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ENGLISH FOR

ACADEMIC PURPOSES
MPK Bahasa Inggris
University of Indonesia
Prepared by
Grace Wiradisastra, S.S., M.Ed.
Sisilia Setiawati Halimi, Ph.D.
Dra. intavhati Poerwoto
Dra. D.J. Sulichah, M.Sc.
Rahmarni Sawitri, S.S.
Harumi M. Ayu, S.Hum.
Nur Basuki Rachmanto, S.S.

PENDIDIKAN DASAR PERGURUAN TINGGI


UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
2012

Grace Wiradisastra
English for academic purposes/Grace Wiradisastra
Sisilia Setiawati Halimi Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi UI, 2012.
ISBN 978-979-24-5256-3
1. Bahasa Inggris

I. Judul

II. Sisilia Setiawati Halimi

Layout, desain oleh Lembaga Penerbit FEUI @2012

MPK Bahasa Inggris


University of Indonesia

Prepared by
Grace Wiradisastra, S.S., M.Ed.
Sisilia Setiawati Halimi, Ph.D.
Dra. intavhati Poerwoto
Dra. D.J. Sulichah, M.Sc.
Rahmarni Sawitri, S.S.
Harumi M. Ayu, S.Hum.
Nur Basuki Rachmanto, S.S.

PDPT UI 2012

Grace
Wiradisastra
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
English for academic purposes/Grace Wiradisastra
N KEPRIBADIAN
Sisilia Setiawati Halimi Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas
TERINTEGRASI

Indonesia

(UI-Press), 2007.
ISBN 979-456-327-7
1. Bahasa Inggris

I. Judul

II. Sisilia Setiawati Halimi

ii

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012

MATA KULIAH

The English component of the MPK program aims to prepare students to use English in an academic
PENGEMBANGA
environment.
N KEPRIBADIAN
TERINTEGRASI

The objectives of the English component of the MPK program are:


1. to activate students English so that they will be able to communicate effectively in English;
2. to enable students to develop the learning strategies and study skills needed to finish their study
successfully and to continue learning on their own after taking the MPK program (to develop
independent learners).

By the end of the course, students should be able to:

listen to, understand and take notes of key information in academic lectures of between 5 - 10
minutes length;
improve their listening skills through various listening material and procedures;
speak confidently, ask questions in and contribute to small group discussions;
use different reading strategies needed to the effective readers;
improve their reading skills through extensive reading material;
develop skills in connecting ideas using appropriate transitions and conjunctions;
work as part of a group to prepare and deliver a 25-minute presentation on an academic topic using
appropriate organization, language and visual aids;
write a summary of a short academic article;
write an expository paragraph;
write a short essay.

Student evaluation
The following scoring system is used in assessing the students:

1. Mid-term Test

25%

2. Final Test

30%

3. Presentation
4. Assignments

Peer Evaluation

5%

Teacher Evaluation

10%

Paragraph & Summary Writings

10%

Essay Writing

10%

5. Reading and Learning Journal


Total

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

10%
100%

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PDPT UI 2012

MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
TERINTEGRASI

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ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012

Table of Content
Section

Topic
Table of Content
The English Component of MPK Program
Syllabus

Introduction

Language
Learning Skills

Reading

Structure

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
TERINTEGRASI

Page
v
viii
xi

What Sort of Language Learner are You?


My Language Learning Experience
Extending Vocabulary and Using a Dictionary
Using Context Clues
Vocabulary BuildingWord Formation

2
4
5
11
15

Thinking about Your Reading Habits


Scanning
Skimming
References
Fact and Opinion
Paragraph Reading: Topic and Main Idea
Paragraph Reading: Main Idea
SQ3RA Reading/Study System
Recognizing Organization of a Passage
Reading a Popular Science Article
Appreciating a Literary Text
Reading a Newspaper
Non-linear Text
Reading an Academic Text

20
26
28
33
38
44
46
48
49
51
54
57
64
70

Reading Articles for Social Science:


The Nature of Prejudice
Why We are Touched by the Sound of Music
Bones to Phones

77
81
85

Reading Articles for Hard Science:


Glass
Water-related Diseases

88
92

1. Warm-up
2. Reviewing Basic Grammar
Review of Tenses
3. The Passive
Review of ActivePassive
4. Types of Sentences
Review of Adverb Clause
Review of Adjective Clause
Reduced Clauses
Noun Clauses
Clause Review
Grammar Review (a mini-test)

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

98
99
104
107
109
112
118
121
125
127
130
133

PDPT UI 2012

MATA KULIAH
Section
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
TERINTEGRASI
Writing

Topic

Page

1. Principles of Paragraph Writing:


What is a Paragraph?
Supporting Sentences
Patterns of Organization
Concluding Sentence
Getting Peer Feedback
Symbols for Editing Writing

136
139
142
144
147
148

2. Summary Writing

151

3. Principles of Essay Writing:


Diagram of an Essay
Selecting a Topic
Thesis Statement
Paragraph Relationship
Essay Outlining
The Introduction
Writing the Body
Transition Signals between Paragraphs
Writing the Conclusion

Speaking

Listening

4. Peer Evaluation Guide

176

1. Discussion
Discussion Skills
The Language of Discussion
Mini-case for Discussion
Discussing a Problem

178
179
182
183

2. Presentation
Giving Successful Presentation
Useful Language for your Presentations
Practising your Presentation
Giving your Presentation

184
185
187
188

1.
2.
3.
4.

How to Hear English Everywhere


Communication and Culture
Listening to News
Listening & Note-taking
Selecting What to Record and Writing Your Notes
Linear/Outline Notes
Visual/Pattern Notes

190
191
193
195
196
198
199

5. Lecture Comprehension and Note-taking practice:


Lectures and Note-taking
English: A Global Language?
Right and Wrong on the Net
Its in the DNA

vi

156
159
160
162
163
166
170
171
173

200
201
205
209

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012

Section

MATA KULIAH
Page
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
TERINTEGRASI

Topic

Extensive Reading
Introduction to Extensive Reading
Human Aggression
Splendor in the Glass
Taking Responsibility
Learning the Hard Way
Achy Breaky Heart
Emotional Intelligence
Wanted: Mars Dead or Alive?
The Exodus of Languages
Alien Species: Fitting In
Is Pop Culture Dumbing Us down or Smartening Us up? (1)
Is Pop Culture Dumbing Us down or Smartening Us up? (2)
The Naked Face:
Can you read peoples thoughts just by looking at them? (1)
The Naked Face:
Can you read peoples thoughts just by looking at them? (2)
The Naked Face:
Can you read peoples thoughts just by looking at them? (3)

216
217
219
221
223
226
227
229
231
233
235
237

Article Review Form


Peer-Evaluation Sheet for Presentations
Paragraph Evaluation Guide
Criteria for Evaluating an Essay
Examples of Referencing
Web sites

246
247
248
250
251
257

239
241
243

Appendices

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Form1
Form2
Form3

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PDPT UI 2012

MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
WEEK
N KEPRIBADIAN
LANGUAGE
TERINTEGRASI

ENGLISH COMPONENT SYLLABUS


SKILL AIMS

Week Language Learning


Skills
I
pp. vii, 1-5

Week

viii

OBJECTIVES

Developing different
learning strategies to learn
a foreign language
Introducing the course and
the class participants

- Getting to know each other


- Writing about language
learning experience and
competence
- Understanding strategies to
learn the four language skills
independently
- Choosing and employing
appropriate language learning
skills
- Learning about the course :
aims, methodology,
procedures and regulations

Language Learning
Skills
pp. 5-10

Learning to expand
vocabulary

- Strategies for vocabulary


building
- Learning to use the dictionary

Language Learning
Skills
pp. 11-12

Using context clues

Reading Skills
pp. 19-32

Learning various reading


strategies

- Guessing meaning using


context clues
- Predicting & previewing a text
to facilitate reading
- Scanning text for specific
information
- Learning faster reading skills
- Skimming a text for general
ideas

Reading Skills
pp. 33-37

Learning textual cohesive


devices

- Identifying reference
(anaphoric & cataphoric)

pp. 38-43

Learning to read critically

- Differentiating fact from


opinion by recognizing
indicators in a text

Extensive Reading

Learning the importance of - Reading four articles during


extensive reading
the semester

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL AIMS


Structure
pp. 99-111

Week Vocabulary building


skills
3
pp. 15-18

OBJECTIVES
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
TensesTERINTEGRASI

Reviewing basic grammar

- Reviewing:
Active-passive

Learning to expand
vocabulary

- Learning word forms

- Learning different kinds of


conjunctions
- Combining simple sentences
into
compound sentences

Structure
pp. 112-117

Reviewing compound
sentences

Reading Skills
pp. 44-47

Reading a paragraph

Speaking skills
pp. 190-209

Learning to participate in a - Discussing an issue


discussion

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

- Identifying topic &main idea


in a paragraph
- Finding supporting ideas of a
paragraph
- Reading different kinds of
paragraphs

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PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
4.1
Week
TERINTEGRASI
4

SKILL AIMS

Structure
pp. 116-120

Reviewing complex
sentences

Listening skills
p. 191

Listening to a conversation - Listening for specific


information

Structure
pp. 121-124

Reviewing complex
sentences

- Combining simple sentences


- into complex sentences (using
adjective clauses)

Listening skills
p. 193

Listening to news
broadcasts

- Recognizing the organization


of a news broadcast
- Distinguishing main ideas
from supporting details

Week Speaking skills


5
p. 183

OBJECTIVES

- Combining simple sentences


into
complex sentences (using
adverb clauses)

Learning to participate in a - Solving a problem


discussion

Reading skills
pp. 48-50

Recognizing organization
of a passage

- Making an outline of a passage

Structure
p. 125

Reviewing reduced clauses - Identifying clauses and reduced


clauses
- Reducing clauses

Writing skills
p.p. 136-138

Learning to write a basic


academic paragraph

- Identifying the parts of a good


paragraph
- Writing the topic sentence

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL AIMS

Week Reading skills


p. 51
6

OBJECTIVES
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
reading
skills
TERINTEGRASI

Learning to read a popular


science article

- Putting all the


learnt to analyze a popular
science text

Writing Skills
p. 139

Learning to write a basic


academic paragraph

- Writing the supporting


sentences using examples,
facts, etc.

Structure

Reviewing complex
sentences

- Combining simple sentences


into complex sentences (using
noun clauses)

Writing Skills
p. 144

Learning to write a basic


academic paragraph

- Writing the concluding


sentence
- Practicing writing a paragraph
- Giving peer feedback

- Revising and editing the first


draft

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

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PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
Week Review
TERINTEGRASI

SKILL AIMS

Preparing for the midterm


test

OBJECTIVES
- Reviewing all material

Midterm Test
Evaluating students
progress

- Evaluating listening, reading


and writing skills

Week Reading and writing


skills
8

Speaking skills
p. 184

Learning to take notes


from a text

- Identifying the organization of


a text
- Developing note-taking
techniques
- Practicing note-taking

Writing a summary

- Learning what a summary is


- Practicing writing a summary

Learning to give an
effective presentation

- Learning key features of a


good presentation
- Learning ways of organizing a
good presentation
- Making a good introduction
(students are to prepare a group
presentation)

Listening skills
p. 200

xii

Learning to take notes


from a short lecture

- Identifying the organization of


a short lecture
- Developing note-taking
techniques

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL AIMS

Week Writing skills


p. 156
9

Reading skills
p. 54

OBJECTIVES
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
essay
is
TERINTEGRASI

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the five
paragraph essay)

- Learning what an
- Identifying the parts of a basic
academic essay
- Selecting a topic
- Generating and organizing
ideas

Appreciating a literary text


and discussing various
issues related to the text

- Reading a literary text for


enjoyment
- Expressing opinions and
discussing issues arising from
the text
(students are to bring an English
newspaper to class in the next
reading class)

Writing skills
p. 160

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the fiveparagraph essay)

Reading skills

Learning to read a
newspaper efficiently and
effectively

- Writing a thesis statement

- Skimming for a general


overview
- Scanning for specific
information
- Identifying different parts of a
newspaper
- Reading a newspaper article

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

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PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
Week
Speaking skills
TERINTEGRASI

AIMS

OBJECTIVES

Learning to give a formal


presentation (1 group)

- Using all the skills learnt to


give a presentation
- Learning to ask questions
- Evaluating a presentation

Writing skills

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the fiveparagraph essay)

- Studying a model essay


- Writing an outline for the
model essay

Writing skills

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the fiveparagraph essay)

- Writing the introduction

Reading skills

Learning to read different


non-linear texts
Learning to describe a
non-linear text

- Understanding different nonlinear texts


- Describing tables, graphs and
charts

Week Writing skills


11
p. 170

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the fiveparagraph essay)

- Writing the body

Reading skills
p. 77

Learning to read an
academic text

- Putting together all the


reading skills learnt to
understand an academic text

Writing skills
p. 173

Learning to write a basic


academic essay (the fiveparagraph essay)

Speaking skills
p. 187

Learning to give a formal


presentation (2 groups)

10

xiv

- Writing the conclusion

- Using all the skills learnt to


give a presentation
- Learning to ask questions
- Evaluating a presentation

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL AIMS

Week Speaking skills


p. 180
12

OBJECTIVES
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
N KEPRIBADIAN
skillsTERINTEGRASI
learnt to

Giving a group
presentation (2 groups)

- Using all the


give a presentation
- Learning to ask questions
- Evaluating a presentation

Listening skills
p.p. 200-210

Learning to take notes


from a short lecture

- Understanding a lecture
- Practicing note-taking

Speaking skills

Giving a group
presentation (1 group)

- Using all the skills learnt to


give a presentation
- Learning to ask questions
- Evaluating a presentation

Writing skills
p. 176

Learning to evaluate and


edit an essay

- Giving content and language


feedback on peer essay
- Editing the first draft

Giving a group
presentation (1 groups)

- Using all the skills learnt to


give a presentation

Reading skills

Learning to read an
academic text

- Putting together all the


reading skills learnt to
understand an academic text

Reading skills

Learning to read an
academic text

- Putting together all the


reading skills learnt to
understand an academic text

Listening skills
p.p. 190-204

Learning to take notes


from a short lecture

- Understanding a lecture
- Practicing note-taking

Week Speaking skills


13

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

xv

PDPT UI 2012
WEEK

LANGUAGE SKILL
MATA KULIAH
PENGEMBANGA
Week
N KEPRIBADIAN
Listening skills
14
TERINTEGRASI

OBJECTIVES

Learning to take notes


from a short lecture

- Understanding a lecture
- Practicing note-taking

Reading skills

Learning to read an
academic text

- Putting together all the


reading skills learnt to
understand an academic text

Review

Rounding up the course

- Revising problem areas


- Course Evaluation (answering
a questionnaire)

Evaluating student's
progress

- Evaluating students' listening,


reading & writing skills

Week Final Exam


15

xvi

AIMS

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

1. WHAT SORT OF LANGUAGE LEARNER ARE YOU?


2. MY LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE
3. EXTENDING VOCABULARY AND USING A DICTIONARY
4. USING CONTEXT CLUES
5. VOCABULARY BUILDING & WORD FORMATION

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

Tick () your answers to the questions.


Usually

Sometimes

(Almost)
never

Dont
know

1. Did/do you get good result in grammar


tests?
2. Do you have have a good memory for
new words?
3. Do you hate making mistakes?
4. In class, do you get irritated if mistakes
are not corrected?
5. Is your pronunciation better when you
read aloud than when you have a
conversation?
6. Do you wish you had more time to
think before speaking?
7. Did/do you enjoy being in a class?
8. Do you find it difficult to pick up more
than two or three words of a new
language when you are on holiday
abroad?
9. Do you like to learn new grammar
rules, words, etc., by heart?

How to calculate your score:


Score: 3 points for each Usually
2 points for each Sometimes
1 points for each Almost never or never
0 points for each Dont know
Total Score
Now match your score with the appropriate comments on the next page and read them carefully.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

Now reflect on your own past experiences in learning


English. Here are some questions for you to consider:
1. How long have you been learning English?
2. How did you learn it? Did you take English
lessons? Did you have a pen friend?
3. Is there anything/anyone that helped you in
learning English?
4. Why do you think this was helpful?
5. Is there anything that made it difficult for you
to learn English? If yes, what and why?
6. Were you able to overcome this difficulty? If so, what did you do?
Share your experience and ideas with your friends in the group.

A. Ask and answer the following questions:


1. Do you think you are good at learning languages? Why or why not?
2. What do you think is the best way to learn a new language? Why?
3. What kinds of activities do you think should be included in your
course? Why?
B. Discuss your ideas with the rest of your class. Then read the following
article about how to be a successful language learner.

A Profile of the Successful Language Learner


Some people seem to have a knack for learning languages. They can pick up new vocabulary,
master rules or grammar, and learn to write in the new language more quickly than others. They do
not seem to be any more intelligent than others, so what makes language learning so much easier for
them? Perhaps if we take a close look at these successful language learners we may discover a few of
the techniques which make language learning easier for them.
First of all, successful language learners are independent learners. They do not depend on the
book or the teacher; they discover their own way to learn the language. Instead of waiting for the
teacher to explain, they try to find the patterns and the rules for themselves. They are good guessers
who look for clues and form their own conclusions. When they guess wrong, they guess again. They
try to learn from their mistakes.
Successful language learning is active learning. Therefore, successful learners do not wait for a
chance to use the language: the look for such a chance. They find people who speak the language and
they ask these people to correct them when they make mistake. They will try anything to
communicate. They are not afraid to repeat what they hear or to say strange things; they are willing
to make mistakes and try again. When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is
inexact or incomplete. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know
the meaning of every word.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

Finally, successful language learners are learners with a purpose. They want to learn the
language because they are interested in the language and the people who speak it. It is necessary for
them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them. They
find it easy to practice using the language regularly because they want to learn with it.
What kind of language learner are you? If you are a successful language learner, you have
probably been learning independently, actively, and purposefully. On the other hand, if your
language learning has been less than successful, you might do well to try some of the techniques

above.
C. Home assignment: Write a one-page (approximately 250 words) summary of your experience of
learning English (your strengths and weaknesses), your expectations of the course and your plans for
improving your English.

EXTENDING VOCABULARY AND USING A DICTIONARY


I.

Extending Vocabulary

How do you feel about learning vocabulary?


Brigette and Adel have different feelings about learning English vocabulary.
Brigette, Switzerland:
I really like learning new words. I think its so important if you want to express yourself well.
Adel, Algeria:
I dont think its necessary to learn lots of new words. I can always get round it somehow if I dont
know the exact word.
1. What are the positive and negative aspects of these two opinions about vocabulary learning?
2. How do you feel about learning English vocabulary?
3. Find out what other people in your group feel.

What do you know about English vocabulary?


Knowing a word
What do you think knowing a word means? Look at the following list:
i. to understand it when it is written and/or spoken
ii. to recall it when you need it
iii. to use it with the correct meaning
iv. to use it in a grammatically correct way
v. to pronounce it correctly
vi. to use it in the right situation
vii. to know if it has positive or negative associations
These points may not all be equally important to you for knowing a particular word or phrase. Their
importance may depend on whether you need to recognize a word passively or whether you want to use it
actively.
ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

How do you prefer to learn vocabulary?


1. Personal strategies
We interviewed some students to find out what strategies they use for learning new words.
Luis, Portugal:
I have to see the word written down. If you just say it I cant remember it.
Anne, Belgium:
I think I remember words best by listening and then repeating them aloud.
Andre, France:
I think its a good idea to learn vocabulary by topic, for example, types of furniture, parts of the car,
because if I think back, some of them remind me of others.

