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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

Snakes related strongly-graphs


I. I. Jadav1 , G. V. Ghodasara2
1
Research Scholar, R. K. University,
Rajkot360020, India.
jadaviram@gmail.com.
,
2
H. & H. B. Kotak Institute of Science,
Rajkot360001, India.
gaurang enjoy@yahoo.co.in
Abstact A graph with n vertices is said to
be strongly -graph if its vertices can be assigned
the values {1, 2, . . . , n} in such a way that when
an edge whose end vertices are labeled i and j, is
labeled with the value i + j + ij such that all edges
have distinct labels. Here we derive some snakes
related strongly -graphs.
Keyword - Strongly -labeling, Strongly -graph.
AMS Subject classification number: 05C78.
I. INTRODUCTION
Here graph G is considered as a simple,
finite, undirected graph.
Definition I.1. [1] A graph G with n vertices is said to be strongly -graph if there
is a bijection f : V (G) {1, 2 . . . , n}
such that the induced edge function f :
E(G) N defined as f (e = uv) =
f (u) + f (v) + f (u) f (v) is injective. Here
f is called strongly -labeling of graph G.
II. MAIN RESULTS
Definition II.1. [2] A triangular snake Tn
is obtained from a path Pn by replacing
each edge of the Pn by a cycle C3 .
Definition II.2. [4] An alternate triangular snake A(Tn ) is obtained from a path
Pn by replacing each alternate edge of Pn
by a cycle C3 .
Theorem II.1. Alternate triangular snake
A(Tn ) is strongly -graph.

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Proof. Let A(Tn ) be the alternate


triangular snake obtained from a path Pn
with consecutive vertices {u1 , u2 , . . . , un }
by joining ui and ui+1 with new vertex vj
alternatively, 1 i n 1, 1 j b n2 c.
To define vertex labeling function
f : V (A(Tn )) {1, 2, . . . , |V (A(Tn ))|}
we consider the following cases.
Case 1: Triangle in A(Tn ) starts from u1 .
Note that in this case |V (A(Tn ))| =
b(n2 c + n and |E(A(Tn ))|
=
2n 1,
if n is even.
2(n 1), if n is odd.
f (ui ) = b n2 c + n, 1 i n.
f (vj ) = 3j 1, 1 j b n2 c.
Strongly -labeling of A(Tn ) in this case
is shown in Figure 1.
Case 2:Triangle in A(Tn ) starts from u2 .
Subcase 1: n is odd.
Defined as case-1.
Subcase 2: n is even.
Note that |V (A(Tn ))| = 3n
1 and
2
|E(A(Tn ))| = 2n 3
f (ui ) = 3i2 1, 1 i n.
f (vj ) = 3j, 1 j b n2 c.
Strongly -labeling of A(Tn ) in this case
is shown in Figure 2.
Here the vertex labels produced by labeling f in A(Tn ) are strictly increasing.
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

Hence obviously edge labels produced by


f (uv) = f (u) + f (v) + f (u) f (v) are
increasing for all pair of vertices u and v in
A(Tn ). Hence the edge labels produced are
all distinct. So, the labeling pattern defined
above satisfies the conditions of strongly labeling. i.e. A(Tn ) is strongly -graph.
Definition II.3. [3] A double triangular snake DTn consists of two triangular
snakes that have a common path.
Theorem II.2. Double triangular snake
DTn is strongly -graph.
Proof. Let {u1 , u2 , . . . , un } be successive
vertices of Pn in DTn , where ui is
adjacent to ui+1 , 1 i n 1. Join ui
and ui+1 with two new vertices vi and wi ,
1 i n 1.
Here, |V (DTn )|
=
3n 2 and
|E(DTn )| = 5(n 1).
We define vertex labeling function
f : V (DTn ) {1, 2, . . . , |V (DTn )|} as
follows.
f (ui ) = 3i 2, 1 i n.

f (vi ) = 3i 1
1 i n 1.
f (wi ) = 3i
Strongly -labeling of DTn is shown in
Figure 3.
Since the vertex labels are strictly increasing, for any pair of adjacent vertices
(ui , vj ) and (us , ut ), we have (f (ui ) +
f (vj ) + f (ui )f (vj )) 6= (f (us ) + f (ut ) +
f (us )f (ut )) f (ui vj ) 6= f (us vt ).
Hence above defined labeling pattern satisfies the conditions of strongly -labeling.
i.e. Double triangular snake is strongly graph.
Definition II.4. [4] An alternate double
triangular snake DA(Tn ) consists of two
alternate triangular snakes that have common path.

