

115Va c

light

299

AC power
neut.

READING LADDER LOGIC


HOT

NEUTRAL
A

INPUTS

OUTPUTS

Note: Power needs to flow through some combination of the inputs


(A,B,C,D,E,F ,G,H) to turn on outputs (X,Y).

TheRLDformisbasicallyaBooleanelectricalform,Ithasbeenderivedfromthe
relaydiagramswhereaninputtriggersanoutput.
Flowgoesfromlefttorightandallrungsareexecutedfromuptilldown.In
principlethelogicalANDandORfunctionsareusedtospecifythelogicoperations.

300

301

PRIMITIVES

Aprimitiveisasimplesoftwarefunction,liketimers,adders,
comparators,optionallyconnectedtoladderlogic.These
primitivescanbefoundinthe\PROMdirectorywherealsoBBLs
canbefound.Followingoftenusedprimitivesarebeingdisplayed
hereunder:

302

PRIMITIVES

303

BBLBIG BLOCKS

Abigalgorithm(bigblock)isafixedpieceasoftwarewhichisa
compositionofprimitivesandRLDs.

304

CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTION

Thefunctionsprovidedbythecontrolsystemare:

1.

Sequence

2.

Control

3.

Protect

4.

Display

305

GAS TURBINE SYSTEM CONTROL OVERVIEW


|

ThediagramshowsanoverviewofatypicalgasturbineapplicationforGE
typeGasturbines.

306

1.CONTROL FUNCTIONS
|

StartupControl

AccelerationControl

SpeedControl

LoadControl

ExhaustTemperatureControl

InletGuideVaneControl

FuelControl

GeneratorExcitation

EmissionsControl
307

FUEL CONTROL

308

309

FUEL CONTROL
|

Sixindependentfuelflowcontrolalgorithmscontinuouslycalculatetheirown
FuelvalveStrokeReference.Thenfedtoaminimumselectgatewherethe
lowestFuelvalveStrokeReferenceFSR[%],willdeterminefuelflowtoGT

StartupFSRSU

Thiscontrolalgorithmsetsthefuelflowtotheignitionandwarmuplevelsand
initiatesthegradualraiseoffuelflowforacceleration.whenstartupofthe
turbinehasbeenaccomplishedthisFSRwillberampedtill128%

AccelerationFSRACC

Fuelflowisadjustedbyanaccelerationcontrolloop,whichreducesthefuel
flowincaseoftoohighaccelerationoftherotor,e.g.causedbylossoffull
load.Thispreventsexcessiveaccelerationtorques.Whentheturbinerunson
95%speedtheFSRACCwillberampedabovetheactualFSRlevelbutnearby

Speed/loadFSRN

Fuelflowisadjustedinsuchawaythattheloaddemandismaintained.The
speed/loadFSRwillbeactivatedwhenabove95%.Itassuresforproper
synchronizationandwillrampthespeedreferencetillbaseload.WhenBase
310
loadhasbeenachievedtheFSRNwillberampedabovetheactualFSRTlevel,
butnearby.

FUEL CONTROL
|

TemperatureFSRT

Fuelflowisadjustedinsuchawaythatthefuelflowcanbereducedto
preventoverheatingofthegasturbine.WhenFSRTisthe(lowest)oftheFuel
valveStrokeReferencesthegasturbineisonmaximumload.isactivewhen
theexhausttemperaturereachesthetemperaturecontrolline.

ShutdownFSRSD

Thiscontrolreducesthefuelflowduringanormalstop(firedshutdown)from
themomentthatthegeneratorbreakerhasopeneduntilflameextinguishes.
TheShutdownFSRisalwaysat100%atgtrunning,startup,loadingorat
tempcontrol.willbeactivatedwhengeneratorbreakeropenedGTcoasting
down

Manualcontrolloop FSRMAN

TheoperatorcanenteravalueforFSRMAN,theoutputofthisFuelvalve
StrokeReferencealgorithm.InthiswayanupperlimitforFSRisestablished.It
isnotoftenused,thatmeansFSRMAN=100%isthedefaultvalue.The
311
manualFSRwillbeusedforcalibratingandtestingpurposes.

FUEL CONTROL
DIAGRAM

312

313

START UP CONTROL LOOP BBL


|

ThestartupfiringFSR(L83SUFI)willcontrolthestartupalgorithmcausingtheFSRtobe
exactlytheConstantFSKSU_FI,whichisthefiringFSR.Whenthepurgetimerhasbeentimedout
(L2TVX)theLogicwillbeset.