2. Some strategies to learn new words


a. Grouping words
Research has shown that people often remember words in groups which have something in common.
They way we group the words is always very personal.
Common features
i. Here are some words which have been sorted into groups. Can you see what each group has in
common?
Group 1
shoe
shine

shop
sheep

shout

Group 2
biology
geology

psychology
sociology

Group 3
run
sprint

jump
jog

hop

ii. Sort the following words into groups. When you have finished, find out if another learner has the same
answer like you:
blackberry, banana, kitchen, walnut, hazelnut, wok, knife, gooseberry, raspberry, chestnut,
saucepan, tomato, pear, peach, plate, strawberry.
Word network
Grouping word according to their meanings can be useful way to remember them. Here is an example of one
way of one way of doing this.
(1) Choose a topic, for example politics. Write it in the middle of a blank sheet of paper.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

(2) What is the first word that comes into your mind which is connected in some way with it? Write the
word anywhere you like on the paper and join it to the first word.

(3) Continue in this way, adding new words as you think of them.

Each word network you create is unique because you have thought of the words, and made the connections.
Your word network can be as large as you like.
If you decide to try this strategy, test yourself later on and you will probably be amazed at how many new
words you can remember.

b. Making associations
Word bag
Research has also shown that people remember words by making associations in their minds. For this
activity you will need a large plastic carrier bag and some small pieces of card.
(1) When you meet a new word that you want to learn, write it, or cut it out and stick it, on a piece of
card.
(2) Look at the word and try to recall the whole sentence and its meaning. Make up pictures/associations
in your mind to help you remember it. Be imaginative!
(3) Put the word in your word bag.
(4) Later, take out a card. Look at the word on the card and try to recall its meaning. You will probably
find that your picture/association will help you.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

3. Your own strategy


The dictionary is a source of many kinds of information about words. Look at this sample entry carefully;
notice how much information the dictionary presents under the word prefix.

Your dictionary may use a different system of abbreviations or different pronunciation symbols. It is
important for you to become familiar with your English dictionary and with the symbols that it uses. Look up
prefix in your dictionary, and compare the entry to the sample entry. Discuss the differences that you find.

Exercise 1
Use the sample entry above and your own dictionary to discuss this exercise.
1. When a dictionary gives more than one spelling or pronunciation of a word, is the first one always
preferred?
2. Look at the same entry. How many syllables are in prefix? What symbol does this dictionary use
to separate the syllables? Which syllable is accented in the preferred pronunciation of the verb
prefix?
3. Why would you need to know where a word is divided into syllables?
4. What are derived words?
5. Dictionary entries sometimes include usage labels such as archaic, obsolete, slang, colloquial,
poetic, regional, and informal. Why are these labels useful?

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

Exercise 2
In this exercise you will have to read a page of a dictionary on page 10. Read each question, find the answer
as quickly as possible, then write it in the space provided. These questions will introduce you to several kinds
of information to be found in a dictionary.
1. Would you find the word glory on the page? ____________________________________________
2. How many syllables are there in glossolalia? ___________________________________________
3. Which syllable is stressed in the word glutarnic?
4. What are the key words that tell you how to pronounce the o in the preferred pronunciation of
glycerol? ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the preferred spelling of the plural of glottis? _____________________________________
6. What is the past tense of to glue? _____________________________________________________
7. What is the adverb derived from glower? ______________________________________________
8. What word must you look up to find glossographer? ______________________________________
9. For whom was gloxinia named? ______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
10. From what two languages has glucose developed? _______________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
11. Is the intransitive verb gloze commonly used today? ______________________________________
12. How many synonyms are listed for the word glum? Why are these words defined here? __________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
13. When was Christoph Willibald Gluck born? ____________________________________________
14. What is the population of Gloucester, Massachusetts? ____________________________________
15. List the different kinds of information you can find in a dictionary. __________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Language Learning Skills

From The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).

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USING CONTEXT CLUES


What do you usually do when you come to a word that you do not know in your reading? Do you
a.
b.
c.
d.

look it up in the dictionary?


ask your teacher?
ask another student or a friend?
Try to guess what it means?

If you answered a, b, or c, then you are not reading as effectively and efficiently as you could be. In fact, the
best strategy for dealing with an unknown word is to try to guess what it means. This strategy

is fast because you dont interrupt your reading.

helps your comprehension because you stay focused on the general sense of what you are reading.

helps build vocabulary because you are more likely to remember the words.

allows you to enjoy your reading more because you dont have to stop often.

Context clues exercises are designed to help you improve your ability to guess the meaning of unfamiliar
words by using context clues. (Context refers to the sentence and paragraph in which a word occurs.) In
using the context to decide the meaning of a word, you have to use your knowledge of grammar and your
understanding of the authors ideas. Although there is no formula that you can memorize to improve your
ability to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words, you should keep the following points in mind:
1. Use the meanings of the other words in the sentence (or paragraph) and the meaning of the sentence
as a whole to reduce the number of possible meanings.
2. Use grammar and punctuation clues that point to the relationships among the various parts of the
sentence.
3. Be content with a general idea about the unfamiliar word; the exact definition or synonym is not
always necessary.
4. Learn to recognize situations in which it is not necessary to know the meaning of the word.
Example: Do you know what misogynist means? If not, try to make a guess:
A misogynist is _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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Language Learning Skills

Now read these sentences. Try again to guess what misogynist means.
a. She realized that her boss was a misogynist soon after she started working for him.
b. It is difficult for a woman to work for a misogynist. She is never sure of the reason for his criticism.
c. She knew that no woman would ever get a top-level job in a company owned by a misogynist.
We know from sentence a that a misogynist is a man. From sentence b we learn that a misogynist criticizes
womens work. Then from c we understand that a misogynist has negative feelings about women.
Exercise 1
In each of the following items, there is a word you may not know. Guess the meaning of the word from the
context of the sentences. Than compare your work with another student.
1. What does ravenous mean?

_____________________________________________________________________

Could I have a piece of bread? I missed breakfast and Im simply ravenous.


The poor horse was ravenous and it ate the leaves and bark off the trees.

2. What does gaudy mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

She was wearing such gaudy clothes that it was easy to find her in the crowd.
My mother always said that old ladies shouldnt wear bright colors. She thought that they would
look gaudy and foolish.

3. What does dike mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

After so much rain, the river flowed over the dike and into the fields.
People in this area began building dikes many centuries ago. It was the only way to keep the sea out
of their villages.

4. What does sallow mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

The poor child had sallow skin and very thin, bony arms and legs.
You could tell from his sallow complexion that he had lived in an unhealthy climate for many years.

5. What does shred mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

12

He read the letter carefully and then tore it to shreds.

Sammy was a real mess when he came home; his clothes were in shreds and he was covered with
mud.
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Language Learning Skills

6. What does mold mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

The liquid plastic was poured into a mold and left there until it was hard.

The dentist first makes a mold of his patients teeth. From that he makes a model of the teeth to
decide how to correct any problems.

7. What does eaves mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

Some birds had built a nest high up on the eaves of our house.

Houses in the mountains have wide eaves so the snow will not pile up against the windows.

8. What does porch mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

On nice days, old Mrs. Willows always sat out on her porch and watch the people pass by.

From the second floor porch, there was a wonderful view of the ocean.

9. What does imp mean?


____________________________________________________________________________

What an imp he was! Little Tommy was always getting into trouble, but making us laugh about it.

With her pointed little chin, bright eyes and impish expression, we didnt know whether to believe
the child.

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Language Learning Skills

Exercise 2
Guess the meaning of the word in italics using the context of the sentences.
1. Labor union leaders have been bitter foes of job specialization and scientific management, yet they
complain that job enrichment programs are management ploys to get more work out of employees
for less money.
foe _________________________________________________________________________
ploy ________________________________________________________________________
2. Self-monitoring includes designing artificial feedback where natural feedback does not occur.
Production staff might have gauges on computer feedback system installed so they can see how
many errors are made on the production line.
gauge ______________________________________________________________________
3. One persons consumption of the security provided by our national defense system doesnt decrease
the security of someone elsedefense is nonrival.
nonrival ____________________________________________________________________
4. Creativity flourishes when employees are given freedom deciding how to accomplish tasks and solve
problems.
flourish _____________________________________________________________________
accomplish __________________________________________________________________
5. Employees may have reward power by extolling praise and extending personal benefits within their
discretion to other co-workers.
extol _______________________________________________________________________

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VOCABULARY BUILDING WORD FORMATION


Learning the use and meaning of words in English can be made easier, and even enjoyable, if you understand
something about one way in which many English words are formed, which is called word formation.
The stem of a word is its basic form, the fundamental element which is common to all the other forms of the
word.
A prefix is a form which is fixed to the beginning of a stem.
A suffix is a form which is fixed to the end of a stem.
For example:
stem = measure
suffix = measureable
prefix = immeasureable
A prefix usually changes the meaning of a word, while a suffix usually changes its part of speech. For
example, the suffix able changes verbs into adjectives (breakable, enjoyable). The prefix im- changes the
meaning to the opposite: measureable means capable of being measured; immesureable meansnot
capable of being measured.
Notice the numerous words formed on the stem

Prefix + act

act + suffix

react
enact
reenact
interact
transact

action
active
actively
actionless
actable
activity
activation
actor
actress

act

Prefix + act + suffix


reaction
enactment
reenactment
reactor
reactive
reactivate
reactivation
interaction
transaction
inactive
inaction

By learning only a few prefixes and suffixes, you will be able to recognize or guess the meaning of hundreds
of English words.

Prefixes and suffixes


In the list below are some of the most common prefixes and suffixes. The meaning is given as an area of
meaning, because most often there is no single specific meaning. Find example of words that use the prefix.
Your dictionary will provide examples. Choose those which are familiar or potentially useful to you.

prefix / suffix
anti

Area of meaning

Examples

against, opposite

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Language Learning Skills

prefix / suffix

Area of meaning

auto

self

inter

between, among

mis

wrong, unfavourable

re

again

able / ible

capable of being

ation / tion

condition, or the act of

dom
er / or

state, condition,
dignity, office
the one who

less

without, loose from.

Examples

Changing parts of speech


As mentioned above, a suffix usually changes its part of speech. List some examples of suffixes that can
change:
1. verbs into nouns: __________________________________________________________
2. adjectives into nouns: ______________________________________________________
3. nouns into adjectives: ______________________________________________________
4. verbs into adjectives: _______________________________________________________
5. adjectives into adverbs: _____________________________________________________
6. nouns and adjectives into verbs: ______________________________________________

Word stems
Prefixes and suffixes are added to word stems. Sometimes a word stem can be used by itself, such as the
word act or form. Most often a word stem can be used only in combination with a prefix or a suffix. For
example, the word stem dict has a root meaning of to say or to speak, but it is never used alone. Prefixes
can be used before the stem (predict, contradict), or suffixes added after the stem (diction, dicator).
Most word stems in English come from Latin and Greek. If you learn the most common of these, you will be
able to analyse the meaning of many words without having to look them up in a dictionary.
In the following examples, some of the most common word stems are listed. The meaning of the stem is
given as an area of meaning because most often there is no one single specific meaning. In the space on the
right, record examples of words which are built upon the stem.

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word stem

area of meaning

anthro

man, mankind

bibl

book

chron

time

duc, duct

lead

fort

strong

homo

same

log, logy

speech, word, study

phil

like, love

examples

Exercise 1
Identify the stem, prefix / suffix in each of the underlined word and explain its meaning.
1. What does the conductor of an orchestra literally do?
2. No one dares to make a prediction of the likely outcome of the next general election in Indonesia.
3. Andi bore his pain with commendable fortitude.
4. What is the inductive reasoning?
5. Cereals are food which are fortified with iron and vitamins, so they are good for children.

Exercise 2
Complete each of the following sentences with another form of the underlined word.
1. Although the critics often said unkind things about the writers work, he refused to be discouraged
by their _____________________________
2. They told me to practice economy but Im not sure how to _______________________
3. You need to determine the benefits of each plan before you can decide which is most
_______________________
4. Synthetic rubber was not widely available before World War II. It took time to learn how to
_______________________
5. Sally appealed for help with her heavy load, but no one listened to her ________________________

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Reading Skills

1.

THINKING

2.

PREVIEWING & PREDICTING

3.

SCANNING

4.

SKIMMING

5.

REFERENCES

6.

DISTINGUISHING

7.

READING PASSAGE

8.

PARAGRAPH READING

9.

READING

ABOUT YOUR READING HABITS

BETWEEN

AND

OPINION

POPULAR SCIENCE ARTICLE

10.

APPRECIATING

11.

READING

12.

NON-LINEAR TEXTS

13.

READING

FACT

A LITERARY

TEXT

NEWSPAPER

AN ACADEMIC TEXT

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Reading Skills

THINKING ABOUT YOUR READING HABITS


Reading can help much more if you can read well. That means being able to read many different materials
and being able to understand them. How well you read depends a lot on your reading habits. Answer all of
the questions in the questionnaire below according to your own experience.
For each statement, circle Y (Yes) or N (No)
1. I always read every word of a passage.

2. Reading aloud helps me improve my reading.

3. When I read in English, I track with my finger along the line.

4. I use different reading methods in my native language and in English.

5. When I read in English, I understand more when I read slowly.

7. To read well in English, I must be able to pronounce every word.

8. I read books from cover to cover.

10. I keep checking back along the line, rereading what I have just read

11. I read difficult sections before I have worked out the general gist

6. If I dont know the meaning of a word in English, I always look it up in the


dictionary.

9. I start reading before I have worked out what I need to know, or what I am
looking for.

Compare your answers with another student. Do you agree? Look at questions which you answered similarly
and questions answered differently, and then, discuss your reading habits.

READING FASTER
How can you improve your reading habit? Bill Cosby, a well-known black American comedian and TV star
wrote an article that explains the ways to improve our ability to deal with new information effectively.
Before you read the article, discuss in groups how you can improve your reading speed.
How to Read Faster
Bill Cosby
When I was a kid in Philadelphia, I must have read every comic book ever published. (There were
fewer of them than there are now.)
I zipped through all of them in a couple of days, then reread the good ones until the next issues
arrived.
Yes indeed, when I was a kid, the reading game was a snap.
But as I got older, my eyeballs must have slowed down or something! I mean, comic books started
to pile up faster than my brother Russell and I could read them!
It wasnt until much later, when I was getting my doctorate, I realized it wasnt my eyeballs that
were to blame. Thank goodness. Theyre still moving as well as ever. The problem is, theres too much to
read these days, and too little time to read every word of it.

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Now, mind you, I still read comic books. In addition to contracts, novels, and newspapers.
Screenplays, tax returns and correspondence. Even textbooks about how people read. And which techniques
help people read more in less time.
Ill let you in on a little secret. There are hundreds of techniques you could learn to help you read
faster. But I know of 3 that are especially good. And if I can learn them, so can youand you can put them
to use immediately.
They are commonsense, practical ways to get the meaning from printed words quickly and
efficiently. So youll have time to enjoy your comic books, have a good laugh with Mark Twain or a good
cry with War and Peace. Ready?
Okay. The first two ways can help you get through tons of reading materialfastwithout reading
every word.
Theyll give you the overall meaning of what youre reading. And let you cut out an awful lot of
unnecessary reading.

1. PreviewIf Its Long and Hard


Previewing is especially useful for getting a general idea of heavy reading like long magazine or
newspaper articles, business reports, and non-fiction books.
It can give you as much as half the comprehension in as little as one tenth the time. For example,
you should be able to preview eight or ten 100-page reports in an hour. After previewing, youll be able to
decide which reports (or which parts of which reports) are worth a closer look.
Heres how to preview: Read the entire first two paragraphs of whatever youve chosen. Next read
only the first sentence of each successive paragraph. Then read the entire last two paragraphs.
Previewing doesnt give you all the details. But it does keep you from spending time on things you
dont really wantor needto read.
Notice that the previewing gives you a quick, overall view of long, unfamiliar material. For short,
light reading, theres a better technique.

2. SkimIf Its Short and Simple


Skimming is a good way to get a general idea of light readinglike popular magazines or the
sports and entertainment sections of the paper.
You should be able to skim a weekly popular magazine or the second section of your daily paper in
less than half the time it takes you to read it now.
Skimming is also a great way to review material youve read before. Heres how to skim: Think of
your eyes as magnets. Force them to move fast. Sweep them across each and every line of type. Pick up
only a few key words in each line.
Everybody skims differently.
You and I may not pick up exactly the same words when we skim the same piece, but well both
get a pretty similar idea of what its all about.
To show you how it works, I circled the words I picked out when I skimmed the following story.
Try it. It shouldnt take you more than 10 seconds.

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Reading Skills

My brother Russell

thinks monster

live

in

bedroom closet at night.

But I told

him he is crazy.
Go and check then,

he said.

I didnt want to. Russell said I was chicken.


Am not, I said.
Are so,

he said.

So I told him the monsters were going to eat him at

midnight. He started to cry.

My Dad came in and told the monsters to beat it. Then he told us to go to sleep.
If I hear any more about monsters, he said, Ill spank you. We went to sleep fast. And
you know something? They never did come back.
Skimming can give you a very good idea of this story in about half the wordsand in less than half
the time itd take to read every word.
So far, youve seen that previewing and skimming can give you a general idea about contentfast.
But neither technique can promise more than 50 percent comprehension, because you arent reading all the
words.
(Nobody gets something for nothing in the reading game.)
To read faster and understand mostif not allof what you read, you need to know a third technique.

3. ClusterTo Increase Speed and Comprehension

Most of us learned to read by looking at each word in a sentenceone at a time. Like this:

MybrotherRussellthinksmonsters.

You probably still read this way sometimes, especially when the words are difficult. Or when the
words have an extra-special meaningas in a poem, a Shakespearean play, or a contract. And thats O.K.
But word-by-word reading is a rotten way to read faster. It actually cuts down on your speed.
Clustering trains you to look at groups of words instead of one at a timeto increase your speed
enormously. For most of us, clustering is a totally different way of seeing what we read.
Heres how to cluster: Train your eyes to see all the words in clusters of up to 3 or 4 words at a
glance.
Heres how Id cluster the story we just skimmed

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My brother Russell

thinks monster live in

bedroom closet at night

But I told him he is crazy.


Go and check then, he said.
I didnt want to. Russell said I was chicken.
Am not, I said.
Are so, he said.
So I told him the monsters were going to eat him at midnight. He
started to cry. My dad came in and told the monsters to beat it. Then he told us to go to sleep.
If I hear any more about monsters, he said, Ill spank you. We went to sleep fast.
And you know something? They never did come back.

Learning to read clusters is not something your eyes do naturally. It takes constant practice.
Heres how to go about it. Pick something light to read. Read it as fast as you can. Concentrate on
seeing 3 to 4 words at once rather than one word at a time. Then reread the piece at your normal speed to see
what you missed the first time.
Try a second piece. First cluster, then reread to see what you missed in this one. When you can read
in clusters without missing much the first time, your speed has increased. Practice 15 minutes every day and
you might pick up the technique in a week or so. (But dont be disappointed if it takes longer. Clustering
everything takes time and practice.)
So now you have 3 ways to help you read faster. Preview to cut down on unnecessary heavy
reading. Skim to get a quick, general idea of light reading. And cluster to increase your speed and
comprehension.
With enough practice, youll be able to handle more reading at school or workand at homein
less time. You should even have enough time to read your favourite comic booksand War and Peace!

Selecting the main Idea.


Exercise
Which of the following statements do you think best expresses the main idea of Bill Cosbys article? Why is it
better than the other two?
1. Moving your eyes fast across each line will give you a general idea of the content of reading material
in much less time than it would take to read every word.
2. It is necessary to choose your method of reading according to the kind of material you have to read
and the amount of comprehension you need.
3. You should preview long and heavy readings, skim simple ones, and read in groups or clusters when
you have to understand most of the material quite well.

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Reading Skills

Comprehension Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Is previewing a useful technique for all kinds of reading?


How many 100-page reports should you be able to preview in an hour?
Exactly how do you preview?
When is it better to skim than preview?
How do you skim?
Why is it better to skim rather than preview?
How do you cluster?
What do you think the author means by heavy reading and light reading? Can you give
examples of each of these?