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[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

Theorem II.3. Alternate double triangular snake DA(Tn ) is strongly -graph.


Proof. Let DA(Tn ) be the alternate
double triangular snake obtained from
a path Pn with consecutive vertices
{u1 , u2 , . . . , un } by joining ui and
ui+1 with two new vertices vj and
wj alternatively, 1 i n 1 and
1 j b n2 c.
In this case we define vertex
labeling function f : V (DA(Tn ))
{1, 2, . . . , |V (DA(Tn ))|} as follows.
Case 1: Triangle in DA(Tn ) starts from
u1 .
Note
that
|V (DA(Tn ))|
=
(
2n,
if n is even.
2n 1, if n is odd.
and
|E(DA(Tn ))|
=
(
3n 1, if n is even.
3n 3, if n is odd.
f (ui ) = 2i 1, 1 i n.

f (vj ) = 4j 2,
n
1 j b c.
2
f (wj ) = 4j,
In this case strongly -labeling of DA(Tn )
is shown in Figure 4.
Case 2:Triangle in DA(Tn ) starts from
u2 .
Subcase 1: n is odd.
Defined as case-1.
Subcase 2: n is even.
Note that |V (DA(Tn ))| = 4n 2 and
|E(DA(Tn ))| = 3n 5.
f (u1 ) = 1.
f (ui ) = 2(i 1), 2 i n.

f (vj ) = 4j 1,
n
1 j b c.
2
f (wj ) = 4j + 1,
In this case strongly -labeling of DA(Tn )
is shown in Figure 5.
It can be easily observed that if vertex labels are in increasing order so, the
produced edge labels are also increasing.
So, they produced different edge labeling.

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

Hence above defined labeling pattern satisfies the conditions of strongly -labeling.
i.e. DA(Tn ) is strongly -graph.
Definition II.5. [3] A quadrilateral snake
Qn is obtained from a path Pn by replacing each edge of Pn by a cycle C4 .
Theorem II.4. Quadrilateral snake Qn is
strongly -graph.
Proof. Let Pn be the path of
{u1 , u2 , . . . , un } to construct Qn , join ui
and ui+1 (alternatively) to two new vertices
vi and wi by the edges ui vi , ui+1 wi and
vi wi , 1 i n 1.
Here |V (Qn )|
=
3n 2 and
|E(Qn )| = 4(n 1).
We define vertex labeling function
f : V (Qn ) {1, 2, . . . , |V (Qn )|} as
follows.
f (ui ) = 3i 2, 1 i n.

f (vi ) = 3i 1,
1 i n 1.
f (wi ) = 3i,
Strongly -labeling of Qn is shown in
Figure 6.
Here every edge of Pn is an edge of
cycle C4 having the vertices ui , vi , wi
and ui+1 which are labeled in strictly
increasing. So, it is obvious that for any
pair of adjacent vertices produce different
edge labeling for defined function. So,
they satisfies the conditions of strongly graph. i.e. Qn is strongly -graph.
Definition
II.6. [4] An alternate
quadrilateral snake A(Qn ) is obtained
from a path Pn , each alternate edge of
Pn is replaced by a cycle C4 .
Theorem II.5. Alternate quadrilateral
snake A(Qn ) is strongly -graph.
Proof. Let A(Qn ) be the alternate
quadrilateral snake obtained from a

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[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

path Pn with consecutive vertices


{u1 , u2 , . . . , un } by joining ui and ui+1
(alternatively) with new vertices vj and
wj , 1 i n 1 and 1 j b n2 c.
To define vertex labeling function
f : V (A(Qn )) {1, 2, . . . , |V (A(Qn ))|}
we consider the following cases.
Case 1: Quadrilateral in A(Qn ) starts
from u1 .
Note
that
|V (A(Qn ))|
=
(
2n,
if n is even.
2n 1, if n is odd.
and
|E(A(Qn ))|
=
(
5n
1,
if n is even.
2
5(n 1), if n is odd.
(
2i,
if i is even.
f (ui ) =
2i 1, if i is odd.