Whenflameisdetected(L28FDZ)thelogicL83SUWUwillcontrolthealgorithmcausingthe
constantFSKSU_WUexactlybetheFSR.

WhenL2WXishigh(Turbinewarmupcompleted)thestartupalgorithmwillincreasefuel.The
FSRAcceleratecontrolsthestartup(L83SUAR).

ThemaximumFSRisbeinggeneratedwhengeneratorbreakerisclosed,logicL83SUMXcontrols
theMaximumFSRforthestartupalgorithm

314

STARTUP SPEED SEQUENCING


Properspeedsensingisnecessaryforthelogicsequencesinstartup.The
followingspeeddetectorsandspeedlogicrelaysareused:
|

L14HR;ZeroSpeedDetector(approximatelyo%speed),providesthesignal
whentheturbineshaftstartsrotating.

L14HT;TurningGearOperationSpeedRelay(approximatelyo.5%speed),
indicatesthatturninggearisrunningwhichpermitsstarteroperation.

L14HM;Min.FiringSpeedRelayDetector(approx.15%speed), indicates
thatgtreachedmin.firingspeed&initiatespurgepriortoignition.

L14HP;PurgeSpeedRelaydetector(approximately25%speed),indicates
thattheshafthasachievedpurgespeed.ThisspeedishelduntilthePurge
Timertimesout.

L14HA;AcceleratingRelaySpeedDetector(approx.50%speed),indicates
thatgtreachedapprox.50percentintheaccelerationcycle.

L14HS;HighSpeedrelay(approximately95%speed),indicatesthatturbine
isatoperatingspeed.andthattheacceleratingsequenceiscomplete. 315

316

317

318

GENERATOR RATED SPEEDS

1800rpm

1200rpm

900rpm

319

AVR

320

PROTECTION
|

Theprotectionsystemsprotectthegasturbineagainstdangeroussituations
thatcouldoccurduetoamechanicaldefectinthegasturbineorduetoa
malfunctioningcontrolsystem.

Thefollowingprotectionsystemshavebeenprovided:

1)

 Flamedetection
 Vibrationdetection(gasturbineandgenerator)
 Overtemperatureprotection
 CombustionMonitor
 Overspeedprotection(softwareandhardwaresystem);
 Fireprotection
 Intheauxiliarysystemspressureswitches,levelswitches,
temperatureswitcheswillalarm&triptheunitwhenabnormal
321
situationsoccur.

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

MKV PROTECTION
OVERVIEW

322

1FLAME DETECTION PROTECTION

Theredundantcomputersreceivesignalsfromallthefourflamedetectors.
Lossofflamesignalbyoneortwoflamedetectorsisalarmed,ifanother
323
signalislostthegasturbineistripped.

1-FLAME DETECTION
| The

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI flame


detectors perform two functions,
| one in the sequencing system
| and the other in the protective system

324

325

2VIBRATION PROTECTION
|

Seismic(velocity)VibrationTransducersaremonitoreddirectlybytheMark
VI,Consistsofatleastof2vibrationsensorsonbrg1&2onbrg2,andpossibly
sensorsonthegearboxandthedrivenload.Eachvibrationsignalhasanalarm
/tripsetting.Acombinationofalarmsandtripswithinagroup(gasturbine,
gearbox,drivenload)willissueatripsignal.

Astartcheckpermissiveisinhibitedifthreeormoreturbinesensorsortwo
ormoregeneratorsensorsaredisabledorfaulty.

Anautomaticshutdownsequenceisinitiatedifallturbinesensorsare
disabledorfaulty.

Atripisinitiatedifoneturbinevibrationsensorindicatesatriplevelandany
otherturbinesensorindicatesanalarmlevel.

Atripisinitiatedifoneturbinevibrationsensorindicatesatriplevelandany
adjacentpairofturbinesensorsaredisabledorindicatesanalarmlevel.

Atripisinitiatedifoneturbinevibrationsensorindicatesatriplevelandtwo
ormoreinputsaredisabled.

326
BentlyNevadaProximitorsformonitoringonly,canbesuppliedaseitheran
interfacetoaBentlyNevada3300orasadirectinterfacetotheturbine
control.

327

3OVERTEMPERATURE
|

Theovertemperaturesystemusesthecontrolthermocouples
comparedtocertainsettings;

FromtheexhaustthermocouplesanaverageTTXMiscalculated
whichiscomparedwithanalarm(14Caboveactualmaximum
temperature)&tripset(23Caboveactualmaximum
temperature)
Tripiftheexhausttemperature(TTXM)reachestheisothermal
setting1100deg.F(593deg.C).
Tripiftheexhausttemperature(TTXM)is40deg.F(22deg.C)
abovethetemperaturecontrolreference(TTRXB).
Tripiftheexhausttemperature(TTXM)isbelow250deg.F(133
328
deg.C)whenturbinespeedisabove50%.