You can tell a lot about a book from its cover, photographs or illustrations.
Exercise 1
Read the information from book covers given below and make some predictions about each book. Which
book would you choose? Why? Tell a student next to you about your choice. Did you choose the same
book?

Book 1
Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. This book was first published in England in 1958. it is
the authors first and most famous novel. A classic of modern African writing, it is the story of
a man whose life is dominated by fear and anger. It is a powerful and moving story that has
been compared with Greek tragedy. The writers style is uniquely and richly African. Subtly
and ironically, Achebe shows his awareness of the human qualities common to people
everywhere.
Things Fall Apart is also a social document. It shows traditional life among the Ibo
people in a Nigerian village. The novel documents life before Christianity, and demonstrates
how the coming of white people led to the end of the old tribal ways.

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Book 2
This Rough Magic by Mary Stewart. This novel was on The New York Times best-seller list
for eight months, and the reviewer wrote that the tale is a magical concoction...warm and
sunny for all its violence.
Stewart tells the story of a beguiling young actress, Lucy Waring, who visit Corfu for
a holiday. With no warning, she stumbles into strange violence and is threatened with terror
and death.
Other reviewers call this book romantic, suspenseful, delightful....rating A and a
polished and lively novel...luscious from start to finish.

Book 3
Black Cherry Blues by James Lee Burke. Winner of the Edgar Award for best novel, this 1989
detective story is full of low-lifes and rich crooks. Burke shows that serious literary
craftsmanship is compatible with the hard-boiled genre of the crime novel.
Burkes story leads his hero from Louisiana to Montana as he strives to escape a phony
murder charge, protect his little girl, and find a professional killer. Reviewers call this novel a
fine book, tough and vital.
Exercise 2
Make predictions about what might be in the article based on the photograph below

Exercise 3
Find a book that you have not read. Use the previewing and predicting list below to find out all you can
about the book from its cover.
Title:
Author:
Type of book:........ Fiction ..........Non-fiction
Front and back cover information
Based on your preview, what can you predict about this book?
Would you like to read it? Why?

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Reading Skills

SCANNING
Efficient readers determine beforehand why they are reading a particular selection and they decide which
strategies and skills they will use to achieve their goals.
To scan is to read quickly in order to locate specific information. Practice in scanning will help you
learn to skip over unimportant words so that you can read faster. The steps involved in scanning are the
following:
1. Decide exactly what information you are looking for, and think about the form it may take. For
example, if you want to know when something happened, you would look for a date. If you want to
find out who did something, you would look for a name. You do not read every word, only the
words that answer your question.
2. Next, decide where you need to look to find the information you want. You probably would not look
for sports scores on the front page of the newspaper, nor look under the letter S for the telephone
number of Sandra Wijaya.
3. Move your eyes as quickly as possible down the page until you find the information you need. Read
it carefully.
4. When you find what you need, do not read further.
The exercise below is designed to give you practise in scanning in everyday life.
Exercise
Read each question. Then scan the following television programs to locate the correct answer. Work
quickly!
a.

How many films are on? .......................................................................................................

b.

Which film would you recommend to someone who likes westerns?

........................................................................................................................................................
c.

If you like taking photographs, which programmes should you watch?

........................................................................................................................................................
d.

Which music programs are on? Which channel?

........................................................................................................................................................
e.

Are there any cartoons? .........................................................................................................

f.

Is there a comedy program on between 9.00 and 10.00?

........................................................................................................................................................
g.

How many times can you see the news?................................................................................

h.

If you like gardening or cooking, which channel should you watch?

........................................................................................................................................................
i.

What sort of programme is the Friday Alternative, Channel 4 at 7.30?

........................................................................................................................................................
j.

Which channel ends first? Which channel ends last?

........................................................................................................................................................

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Reading Skills

SKIMMING
It is sometimes useful to obtain a general impression of a book, article, or story before deciding whether or not
to read more carefully. To skim is to read quickly in order to get a general idea of a passage. Unlike scanning,
which involves searching for details or isolated facts, skimming requires you to note only information and
clues that provide an idea of the central theme or topic of a piece of prose.
When you skim, it is necessary to read only selected sentences in order to get the main idea. You should
also use textual clues such as italicized or underlined words, headlines or subtitles, spacing, paragraphing, etc.
Do not read every word or sentence.
Once you have a general idea about an article, you may decide to read the entire selection carefully, or
only to scan for specific pieces of information in order to answer questions that have occurred to you.
This exercise is designed to give you practice in skimming. The following partial entries from an
encyclopedia are from biographies of famous people. Preceding each selection is a question concerning a
research topic. You must skim each passage to decide if a careful reading would provide information on the
topic given. Indicate your answer by checking Yes or No.
The following are examples and exercises showing specific aims of skimming.
Aim I:
Specific aim:

Skills involved'.

To prepare students to skim by asking them whether a particular passage should be read
carefully.
Skimming.
Reading the passage in one minute to find out whether students are interested in the
topic.

Example: In one minute, skim this passage and indicate if the selection should be read carefully.
Would you do more research on Jane Addams if you were interested in women's contribution to
modern elementary education?
___Yes
___ No
ADDAMS, JANE (1860-1935), American social worker who founded the Chicago social welfare center
known as Hull House. She was born in Cedarville, III, on Sep. 6, 1860, the daughter of a prosperous
merchant. She graduated from Rockford College (then Rockford Seminary) in 1881. Travelling in Europe,
she was stirred by the social reform movement in England and especially by a visit to Toynbee Hall, the first
university settlement. In 1889, with her college classmate Ellen Gates Starr, she founded Hull House in the
slums of Chicago.
Hull House grew rapidly and soon became the most famous settlement house in America. Many
reformers came there, not so much to serve as to learn. Jane Addams was the leader and dominant
personality. Hull House pioneered in child labour reform and in the fight for better housing, parks, and
playgrounds. It initiated steps toward progressive education and attempts to acclimatize immigrants to
America.
Jane Addams was a practical idealist and an activist. She favoured prohibition and woman suffrage,
and she campaigned for the Progressive party in 1912. She went beyond politics, however, for politics to her
was part of a larger movement to humanize the industrial city.
She had always been a pacifist, and when World War I broke out in 1914, she became chairman of
the Womans Peace party and president of the International Congress of Women. In 1915 she visited many
countries in Europe, urging the end of the war through mediation. She remained a pacifist when the United
States entered the war in 1917, and as she result she was denounced by many Americans. In 1931 she was
awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (sharing the award with Nicholas Murray Buttler).

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Reading Skills

Jane Addams continued to be in the vanguard of social reform movements until her death in
Chicago on May 21, 1935. She wrote ten books (including her famous Twenty Years at Hull House) and
more than 400 articles. The influence that had begun at Hull House continued to spread around the world.
Explanation:
You should have checked No. The first sentence identifies Jane Addams as an American social
worker who founded the Chicago social welfare center known as Hull House. A brief glance at the
second and fourth paragraphs indicates that she worked for child labour reform, that she was a
pacifist, and that she was chair of the Womens Peace party. Her publications, mentioned at the end
of the article, do not deal with elementary education. Note that it is necessary to read only selected
parts of each paragraph in order to obtain the main idea.

Exercise 1 Would you read more about the Curies if you were interested in scientific contributions to
modern transportation?
_______ Yes
_______ No

CURIE, PIERRE (1859-1908), and MARIE (1867-1934). French scientists, whose isolation of polonium and
radium marked the beginning of a new era in the study of atomic structure.
Pierre Curie was born in Paris on May 15, 1859, the son of a physician. Until the age of 14 he was
trained in science by his father, receiving only a minimum of the classical education that was standard in his
time. He went to the Sorbonne at 16 and majored in physics. When he was only 19, he was appointed a
teaching assistant and director of laboratory instruction at the Paris Faculty of Sciences.
Early Careers. In 1808, Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques discovered piezo-electricity, the
appearance of electrical charges on the surface of certain insulating crystals when subjected to mechanical
stresses. About 1891, Pierre began an intense investigation of magnetism at elevated temperatures. This led
to the discovery of the Curie point the temperature at which ferromagnetic substances lose their
magnetism. Further research, led to the formulation of Curies law, which states that the magnetic inversely
proportional to the absolute temperature. This law is not strictly true and was modified by Pierre Weiss in
1907.
In 1895, Pierre married Marie Sklowdoska, a young student from Poland, who had begun her
scientific career with an investigation of the magnetic properties of different kinds of steel. In fact, it was
their mutual interest in magnetism properties of different kinds of steel. In fact, it was their mutual interest in
magnetism that drew them together. Marie Sklowdoska was born in Warsaw on Nov. 7, 1867. She made a
brilliant record as a student but found no outlet for her talents in her native country. She became a private
tutor and might have remained in that position had it not been for sister Bronislawa, who lived in Paris.
Marie joined her sister in 1891 and studied mathematics, physics, and chemistry at the Sorbonne. Her
marriage to Pierre Curie thrust her into the mainstream of French science. Their scientific careers were to
remain intertwined until Pierres tragic death.

Exercise 2

Would you want to read more about Mary Baker Eddy if you were interested in religious
leaders and writers?
_______ Yes
_______ No

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29

Reading Skills

EDDY, MARY BAKER (1821-1910). The subject of sharp controversy in her own day, she is now
recognized as a pioneer of modern spiritual healing, but her position as a Christian thinker is still variously
estimated. Mrs. Eddy herself urged that her life and her works be submitted to the New Testament test By
their fruits ye shall know them (Matthew 7:20), and any responsible estimate of her must be determined by
ones understanding of Christian Science.
Life, Mary Morse Baker, the daughter of a farmer, was born at Bow, near Concord, N.H., on July
16, 1821. Because of her poor health her education was sporadic, but she received valuable mental stimulus
and guidance from her elder brother Albert, a brilliant student at Dartmouth. Although deeply religious, she
was also independent and early took issue with her fathers strict Calvinism. Largely because of the sense of
New Testament Christianity she imbibed from her mother, she found it impossible to accept the doctrine that
most of the human race had been born to inevitable damnation. A sharp confrontation on this issue with the
minister of the Congregational Church at Sanbornton Bridge (now Tilton), N.H., when she was 17, resulted
surprisingly in her being accepted into membership despite her doctrinal protest.
In 1866 her years of illness came to an abrupt climax when she was critically injured by a fall and
restored suddenly to health while reading in the Bible of one Jesus healings (Matthews 9: 1-8). This was the
genesis of Christian Science. The remainder of her long life was given to study, writing, healing, teaching,
and finally to organizing and guiding the Church of Christ Scientist. In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy, a
practitioner of Christina Science healing. One of her last acts, when she was 87, was the founding of the
international daily newspaper the Christian Science Monitor in 1980. She died in Chestnut Hill, Mass., on
Dec. 3, 1910, leaving behind her a church with nearly 100,000 members.
Thought.. During her years of invalidism Mrs. Eddys faith in orthodoxy medicine had waned and
she had sought relief through homeopathy, hydropathy, and other systems then popular. Gradually she came
to the conclusion that all disease was mental rather than physical. This was confirmed by her experience in
the early 1860s with a healer named Phineas P. Quimby, in Portland, Me.

Aim II
Specific aim

Skills involved

Why?

To prepare the students to skim by asking them to give titles to short


passages.
Skimming.
Identifying the main point or important information.
In itself, this exercise is not entirely an exercise in skimming since some of
the passages will have to be read carefully in order to choose an appropriate
title. However, the students can be encouraged to do the exercise as quickly
as possible to see how quickly they can understand the gist of each article.
Also, it is one way of drawing the students attention to the importance of
titles which are often sufficient to tell us whether or not the text is worth
reading from our point of view.

Exercise 3
Read the following articles as quickly as you can and decide which title is best suited to each of them.
SHERLOCK HOLMES would be proud of Dorothy Perry
of Detroit, even though she tracked down a remarkably dim
robber. Losing her handbag in a mugging 40, she turned
up at the show a few days later with a policemanand sure
enough, the mugger was sitting in her seat.

30

A Lucky Meeting
A Violence in Detroit
A Clever policeman
A Good Detective

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Reading Skills

By our Science Correspondent


Hundreds of people made 999 calls to police stations
throughout Britain early yesterday to report a fiery meteor.
Many said they had seen a UFO.
P.C. John Forder, who was in a patrol car in the New
Forest, reported a glowing light with a long orange tail.
After a second or two, it seemed to explode or
disintegrate. It is thought to have fallen in the sea off the
Isle of Wight.
About a million tons of meteoric rock and dust land
on the earth each year. They are part of the primordial
debris from which the solar system was formed some 5,000
million years ago.
The Daily Telegraph

Explosion in New Forest


UFO seen over Britain
Hundreds call police about
meteor.
Catastrophe near the Isle of
Wight.

A WEALTHY businessman is giving 500.000 to help


gifted children go to private schools.
Multi-millionaire Mr. John James, 72, whose father
was a miner, is sharing the cash between five Bristol
schools61 years after he won a scholarship to the citys
Merchant Ventures Schools.
The money will provide places for able children
whose parents cannot afford the fees.
Ironically, Mr. Jamess son Davidwho received
1,500,000 from his father in 1972wnt bankrupt three
weeks ago.
David, 35, blamed his failure on bad judgement,
bad timing, combined with lack of business acumen.
Daily Express

Business man gives


million to pay for bright
children.

JESUIT priests have been invited back to China after 30


years enforced exile, the orders Superior-General said
yesterday. Through the French embassy in Peking it offered
to reopen the former Jesuit Aurora University in Shanghai
as a French-teaching medical school.
They said they would welcome back the former
professors, Father Pedro Arrupe said. The Jesuit would be
happy to return, and wish to serve China as they used to
during the last 400 years.Reuter.

New Medical School in China

A help to private schools.


An unfortunate son.
A gifted businessman

Jesuits to return to China.


Diplomatic Victory for
France
Educational changes in
China.

The Guardian
Aim III
Specific aim

Skills involved
Why?

:
:

To show the students where to look for the main information in the
article.
Inference & Predicting.
In order to be able to skim quickly and efficiently through a text, students
should know where to look for the main information. This exercise aims
at showing them the importance of the first and last paragraphs in an
article and therefore to give them the means of reading a newspaper more
easily and naturally, giving their whole attention only to what they are
really interested in.

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Reading Skills

Exercise 4
Below, you will find the title and the first and last paragraphs of an article. Can you find out what the article
is about?

Travis Walton disappears

The article tells us that:

ONLY WEEKS after NBC had screened a


programme on the hill case in 1975, the strange
tale surfaced of Travis Walton, an Arizona
woodcutter who disappeared for five days in
November 1975 after his colleagues claimed to
have seen him taken aboard a flying saucer. As
the Express recounted on February 24.
The moral is that UFOlogists should
admit that there are two sides to even their best
stories. And journalists should be more careful
about trusting them.

Travis Walton has never been found


again.

The Sunday Times.

32

Travis Walton probably left in a U.F.O.


There is no doubt that Travis Walton
disappeared in a flying saucer.
Travis Waltons friends probably killed
him.
Travis Walton and his friends probably
lied, and he never really disappeared.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Reading Skills

References
Recognizing Pronoun Reference
Pronoun Reference within a sentence: Writers often use pronouns when they do not want to use the same
noun more than one time in a sentence. Here are some of the pronouns:
Personal Pronouns

1st
2nd

3rd

S
P
S
P
S

Other Pronouns

Subject
I
We
You
You
He
She
It

Object
me
us
you
you
him
her
it

Possessive
my
mine
our
ours
your
yours
your
yours
his
his
her
hers
its
its

They

them

their

this, that, these, those


some, others
all, most, many, a few
few, none

theirs

A pronoun always refers to a noun. Sometimes the pronoun takes the place of the noun.
Examples:
1. John told Marsha he wanted to talk to her. (he refers to John; her refers to Marsha.)
2. People go to libraries when they need information. (they refers to people.)
Sometimes the pronoun refers to part of the noun, or it shows that something belongs to the noun.

Examples:
1. Some students study in the library, and others study in their rooms. (some, others, and their refer
to student. Some students = one group of students, others = a different group of students, and their
rooms = the students rooms.)
2. John has his friends and Marsha has hers. (his refers to John, and hers refers to Marsha. His
friends = Johns friends, and hers = Marshas friends.)
Exercise 1
Here are some sentences with pronouns. Read the sentences and circle the letter of the correct answer to
each question about the pronouns. The first one is done for you.
When social scientists study families, they find that they have different shapes and sizes.
1. The first they refers to ________________
a. social scientists
c. shapes
b. families
d. sizes
2. The second they refers to ______________
a. social scientist
b. families

c. shapes
d. sizes

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Reading Skills

When most people think of libraries, they think of books


3. In this sentence, they refers to __________
a. most people

b. libraries

c. books

There are as many different library services as there are types of people who use them.
4. them refers to _____________
a. there

b. library services

c. people

No matter whether it is young or old, large or small, traditional or modern, every family has a sense of what
a family is.
5. it refers to ____________
a. young or old
b. large or small

c. sense
d. family

Music lovers can listen to recordings of their favorite musicians in the Music Library.
6. their favorite musicians means the favorite musicians of ____________
a. music lovers

b. recordings

c. the Music Library

Because they are all related, the members of an extended family are called relatives.
7. they refers to _____________________
a. extended families
b. the members of an extended family
c. people
Some families have long histories, while others know very little about their ancestors.
8. others refers to ____________________
a. families

b. histories

c. ancestors

9. their refers to __________________


a. some families

b. long histories

c. other families

Successful language learners find people who speak the language and they ask these people to correct them
when they make mistakes.
10. the first they refers to ______________
a. successful language learners
b. people who speak the language
c. mistakes
11. the second they refers to ____________
a. successful language learners
b. people who speak the language
c. mistakes

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Reading Skills

12. them refers to ____________________


a. successful language learners
b. people who speak the language
c. mistakes
Pronoun Reference between Sentences: Sometimes writers use a pronoun in one sentence to refer to a noun
in a different sentence.
Examples:
1. More and more libraries are offering special services for their patrons. These include entertainment
facilities, community activities, and facilities for blind readers. (These refers to special services.)
2. Some people think of a family as a mother, a father, and their children. Others include grandparents,
uncles, aunts, and cousins. (Others refers to people. Others = other people)
Writers also often use the pronouns you, your, yours or we, us, our, ours to refer to the reader.
Examples:
1. Perhaps your language learning has been less than successful. Then you might do well to try some of
these techniques. (your and you refer to the reader.)
2. Most of us know what a family is. However, we can learn more about families from social scientists.
(us and we refer to the reader and the writer.)
Exercise 2
In these paragraphs, the pronouns are underlined and there is a space above or below each pronoun. Read
the paragraph and find the noun to which each pronoun refers. Write the noun in the space above or below
the pronoun. The first two are done for you.

learning a language

1. Learning a language is easy. Even a child can do it. Most adults who are learning a second
language would disagree with this statement. For them learning a language is a very difficult task.
They need hundreds of hours of study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for
every adult learner.

most adults

2. In this chapter, we will discuss some of the ways in which people form family groups. It will also
include some information on the ways in which they have changed over the years.

_____

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

____

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Reading Skills

3. Your local library is a good source of information and entertainment. Most libraries have nonfiction
collections of books about many different subjects, and their fiction collections are a good source of
enjoyable reading practice. Many of them sponsor lectures on topics of interest to the community,
and some offer concerts and films.