f (vj ) = 4j 2,
n
1 j b c.
2
f (wj ) = 4j 1,
In this case strongly -labeling of A(Qn )
is shown in Figure 7.
Case 2:Quadrilateral in A(Qn ) starts from
u2 .
Subcase 1: n is odd.
Defined as case-1.
Subcase 2: n is even.
Note that |V (A(Qn ))| = 2(n 1) and
|E(A(Qn ))| = 5n
4.
2
f (ui ) = 2(i 1), 1 i n.

f (vj ) = 4j 1,
n
1 j b c.
2
f (wj ) = 4j,
In this case strongly -labeling of A(Qn )
is shown in Figure 8.
In above cases every alternate edge of
path is related to cycle C4 and defined
labeling function f for A(Qn ) are strictly
increasing. So, the induced edge labels by
f (ui vj ) = f (ui ) + f (vj ) + f (ui ) f (vj ),
f (wj vj ) = f (wj ) + f (vj ) + f (wj ) f (vj ),
f (ui wj ) = f (ui ) + f (wj ) + f (ui ) f (wj )
and f (ui ui+1 ) = f (ui ) + f (ui+1 ) + f (ui )
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

f (ui+1 ) are increasing and distinct for all


pair of adjacent vertices (ui , ui+1 ), (ui , vj ),
(wj , vj ) and (wj , ui+1 ) in A(Qn ). Hence
above defined labeling pattern satisfies
the conditions of strongly -labeling. i.e.
A(Qn ) is strongly -graph
Definition II.7. [3] A double quadrilateral
snake DQn is consist of two quadrilateral
snakes that have common path.
Theorem II.6. Double quadrilateral
snake DQn is strongly -graph.
Proof. Let Pn be the path of
{u1 , u2 , . . . , un } to construct DQn ,
join ui and ui+1 (alternatively) to four new
vertices vi , wi , vi0 and wi0 by the edges
ui vi , ui+1 wi , vi wi , ui vi0 , ui+1 wi0 and vi0 wi0 ,
1 i n 1.
Here |V (DQn )|
=
5n 4 and
|E(DQn )| = 7(n 1).
We define vertex labeling function
f : V (DQn ) {1, 2, . . . , |V (DQn )|} as
follows.
f (u1 ) = 1.
f (ui ) = 5i 6, 2 i n.

f (vi ) = 5i 3,

f (wi ) = 5i 2,
1 i n 1.
f (vi0 ) = 5i + 1,

f (wi0 ) = 5i,
Strongly -labeling of DQn is shown in
Figure 9.
Here every edge of Pn is an edge of cycle C6 with one chord having the vertices
ui , vi , wi , ui+1 , wi0 and vi0 which are labeled
in strictly increasing. So, it is obvious that
for any pair of adjacent vertices (ui , vi ),
(vi , wi ), (ui , ui+1 ), (wi0 , vi0 ), (wi0 , ui+1 ) and
(ui , vi0 ) produce different edge labeling for
defined function. So, they satisfies the conditions of strongly -graph. i.e. DQn is
strongly -graph.

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[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

Definition II.8. [4] An alternate double


quadrilateral snake A(DQn ) is consist of
two alternate double quadrilateral snakes
that have common path.
Theorem II.7. Alternate double quadrilateral snake DA(Qn ) is strongly -graph.
Proof. Let DA(Qn ) be the alternate
double quadrilateral snake obtained from
a path Pn with consecutive vertices
{u1 , u2 , . . . , un } by joining ui and ui+1
(alternatively) with four new vertices vj ,
wj , vj0 and wj0 by the edges ui vj , ui+1 wj ,
vj wj , ui vj0 , ui+1 wj0 and vj0 wj0 , 1 i n
and 1 j b n2 c.
To define vertex labeling function f :
V (DA(Qn )) {1, 2, . . . , |V (DA(Qn ))|}
we consider the following cases.
Case 1: Quadrilateral in DA(Qn ) starts
from u1 .
Note
that
|V (DA(Qn ))|
=
(
3n,
if n is even.
3n 2, if n is odd.
and
|E(DA(Qn ))|
=
(
4n 5,
if n is even.
4(n 1), if n is odd.
f (ui ) = 3i 2, 1 i n.

