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IIT JEE Electrostatics Study Material

Complete Physics
Course - Class 11

Electrostatics is a vital branch of Physics. It is an interesting branch

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Introduction:The Greek word for amber is elektron; this is the


origin

of

the

terms

electricity

and

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electron.

Electrostatic is a branch of physics that deals with

connected with

the phenomena and properties of stationary or slowmoving electric charges with no acceleration.

IITian Physics

While its hard to see the electric charges that are

faculty

responsible for electricity, its easy to see their effects.


Theyre all around us: in the sparks and shocks of a
cold winter day, the imaging process of a xerographic
copier, and the illumination of a flashlight when you

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turn on its switch. Although we often take electricity for granted, it


clearly underlies many aspects of our modern world.

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Just imagine what life would be like if there were no electric charges
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and no electricity. For starters, wed probably be sitting around


campfires at night, trying to think of things to do without television,

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cell phones, or computer games. But before you remark on just


how peaceful such a pre-electronic-age existence would be, let me

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add one more sobering thought: we wouldnt exist either. Whether


its motionless as static charge or moving as electric current,
electricity really does make the world go round.

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or

Electricity may be difficult to


see, but you can easily observe
its effects. How often have you
found socks clinging to a shirt
as you remove them from a hot
dryer or struggled to throw
away

piece

of

plastic

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packaging that just wont leave


your hand or stay in the trash can? The forces behind these familiar
effects are electric in nature and stem from what we commonly call
static electricity. Static electricity does more than just push things

Gauss Theorem
and Examples

around, however, as youve probably noticed while reaching for a

GAUSS

doorknob or a friends hand on a cold, dry day. In this section, well

THEOREM To

examine static electricity and the physics behind its intriguing forces

understand the

and often painful shocks.


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Gauss law first we...


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When a plastic comb is rubbed with your hairs, it acquires the


property of attracting light objects such as paper pieces.

EXPERIMENT (Moving Water without Touching


It):-

Capacitor and
Combinations
CAPACITORS
Conductors

Unlike gravity, which always pulls


objects

toward

electric

forces

one
can

Conductors are

another,
be

those...

either

attractive or repulsive. You can

Dipole

experiment with electric forces


using a thin stream of water and

DIPOLE The term

an electrically charged comb. First,

electric dipole

open a water faucet slightly so that

stands for two...

the flow of water forms a thin but


continuous

strand

below

the

mouth of the faucet. Next, give your rubber or plastic comb an

Coulombs Law

electric charge by passing it rapidly through your hair or rubbing it

Coulombs Law:-

vigorously against a wool sweater. Finally, hold the comb near the

In 1785 Charles

stream of water, just below the faucet, and watch what happens to

Coulomb...

the stream. Is the electric force that youre observing attractive or


repulsive? Why does this force change the path of the falling water?
Rubbing the comb through your hair makes it electrically charged.
What other objects can acquire and hold a charge when you rub
them across hair or fabric? Which works better: a metal object or

Capacitors and
Energy
Interpretation

one thats an insulator? Why?

Energy Stored in
a Capacitor

Charge:-

Consider a
Charge is the technical term used to
indicate

that

an

object has

capacitor...

been

prepared so as to participate in electrical


forces. This is to be distinguished from

Electric Field
Electric Field

the common usage, in which the term


is used

indiscriminately

for

Intensity It has

anything

electrical. For example, althoughwe speak


colloquially of charging a battery, you

been observed
that...

may easily verify that a battery has no


charge in the technical sense, e.g., it does
not exert any electrical force on a piece of tape that has been
prepared.

Electric Potential
and Energy
Electric Potential

There are two types of electric charge, called positive and

The electric

negative. The subatomic particle called a proton has a positive

potential is a...

charge, and an electron has a negative charge.


Charge comes in quantized units. All protons carry the same
amount of charge +e, and all electrons carry a charge -e. We will
discuss how charge is measured and the unit of electric charge
below.
Like charges repel each other, unlike charges attract. The electric
force between two objects is repulsive if the objects carry like

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charge, that is, if both are positively charged or both are negatively
charged. The electric force is attractive if the two objects carry
unlike charge. Here the terms like and unlike refer to the signs of
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the charges, not their magnitudes. So, the expression like charges
means that the two charges are both positive or both negative.
The expression unlike charges means that one
charge is positive and the other is negative.
Charge is conserved. The total charge on an object
is the sum of all the individual charges (protons and
electrons) carried by the object. The total charge
can be positive, negative, or zero. Charge can move from place to
place, and from one object to another, but the total charge of the
universe does not change.

View this video for more on electrostatics:static charge and electrostatic induction.mov

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INSULATORS,
CONDUCTORS
SEMICONDUCTORS:-

AND

Substances can be classified in terms of their ability to conduct


electric charge.

Conductor:In conductors, electric charges move freely in response to an


electric force. All other materials are called insulators and
semiconductors.

Insulator:Glass and rubber are insulators. When such materials are charged
by rubbing, only the rubbed area becomes charged, and there is no
tendency for the charge to move into other regions of the material.
In contrast, materials such as copper, aluminium, and silver are
good conductors. When such materials are charged in some small
region, the charge readily distributes itself over the entire surface of
the material.
If you hold a copper rod in your hand and rub the rod with wool or
fur, it will not attract a piece of paper. This might suggest that a
metal cant be charged. However, if you hold the copper rod with an
insulator and then rub it with wool or fur, the rod remains charged
and attracts the paper. In the first case, the electric charges
produced by rubbing readily move from the copper through your
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body and finally to ground. In the second case, the insulating


handle prevents the flow of charge to ground.