(
(

____

____ )

Exercise 3
Read the passage below and then choose the one best answer to each question.
A relatively new feature of radio broadcasts in the United States is
the call-in therapy shows, in which callers get the opportunity to air
problems, however intimate, while the hosts offer them free, and
immediate, advice. They started, like so many other self-help psychology
5 ideas, in California in the early 1970s, but now they have spread to many
other parts of the country and enjoy considerable popularity. This
phenomenon certainly does not please all psychologists and the shows
have become a matter of some concern to their professional association,
the APA.
Present APA guidelines merely prohibit psychologists from
10
diagnosing problems, or from offering psychotherapy on the radio, while
the earlier ones had prohibited all giving of advice outside the traditional
therapist-patient relationship. This prohibition fails to satisfy many
psychologists. Some consider all giving of psychological advice over the
15 radio totally unacceptable, but there are others who believe there should be
even more of it.
The former are typified by a Hastings Center psychiatrist, who
describes the activity as disgusting. On one occasion, he backed up his
view by walking out of a radio program when the host insisted he answer
20
listeners calls. But radio therapy hosts, who are mostly attractive,
youngish and qualified women, are fully capable of backing up theirs, and
do so charmingly and effectively, as might be expected from professionals
combining psychological expertise with entertainment know-how.
1. them (line 3) refers to:
a. problems
b. call-in therapy shows

c. callers
d. hosts

2. they (line 4) refers to:


a. problems
b. call-in therapy shows

c. callers
d. hosts

3. this phenomenon (line 7) refers to the fact that:


a. the shows started in California
b. callers air intimate problems

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Reading Skills

c. the shows started in the early


d. the shows enjoy considerable popularity
4. their (line 8) refers to:
a. therapy shows
b. self-help psychology ideas
c. the hosts
d. psychologists
5. ones (line 12) refers to:
a. APA guidelines
b. psychologists

c. problems
d. the show

6. this prohibition (line 13) refers to the fact:


a. that no advice be given outside the traditional therapist-patient relationship
b. that psychologists do not diagnose problems or offer psychotherapy on the radio
c. that not all psychologists are pleased
d. that it is a matter of some concern to the APA
7. it (line 16) refers to:
a. this prohibition
b. the traditional therapist-patient relationship
c. giving of psychological advice over the radio
d. psychological advice
8. the former (line 17) refers to:
a. psychologists who object to call-in therapy shows
b. psychologists who advocate more advice-giving over the radio
c. the APAs present prohibitions
d. dispensing psychological advice
9. he (line 19) refers to:
a. a Hastings Center psychiatrist
b. the host
c. a listener
d. the former
10. theirs (line 21) refers to:
a. activity
b. radio-therapy programs

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

c. listeners
d. views.

37

Reading Skills

FACT AND OPINION


Critical readers are careful to distinguish between statements of fact and statement of opinion. They
dont want to unthinkingly accept or treat an authors opinion as if it were an unchallenged and unquestioned
statement of fact. If they are going to share another persons point of view, they want it to be conscious
decision on their part. However, that means they need a clear idea of how facts and opinions differ.
Explaining that difference is the primary goal of our discussion.

Distinguishing between fact and opinion


Statements of fact provide information about people, places, events, and ideas. However, they do not
reveal the authors personal perspective or point of view on the information discussed. The following
sentences are all statements of fact:

American Samoa consists of seven islands in the South Pacific.


In 1961, Trans World Airlines was the first commercial airline to introduce in-flight movies.
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I
On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on Brown v. The Board of Education.
John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865.

Look up facts like these in different places and youll discover the same information. Established facts
usually dont vary with place or person. For example, if you check Martin Luther Kings date of birth in New
York or San Francisco, with a local librarian at home or a history teacher in Fairbanks, Alaska, the date will
remain the same: January 15, 1529.
However, facts do occasionally change over time as new discoveries or methods of experimentation
come to light. This is especially true in science, history, and medicine, fields in which information
considered factual is often based on existing levels of knowledge and methods of experimentation. As they
undergo changes, so can the facts associated with them.
For example, it was once considered a fact that the sun revolved around the earth. But in the
sixteenth century, a Polish astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus used the laws of planetary motion to
challenge that fact. Copernicus proved that, in fact, the earth revolved around the sun.
Generally speaking, however, facts are fairly fixed of information. They can be verified through
research and proved accurate or inaccurate, true or false.
In contrast, statement of opinion reflect the authors perspective on the subject discussed. Shaped by
an authors personal experience, training, and background, opinion on the same subject can change from
group to group or place to place. For an illustration, ask a group of teenagers how they feel about high school
dress code. Then ask their parents. Dont be surprised if you uncover a marked difference of opinion.
Unlike facts, opinions cannot be verified or checked with outside sources. They are too subjective,
too personal to be checked in reference books or historical records. The following are all statements of
opinion.

Madonna is an artist of extraordinary talent.


Although John F. Kennedy gets most of the credit, it was Lyndon Johnson who truly advanced the
cause of civil rights.
Killing animals for sport is wrong.
Christopher Columbus is a hero to all school children.
This country needs better gun control laws.
Because opinions do reflect an individuals personal responses to people, events, and ideas, you cannot prove
them true or false, accurate or inaccurate, right or wrong. (This is not to say, however, that opinions cannot
be judged or evaluated in any way.)

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Statements of fact:

can be checked for accuracy or correctness.


can be proved true or false.
are not affected by the writers background or training.
employ more denotative than connotative language.
rely on measurements, dates, and statistics.

Statements of opinion:

cannot be checked for accuracy or correctness.


Cannot be proved true or false.
Are shaped by the writers background or training.
Rely more on connotative than on denotative language.
Use verbs and adverbs that suggest doubt: seems, appears,
probably, arguably.

Exercise 1
Mark each statement F for fact or O for opinion.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

The first commercially printed Christmas cards were produced in London in 1843._______
All this uproar about animal rights is nonsense. Animals dont have rights. ______
The word amen appears 13 times in the Old Testament; it appears 119 times in the New Testament.
________
Food tastes better when you are hungry. ________
Children should be seen and not heard. ________
The President of the United States is elected for four years. ________
Blue and red are a pleasing color combination. ________
Abortion is wrong. _______
Rich people are more intelligent than poor people. ________
Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. ________
Some people live to be over one hundred years old. _______
Life is difficult. _______
More people live in Chicago, Illinois, than in Akron, Ohio. _______
People in Mexico speak Spanish. _______
Math is an easier subject to learn than biology. ________

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39

Reading Skills

The Language of Fact and Opinion


Authors concerned primarily with statements of fact are likely to rely on denotative language.
Denotative language is objective or impersonal. It reveals very little about an authors personal opinions,
beliefs, or attitudes, and it generally evokes relatively little emotional response in readers. The following is a
statement of fact: even fifteen-year-old boys stood at the bus stop. Note that the denotative language does
not, in any way, judge or evaluate the event described.
Connotative language, in contrast, is more subjective or personal. It does help reveal how an author
feels about the topic under discussion. It also tends to elicit or provoke an emotional response in readers. The
following statement of opinion relies heavily on connotative language: Without question, Pete Rose, with
his never-say-die determination and powerful will to win, was one of the best players in baseball history.
Note how the underlined words portray the baseball player Pete Rose in a positive light and encourage
readers to admire him as much as the author seems to.

Blending Fact and Opinion


Recognizing whether an author employs connotative or denotative language will certainly help you
distinguish between facts and opinions. Just as important, it will help you recognize instances in which the
two blend together. Take, for example, the following sentence; would you label it fact or opinion?
At least thirty-eight states have sensibly decided to give terminally ill patients the right to
refuse medical treatment.
At first glance, the example appears to be a statement of fact. It might take a little research, but you
could certainly check its accuracy and prove it to be accurate or inaccurate. But what about the word
sensibly? It carries positive connotations or associations. After all, most people would prefer to believe they
are behaving sensibly, or with good judgment. With that one word, then, the author suggests her own
approval of the decision and encourages readers to do the same.
Critical readers, however, would think twice before they made that opinion their own. They would
be careful not to let connotative language lure them into unthinkingly accepting someone elses opinions.
Critical readers are conscious of the way an authors choice of words can implicitly interpret or evaluate
events. They know full well that the same set of facts can convey different messages, depending on the
language an author uses.
Remember the previous statement about the fifteen-year-old boy at the bus stop? Look now at how
the message of that statement changes with the choice of words.
1. A mob of shifty-looking teenage wise guys loitered at the bus stop.
2. A lively group of good-natured, high-spirited teenagers waited at the bus stop.
In the first sentence, the italicized words carry negative connotation. Reading that sentence, you
might think trouble could erupt at any moment. However, thats probably not your response to the second
sentence. In this sentence, the italicized words carry positive connotations. They suggest youthful gaiety
rather than mischief.
Critical reading would probably be a lot simpler if authors kept statements of fact and statements of
opinion neatly separated. But its just not possible. Statement of fact and statement of opinion often blend
together. In response, critical readers are alert to the way connotative language can introduce an opinion into
what appears to be a simple statement of fact.

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Reading Skills

Exercise 2
In the following sentences, decide whether the italicized words have a positive (P), negative (N), or neutral
(O) connotation.
1. He was obsessed by the memory of his dead wife. His house had become a shrine to her memory.
_______________
2. She enjoyed flaunting her newly-found-wealth, and everything she wore screamed money.
______________
3. Even from a distance, she could recognize his sturdy, muscular form. __________
4. The campgrounds were empty of visitors. ________________
5. The cuddly little kitten had brought life back into the house. __________
6. The way she gobbled her food destroyed his romantic mood. _________________
7. Every time the professor made a joke, the student guffawed his approval. _______
8. In his usual plodding manner, he explained every minute detail of the procedure. ___________
9. Every time she made a mistake, he would smirk at her. _______________
10. The boy lay on the table. __________

Exercise 3
The following pairs of sentence contain italicized words that similar definitions. Decide whether the
connotations of words are similar as their definitions. Then, in the blanks that follow your choice,
explain how the connotations are similar or different.
1. (a) Her husbands childish behavior had annoyed her for years, but this was the first time she had
considered divorce.
(b) Sophisticated and worldly in the city, his face took on a childlike look when he was in the
country.
The connotation of these words are [ ] similar [ ] different.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. (a) For hours, the ravens had been sitting on the fence; even when it got dark they were still there.
(b) The robins spent their days hopping around the garden gobbling the seeds she had just planted.
The connotation of these words are [ ] similar [ ] different.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

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Reading Skills

3. (a) Wearing a red, sleeveless tee shirt and white shorts, he displayed his muscle-packed body.
(b) His body was so muscle-bound he walked with a stiff and jerky gait.
The connotation of these words are [ ] similar [ ] different.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

4. (a) With a flirtatious look in her eyes, she sipped her martini, watching him over the rim of the glass.
(b) Even while he guzzled his beer, he never took his eyes off her.
The connotation of these words are [ ] similar [ ] different.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. (a) At the age of eighty, she could still walk two miles a day without feeling short of breath.
(b) Perhaps as many as ten times a day, the old farmer plodded back and forth from the house to the
field.
The connotation of these words are [ ] similar [ ] different.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Exercise 4
Read each of the following sentences carefully. Then label them F for fact, O for opinion, or B if the
sentence blends both, as it does in the following example.
Example:
Explanation:

An extraordinary and imaginary film, Steven Spielbergs E.T. earned several million dollars
in the first weekend of its American debut. ____B____
This statement blends fact with opinion. Exactly how much the movie earned in its first
weekend can easily be checked. Thats a fact. But just how extraordinary or imaginative the
film was is a matter of personal opinion.

Do the rest of the exercise in the same manner.


1.

The Supreme Court should reintroduce prayer into the schools. __________

2.

Within ten years, computers are going to replace teachers. __________

3.

From full moon to full moon, the lunar cycle is about 29.5 days. _________

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4.

Sylvester Stallone has made millions of dollars on Rocky, Rocky II, Rocky III, and Rocky IV. Next,
hell make Rocky V, and it too will be a smash hit. ________

5.

The battle of the Alamo, where frontier hero Davy Crockett died, took place on February 23, 1836.
_______

6.

I think soap operas are pure junk. ________

7.

Measles has an incubation period of seven to fourteen days. ___________

8.

Diet pills called starch blockers were recalled by the Food and Drug Administration for further
testing; that probably means they were a health hazard. _______

9.

We live in a terrible and violent world. ________

10.

The local color movement in American literature began after the Civil War and continued right up
until the turn of the century. ________

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Reading Skills

Paragraph Reading
Topic and Main Idea
In contrast to the topic, which refers to the subject under discussion, the main idea of a passage is the
thought that is present from the beginning to the end. In a well-written paragraph, most of the sentences
support, describe, or explain the main idea. It is sometimes stated in the first or last sentence of the
paragraph. Sometimes the main idea is only implied. Being able to determine the main idea of a passage is
one of the most useful reading skills you can develop.
In order to determine the topic of a piece of writing, you should ask what subject the author
discusses. Meanwhile, the main idea can be found by asking what point about that subject the author makes
and what idea is common to most of the text.. What opinion do all the parts support? What idea do they all
explain or describe. In these exercises, you will practice finding the topic and the main idea of a paragraph.
I.

Read the following paragraphs and answer the questions about the topics and main ideas of the
paragraphs.
1. Do you want to know more about your family history? Maybe a genealogist can help you. A
genealogist is specially trained to find information about family histories from many different
sources. Some of this information comes from old records, such as birth certificates, marriage
certificates, and death certificates. Often the genealogist finds information in old newspapers, tax
records, or immigration records. It may even be necessary to visit distant towns and villages to
collect information from the people who live there. Once the information is complete, the
genealogist writes a genealogy which describes the familys history.
What is the topic of this paragraph?
a. families
b. genealogists

c. information about family histories


d. writing a genealogy

2. The government of India encourages married men and women to be sterilized so they cannot have
more children. In China, families can be punished for having more than one child. Both of these
countries have very large populations, and if the number of people continues to increase, there will
not be enough food, houses, or jobs for the people. As a result, India, China and other populous
countries are following a family-planning policythey want families to limit the number of children
they will have. Teachers, doctors, and social workers are explaining to the people why they should
have fewer children by using birth control methods such as contraception and sterilization.
What is the topic of this paragraph?
a. India and China
b. Sterilization

c. The government of India and China


d. Family planning

3. Before the introduction of the computer search, library research was a long and tedious task. Now,
instead of spending long hours looking through the card catalogue and periodical indexes for books
and articles on your subject, you can have a computer do the looking for you. All you need to do is
give your subject to the computer. This is not as easy as it sounds, however, because you must know
exactly what your subject is, searches its memory for books and articles about your subject. It takes
less than a second for the computer to complete its search. Finally, it prints a bibliographya list of
the authors and titles of the books and articles it has foundfor your subject.
What is the topic of this paragraph?
a. library research
b. computer research

c. bibliographies
d. looking for books and articles

What is the main idea of this paragraph?


a. Library research is a long and tedious task.
b. A bibliography is a list of authors and titles of books and articles.
c. A computer can find books and articles for you
d. A computer search can save time in library research.

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II.

Rearrange the following sentences to make a paragraph. First decide which of the following sentences
is the topic sentence of the paragraph and write TS on the line next to that sentence. Next decide what
order the supporting sentences should be in and number them 1, 2, 3, and 4.
9. _____________

a.

Later on, people began to write on pieces of leather, which


were rolled into scrolls.

_____________

b.

_____________

c.

_____________

d.

_____________

e.

In the earliest times, people carved or painted messages on


rocks.
In the Middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for
writing; books were laboriously copied by hand.
With the invention of the printing press in the middle of the
fifteenth century, the modern printing industry was born.
Some form of written communication has been used throughout
the centuries.

10. _____________

a.

For one thing, individual I.Q. scores vary considerably.

_____________

b.

_____________

c.

_____________

d.

_____________

e.

Many experts also question whether I.Q. scores are related to


intelligence.
Furthermore, most psychologist agree that intelligence tests are
biased in favor of middle-class children.
The validity of standardized intelligence tests is being seriously
questioned by educators and psychologists.
In fact, motivation seems to be just as important as intelligence
in determining a persons ability to learn.

11. _____________

a.

Furthermore, researches are continuing to work on the


development of an efficient, electrically powered automobile.

_____________

b.

_____________

c.

Researchers in the automobile industry are experimenting with


different types of engines and fuels as alternatives to the
conventional gasoline engines.
One new type of engine, which burns diesel oil instead of
gasoline, has been available for several years.

_____________

d.

_____________

e.

Finally, several automobile manufacturers are experimenting


with methanol, which is a mixture of gasoline and methyl
alcohol, as an automobile fuel.
A second type is the gas turbine engine, which can use fuels
made from gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, other petroleum
distillates, or methanol.

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45

Reading Skills

Paragraph Reading
Main Idea
Being able to understand the main idea of a passage is a very useful reading skill to develop. It is a skill you
can apply to any kind of reading. For example, when you read for enjoyment or for general information, it is
probably not important to remember all the details of a passage. Instead you want to quickly discover the
general messagethe main idea of the passage. For other kinds of reading, such as reading textbooks, you
need both to determine the main ideas and to understand how they are developed. The main idea of a passage
is the thought that is in the passage from the beginning to the end. In a well-written paragraph, most of the
sentences support, describe, or explain the main idea. It is sometimes stated in the first or last sentence of the
paragraph. Sometimes the main idea must be inferred as it is not stated. Determine the main idea of a piece
of writing, you should ask yourself what idea is common to most of the text. What is the idea that connects
the parts to the whole? What opinion do all the parts support? What idea do they all explain or describe?
III. Read the following paragraphs quickly to discover the main idea. After you read each paragraph,
circle the letter next to the sentence that best expresses the main idea.
1. A process is a natural series of actions and reactions that leads to specific results. All of us
participate in a variety of processes every day. We digest our food, heal ourselves by making new
skin cells, distributing resources through our bodies by breathing, and use our five senses. Natural
processes go on all around us as well. Plants produce their own food through photosynthesis, storms
build and move, volcanoes erupt, and fertilized eggs maturethe list seems endless.
a.
b.
c.
d.

We all take part in many processes everyday.


Natural processes that go on around us include photosynthesis.
A series of actions and reactions leading to certain results is called a process.
Natural processes take place within our bodies.

2. If you ask most people to explain why they like someone when they first meet, theyll tell you its
because of the persons personality, intelligence, or sense of humour. But theyre probably wrong.
The characteristic that most impresses people when meeting for the first time is physical appearance.
Although it may seem unfair, attractive people are frequently preferred over less attractive ones.
a. Judging people by their appearance is unfair.
b. Physical appearance is more important to what we think of others than we believe it is.
c. Personality, intelligence, and sense of humour are important in deciding whether you like
someone or not.
d. Most people deceive themselves.
3. All communication is a two-way process involving a speaker or writer and listeners or readers (the
audience). In written communication, because the audience is not present, it is easy to ignore.
However, the kind of audience you write for determined what you write and how your write. In
describing the World Series baseball championship to a British reader, you would have to include
definitions, explanations, and fats that a reader in the United States would not need. Similarly, if you
write about cricket (a British sport) for an audience in the United States, you would need to include a
lot of basic information. If you wrote about the international banking system for bankers, your
language and information would be more technical than in a paper written for readers who dont
know much about the subject. A discussion of acid rain written for an audience of environmentalists
would be quite different from one written for factory owners.
a. Communication is a process that involves speakers and writers.
b. British readers would need special information to understand an article on the World Series.