329

3- OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION
SOFTWARE
Overtemperature Alarm (L30TXA)
| exhaust TC value (TTXM) is compared with alarm and
trip setpoints. EXHAUST TEMPERATURE HIGH
alarm when (TTXM) exceeds the temperature control
reference (TTRXB) plus the alarm margin (TTKOT3)
programmed as a Control Constant in the software
| Overtemperature Trip (L86TXT)
| trip will occur if the (TTXM) exceeds the temperature
control reference (TTRXB) plus the trip margin
(TTKOT2), or if it exceeds the isothermal trip setpoint
(TTKOT1)
|

330

3- OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION
SOFTWARE

331

332

BIGBLOCK FOR WHEELSPACE MONITORING


| L30WSA1 ALARM:224WHEELSPACETEMPDIFFERENTIALHIGH
| L30WSA2 ALARM:225WHEELSPACETEMPERATUREHIGH
| L69TWW WheelspaceTemperatureWaterWashPermissive
| LK69TWW MaxAllowWheelspaceTempforWwash <300degF>

333

334

335

5OVERSPEED PROTECTION
|

Overspeedprotectionconsistsofaprimaryoverspeedmonitoringsystemin
thethreecontrolmodulesandanemergencyoverspeedmonitoringsystem
inthebackupprotectionmodule,whichreplacesthemechanicaloverspeed
boltusedonolderturbines.

Eachcontrolmoduleandeachsectionofthebackupprotectionmodule
monitorsaseparatepassivemagneticspeedsensor(6total)from2rpmon
a60toothwheel.

InolderGTs

Twooverspeedsystemsareprovided,amechanicalandanelectronic.The
mechanical(bolt)typesystemmechanicallytripstheturbineonoverspeed
bydumpingthehydraulicpressurearound113.5%speed.

Thespeedoftheturbineshaftissensedbymagneticpickupsand,fedinto
adetectorwhichoutputsacontactopeningwhenthespeedisbelow
336
approximately10%andabove110%speed.

6FIRE PROTECTION

337

3.SEQUENCING
|

Theturbinecontrolincludesacompletelyautomatedstartupandshutdown
sequence,includinginterfacetoalloftheauxiliarysystemsinthemotor
controlcenterandgeneratorprotectionsystem.Operatorscanchooseto
havetheturbineautomaticallysequencetointermediateholdpointsby
selectingCrankorFirewithoutenablingautomaticsynchronization.

Allrampratesandholdtimesarepreprogrammedforoptimum
performance,andcountersrecordthenumberofstarts,shutdowns,tripsand
runningtimeundervariousconditionsinnonvolatilememory.Countersand
timersforaPG5PA,gasfuelturbineareasfollows:

Timers&Counters

ManuallyStarts

Firedstarts

EmergencyTrips

FiredHours

338

3.TURBINE CONTROL SEQUENCES

339

340

341

342

343

344

345

346

THIS SCREENSHOOT IS ONLY FOR DEMO, REAL VIEW MAY BE


DIFFERENT

347

THIS SCREENSHOOT IS ONLY FOR DEMO, REAL VIEW MAY BE


DIFFERENT

348

THIS SCREENSHOOT IS ONLY FOR DEMO, REAL VIEW MAY BE


DIFFERENT

349

350

THIS SCREENSHOOT IS ONLY FOR DEMO, REAL VIEW MAY BE


DIFFERENT

351

THIS SCREENSHOOT IS ONLY FOR DEMO, REAL VIEW MAY BE


DIFFERENT

352

353

354

355

356

357

358

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

COMPRESSOR WASH SEQUENCE

What is compressor fouling?


Compressor fouling occurs due to foreign materials
deposits on the air foils (compressor blades).