f (vj ) = 6j 4,

f (wj ) = 6j 3,
n
1 j b c.
0

f (vj ) = 6j,
2

0
f (wj ) = 6j 1,
In this case strongly -labeling of DA(Qn )
is shown in Figure 10.
Case 2: Quadrilateral in DA(Qn ) starts
from u2 .
Subcase 1: n is odd.
Defined as case-1.
Subcase 2: n is even.
Note that |V (DA(Qn ))| = 3n 4 and
|E(DA(Qn ))| = 4n 7.
f (u1 ) = 1.
f (ui ) = 3i 4, 2 i n.
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[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

f (vj ) = 6j 3,

f (wj ) = 6j 2,
n
1 j b c.
0
f (vj ) = 6j + 1,
2

0
f (wj ) = 6j,

v1

v2

u1

u2

u3

u4 un-1

w2

u2

Fig. 4
v

v
4 n -1
2

u u

u
2n-2

2n-4

4 n +1

Fig. 5

vn
3

-1

u4 un-1

u3

n-1

wn
2

v1

w1

u1

un
2n-1

2n-3

4 n

w1

III. FIGURES

v2

In this case strongly -labeling of DA(Qn )


is shown in Figure 11.
It can be easily observed that if vertex labels are strictly increasing then the
produced edge labels are also increasing. That means the edge labels produced are all distinct. Hence above defined labeling pattern satisfies the conditions of strongly -labeling. i.e. DA(Qn )
is strongly -graph.

v1

vn
4 n -2

un
n

+(n-1)

v2

w2

vn-1

wn-1

3n-4

u1

u2

u3

3n-3

un-1

n
3n-2

3n-5

+n

Fig. 6

Fig. 1

u1

u2

v1

v2

u3
4

vn

wn

vn

u1

u2

u3

u4

6 n -4

6 n -3

un-1

un

3n-5

3n-2

3n

u4

u5

Fig. 7

un-1

un

3(n-1) -1
2

Fig. 2

3n -1
2

v1

w1

v2

w2

n
4 n -1

u1

u2

u3

u4

u5 un-1

4 n
2

2n-3

un
2n-1

Fig. 8
v

v
3n-4

u
3n-5

v1

w1

v2

w2

vn-1
5n-8

u1

u2

u3

un-1

5n-11

wn-1
5n-7

un
5n-6

3n-2

3n-3

11

10

v1'

w1'

v2'

w2'

5n-4

v'n-1

5(n-1)
'
wn-1

Fig. 9

Fig. 3

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)

u2

u3

u4

10

v1'

w'

wn

vn

u1

un-1

6 n -4

6 n -3

3n-5

11

w'

un
3n-2

6 n

12

v2'

[Vol-3, Issue-9, Sep- 2016]


ISSN: 2349-6495(P) 2456-1908(O)

6 n -1

v' n

w' n

Fig. 10

v1

w1

v2
9

u1

u2

u3

u4

v1'

w2
10

13

12

w1'

v2'

w2'

u5

un-1

11

3n-7

6 n -3
2

wn

6 n -2
2

un
3n-4

6 n +1
2

v'n

6 n
2

wn'

Fig. 11

IV. CONCLUSION
It has been proved that all cycles and
paths admit labeling specific manner produces specific snakes-type graphs. It is intrusting to see whether these combination
admit strong labeling or not.
REFERENCES
[1] C. Adiga and D. Somnashekara, Strongly -graphs,
Math. Forum, 13(1999), 31-36.
[2] J. A. Gallian, A dynemic survey of graph labeling,
The Electronics Journal of Combinatorics, (2015),
]DS6 1 389.
[3] R. Ponraj, S. Sathish Narayanan, R. Kala, Difference cordial labeling of graphs obtained from Double snakes, International Journal of Mathematics
Research, 5(2013), 317-322.
[4] R. Ponraj, S. Sathish Narayanan, Difference cordiality of some graphs obtained from Double Alternate Snake Graphs, Global Journal of Mathematical
Sciences: Theory and Practical, 5(2013), 167-175.

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