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Reading Skills

c. Listeners and readers are called the audience.


d. It is important to consider your audience when you write.
4. A trade union is an organization which represents employees in negotiations with employers. It
organizes through its branches at places of work, and at regional and national levels. It seeks to
improve the wages, conditions of service, and other interests of workers, whether they are members
of the union or not. It negotiates with managements, and occasionally at national level with
governments. It encourages all employees to join, since it is only by effective collective action that a
trade union can succeed in its objectives.
a. A trade union organises collective action at local, regional and national levels.
b. A trade union does not improve wages and conditions of service for non-members.
c. A trade union attempts to advance the interests of employees by collective organization and
action.
d. A trade union negotiates with management and sometimes with governments.
5. What is money? This is a question which many people have difficulty in answering. Money has
taken many forms throughout history, but the main characteristic of money has always been its
acceptability. Everyone must accept it as a medium of exchange, otherwise it cannot function as
money. There are other characteristics which money must satisfy, particularly notes and coins.
Portability is one. You must be able to carry it easily. Durability is another. It must last a long time,
and this is why metals have been and still are the most convenient materials for money. Today we
have more advanced and sophisticated forms of money which are included in the definitions of the
money supply. Modern forms of money include credit cars and cheques. More and more institutions,
even quite small ones like restaurants and garages, accept cheques and credit cards, and so these
have become popular modern forms of money.
a. Money must be durable and portable, and this is why metals are the most universal and
popular material used as money, which makes it acceptable.
b. Money has had many forms and needs to be portable and durable, but today money is any
means of payment which is acceptable to everyone.
c. Cheques and credit cards are modern forms of money, and are increasingly acceptable,
whereas they were unknown in the past.
d. Notes, cheques and credit cards have become more important than metal coins as forms of
money, since they are more portable, durable and acceptable.

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47

Reading Skills

SQ3R - A READING/STUDY SYSTEM


SURVEY - gather the information necessary to focus and formulate goals.
1. Read the title - help your mind prepare to receive the subject at hand.
2. Read the introduction and/or summary - orient yourself to how this chapter fits the author's purposes,
and focus on the author's statement of most important points.
3. Notice each boldface heading and subheading - organize your mind before you begin to read - build
a structure for the thoughts and details to come.
4. Notice any graphics - charts, maps, diagrams, etc. are there to make a point - don't miss them.
5. Notice reading aids - italics, bold face print, chapter objective, end-of -chapter questions are all
included to help you sort, comprehend, and remember.

QUESTION - help your mind engage and concentrate.


One section at a time, turn the boldface heading into as many questions as you think will be answered in that
section. The better the questions, the better your comprehension is likely to be. You may always add further
questions as you proceed. When your mind is actively searching for answers to questions it becomes engaged
in learning.

READ - fill in the information around the mental structures you've been building.
Read each section (one at a time) with your questions in mind. Look for the answers, and notice
if you need to make up some new questions.

RECITE - retrain your mind to concentrate and learn as it reads.


After each section - stop, recall your questions, and see if you can answer them from memory.
If not, look back again (as often as necessary) but don't go on to the next section until you can
recite.

REVIEW - refine your mental organization and begin building memory.


Once you've finished the entire chapter using the preceding steps, go back over all the questions
from all the headings. See if you can still answer them. If not, look back and refresh your
memory, then continue.

REMEMBER: THE INFORMATION YOU GAIN FROM READING IS


IMPORTANT. IF YOU JUST "DO IT" WITHOUT LEARNING SOMETHING,
YOU'RE WASTING A LOT OF TIME. TRAIN YOUR MIND TO LEARN!!!

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RECOGNIZING ORGANIZATION OF A PASSAGE


DIRECTIONS: Read along silently while this passage is read aloud by your instructor or by your
partner. If there are words you do not know, underline each and add them to your vocabulary file. If
you have no difficulty understanding spoken English, try to complete the partial outline following
the passage as you hear it read.
Use of Academic Skills
A

All students studying in a college or university need to develop several skills to be


able to do satisfactory academic work. [2]The acquisition of these skills, called academic or
study skills, will enable students to learn more, to learn more easily, and to do the work of
other courses more successfully.
[1]What are such skills? [2]First, students must be able to take notes in classroom
lectures. [3]This, of course, requires a high level of listening comprehension. [4]For students
doing their college study in a non-native language, understanding lectures may be very
difficult because they do not know all the vocabulary the lecturer uses. [5]Also, recognizing
the main ideas and points in the lecture may be difficult. [6]Still, it is necessary to develop
the skill of differentiating the important ideas from the supporting details because it is
possible to write only the main points and the major supporting facts while the lecture is
speaking. [7]Thus, students have to decide what to put in their written notes at the same time
they are listening. No wonder taking notes in lectures is difficult!
[1]Another skill college students need is the ability to take notes on assigned readings
in textbooks. [2]Taking such notes is usually easier for students to do than taking notes in
lectures because it is possible to read over the information several times. [3](Unfortunately, it
is usually not possible to hear a class lecture again.) [4]However, the skill of recognizing
important and less important facts and ideas, and their relationship, when taking notes on
textbook assignments is the same ability needed for taking notes in lectures. [5]As part of
acquiring this skill, learning to use the formal outline pattern is important.
[1]Finally, students need to learn to correlate the information given in class with their
out-of-class reading and homework assignments. [2]When students learn to do this, then they
can use all the information presented in class and in outside assignments to participate
actively in classroom work, to write satisfactory papers, and to do well in examinations.
[1]

Recognizing Organization: Outline of the Reading Passage


The following outline of the Reading Passage reduces the information contained in the four
paragraphs to three questions (A, B, C) with short phrase answers. The outline format makes it easy
to see the relationships among the ideas and to remember them later. Considering information and
recognizing how ideas are related are two important reasons for using outlines.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

49

Reading Skills

Complete the outline with short phrases.


Use of Academic Skills
Outline of the Reading Text

Fill in the blanks of the following outline:

Topic: Need for university-level students to develop study or academic skills.

A. Study or academic skills are developed to.


1.
2.
3.

B. Academic skills are:


1. Taking notes in lectures, which involves:
2. , which involves:
a. Recognizing main ideas or supporting ideas and lesser or supporting facts.
b.
c.
3) Correlating information given in class with outside reading.

C. The results of acquiring academic skills are:


1.
2.
3.

The partial outline of the Reading Passage in this unit shows only how main ideas relate to the
general topic and how each main idea is developed. Some students prefer to use this simplified
format when analyzing an essay.

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Reading Skills

READING A POPULAR SCIENCE ARTICLE


TEXT I
PRE-READING DISCUSSION

What are the objectives of Recycling?


What do people usually recycle? Why?
Mention ways/methods of recycling that you know and discuss those with your friend.

1 By 2000, half the recoverable material in Britains dustbin will be recycled that, at least, was the
target set last November by Chris Patten, Secretary of State for the Environment. But he gave no
clues as to how we should go about achieving it. While recycling enthusiasts debate the relative
merits of different collection system, it will largely be new technology, and the opening up of new
markets, that makes Pattens target attainable: a recycling scheme is successful only if
manufacturers use the recovered materials in new products that people want to buy.
2 About half, by weight, of the contents of the typical British dustbin is made up of combustible
materials. These materials comprise 33 per cent paper, 7 per cent plastics (a growing proportion),
4 per cent textiles and 8 per cent miscellaneous combustibles.
3 Of the rest, hard non-combustibles (metals and glass) each make up another 10 per cent, and
putrescibles, such as potato peelings and cabbage stalks, account for 20 per cent, although this
proportion is decreasing as people eat more pre-prepared foods. The final fraction is fines
nameless dust. This mixture is useless to industry, and in Britain most of it is disposed of in
landfill sites-suitable holes, such as worked-out quarries, in which the waste is buried under layers
of soil and clay. That still leaves about 40 per cent of the mixtureglass containers, plastics, and
some paper and metal containersas relatively clean when discarded. This clean element is the
main target for Britains recyclers.
4 The first question, then, is how best to separate the clean element from the rest. The method of
collection is important because manufacturers will not reuse collected material unless it is clean
and available in sufficient quantities. A bewildering assortment of different collection schemes
operates in the rest of Europe, and pilot schemes are now under way in many British cities
including Leeds, Milton Keynes, Sheffield and Cardiff. Sheffield, Cardiff and Dundee are testing
out alternatives as part of a government-monitored recycling project initiated last year by Friends
of the Earth.
5 A realistic target for recycling mixed refuse is somewhere between 15 and 25 per cent by weight,
according to researchers at the Department of Trade and Industrys Warren Spring laboratory.
This proportion would include metals and perhaps some glass. Statistics compiled by researchers
at the University of East Anglia show that we could almost halve the total weight of domestic
waste going to landfill by a combination of collect schemes (such as doorstep collections for
newspapers), bring schemes (such as bottle banks) and plants for extracting metals.
6 This estimate makes two important assumptions. One is that the government will bring in
legislation to encourage the creation of markets for products made from recycled materials,
especially glass, paper and plastics. The other is that industry will continue to introduce new
technology that will improve both the products and the techniques used to separate recoverable
materials from mixed refuse.

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51

Reading Skills

After reading the text, answer the following questions


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

When is recycling possible to be conducted?


What are the target of recycling conducted by the British?
What are the four categories of waste mentioned in the text?
What kind of waste is best recycled? Why?
What is the topic of each paragraph?
(1) _____________________________________________________________________
(2) _____________________________________________________________________
(3) _____________________________________________________________________
(4) _____________________________________________________________________
(5) _____________________________________________________________________
(6) _____________________________________________________________________

6.

Give the text a suitable title and explain why you give that particular title.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Say whether each of the following statements is TRUE according to the next.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The secretary of state for the environment has given clear details on how to achieve the target of
recycling. __________
The proportion of putrescibles is decreasing due to increased popularity of fast food. _________
Reducing the weight of domestic wastes maybe performed through bring and collect schemes.
_______________
The British government has issued legislation to create markets for recycled products. _________

TEXT 2
Seven phrases in the text below have been omitted. Decide which of the phrases (A K) should go in
each gap. There are more phrases provided than the gaps available.
A. is characteristic of a different plastic.
B. developed their own compatibilisers.
C. which has never been achieved despite substantial government investment in research
D. they could be used in high-grade, high-cost applications such as car bumpers
E. it does not have sufficient rigidity
F. for example, car bumpers made from one material instead of up to seven
G. always been skeptical about recycling plastics
H. as manufacturers do not want to be seen to be using recycled plastics in their quality products
I.

for example, steel suspension systems and car bodies

J.

such as polythene that are not chemically cross-linked

K. the different plastics in the mixture are not bonded at a molecular level

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RECYCLING PLASTICS
One of the most difficult wastes to recycle is mixed plastics, often used in wrappers and containers.
Plastics manufacturers turn their own offcuts into granules that are melted down for reuse. They can also
reuse any single, pure thermoplastic materials ___(1)_. The British firm Meyer-Newman of Gwent recycles
complete telephones into new ones. But mixed plastics have unpredictable properties and low structural
strengths because __(2)___. So, it is difficult to make a material with good and predictable properties from
mixed plastics waste.

In the grip of octopus


One answer is the compatibiliser. This is an octopus-like molecule in which each arm represent a
section of a different polymer, that in turn __(3)__ . Stirred into a mixture of molten plastics, each arm of the
octopus grabs and reacts chemically with a molecule of one polymer in the mixture. The result is an alloy
rather than a mixture. It is strong because of intra-molecular bonding and has highly predictable properties,
so it is potentially reusable.

During the past two or three years many plastics manufactures have __(4)______. But perhaps the
most advanced, Bennet, was produced independently two years ago, after 15 years of research, by the
Dutch engineer Ben Van der Groep. His invention is already being used widely, largely in secret, _(5)_.
Benner is made up of short sections of several polymers representing the arms of the octopus, each able to
link the molecules of a different polymer in the mixture. The reliable strength of the plastics alloys made
with Bennet suggest that __(6)__ the vehicles recycling industry is keen to recycle more plastics. Despite
the environmental benefits, they fear that the steady increase in the use of unreclaimable plastics will soon
make it uneconomic to recover vehicles for the metal they contain. Some car manufacturers, such as BMW
and Mercedes, are now designing products and requesting components that are easier to recycle; __(7)___.

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53

Reading Skills

APPRECIATING A LITERARY TEXT


Have you ever read an English short story? What is the title? Do you like reading it?
Read the following short story and enjoy it.

"And an enemy under one's roof imposes certain conditions."

Just Lather, That's All


BY HERNANDO TELLEZ
HE said nothing when he entered. I was passing the best of my razors back and forth
on a strop. When I recognized him I started to tremble. But he didn't notice.
Hoping to conceal my emotion, I continued sharpening the razor. I tested it on the
meat of my thumb, and then held it up to the light. At that moment he took off
the bullet-studded belt that his gun holster dangled from. He hung it up on a wall hook and placed his military cap
over it. Then he turned to me, loosening the knot of his tie, and said, "It's hot as hell. Give me a shave." He sat in the
chair.
I estimated he had a four-day beard. The four days taken up by the latest expedition in search of our troops. His
face seemed reddened, burned by the sun. Carefully, I began to prepare the soap. I cut off a few slices, dropped
them into the cup, mixed in a bit of warm water, and began to stir with the brush. Immediately the foam began to rise.
"The other boys in the group should have this much beard, too." I continued stirring the lather.
"But we did all right, you know. We got the main ones. We brought back some dead, and we've got some
others still alive. But pretty soon they'll all be dead."
"How many did you catch?" I asked.
"Fourteen. We had to go pretty deep into the woods to find them. But we'll get even. Not one of them comes out of
this alive, not one."
He leaned back on the chair when he saw me with the lather-covered brush in my hand. I still had to put the
sheet on him. No doubt about it, I was upset. I took a sheet out of a drawer and knotted it around my customer's neck.
He wouldn't stop talking. He probably thought I was in sympathy with his party,
"The town must have learned a lesson from what we did the other day," he said.
"Yes," I replied, securing the knot at the base of his dark, sweaty neck.
"That was a fine show, eh?"
"Very good," I answered, turning back for the brush. The man closed his eyes with a gesture of fatigue and sat
waiting for the cool caress of the soap. I had never had him so close to me. The day he ordered the whole town to
file into the patio of the school to see the four rebels hanging there, I came face to face with him for an instant. But the
sight of the mutilated bodies kept me from noticing the face of the man who had directed it all, the face I was now
about to take into my hands. It was not an unpleasant face, certainly. And the beard, which made him seem a bit
older than he was, didn't suit him badly at all. His name was Torres. Captain Torres. A man of imagination, because
who else would have thought of hanging the naked rebels and then holding target practice on certain parts of
their bodies? I began to apply the first layer of soap. With his eyes closed, he continued. "Without any effort I could
go straight to sleep," he said, "but there's plenty to do this afternoon." I stopped the lathering and asked with a
feigned lack of interest: "A firing squad?" "Something like that, but a little slower." I got on with the job of
lathering his beard. My hands started trembling again. The man could not possibly realize it, and this was in my
favor. But I would have preferred that he hadn't come. It was likely that many of our faction had seen him enter.
And an enemy under one's roof imposes certain conditions. I would be obliged to shave that beard like any other
man, carefully, gently, like that of any customer, taking pains to see that no single pore omitted a drop of blood. Being
careful to see that the little tufts of hair did not lead the blade astray. Seeing that his skin ended up clean, soft, and
healthy, so that passing the back of my hand over it I couldn't feel a hair. Yes, I was secretly a rebel, but I was also a
conscientious barber, and proud of the preciseness of my profession. And this four-days' growth of beard was a
fitting challenge.

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I took the razor, opened up the two protective arms, exposed the blade and began the job, from one of his
sideburns downward. The razor responded beautifully. His beard was inflexible and hard, not too long, but thick.
Bit by bit the skin emerged. The razor rasped along, making its customary sound as fluffs of lather mixed with bits of
hair gathered along the blade. I paused a moment to clean it, then took up the strop again to sharpen the razor,
because I'm a barber who does things properly. The man, who had kept his eyes closed, opened them now,
removed one of his hands from under the sheet, felt the spot on his face where the soap had been cleared off, and
said, "Come to the school today at six o'clock." "The same thing as the other day?" I asked horrified. "It could be
better," he replied "What do you plan to do?" "I don't know yet. But we'll amuse ourselves." Once more he
leaned back and closed his eyes. I approached him with the razor poised. "Do you plan to punish them all?" I
ventured timidly. "All." The soap was drying on his face. I had to hurry. In the mirror I looked toward the street. It was
the same as ever: the grocery store with two or three customers in it. Then I glanced at the clock: two-twenty in
the afternoon. The razor continued on its downward stroke. Now from the other sideburn down. A thick, blue beard.
He should have let it grow like some poets or priests do. It would suit him well. A lot of people wouldn't recognize
him. Much to his benefit, I thought, as I attempted to cover the neck area smoothly. There, for sure, the razor had to
be handled masterfully, since the hair, although softer, grew into little swirls. A curly beard. One of the tiny pores
could be opened up and issue forth its pearl of blood. A good barber such as I prides himself on never allowing
this to happen to a client. And this was a first-class client. How many of us had he ordered shot? How many of
us had he ordered mutilated? It was better not to think about it. Torres did not know that 1 was his enemy. He did not
know it nor did the rest. It was a secret shared by very few, precisely so that I could inform the revolutionaries of
what Torres was doing in the town and of what he was planning each time he undertook a rebel-hunting excursion.
So it was going to be very difficult to explain that I had him right in my hands and let him go peacefullyalive and
shaved.
The beard was now almost completely gone. He seemed younger, less burdened by years than when he had
arrived. I suppose this always happens with men who visit barber shops. Under the stroke of my razor Torres was
being rejuvenatedrejuvenated because I am a good barber, the best in the town, if I may say so. A little more
lather here, under his chin, on his adam's apple, on this big vein. How hot it is getting! Torres must be sweating as
much as I. But he is not afraid. He is a calm man, who is not even thinking about what he is going to do with the
prisoners this afternoon. On the other hand I, with this razor in my hands, stroking and re-stroking this skin, trying to
keep blood from oozing from these pores, can't even think clearly. Damn him for coming, because I'm a revolutionary
and not a murderer. And how easy it would be to kill him. And he deserves it. Does he? No! What the devil! No one
deserves to have someone else make the sacrifice of becoming a murderer. What do you gain by it? Nothing.
Others come along and still others, and the first ones kill the second ones and they the next ones and it goes on like
this until everything is a sea of blood. I could cut his throat just so, zip! zip! I wouldn't give him time to complain and
since he has his eyes closed he wouldn't see the glistening knife blade nor my glistening eyes. But I'm trembling like a
real murderer. Out of his neck a gush of blood would spout onto the sheet, on the chair, on my hands, on the floor. I
would have to close the door. And the blood would keep inching along the floor, warm, eradicable, uncontainable,
until it reached the street, like a little scarlet stream. I'm sure that one solid stroke, one deep incision, would prevent
any pain. He wouldn't suffer. But what would I do with the body? Where would I hide it? I would have to flee,
leaving all I have behind, and take refuge far away, far, far away. But they would follow until they found me. "Captain
Torres's murderer. He slit his throat while he was shaving hima coward." And then on the other side. "The avenger
of us all. A name to remember. {And here they would mention my name). He was the town barber. No one knew he
was defending our cause." And what of all this? Murderer or hero? My destiny depends on the edge of this blade. I
can turn my hand a bit more, press a little harder on the razor, and sink it in. The skin would give away like silk,
like rubber, like the strop. There is nothing more tender than human skin and the blood is always there, ready to
pour forth. A blade like this doesn't fail. It is my best. But I don't want to be a murderer, no sir. You came to me for a
shave. And I perform my work honorably . . . I don't want blood on my hands. Just lather, that's all. You are an
executioner and I am only a barber. Each person has his own place in the scheme of things. That's right. His own
place.
Now his chin had been stroked clean and smooth. The man sat up and looked into the mirror. He rubbed his hands
over his skin and felt it fresh, like new.
"Thanks," he said. He went to the hanger for his belt, pistol and cap. I must have been very pale; my shirt felt
soaked. Torres finished adjusting the buckle, straightened his pistol in the holster and after automatically smoothing
down his hair, he put on the cap. From his pants pocket he took out several coins to pay me for my services. And
he began to head toward the door. In the doorway he paused for a moment, and turning to me he said:
"They told me that you'd kill me. I came to find out But killing isn't easy. You can take my word for it.'' And he
headed on down the street.
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Hernando Tellez began his literary career as a poet and essayist. He achieved distinction in both
genres but his fame went beyond his native Colombia with his collection of short stories Cenizas
para el viento y otras historias from which "Just Lather, That's All" is taken. The excellent
translation is by Donald A, Yates

Questions
1. Do you think the title Just Lather thats all. is appropriate for the story?
2. What background information about the barber did you get from the short story?
3. What background information did you get about the barbers client who comes in for a haircut and a
shave?
4. Describe the inner conflict that the barber experiences when he is shaving the captain and why he is
experiencing the conflict.
5. What is your opinion of the captains last words as he leaves the barbershop?