367

COMPRESSOR FOULING
| compressor

fouling to the extent that


airflow is reduced by 5%, will reduce
output by 13% and increase heat rate by
5.5%.
| On-line compressor wash systems are
available that are used to maintain
compressor efficiency by washing the
compressor while at load, before
significant fouling has occurred.
| Off-line systems are used to clean heavily
fouled compressors

COMPRESSOR FOULING

370

371

372

373

374

375

376

377

378

379

380

381

382

383

384

385

386

387

388

389

390

391

392

393

394

395

Detergent Isolation Valve Remains Closed

396

397

398

399

400

401

402

403

404

405

4.DISPLAY (MONITORING  OPERATOR SCREENS)


|

Theoperator/maintenanceinterfaceiscommonlyreferredtoastheHuman
MachineInterface(HMI).ItisaPCwithaGECIMPLICITYgraphicsscreen
system,aMicrosoftWindowsNToperatingsystem,aControlSystemToolbox
witheditorsfortheapplicationsoftwareandunitspecificscreens.This
interfacecanbeappliedas:

primaryoperatorinterfaceforoneormultipleunits

backupoperatorinterfacetotheplantDCSoperatorinterface

gatewayforcommunicationlinkstoothercontrolsystems

permanentortemporarymaintenancestation

engineersworkstation

Allcontrolandprotectionisresidentintheturbinecontrol,whichallowsthe
HMItobereinitializedorreplacedwiththeturbinerunningwithnoimpact
onthecontrolsystem.TheHMIcommunicateswiththeprocessorcardinthe
turbinecontrolviatheEthernetbasedUDH.
406

4.OPERATOR SCREENS

407

408

MK V RUNG DISPLAY
|

Asolidgreenboxorcircleindicatespowerflowthroughanycontactorcoil.

Asolidgreenboxorcirclewithan"F"(or">")Forcedpowerflowthrough
thecontactorcoil,whileemptyyellowboxorcirclewithan"F"(or">")inthe
middleindicatesnopowerflowduetoaForce.

Aninvertedcoilisshownasacoilwitha"/"throughit.Aninvertedcoil
witha<C>valueof"0"isconsideredtobepickedupandthereforeisshown
asasolidgreencoilwitha"/"throughit,whileinvertedcoilwitha<C>value
of1"isconsideredtobedeenergized&isshownasaemptyboxwitha"/"
throughit.

409

MK V ALARM LIST

410

REAL TIME PLOTS

411

CONTROL CONSTANTS ADJUST DISPLAY

412

LOGIC FORCING DISPLAY

413

PASSWORD ADMINISTRATION

414

AUTO CALIBRATE DISPLAY

415

MK VIRLD

416

BASICS OF
SPEEDTRONIC
CONTROL

417

SPEEDTRONIC MK V PANEL

418

BASIC CONFIGURATION OF MK V

419

MK VI CONTROL PANEL

420

BASIC CONFIGURATION OF MK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

421

MK VI I/O BOARDS

422

IOREPORT (ANALOGUE INPUTS)

423

IOREPORT (LOGIC INPUTS)

424

CSP CONTROL SEQUENCE PROG.

425

TROUBLESHOOTING
To effectively troubleshoot poorly
performing , follow these steps:
1- Clearly define the problem based on observations and
accumulated information.
2- Review available historical system operation.
3- Identify and obtain any additional information and
analysis that may be required.
4- Identify and list potential root causes and consider each.
5- Deduce the root cause based on the accumulated
information.
6- Execute corrective action.

NEEDED DOCUMENTATION

Pipingschematics
Devicesummary
AlarmlistALARM.LST
ControlSequencingProgramCSP.PRN
IOListorI/OreportTC2KREPT.TXT
MarkVControlSettingsSpecification

427

TROUBLESHOOTING
|

OverheatingofBearings.

Possiblecauses:

Oilsupplytemperaturetoohigh

Incorrectoilquantity

Incorrectoilpressure

Incorrectalignment

Damagedbearing

LubeOilGaugePressuretooLow.

Possiblecauses:

Fouledoilfilter

Oilleakage

Notenoughoilinthereservoir

Malfunctioningofoilpressurecontroller

Damagedoilpump

Reliefvalvesticksopen

428

TROUBLESHOOTING
|

VibrationLeveltooHigh.

Possiblecauses

Malfunctionofthevibrationdetectionequipment

Fouledordamagedcompressorrotor

Incorrectalignment

Incorrectthrustbearingendplay

Looseorbrokenfoundationbolts

Compressoroperatinginthesurgearea

Damagedjournal,orthrustbearing

AxialDisplacementtooHigh.

Possiblecauses

Malfunctionoftheaxialpositiondetectionequipment

Damagedthrustbearing

Malfunctioningoftheaxialpositionequipment

429

430

MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
4 levels of maintenance exist;
1. Reactive or breakdown maintenance.
2. Preventive maintenance.
3. Predictive maintenance.
4. Proactive maintenance.

TURBINE START/STOP CYCLE


FIRING TEMPERATURE CHANGES

MAINTENANCE
INSPECTIONS
|
|
|
1.
2.
3.