Semiconductor:Semiconductors are a third class


of materials, and their electrical
properties

are

somewhere

between those of insulators and


those of conductors. Silicon and
germanium

are

well-known

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semiconductors that are widely


used in the fabrication of a variety
of electronic devices.
When a rod of plastic is rubbed with fur or a glass rod is rubbed
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against silk, then it is generally observed that the rods start

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attracting some pieces of paper and seem to be electrically


charged. While the charge on plastic is defined to be negative, that

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on silk is considered positive. The vast amount of charge in an


everyday object is usually hidden, comprising equal amount of two
kinds positive and negative. The imbalance is always small
compared to the total amounts of positive charge and negative
charge contained in the object.

Some general conceptual question:Question 1: The gift you are about to unwrap is electrically neutral.
You tear off the clingy wrapper and find that it has a large negative
charge. What charge does the gift itself have, if any?
Answer: It has a large positive charge equal in amount to the
wrappers negative charge.
Why: Since charge is a conserved physical quantity, the wrapper
and gift must remain neutral overall even after you separate them.
The wrappers negative charge must be balanced by the gifts
positive charge.
Question 2 : When you peel a piece of adhesive tape off a glass
window, you find that the tape is attracted toward the spot it left
behind. How did the tape and glass acquire electric charges?
Answer: While the tape and glass were in contact, charge was
unevenly distributed between their surfaces. Removing the tape
merely made that imbalance more obvious.
Why: The tape and glass have different chemical affinities for
electrons and become oppositely charged whenever they touch. In
fact, the tapes stickiness itself comes from electrostatic attraction.
Question 3 : Although any cloud may contain opposite charges,
only the violent updrafts inside thunderheads are able to separate
those charges and produce lightning. Why does such separation
lead to lightning?
Answer: That separation takes work, which appears as electrostatic
potential energy in the separated charges. The positively charged
regions of the thunderhead acquire huge positive voltages, and the
negatively charged regions acquire huge negative voltages.
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Why: When opposite charges are nearby, they dont necessarily


have much electrostatic potential energy per charge and the
voltages may be small. Separating those charges to great distances
dramatically increases their stored energy and produces high
voltages.
Question 4 : The paper in some printing presses moves through the
rollers at half a kilometre per minute. If no care is taken, dangerous
amounts of static charge can accumulate on parts of the press. How
does the moving paper contribute to that chargingprocess?

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Answer: Contact between dissimilar materials puts charge on the


paper, which then carries that charge with it to isolated parts of the
press. Enough charge can accumulate on those parts to be
dangerous.

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Why: Nonconductive paper is an excellent transporter of electric
charge. Once the paper picks up a static charge by touching a
dissimilar material, it can carry that charge with it as it moves

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through the press. Not surprisingly, printing presses use various


toolsto suppress this static charging.
Question 5: The conveyor belts used to move flammable materials
often have metal threads woven into their fabric. Why are such
conducting belts important for fire safety?
Answer: An insulating conveyor belt can separate enormous
amounts of charge, leading to high voltages, sparks, and possibly
fire. A conductive belt cant carry charge with it as it moves, so no
charge accumulates.
Why: When an insulating belt has charge on its surface, that charge
must move with the belt. However, charges are mobile in a
conductive belt and dont normally move with it.

Only the negatives (elelctrons) move in solid conductors.


In a neutral object there are equal numbers of positives and
negatives.
A neutral object has no net charge.(Note: charge is a
conserved quantity, so we can't create new charge in an
interaction, just move some around.)
The lines of force are directed away from a positively charged
conductor and are directed towards a negatively charged
conductor.
A line of force starts from a positive charge and ends on a
negative charge. This signifies line of force starts from higher
potential and ends on lower potential.

Question 1:Which are the charged parts of an atom.


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(a) Only electrons


(b) Only protons
(c) Neutrons only
(d) Electrons and neutrons
(e) Electrons and protons
(f) Protons and neutrons
Question 2:-

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Electrical forces
(a) can cause objects to only attract each other
(b) can cause objects to only repel each other
(c) can cause objects to attract or repel each other

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(d) have no effect on objects


Question 3:-

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A rubber balloon possesses a positive charge. If brought near and


touched to the door of a wooden cabinet, it sticks to the door. This
does not occur with an uncharged balloon. These two observations
can lead one to conclude that the wall is _____
(a) electrically neutral
(b) negatively charged
(c) a conductor
(d) lacking electrons
Question 4:In case the charges are similar the force is
of?
(a) repulsion
(b) zero value
(c) maximum value
(d) attraction
Question 5:Which of the following materials are likely to exhibit more
conductive properties than insulating properties? _____ Explain your
answers.
(a) rubber
(b) aluminum
(c) silver
(d) plastic
(e) wet skin
Question 6:Energy can be expressed in terms of?
(a) volt

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(b) Farad
(c) electron
(d) electron volt

Q.1
a

Q.2 Q.3
c

Q.4
a

Q.5

Q.6

b, c & e

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Related Resources:You might like to refer Coulombs law.


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For getting an idea of the type of questions asked, refer

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thePrevious Year Question Papers.


Click here to refer the mostUseful Books of Physics.

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7Comments

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SumanGhoshal
JadavpurUniversity

comprenhensive
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1Jan10,201411:09pm

BhupenderDamani
B.SC.(2ndYear)atStudy(chess)

howidownloadthestudymeterialofiitjeephysicsfromthis 1800 2000 838


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LikeReplyApr1,201410:39pm

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MrunalMehta
notme
LikeReplyApr17,201411:32am

AdarshTiwari
WorksatStudyatFIITJEESouthDelhi

Marvellouscontent
LikeReplyMay4,20146:50am

KrishnaTejAlahari
simplysuperb
LikeReplyApr10,201511:35pm

EmrickNegi
LeaderatCrazyDreams

goodquestions

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