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READING A NEWSPAPER

Pre-reading activity
Talk to a friend next to you about how you usually keep
up with the news. Do you usually listen to it on TV? Do
you usually listen to it on the radio? Or do you usually
read it in a newspaper? Which one do you prefer? Why?
What are the differences between the news on the radio,
on TV and the news in a newspaper?

Reading
A. Headlines
Understanding the headlines is one of the problems that people often have in
trying to read English language newspapers. They are difficult to understand
because of the special language they use.
a. The words chosen for headlines are often different from the ones we
use in everyday speech. They are chosen because they are shorter and
so take up less space, or because they are more dramatic and will
catch our eyes easily: An explosion is called a blast and a fire is
called a blaze.

b. The way words are put together is different from normal sentence structure.
Words like a and the (articles) are left-out as well as words like is, was, has, have
(auxiliary verbs). The police have raided a gambling house becomes Police raid gambling
house.
Words like men, women, and people are left-out. Twelve people were hurt in a train crash
becomes 12 hurt in train crash.
Although articles are often about past events, the verbs are written in the present tense. Two
bandits grabbed US$11,000 becomes Two bandits grab US$11,000.
When articles are about future events, they are usually written with the infinitive. A hospital will
get a new wing becomes A hospital to get a new wing.
Words are sometimes rearranged from their normal order. The police are alarmed at the number
of deaths from heroin overdoses becomes Heroin overdoses deaths alarm police.
c. Headlines assume a lot of cultural knowledge that makes them difficult for those who are new to the
culture. They may also refer to well-known people, places or songs.

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Activity 1: Add the missing words to the following headlines to make complete sentences.
1. 600 trapped by fire for 4 hours
2. Islamic Press to sue US magazines
3. Japan to rush food, aid to Khmers
4. 16 jailed for murder
5. Boy on cliff rescued

Activity 2: Work in pairs and discuss whether The Jakarta Post also uses the special language for headlines
explained above. If yes, find some examples. Exchange the example with your friends and
rewrite them in complete sentences. Discuss the answers with your friends.

B. Kinds of newspaper articles


The news-story is the kind of writing that is most often found in a newspaper, but it is not the only kind.
Newspapers also provide space for readers opinion or comments (Letters to the editor column), editors
opinion or comments (editorials) and feature articles. Each one has a different purpose. There are three basic
purposes of newspaper articles.
a. News-stories are written to inform
b. Editorials and Letters to the editor are written to persuade or to express opinion.
c. Feature articles are written to entertain.
Activity 3: Work in pairs and look for an example of each kind of the writing in The Jakarta Post. Exchange
your examples with your friends and ask them to check whether your examples are right or
wrong. Discuss the answers with your friends.

C. Various sections of a newspaper


There are various sections in a newspaper. In addition to the sections containing news articles about science
and technology, business and finance, sports, there are usually sections for advertisements, entertainments,
travel guide, and extras (not so serious items, such as puzzles, interesting pictures, etc.)

D. How to read a newspaper


The following selection tells you how to read a newspaper effectively and efficiently. Read it carefully.

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HOW TO READ A NEWSPAPER


Walter Conkrite
If youre like most Americans, you try to keep up with the news by watching it on television. Thats
how 65% of us get 100% of our newsfrom the 24-odd-minute TV news broadcast each evening.
The problemand I know the frustration of it firsthandis that unless something really special
happens, we in TV news have to put severe time limitations on every story, even the most complicated and
important ones.

Get More than Headlines


So what we bring you is primarily a front-page headline service. To get all you need to know, you have to
flesh-out those headlines with a complete account of the news from a well-edited and thorough newspaper.
Is it really necessary to get the whole story? Dorothy Greene Friendly put it this way, What the
American people dont know can kill them. Amen.
News people have a responsibility. And so do you. Ours is to report the news fairly, accurately,
completely. Yours is to keep yourself informed every day.
Ill never forget the quotation hanging in Edward R. Murrows CBD office. It was from Thoreau, It
takes two to speak the truthone to speak and one to hear.

Take a 3-Minute Overview


Heres how I tackle a paper. For starters, I take a three-minute overview of the news. No need to go to the
sports section first, or the TV listings. With my overview, youll get there quickly enough. First I scan the
front-page headlines, look at the pictures and read the captions. I do the same thing page by page front to
back. Only then do I go back for the whole feast.
The way the front page is made up tells you plenty. For one thing, headline type size will tell you
how the papers editor ranks the stories on relative importance. A major crop failure in Russia should get
larger type than an overturned truckload of wheat on the interstate, for example.

Which is the main story?


Youll find the main or lead story in the farthest upper-right-hand column. Why? Tradition. Newspapers used
to appear on newsstands folded and displayed with their top right-hand quarter showing. They made up the
front page with the lead story there to entice readers.
Youll find the second most important story at the top far left, unless its related to the lead story. Do
you have to read all the stories in the paper? Gosh, no. But you should check them all. Maybe the one that
appears at first to be the least appealing will be the one that will affect your life.

News is information. Period


A good newspaper provides four basic ingredients to help you wrap your mind around the news: information,
background, analysis and interpretation.
Rule 1 of American journalism is: News columns are reserved only for news. What is news? It is
information only. You can tell a good newspaper story. It just reports the news. It doesnt try to slant it. And
it gives you both sides of the story.
Look out for a lot of adjectives and adverbs. They dont belong in an objective news story. They
tend to color and slant it so you may come to a wrong conclusion.
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Do look for bylines, datelines, and the news service sources of articles. They will also help you
judge a storys importance and its facts.
As you read a story you can weigh its truthfulness by asking yourself, Who said so? Look out for
facts that come from unnamed sources, such as a highly placed government official. This could tip you
off that the story is not quite true, or that someoneusually in Washingtonis sending a trial balloon to
see if something that may happen or be proposed gets a good reception.
Another tip: Check for Corrections items. A good newspaper will straighten out false or wrong
information as soon as it discovers its errors. A less conscientious one will let it slide or burry it.

An upside-down pyramid
Reporters write news stories in a special way called the inverted pyramid style That means they start with
the end, the climax of the story with the most important facts first, then build in more details in order of
importance. This is unlike the telling or writing of most stories, where you usually start at the beginning and
save the climax for last. Knowing about the newspapers inverted pyramid will help you sift facts.
A well-reported story will tell you who, what, when, where, and how. The best
newspapers will go on to tell you why. Why is often missing. And that maybe the key ingredient.
Many important stories are flanked by sidebars. These are supporting stories that offer, not news,
but the why background and analysis to help you understand and evaluate it.
Background offers helpful facts. Analysis frequently includes opinion. So it should beand usually
iscarefully labeled as such. Its generally by-lined by an expert on the subject who explains the causes of
the news and its possible consequences to you.
No good newspapers will mix interpretation with hard news, either. Interpretation goes beyond
analysis and tells you not just what will probably happen, but what ought to happen. This should be clearly
labeled, or at best, reserved for the editorial page or op-ed (opposite the editorial) page.

Form your own opinion first


I form my own opinion before I turn to the editorial page for the pundits views. I dont want them to tell me
how to think until Ive wrestled the issue through my own conclusion. Once I have, Im open to other
reasoning. Resist the temptation to let them do your thinking for you.
Heres an idea I firmly believe in and act on. When you read something that motivates you, do
something about it. Learn more about it. Join a cause. Write a letter. You can constantly vote on issues by
writing letters, particularly to your congressman or state or local representatives.
To understand the news better you can also read news magazines. Books help fill in the holes, too.
During the Vietnam War, for example, many people felt that the daily news coverage wasnt entirely
satisfactory. The truth is, you could have gotten many important new facts on the war form the books coming
out at the time.

Pick a TV story and follow it


Now that Ive told you about the basics of getting under the skin of a newspaper, let newspaper get under
your skin.
Tonight, pick an important story that interests you on the TV news. Dig into the storyin your
newspaper. Follow it, and continue to follow it closely in print. See if you dont find yourself with far more
understanding of the event.

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And see if you dont have a far more sensible opinion as in the whys and wherefores of that
event, even down to how it will affect youand maybe even what should be done about it.
Keep up with the news the way my colleagues and I doon TV and in the newspapers.
Learn to sift it for yourself, to heft it, to value it, to question it, to ask for it all. Youll be in better
control of your life and your fortunes.
And thats the way it is.
(1200 words)

Post-reading activity
Activity 1:
After you read it, make a list of the things that the writer advises you to do when you read a newspaper.
Does The Jakarta Post have the same sections and news articles discussed in the text? If not, what are
the differences?

Activity 2:
Below you will find three headings. Following these headings are three letters to the editor column.
Match the letters with the headings.

Noisy construction project

Royal Caribbeans service

Are you independent?

Once again the Australian Broadcasting Commission has shown its subservient, cringing,
peasant-like attitude in a recent television report. Commenting upon the death of Edmund
Hillary the ABC said that Hillary ascended Mount Everest prior to the coronation of the
Queen.
Which Queen?
The Queen of Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Swaziland, Thailand, Tonga, the
Netherlands?
Did the ABC refer to the Queen of Great of Great Britain? If so it should say so! The
entire world community has seen Australia refer to Bush for the last seven years!
President of whom? Is it Bush of the U.S.?

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Is it the Queen of Great Britain? As a concerned reader of The Jakarta Post, I call for
the cessation of these references to the old imperial and colonial powers as if their leaders are
somehow generic monarchs and presidents in this new post-imperial, post-colonial 21st
century.
Australia, are you British or are you independent?
GREG WARNER
Jakarta

We bought our property in South Jakarta, and


lived there since 1995, owning the proper
permits including the maximum construction
license (IMB) required for a maximum twostory home in this residential area of Cilandak
Barat.
Without prior notice whatsoever in May
2007 major construction began just two meters
from our residence on a six-story office
building (plus basement) intended to be used as
a training center for the State Secretarys
Office. The construction has since been carried
out on a near 24-hour schedule without heed to
the surrounding residents.
We have lodged several formal letters of
complaint with the neighborhood unit head and
even to the office of the ministry involved,
expressing concern at the construction and
impact of the large office on a residential area.

However, no satisfactory response has been


forthcoming.
It is quite ironic that in an area zoned for
residential housing permission could be granted
to construct a six-story office building. Is this
because the building is owned by the State
Secretariat? Hence allowing them to ignore the
plight of average citizens and long-time
residents in the vicinity who are suffering the
impact of this building on their once peaceful
neighborhood?
We question whether high officials of this
country still have the dignity to respect the rights
of its people.
Srikandini S.
Jakarta

On Dec. 12, 2007, I along with my family of seven headed to Singapore on a cruise with Royal Caribbean
Rhapsody of the Seas. We were on the lobby deck when we heard a few people complaining of items that
had gone missing from their cabins when they were disembarking the ship.
During the five day-cruise, not only were we disappointed by the poor service but we were amazed to see the
rude attitude of several staff working for the ship. When we reached home, much to our surprise, my gold
watch worth US$ 1,500 was missing from my briefcase along with my wifes expensive cosmetics.
The following day, I immediately lodged a complaint with the RCC (Asia), Pte Ltd and Rama Rebbapragada,
the managing director, who assured us to take this matter seriously, but as of it this date has not been
available.
M.H. CHANDIRAMANI
Jakarta

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Activity 3:
Three advertisements follow. Read them carefully.
1. Do the advertisements have anything in common?
2. What is being advertised in each one? (e.g. A advertises a cassette)
3. With other students in your group, discuss which advertisement interests you and which does not.
Give your reasons.

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Reading an Academic Text

Text 1
Read the following text carefully
I

Because man is using up the worlds energy resources at such a rapid rate,
scientists are looking to the sun to supply a lot of the worlds future energy
requirements. Although solar energy is unlikely to replace all the existing sources
of energy, the sun is nevertheless regarded as a very important source of energy.
5 Solar energy, moreover, has three advantages over existing energy sources: the
energy sources itself is free; it is virtually inexhaustible; and unlike the burning of
coal, oil and gas, it will not cause pollution.

II

Approximately twenty percent of the worlds present energy already comes from
the sun. It has been estimated that by the beginning of the next century the sun
10 will be a major source of energy in most countries throughout the world. Almost
half of the worlds energy, in fact, will come from the sun and such other natural
sources as wind and water. In addition to its use for heating water, solar energy
will be used in ordinary homes for heating or cooling the air, for cooking and
even for refrigeration of foods and other perishable goods.

III

15 The potential of solar energy are very great. The total amount of solar energy
reaching the earth each year is over 30,000 times as much as the total energy used
by man. Even a very small satellite in orbit round the earth can be used to
produce twice as much electricity as the largest conventional power station.

IV

For a long time man failed to use solar energy because sunshine is not something
20 which is constant and thus always available, especially in temperate and cold
climates. The direction of the suns rays varies, too. However, during the past two
hundred years significant advances have been made in the use of solar energy to
generate heat and more recently to produce electricity. During the nineteenth
century, for example, solar steam generators were built. These generators
25 consisted of mirrors which could be moved and could thus concentrate large
amounts of radiation from the sun on blackened pipes through which water
circulated. In this way, the water was turned to steam. Even ice was produced by
a similar method a hundred years ago in Paris.

However, these early solar devices were very expensive and could be operated
30 only irregularly when the sun shone brightly. As soon as satellites were put into
orbit round the earth, interest in solar energy increased because for the first time
problems caused by the earths atmosphere and by clouds were overcome.

Reading Comprehension
A. Answer the following questions. You should base your answers on the information in the text.
1.

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In your own words, say briefly what the whole text is about.

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2.

What are the topics of the following paragraphs?


Paragraph I:
Paragraph II:
Paragraph III:
Paragraph IV:
Paragraph V:

3.

What are the benefits of solar energy over other types of energy?

4.

What were the initial problems of using solar energy?

5.

How were the problems solved?

B. Say whether each of the following statements is TRUE or FALSE. In either case, explain your answers.
6.

It has taken a long time for people to make use of solar energy because they thought that
conventional sources of energy were sufficient.

7.

People became more interested in solar energy after scientists had developed ways to direct the suns
rays.

8.

In the past solar energy was solely used for heating water.

9.

The best title for the text is:

10.

Solar Energy

What do the following words/phrases refer to?


a) it in line 7 refers to:
b) its in line 12 refers to:
c) these generators in line 24 refers to:
d) which in line 26 refers to:
e) in this way in line 27 refers to:

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C. Matching: Match the world in the left hand column (taken from the text) with their meanings or
synonyms by writing the letters in the space provided.

________

conventional

a. produce or create something

________

concentrate

b. something necessary for doing something else

________

turned to

c. differs

________

requirements

d. easily becoming rotten or spoiled

________

temperate

e. unlimited or infinite

________

varies

f. predicted or projected

________

perishable

g. common, traditional

________

estimated

h. not too cold nor too hot, moderate

________

generate

i. changed into other forms

________

inexhaustible

j. be present in a large amount

Text 2
Read the text carefully
I

Cell phones are not just here to stay. They have evolved into ever more versatile
and powerful devices and have become indispensable to our way of life. Why,
then, cant we make the technological marvels safe? Of course, according to the
cell phone industry, cell phones are perfectly harmless: After a substantial
5 amount of research, scientists and governments around the world continue to
reaffirm that there is no public health threat from the use of wireless phones,
says Tom Wheeler, president of Cellular Telecommunications & Internet
Association (CTIA).

II

According to numerous prominent researchers, that statement is nonsense.


10 Henry Lai, PhD., a research professor of bioengineering who has over the last
ten years conducted cell phone studies, stated: I have a list about 600 research
papers from the past ten years alone, and 70 percent of which show definite
effects from exposure to this kind of radiation, but the industry continues to say
that there is nothing to worry about.

III

15 There have, in fact been several studies that show no correlations between cell
phone use and cancer. These studies were conducted by respected institutions
and researchers and the result published in peer-reviewed journals. However,
this does not prove that cell phone use does not lead to increased risk of brain
cancer, since the studies were all simple statistical studies that compared the
20 incidence of brain cancer among cell phone users to that of general population.
The National Cancer Institute itself points out that cancer which take along time
to develop would not have been detected by these studies. What has been shown
in numerous studies is that the radiation coming from cell phones does have
measurable effects on brain cell that can lead to cancer, as well as neurological
25 diseases.

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IV

Lais experiments are instructive in this regard. One of his main findings was
the radiation from cell phones at levels below current standards caused damage
to DNA. Nerve cells have less of an ability to repair DNA than other types of
body cells, so this damage could accumulate. Cumulative damages in DNA may
30 turn affect cell functions. DNA damage that accumulates in cells over a period
of time may be the cause of slow onset diseases, such as cancer.

In addition, other studies have documented an actual increase in brain tumors


from normal cell phone use. One example is an Australian study funded by
Telestra, the company that control 99 percent of Australias telephone service,
35 and overseen by the governments National Health and Medical Research
Council. Researchers found that mice exposed to normal cell phone radiation for
two half-hour periods for nine to eighteen months developed 2.4 times more
tumors than the controlled group.

VI

Virtually every aspect of our lives entails risk. There are over 40,000 total
40 automobile accidents every year in US, but few people call for a ban on driving,
or lowering the limit to 25 mph. However, we do have safety laws regulating
automobile use and technological innovations to make cars safer. What we need
now with cell phones is not more research, but action. We need cell phone
equivalent of seat-belt laws and airbags to protect consumers.

A. Answer the following questions. You should base your answers on the information in the above text.
1. Give a general view what the text is about. Dont go into details.

2. Why did Tom Wheeler say that cell phones are perfectly harmless?

3. Why were the research findings, which stated that there is no relationship between the use of cell
phones and getting cancer, denied by other researchers?

4. Mention four findings which prove that cell phones are actually harmful to the users. (Mention also
the researchers).

5. When we consider the authors explanation about cars which may endanger drivers, what should be
done with cell phones?
a.
b.

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c.
d.
6. What are the topics of the following paragraphs?
Paragraph I:
Paragraph II:
Paragraph III:
Paragraph IV:
Paragraph V
Paragraph VI:
7. Which paragraphs can be put together under ONE SUBTITLE? What is the subtitle?

B. Say whether each of the following statements is TRUE or FALSE; in either case, explain your
answer.
8.

According to the National Cancer Institute, the use of cell phones may in the long run cause cancer
to users.

9.

Governments are generally supporters of the cell phone industry.

10.

A suitable title for the text is:

Researchers of cell phones

11.

What do the following phrases refer to?


a. the technological marvels in line 3 refers to
b. that statement in line 9 refers to .
c. this regard in line 26 refers to ..

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Text 3
Read the text carefully
I

Cars equipped with catalytic converters emit higher quantities of a gas that
contributes to global warming and depletes stratospheric ozone than cars
without them, according to tests carried out in Sweden and France.

II

A catalytic converter is a cylindrical box connected to the exhaust of a petrol


5 car. It reduces some of the pollutants that petrol engines produce, such as
hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. A modern three-way
catalytic converter (TWC) can eliminate up to 80 per cent of these pollutants.

III

All new cars in the US are fitted with catalytic converters in order to reduce
pollution and the European Commission is considering following suit by
10 making it compulsory for all new models of cars in Europe to be fitted with
TWCs.