Standby inspection
Running inspection
Disassembly inspection
Combustion inspection
Hot gas path inspection
Major inspection

STANDBY INSPECTION
This inspection includes routinely servicing the
battery changing filters, checking oil and water
levels, cleaning relays and checking device
calibrations.
| Servicing can be performed in off-peak periods
without interrupting the availability of the
turbine.
|

RUNNING INSPECTION
| Running

inspections consist of the general


and continued observations made while a
unit is operating.
| This starts by establishing baseline
operating data during initial startup of a
new unit and after any major disassembly
work.
| This baseline then serves as a reference
from which subsequent unit deterioration
can be measured.

OPERATING INSPECTION DATA


PARAMETERS

BORE SCOPE INSPECTION

443

446

12,000 hrs

48,000 hrs

24,000 hrs

12,000 hrs

COMBUSTION INSPECTION
| The

combustion inspection is a relatively


short disassembly shutdown inspection of
| Fuel nozzles
| Liners
| transition pieces
| crossfire tubes
| Retainers
| spark plug assemblies
| flame detectors and
| combustor flow sleeves.

TYPICAL COMBUSTION INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS
| Inspect

and identify combustion chamber


components.
| Inspect and identify each crossfire tube,
retainer and combustion liner.
| Inspect combustion liner for TBC wear
and cracks.
| Inspect combustion system and discharge
casing for debris and foreign objects.
| Inspect flow sleeve welds for cracking.

TYPICAL COMBUSTION INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS
Inspect transition piece for wear and cracks.
| Inspect fuel nozzles for plugging at tips, erosion
of tip holes and safety lock of tips.
| Inspect all fluid, air, and gas passages in nozzle
assembly for plugging, erosion, burning, etc.
| Inspect spark plug assembly for freedom from
binding; check condition of electrodes and
insulators.
| Replace all consumables and normal wear-and
tear items such as seals, lockplates, nuts, bolts,
gaskets, etc.
| Perform visual inspection of first-stage turbine
nozzle partitions and borescope inspect
|

TYPICAL COMBUSTION INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS
| Perform

borescope inspection of
compressor.
| Enter the combustion wrapper and
observe the condition of blading in the aft
end of axial-flow compressor with a
borescope.
| Visually inspect the compressor inlet and
turbine exhaust areas, checking condition
of IGVs, IGV bushings, last-stage buckets
and exhaust system components.

To perform this inspection, the top half of the turbine


shell must be removed.
Prior to shell removal, proper machine centerline support
using mechanical jacks is necessary to assure proper
alignment of rotor to stator, obtain accurate half-shell
clearances and prevent twisting of the stator casings.
For inspection of the hot gas path , all combustion transition
pieces and the first-stage turbine nozzle assemblies must be
removed.
Removal of the second- and third-stage turbine nozzle
segment assemblies is optional, depending upon the
results of visual observations, clearance measurements,
and other required inspections.

Typical hot gas-path inspection


requirements for all machines are:
Inspect and record condition of first-, second and thirdstage buckets.
Inspect and record condition of first-, second and thirdstage nozzles.
Inspect and record condition of later-stage nozzle
diaphragm packings.
Record the bucket tip clearances
Check the turbine stationary shrouds for clearance, cracking, erosion,
oxidation, rubbing and build-up.

TYPICAL MAJOR INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MACHINES
| All

radial and axial clearances are


checked against their original values.
| Casings, shells and frames/diffusers are
inspected for cracks and erosion.
| Compressor inlet and compressor flowpath are inspected for fouling, erosion,
corrosion and leakage.
| The IGVs are inspected, looking for
corrosion, bushing wear and vane
cracking.

TYPICAL MAJOR INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MACHINES
| Rotor

and stator compressor blades are


checked for tip clearance, rubs, impact
damage, corrosion pitting, bowing and
cracking.
| Turbine stationary shrouds are checked
for clearance, erosion, rubbing, cracking,
and build-up.
| Seals and hook fits of turbine nozzles and
diaphragms are inspected for rubs,
erosion or thermal deterioration.

TYPICAL MAJOR INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MACHINES
Bearing liners and seals are inspected for
clearance and wear.
| Inlet systems are inspected for corrosion,
cracked silencers and loose parts.
| Exhaust systems are inspected for cracks,
broken silencer panels or insulation
panels.
| Check alignment gas turbine to
generator/gas turbine to accessory gear.
|

TYPICAL MAJOR INSPECTION


REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MACHINES
Turbine buckets are removed and a
nondestructive check of buckets is performed
(first stage bucket protective coating should be
evaluated for remaining coating life).
| Buckets that were not recoated at the hot gas
path inspection should be replaced.
|

460

THE END

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