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Application of Beers Law

Quantitative analysis for a single analyte


Example: The determination of Fe in an industrial waste
stream was carried out by the o-phenanthroline
method. Using the data shown in the following table,
determine the concentration of Fe in the waste stream.

Quantitative analysis for a single analyte


Example:Nickel can be determined by complexation with 8hydroxyquinolinol followed by measurement of the absorption
of the solution at 365 nm. Solutions of nickel were treated
appropriately, and the following data were obtained:

An unknown containing nickel was analyzed using the above


method. A 0.100 g sample of the unknown was dissolved and
diluted to 250.0 mL. A 50.00 mL aliquot of this solution was then
treated with the 8-hydroxyquinolinol, and diluted to 100.0 mL.
The transmittance for this treated solution was determined to be
12.7%T. Calculate the percent nickel in the original sample.

Quantitative analysis of mixtures


For two absorbing species:

Example:
The concentrations of Fe3+ and Cu2+ in a mixture can be
determined following their reaction with hexacyanoruthenate
(II), Ru(CN)6 4, which forms a purpleblue complex with Fe3+ (max
= 550 nm), and a pale green complex with Cu2+ (max = 396 nm).
The molar absorptivities for the metal complexes at the two
wavelengths are summarized in the following table.

When a sample containing Fe3+ and Cu2+ is analyzed in a cell with


a pathlength of 1.00 cm, the absorbance at 550 nm is 0.183, and
the absorbance at 396 nm is 0.109. What are the molar
concentrations of Fe3+ and Cu2+ in the sample?

EDTA forms colored complexes with a variety of metal ions that may
serve as the basis for a quantitative spectrophotometric method of
analysis. The molar absorptivities of the EDTA complexes of Cu2+,
Co2+, and Ni2+ at three wavelengths are summarized in the
following table (all values of e are in M1 cm1)

Using this information, determine (a) the concentration of Cu2+ in a


solution that has an absorbance of 0.338 at a wavelength of 732.0 nm;
(b) the concentrations of Cu2+ and Co2+ in a solution that has an
absorbance of 0.453 at a wavelength of 732.0 nm and 0.107 at a
wavelength of 462.9 nm; and (c) the concentrations of Cu2+, Co2+, and
Ni2+ in a sample that has an absorbance of 0.423 at a wavelength of
732.0 nm, 0.184 at a wavelength of 462.9 nm, and 0.291 at a
wavelength of 378.7 nm. The pathlength, b, for all measurements is
1.00 cm.