IV

Nitrous oxide, which ranks behind carbon dioxide, methane and CFCs in its
contribution to the greenhouse effect, is a by-product of the process within
catalytic converters. Until recently, researchers had thought that nitrous oxide
15 was not a significant pollutant from motor vehicle

However, Swedish and French researchers have found that levels of nitrous
oxide rose significantly in cars with catalytic converters. These researchers
looked at nitrous oxide emissions from cars with petrol engines. All the studies
found that cars equipped with TWCs produced more nitrous oxide than either a
20 car without a TWC of a diesel-powered vehicle. They found that vehicles with
TWCs produce up to five times as much as nitrous oxide as cars without them.
However, the difference is greatest at low speeds after a cold start.

VI

Because researchers do not understand the chemical processes by which


nitrous oxide is produced within TWCs they cannot modify the converters to
25 prevent this gas from forming. TWCs do, however, have a significant role in
reducing other oxides of nitrogen, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), which produce nitrous oxide when they are deposited on
surfaces. So, cars without TWCs could produce more nitrous oxide indirectly.

A. Reading Comprehension
Answer the following questions. You should base your answer on the information in the text.
1.

2.

In your own words, say briefly what the whole text is about.

What are the topics of the following paragraphs?


Paragraph II:
Paragraph III

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Paragraph V:
Paragraph VI:
3.

Why are European countries trying to make it obligatory for new cars to be fitted with TWCs?

4.

How did researchers find that modern catalytic converters fitted in cars increased nitrous oxide
emission?

5.

Why do researchers think that cars without TWCs may indirectly produce more nitrous oxide?

B. Say whether each of the following statements is TRUE or FALSE. In either case, explain your
answer.
6.

Nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide, methane and CFCs are the by-product of the process within
the catalytic converters.

7.

Scientists have just found out that nitrous oxide is a significant pollutant from motor vehicles.

8.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to modify the catalytic converter after they made a study of
the chemical processes of the production of nitrous oxide within the converters.

9.

Diesel-powered vehicles turn out to be greener than modern cars equipped with TWCs.

10.

The best title for the text is:

Global Warming: The Effect of Using Cars

C. Referent
What do the following words refer to?
a) them in line 3 refers to .
b) these pollutants in line 7 refer to .
c) its in line 12 refers to .
d) them in line 21 refers to .
e) this gas in line 25 refers to

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READING AN ACADEMIC TEXT


In groups discuss the questions below.
1. What is prejudice?
2. Why can prejudice become a big problem in a country like Indonesia?
3. Can you give an example of prejudice that you experienced or have heard or read about?
Read the following text and do the exercises.

The Nature of Prejudice


I

1 Most people will admit that the relation between various ethnic and racial groups is a
potential source of problems for a culturally diverse society such as the United States.
Most rational people will also agree that prejudice plays an important role in the
misunderstandings, intolerance, and even hostility that may develop and persist between
5 such groups. If our objective is to minimize these problems, one necessary step is to
address the issue of prejudice.

II

Research has clearly established that prejudice exists and that a person expressing a
prejudiced view may be unaware that it is in fact biased. An interesting experiment,
which is often cited in educational textbooks, was conducted in 1971 to determine the
10 potential effects of prejudice on the judgments of future U.S. school teachers.1 The
researcher made videotapes of three children speaking to an adult. The camera angle
was such that the childrens faces were not visible; however, it was obvious from the
tapes that the children were speaking and that they were racially different (one was
white; one was African American; the third was Mexican American). A soundtrack
15 containing exactly the same conversation in English with the same American voice was
added to the tapes. Each tape was played to one of three groups of student teachers.
Their task was to judge the correctness of the speech of the child they had seen on the
videotape.

F. Williams, J.L. Whitehead, and L.M. Miller, Ethnic stereotyping and judgements of childrens speech, Speech Monographs
38 (1971), pp. 166-70

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III

Although they actually heard the same voice and conversation, the student teachers
20 misjudged the language of the African American and Mexican American children and
found it to be less like good standard English than that of the white child (see Figure 1).
These results may be interpreted as showing the existence and effect of prejudice in the
student teachers. They were basing their judgments on a previously formed opinion,
namely that Mexican Americans and African Americans dont speak Standard English
25 as well as white Americans. In addition, this opinion was strong enough to affect their
perception of objective reality.

IV

Since prejudice is associated with insufficient knowledge, we often assume that we can
reduce it simply by replacing ignorance with knowledge. However, such an assumption
is clearly unjustified. In the experiment described in the preceding paragraphs, prejudice
successfully resisted change. In spite of hearing evidence that contradicted their
previously held ideas, the student teachers did not revise their prejudices. Instead, they
persisted with them and found the English on one tape to be superior to the same
English on the other two tapes.

30

V
35

40

Thus, the real problem here seems not to be prejudice itself but the persistence of
prejudice. To address this problem rationally and scientifically, we need answers at
least to the following questions. Under what circumstances does prejudice resist
change? Are there different kinds of prejudice, and if so, are there some types more
persistent than others? What types of experience can change prejudiced views? From
these as yet unanswered questions, it is clear that he remedy for social prejudice will be
more complex than merely providing objective information to those in need of it.

A. Checking the Main Ideas


Here are the main ideas for this passage. Write the correct paragraph number beside its main idea.

Reducing prejudice with correct information will not be easy because prejudice is
_______ difficult to change.
_______ We need research into why people revise their prejudiced opinions and why they dont.
_______ The write describes an experiment investigating prejudice in future U.S. schoolteachers.
_______ To lessen the problems of racial intolerance and hostility, we need to understand
prejudice.
The student teachers showed the effects of unconscious prejudice when they misjudged
_______ the English of African-American and Mexican-American children.

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B. Answer the following questions and give explanations based on the information in the passage.
1. What often becomes a source of problems in a society that consists of many difference races?
2. What should be done to decrease such problems according to the writer of this article?
3. Is it possible to be prejudiced and not realize that this prejudice is affecting your judgment?
4. How many stages were there in the experiment?
5. Describe what was done in each stage.
6. What conclusion(s) can be drawn from the results of the experiment?

C. Referents
What do the following words/phrases refer to?
these problems in line 5 refers to .
they in line 13 refers to ..
they in line 19 refers to ..
we in line 27 refers to .
it in line 28 refers to
such an assumption in line 28 refers to .
this problem in line 35 refers to .

D. Writers sometimes express the same ideas with very different grammar and vocabulary. This exercise
will help you identify such occurrences.
Read the first sentence in each example carefully. Then read each of the two following sentences to
decide if they are the same or different in meaning to the first sentence. Write S when the sentence
expresses the same idea as the first sentence. Write D when it expresses a different idea.
1. The government has committed itself to maintaining taxes at their present level.
a. The government has stated publicly that it will need to raise taxes. _______
b. The government has promised not to raise taxes. _______
2. Despite the problems, governments of some Third World countries persist in developing health-care
programs like those in Western countries.
a. In spite of problems, developing countries continue to use the patterns established in
Western countries for their own healthcare systems. ________
b. Problems are forcing developing countries to pursue healthcare policies that are distinct from
those of Western nations. _______
3. According to the latest poll, a large majority of people agree with the governments immigration
policy.
a. The most recent poll shows that most people are in favour of the governments policy on
immigration. ________

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b. The latest poll indicated approval of the governments immigration policy by a great
majority of people. ________
4. It is not likely that the view of prejudiced people can be changed merely by providing information
that contradicts these views.
a. People who are prejudiced do not like to be contradicted. ________
b. Just supplying information that shows their views are wrong will probably not be enough to
make biased people change these views. _________
5. Some people believe that ethnic tension and hostility are inevitable in a culturally diverse society.
a. Some people believe that a multicultural society is capable of preventing ethnic tension and
hostility. ________
b. It is thought by some that there is certain to be ethnic tension and hostility in a multicultural
society. ________
E. Vocabulary

What do the words misunderstanding, intolerance, and unaware all begin with?
What are these called?
What is their function?
Can you find other examples of such words in the text?
Find more examples for each type in your dictionary.

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Pre-reading activity
In groups of five or six, consisting of both males and females, discuss the questions above. Be prepared to
share your findings with the class.
When do you usually listen to music?
Does music affect you? How does it affect you?
What kind of music do you prefer?

From simple folksongs to the complex sound of a symphony orchestra, music has been created by every
known society. Almost every pivotal event in life can be signposted with music, whether it's a joyful
occasion like a wedding or a sad one such as a funeral. Music, which consistently emerges in surveys as
the most popular form of art, can be used not only to tap into an emotion a person is already feeling, but
to manipulate it in a powerful way. Yet the existence of music mystifies scientists. It is not a primary
means of communication, unlike language. While human beings are the only species to make musical
instruments, music does not seem to help us to live longer or pass on our genes more efficiently. So what
purpose does it serve?

Participants at the American Association for the Advancement of Science recently attended a
performance of the kind of music Neanderthal man might have heard. Working from fragments of
musical instruments found alongside Neanderthal relics in Slovenia in 1995, Or Jelle Atema from Boston
University crafted a flute from the 50,000-year-old leg-bone of a bear. His replica showed the flute was
not a sophisticated instrument in fact, it had a range of less than one octave but it was an
instrument nonetheless. Dr Atema's guess is that cavemen used the instrument to attract prospective
mates. Although some psychologists feel this is somewhat feeble and doesn't really explain why a
cavewoman should find a caveman flutist more appealing than a tone-deaf rival, the question remains.
After all, something must explain why our ancestors were creating music 200,000 years ago.

Psychologists are united in one belief that music speaks to the heart. What is more, the evidence that
music elicits emotion is startlingly direct. A Cornell University study showed recently that certain pieces
of music induce physiological changes in the body that correspond to certain emotions. "Sad" pieces
caused the pulse to slacken, the blood pressure to rise and the temperature to drop, which is exactly what
happens when a sense of sadness sets in. "Happy" songs did the opposite, inducing a cheery feeling.
Somehow, music can tap into sensitive emotion circuits.

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4 Geoffrey Miller, a scientist at University College, London, thinks it is clear that music has all the
hallmarks of an adaptive behavior, meaning it was a factor in selecting a mate. "It is universal across
cultures, and kids are motivated spontaneously to learn how to play music around the age of puberty,"
says Dr Miller. He recently conducted an intriguing study of 3,000 jazz albums. The peak age of the
performers was 30, and there were ten male performers for every one female. "That's the same age at
which other cultural displays peak, such as painting, poetry and philosophy," Dr Miller points out.
5

Musical talent, he says, can indicate many desirable qualities in a mate: the mental competence to learn
notes and lyrics; the social intelligence required to be part of an orchestra and co-operate, literally
harmoniously, with other people, creativity and energy. But just because musical competence may have
once signaled a good mate doesn't necessarily mean that every modern woman is searching for that
quality human beings have come to differ in their preferences.

Dr Adrian North, a music psychologist at Leicester University, surveyed Staffordshire teenagers last year
about what kind of music they listen to and why. "The findings were almost too stereotypical to be true,"
says Dr North. "While the girls listened to music which influences their mood, boys used music as a way
of impressing their friends. Boys seem to like rock and raps because it shows how cool, trendy and
macho they are. Boys use music as a badge of identity; it's a way of telling people about who you are."
He also adds that an individual's choice of music directly influences attractiveness. However, Dr North
shies away from saying that music has evolved as a mechanism for mate selection.

Stephen Pinker, the American psychologist, does not subscribe to the view that music has evolved as a
way of showing off to prospective mates. "Compared with language, vision, social reasoning and
physical know-how, music could vanish from our species and the rest of our lifestyle would be virtually
unchanged," he writes in How the Mind Works. Directly contradicting Dr Miller, he concludes: "Music
shows the clearest signs of not being an adaptation."

So if music confers no survival advantage, why does it exist? Pinker calls it "auditory cheesecake", a
confection of sounds put together to tickle faculties that our brain already possesses. In his view, songs
with lyrics appeal to a brain already attuned to language; the ear is sensitive to harmonies, and sounds in
the natural world, such as birdsong and even thunder, echo such harmonies; we derive pleasure from
patterns and rhythm, and repetitive sounds appeal to the ear in the same way that a repeated doodle
appeals to the eye.

But how does music "move" us? Last week scientists from the University of Manchester revealed that
loud music stimulates a part of the inner ear called the sacculus, which is connected to the hypothalamus,
the brain's "pleasure centre". This could explain why music is so evocative. Interestingly, the sacculus
exists only in fish and human beings (it came from a common ancestor). That might shed light on why
human beings alone attach such importance to making music. The sacculus responds only to music,
which suggests one reason why music, rather than any other form of sound, inspires such delight. (930
words)

A. Read the article carefully and answer the following questions concerning the main ideas of the article.
1. What aspect of music is discussed in this article?
2. What is unusual about the performance participants at the American Association for the
Advancement of Science recently attended?
3. What is Dr Atemas theory about music?
4. Which scientist agrees with Dr Atemas theory? Explain why.
5. Who has made similar discoveries but does not support Dr Atemas theory? What is his theory?
6. Who opposes his theory strongly? What is his theory?

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7. What have the scientists from the University of Manchester found out about why music influences us
so much?

B. Read the text again to find the following details.

1. What skill makes human beings different from other species?


2. Why did Dr Atema make a musical instrument out of the bones of an ancient bear?
3. What theory about music do all scientists support?
4. What did Dr Miller base his research on?
5. What does he think musical talent can indicate in terms of human character?
6. Who were the subjects of the Dr Norths survey?
7. What is the title of a book written by Stephen Pinker?
8. What is the sacculus? Why is it important?

C. Find the meanings of the following words as used in this text and other possible meanings. Use a
dictionary if necessary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

pivotal (para. 1)
feeble (para. 1)
tone-deaf (para. 2)
startlingly (para.3)
tap (para. 3)

6. hallmarks (para. 4)
7. signaled (para. 5)
8. subscribes (para. 7)
9. tickle (para.8)
10. evocative (para. 9)

Fill in the blanks with a suitable word from the list above. You might need to change the form of the word to
suit the context.
1. Engineers are developing ways of ____________ the power of the sun and wind to produce
electricity in remote villages.
2. He loves to ____________ his baby sister because she starts laughing out loud.
3. There is only one requirement to join this choir. You must not be ______________.
4. He made a _____________ discovery about the origins of the Betawi people.
5. These traditional cakes and cookies are _____________ of my childhood which I spent in a remote
village in Minahasa.
6. Indonesia has to work hard to retain its _____________ role in Asian politics.
7. The governments new policy _____________ its seriousness in improving the countrys economic
condition.
8. The bomb explosions that have occurred around the country all bear the ______________ of terrorist
attacks.
9. If you want to improve your English, its a good idea to _____________ to the Jakarta Post.
10. Her attempts to justify her plans were so ____________ that no one was willing to support her.

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D. Writing
Write a short summary of about 200 words based on the answers to the questions in part A. Use your
own words as far as possible.

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Pre-reading Activity
In groups of four or five discuss the following questions.
What kind of media is most popular today?
Did it replace the popularity of any other media? If so, what?
What is a traditional way of spreading messages in a traditional village?
Do you think that the book will eventually be replaced by the internet in the next few decade?

Bones to Phones
Radio survived, the pneumatic mail didn't. Books are still here, but the Inca quipu aren't. Why do some media
die while others live on, asks Margaret Wertheim.
1

With no books, no TV, no Internet, just how did our forebears exercise their minds around the
campfire back in Palaeolithic times? One pastime seems to have been bone-notching. Across Europe and
the Middle East, early humans took to etching parallel lines and crosses into pieces of bone. Why they
did this is still a mystery, though present thinking is that the bones served as tally sticks or even a form
of lunar calendar. Whatever their purpose, the bones were clearly important, or they would not have been
used for so long - about 90,000 years. "I doubt very much that any form of media we have today will
survive that long," declares Bruce Sterling with heartfelt admiration.

Sterling, a Texas-based science-fiction writer, is a man who should know about such matters. He has
spent much of the past five years sifting through the dustbins of history in search of dead media. He and
fellow writer Bruce Kadrey are assembling an archive of the dead and dying. Their only criteria are that
a device must have been used to create, store or communicate information, and that it must be deceased or at least down to its last gasp.

Appropriately, for a project about the transience of media, the Dead Media Project is housed on the
Internet. Sterling and Kadrey set the ball rolling, but ultimately it is a communal effort, relying on a
cadre of selfless workers around the globe who scour historical sources for arcane, obscure, forgotten
and abandoned media. Most of these are not academic historians, just self-professed obsessives.

At present, the official archive, known


as the Dead Media Working Notes,
contains more than 400 listings. Take, for
example, the inuksuit - huge stone relics
that dot the Arctic landscape of North
America. Their builders, the
Inuit, used them as travel
The inuksuit were
guides. By learning the used as travel
shapes
of
individual guides by the Inuit.
sculptures
and
the
sequences in which they
Many cities in the
appeared, the Inuit could
nineteenth century
had pneumatic
travel vast distances over
mail systems.
unfamiliar ground without
getting lost. Then there are
the lukasa, used by the Luba people of Zaire. These handheld wooden objects, which were studded with
beads or pins or incised with ideograms, were used to teach lore about cultural heroes, clan migrations and
sacred matters. Yet the symbols they carried were not direct representations of information, but designed
to jog the user's memory.

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In the category called "Dead Physical Transfer Systems", one group stands out - the multifarious
systems designed to deliver mail. Pigeon posts have been around for 4,000 years, starting with the
Sumerians. More recently, at the end of the nineteenth century, many cities boasted pneumatic mail
systems made up of underground pipes. Telegrams and letters shot through the tubes in canisters
propelled by compressed air. But perhaps the most bizarre postal innovation was missile mail. On 8 June
1959, at the behest of the US Post Office Department, the submarine USS Barbero fired a missile
containing 3,000 letters at the Naval Auxiliary Air Station in Mayport, Florida. The postal service's
website quotes an official at the time saying: "Before man reaches the Moon, mail will be delivered
within hours from New York to California, to Britain, to India or Australia by guided missile." Sadly, the
trial did not spark off a postal revolution.

With his knowledge of media fossils and what has lived on, has Sterling noticed any qualities that
select for survival? "It really depends on the society that gave birth to it," he says. "It helps a lot if it is
the nerve system of how government information is transmitted." At the very least, he argues, successful
media need a close association with some form of power in society. The Inca quipu illustrates the point.
The Inca did not write, but kept records on complex arrangements of coloured, knotted strings, some
weighing up to twenty kilograms and carrying tens of thousands of knots. These knots were tied by an
official class - the Inca equivalents of historians, scribes and accountants.

Unfortunately, the quipu did not survive long, but were burnt by the Spanish invaders. This
demonstrates, as Sterling puts it, that media can be murdered. He believes that but for the Spanish, quipu
could have been taken a great deal further. They are his favourite dead media. "One of the things that
really fascinates me is that they were networks," he says. "They had directories and even subdirectories,
and all this just with strings and knots."

Kadrey has noted another feature of long-lasting media: they tend to be simple. There are systems
for sending messages with light, which have been invented time and again, starting with the Babylonians,
Romans and Imperial Chinese, who operated a network of fires along the Great Wall. Before the
invention of electrical telegraphy, the Russians, Czechs, British and Australians all experimented with
optical telegraphy. These attempts may vary in their levels of sophistication but they're all based on the
same simple idea. "All a person needs is a shiny thing and the Sun," says Kadrey.

Another shining example that draws the admiration of both Sterling and Kadrey is that old standby,
the book. "I have this argument all the time," Kadrey says. "So many people today claim that the book is
dead. I don't believe it for a minute," he says. "It's a very powerful technology. Books are so dumb, just
ink on a page, but they've lasted so long!"
(935 words)

A. Read the text carefully answer these questions.


1. What is the earliest form of media known?
2. What are Sterling and Kadrey trying to do?
3. What is interesting about the men who are involved in the project all over the world?
4. Name two examples and give a brief description of dead media that they have found.
5. What is meant by the category Dead Physical Transfer Systems?
6. What qualities must a media have to survive?
7. What examples does he give to support his theory?
8. What does Sterling think about the fate of books?
9. Why did the writer choose the title Bones to Phones?
B. Scan the text quickly to find the following details.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

86

What are Stering and Kadrey by profession?


How long did bone notching survive?
Where were the inuksuit found?
Who first used pigeons to send messages?
What happened on June 8th, 1959?
What is pneumatic mail?

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7. What did the Inca quipu consist of?


8. How did people around the Great Wall in China communicate in the past?

Vocabulary
C. In this text the writer used two word verbs and several idiomatic expressions to make the style less
formal.
1. Match the verb phrase of expression with a synonym on the right.
2. Choose five expressions and use them in your own sentences to make the meaning clear.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

took to
sifting through
down to the last gasp
set the ball rolling
to jog the memory
have been round
spark off
taken a great deal further
time and again

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

to help one remember something


to start
have existed
developed
examine carefully
repeatedly
cause something to develop
to the very end
develop a liking for

D. Some words are created by joining two words together. Campfire for examples consists of two
words camp and fire and it means a wood fire made in the open air by campers. These words
may function as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Some words are separated by a hyphen, bonenotching whereas others are separated, such as lunar calendar. These words are known as
compound words. Find other examples of such words and explain their meaning.

Writing:
Write a short summary of about 150 words of the article Bones to Phones.

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READING AN ACADEMIC TEXT

II

10

15

III
20

25

IV

30

35

40

45

88

Glass, in one form or another, has long been in noble service to humans. As one of
the most widely used of manufactured materials, and certainly the most versatile,
it can be as imposing as a telescope mirror the width of a tennis court or as small
and simple as a marble rolling across dirt. The uses of this adaptable material have
been broadened dramatically by new technologies: glass fibre optics - more than
eight million miles - carrying telephone and television signals across nations; glass
ceramics serving as the nose cones of missiles and as crowns for teeth; tiny glass
beads taking radiation doses inside the body to specific organs; even a new type of
glass fashioned of nuclear waste in order to dispose of that unwanted material.
On the horizons are optical computers. These could store programs and process
information by means of light - pulses from tiny lasers - rather than electrons. And
the pulses would travel over glass fibres, not copper wire. These machines could
function hundreds of times faster than todays electronic computers and hold
vastly more information. Today fibre optics are used to obtain a clearer image of
smaller and smaller objects than ever before - even bacterial viruses. A new
generation of optical instruments is emerging that can provide detailed imaging of
the inner workings of cells. It is the surge in fibre optic use and in liquid crystal
displays that has set the US glass industry to building new plants to meet demand.
But not all the glass technology that touches our lives is ultra-modern. Consider
the simple light bulb; at the turn of the century most light bulbs were hand blown,
and the cost of one was equivalent to half a days pay for the average worker. In
effect, the invention of the ribbon machine by Corning in the 1920s lighted a
nation. The price of a bulb plunged. Small wonder that the machine has been
called one of the great mechanical achievements of all time. Yet it is very simple:
a narrow ribbon of molten glass travels over a moving belt of steel in which there
are holes. The glass sags through the holes and into waiting moulds. Puffs of
compressed air then shape the glass. In this way, the envelope of a light bulb is
made by a single machine at the rate of 66,000 an hour, as compared with 1,200 a
day produced by a team of four glassblowers.
The secret of the versatility of glass lies in its interior structure. Although it is
rigid, and thus like a solid, the atoms are arranged in a random disordered fashion,
characteristics of a liquid. In the melting process, the atoms in the raw materials
are disturbed from their normal position in the molecular structure; before they can
find their way back to crystalline arrangements the glass cools. This looseness in
molecular structure gives the material what engineers call tremendous
formability which allows technicians to tailor glass to whatever they need.
Today, scientists continue to experiment with new glass mixtures and building
designers test their imaginations with applications of special types of glass. A
London architect, Mike Davies, sees even more dramatic buildings using
molecular chemistry. Glass is the great building material of the future, the
dynamic skin, he said. Think of glass that has been treated to react to electric
currents going through it, glass that will change from clear to opaque at the push of
a button, that gives you instant curtains. Think of how the tall buildings in New
York could perform a symphony of colours as the glass in them is made to change
colours instantly. Glass as instant curtains is available now, but the cost is
exorbitant. As for the glass changing colours instantly, that may come true. Mike
Davies vision may indeed be on the way to fulfillment.
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A.

READING COMPREHENSION
I.

Answer the following questions. Your answers should be based on the information
in the above text.

1.

In your own words, say briefly what the whole text is about.

2.

What are the topics of the following paragraphs?


Paragraph I:
Paragraph II:
Paragraph III:
Paragraph IV:
Paragraph V:

3.

How are the future use of fibre optics different from the present one?

4.

Describe the stages of the production of light bulbs using the Cornings ribbon machine.

5.

How might architects use glass in their design in the future? Give examples in your
answers.

II. Say whether each of the following statements is TRUE or FALSE. In either case,
explain your answers.
6.

In the world of medicine, one of the many uses of glass is in giving radiation to the internal
organs of humans.

7.

Although computers using glass fibres are much faster than the electronic ones, they
cannot hold as much information as the electronic ones.
Glass can be shaped into any forms because its molecular structure is loose.

8.
9.
10.

The best title for the text is :


The Advantages and Disadvantages of Glass
Referent Words.
What do the following words/phrases refer to?
a) this adaptable material in line 4 refers to ......
b) that unwanted material in line 9 refers to ........

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c) these machines in line 12 refer to ............


d) one in line 21 refers to .........
e) in this way in line 27 refers to .........
f) they in line 36 refer to ............
g) their in line 38 refers to ..............

Matching
Match the words/phrases in Column A (taken from the text) with their meanings or
synonyms in Column B by writing the letters on the space provided.
A

90

____

versatile

a.

dark, nontransparent

____

to dispose of

b.

quick blast of wind or air

____

vastly

c.

hard, inflexible

____

surge

d.

immediately

____

plunge

e.

flexible, adaptable

____

puffs

f.

To make or shape for special purposes

____

rigid

g.

to get rid of

____

to tailor

h.

decrease sharply

____

opaque

i.

considerably larger

____

instantly

j.

increase

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II. VOCABULARY
Fill in the blanks with the corrects words/phrases from the list. Each word/phrase should be used
once only; and two words/phrases are not used.
much higher
efficiency
purposes
suitable
proposed
effective

show
windmills
power
analysis
available
utilizing

A study to investigate the feasibility of using wind energy for generating electricity for household in a
remote area was made by a team of engineers from the University of Singapore. The study found that
the wind speed in that region was _______________ for the operation of _______________. In the
offshore islands, the power available is ________________ than that in the mainland. In the former,
_______________ may be generated for about 80 percent of the time.

The team said that the

_______________ design method and its verification with model tests _______________ that it can be
used with confidence

to design a windmill of fairly high _______________ with known

characteristics. Cost _______________ also shows that the windmill can be profitably used for
household _______________ and irrigation. In conclusion, the prospect for _______________ wind
energy in that region is good.

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READING AN ACADEMIC TEXT


Read the text carefully

A.
I

II
10

15
III

20

IV
25

30
V

35
VI

40

Water-related diseases are human tragedy, killing millions of people each year,
preventing millions more from leading healthy lives, and make development efforts
ineffective. About 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from diseases linked to
water.
Water-related diseases which vary substantially in their nature ,
transmission, effect and management can be organized into three categories: waterborne diseases, water-based diseases and water-related vector diseases.
Millions of people suffer from infections that are transmitted by vectors insects or
other animals capable of transmitting an infection, such as mosquitoes and tsetse
flies that breed and live in or near both polluted and unpolluted water. Such
vectors infect humans with malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, sleeping sickness,
and filariasis. Malaria, the most widespread, is endemic in about 100 developing
countries, putting some 2 billion people at risk. In sub-Sahara Africa malaria costs
an estimated US$1.7 billion annually in treatment and lost productivity.
The incidence of water-related vector diseases appears to be increasing. There are
many reasons: people are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs; mosquitoes
are developing resistance to DDT, the major insecticide used; environmental
changes are creating new breeding sites; migration, climate change, and creation of
new habitats means that fewer people build up natural immunity to the disease; and
many malaria control programs have slowed or been abandoned.
Lack of appropriate water management, along with failure to take preventive
measures, contributes to the rising incidence of malaria, filariasis, and
onchocerciasis. Construction projects often increase the mosquito population, as
pools of stagnant water, even if they exist only briefly, become breeding grounds.
For example, in West Africa an epidemic of Rift Valley fever in 1987 has been
linked to the Senegal River Project. The project, which flooded the lower Senegal
River area, enabled the type of mosquito that carries the virus to expand so much
that the virus was transmitted to humans rather than remaining in the usual animal
hosts.
The solution to water-related vector diseases would appear to be clear eliminate
the insects that transmit the diseases. This is easier said than done, however, as
pesticides themselves may be harmful to health if they get into drinking water or
irrigation water. Also, many insects develop resistance to pesticides, and diseases
can emerge again in new forms.
Alternative techniques to control these diseases include the use of bed nets and
introducing natural predators and sterile insects. In Gujarat, India, for example, an
important part of an integrated project to control disease vectors was breeding
guppies fish that eat mosquito larvae in bodies of water, while eliminating the
use of insecticides altogether. An inexpensive approach to controlling insect vectors
involves the use of polystyrene spheres floating on the top of bodies of static water.
Because the spheres cover the surface of the water, the mosquito larvae die from
lack of air.
Another way to control the vectors is species sanitation using biological methods
and habitat management to reduce or eliminate the natural breeding grounds of the

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VII

I.

45

disease vectors. Such methods can include: filling and draining unneeded bodies of
stagnant water; covering water storage containers; eliminating mosquito breeding
sites by periodically clearing canals and reservoirs. Also, integrating education
about disease prevention into health services and encouraging community
discussion of prevention would help people to control vectors and to identify and
eliminate breeding sites which are difficult to find.

Answer the following questions by basing your answers on the information given in the
text.

1.

Explain briefly what the whole text is about.

2.

Explain in your own words how people can suffer from infectious diseases such as malaria
and dengue fever.

3.

Why have efforts to prevent the widespread of these infectious diseases failed?

4.

Explain in your own words how the Rift Valley Fever came into existence.

5.

Why is it difficult to destroy the vectors that transmit the diseases?

6.

Fill in the boxes with techniques that have been taken to control infectious diseases.

No.
a.

technique

how to perform the technique

b.

c.

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93

Reading Hard Science

d.

e.

Participation of the community

identify and eliminate breeding sites

7.

Which of the seven paragraphs can be joined together and be given one sub-title? What is
the suitable subtitle for the joined paragraphs?

8.

What are the topics of the remaining paragraphs? (Paragraphs which are not included in
the above subtitle). Give the topic for each paragraph.

II.

Say whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. In either case say why.

9.

One of the reasons why less developed countries cannot develop its economy rapidly is
because of the spread of infectious diseases.

10.

People living near unpolluted water are likely to be protected from any infectious disease
because vectors, the disease transmitters, cannot grow in such waters.

11.

The availability of construction projects may endanger people living in its surroundings
because considerable supply of fresh water is used by the projects.

12.

Controlling the spread of infectious diseases includes conducting health service trainings
for the community.

III.

What do the following words/phrases refer back to?


a. such vectors in line 9/10 refers to ..
b. they in line 23 refers to
c. this in line 30 refers to
d. they in line 31 refers to .
e. these diseases in line 34 refers to

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IV.

Match the words in column A with the synonyms or meanings in column B, and fill
in the blanks with the chosen letters.
A

V.

_______

substantially (line 4)

a.

Stopped

_______

endemic (line 11)

b.

not move or flow

_______

sites (line 17)

c.

natural home of animal

_______

abandoned (line 19)

d.

Considerably

_______

incidence (line 21)

e.

Arise

_______

stagnant (line 23)

f.

animals that kill or eat others

_______

emerge (line 33)

g.

_______

predators (line 35)

h.

_______

habitat (line 43)

i.

_______

draining (line 44)

j.

a place (where something important


happens)
flowing the water away from
something
disease always present among a
particular group of people
occurrence, bad event

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following list:
thirst

approaches

scarcity

risk

growing

current

source

faster

however

survive

Freshwater is emerging as one of the most critical natural resource issues facing
humanity. As the year 2050 ____________________ , the worlds population is
expanding rapidly. Yet there is no more freshwater on earth now than there was 2,000
years ago, when the population was less than 3% of its ____________________ size.
Water is, literally, the source of life on earth. The human body is 70% water. People
begin to feel ____________________ after a loss of only 1% of bodily fluids and

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____________________ death if fluid loss nears 10%. Human beings can


____________________ for only a few days without freshwater. Yet, in a
____________________ number of places people are withdrawing water from rivers,
lakes, and underground sources ____________________ than they can be recharged
unsustainably mining what was once a renewable resource, as one researcher puts it.
Currently, 31 countries mostly in Africa and the Near East face water stress or water
____________________ .

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REVIEWING:

1.

BASIC GRAMMAR

2.

TENSES

3.

ACTIVEPASSIVE

4.

TYPES OF SENTENCES

5.

ADVERB CLAUSE

6.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

7.

REDUCED CLAUSE

8.

NOUN CLAUSE

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Read each statement about learning English grammar.


Circle the number that describes your best

1 = never

2 = rarely

3 = sometimes

4 = often

5 = always

1. I study grammar books and memorize the rules.

2. I read newspapers, watch TV and movies, and listen to songs.

3. I use English as much as possible to practice the grammar I


know
4. I observe native speakers in different situations and notice
what they say and do.
5. When I dont know how to say something perfectly, I dont
say anything at all.
6. I dont worry about making mistakes because I learn from
them.
7. I learn better when I work in groups with my classmates.

8. When a teacher uses words I dont understand, I ask for help.

9. When I dont know how to say something, I try to say it


another way.
10. I think of grammar rules when I speak.

Now compare your answers with another student. Do you like to learn English grammar in the same way? In what ways
are you similar, and in what ways are you different?
Use the chart below to write down your similarities and differences.

Similarities

Differences

Use the chart to tell the rest of the class how you and your partner learn English grammar.

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REVIEWING BASIC GRAMMAR


I.

Subjects, verbs, and objects


s
v
(a) Birds fly.
(noun) (verb)

Almost all English sentences contain a subject (s) and a verb (v).
The verb may or may not be followed by an object (o).
Verbs: verbs that are not followed by an object, as in (a) and (b),
are called intransitive verbs. Common intransitive verbs:
agree, arrive, come, cry, exist, go, happen, live, occur, rain,
rise, sleep, stay, walk.
Verbs that are followed by an object, as in and (d), are called
transitive verbs. Common transitive verbs: build, cut, find, like,
make, need, send, use, wan.
Some verbs can be either intransitive or transitive.
intransitive: a student studies.
transitive: a student studies books.

s
v
(b) The baby cried.
(noun)
(verb)

s
v
o
(c) The student needs a pen.
(noun) (verb) (noun)

s
v
o
(d) My friend enjoyed the party.
(noun) (verb) (noun)

Subjects and Objects: The subjects and objects of verbs are nouns
(or pronouns). Examples of nouns: person, place, thing, John, Asia,
pen, information, appearance, amusement, failure.

Exercise 1: Find the subject (S), verbs (V) and objects (O) in the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Scientists use logics in their works.


Scientific use of logics works well here.
She managed to surprise me by her sharp remark.
To my surprise, she managed to remark sharply.
Chinese products have swarmed Indonesian mobile phone market.
A Chinese products the best anti-virus program recently.

II. The verb be


(a) John is a student.
(be) (noun)
(b) John

A sentence with be as the main verb has three basic patterns:

is
smart.
(be) (adjective)

In (a)be + a noun
In (b)be + an adjective
In (c)be + a prepositional phrase

(c) John was at the library.


(be) (prep. Phrase)
(d) Mary is writing a letter.
(e) They were listening to some music.
(f) That letter was written by Alice.

Singular
Plural

be is also used as an auxiliary verb in progressive verb tenses and


in the passive.
In (d) is = auxiliary; writing = main verb
Tense forms of be
Simple present
Simple past
Present perfect
I am
I was
I have been
You are
You were
You have been
He, she, it is
He, she, it was
He, she, it has been
we, you, they are
We, you, they, were

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III. Adjectives

(a) Mary is an intelligent student


(b) The hungry children ate fruit.

Adjectives describe nouns. In grammar, we say that adjectives


modify nouns. The word modify means change a little.
Adjectives give a llitle different meaning to a non: intelligen,
student, lazy student, good student. Examples of adjectives: young,
old, rich, poor, beautiful, red, French, modern).

(c) I was some beautiful pictures.


INCORECT: beautifuls pictures

An adjective is neither singular nor plural. A final s is never


added to an adjective.

IV. Adverbs

(a) He walks quickly.


(ADVERB)
(b) She opened the door quietly.
(ADVERB)

Adverbs modify verbs. Often they answer the question How?


In (a): How does he walk? Answer: Quickly.
Adverbs are often formed by adding ly to an adjective.
adjective: quick
adverb: quickly

(c) I am extremely
happy
(ADVERB) (ADJECTIVE)

Adverbs are also used to modify adjectives, i.e., to give


information about adjectives, as in (c).

(d) Ann will com

tomorrow.
(ADVERB)

Adverbs are also used to express time or frequency. Examples:


tomorrow, today, yesterday, soon, never, usually, always, yet.

MIDSENTENCE ADVERBS
(e) Ann always comes on time.
(f) Ann is always on time.
(g) Ann has always come on time.

Some adverbs may occur in the middle of a sentence. Midsentence


adverbs have usual positions; they
(1) come in front of simple present and simple past verbs
(except be), as in (e)
(2) follow be (simple present and simple past), as in (f);
(3) come between a helping verb and a main verb, as in (g).
In a question, a midsentence adverb comes directly after the
subject, as in (h).

(h) Does she always come on time?

COMMON MIDSENTENCE ADVERBS


Ever, always, usually, often, frequently, generally, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely,
Hardly ever, never, not ever, already, finally, just, probably

Exercise 2: Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) in parentheses.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

100

George is a (careless, carelessly) writer. He writes (careless, carelessly).


Frank asked me an (easy, easily) question. I answered it (easy, easily).
Sally speaks (soft, softly). She has a (soft, softly) voice.
I entered the classroom (quiet, quietly) because I was late.
Ali speaks English very (good, well). He has very (good, well) pronunciation.

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Exercise
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs given in the brackets.

1. A student who (suffer) ______________ from test anxiety (tend) ___________ to worry about
success in school, especially doing well on tests.
2. Electronic engineers (currently, investigate) _________________ the feasibility of threedimensional television.
3. The Nobel Prize (award) __________________ to over 500 scientists.
4. The issue of a second raise in the price of oil (fiercely, be opposed) _______________ before it
(officially, be executed) ______________.
5. Inflation (cause) ______________ commodity prices to rise which (have) _____________ in turn a
bad effect on the life of people many of whose income (be) _____________ not likely to cope with
these rising prices.
6. When the U.S World Trade Center (suddenly, be attacked) ________________ by terrorists,
hundreds of people (work) ______________ as usual in their offices so that they (be trapped)
______________ inside the building.
7. The role of blood clots in heart attack (not, yet, determine) _________________. But since a clot
(block) __________________ blood flow to a part of the heart muscle, thereby killing it, researchers
hope that removing a clot within the first hour will (resupply) ________________ the area with
blood.
8. Paleontologists (discover) ______________ what they (believe) ______________ to be oldest form
of life on earth. Life, in the form of bacterial cells, (exist) _________________ 3.5 billion years ago,
only one billion years after the earth (form) ___________________. The fossilized bacteria
(discover) __________________ by examining old sedimentary rocks in Australia. About five
different forms of bacteria (identify) __________________ that are almost identical to their modern
day cousins. The discovery (push) _____________ back the origin of life 1.2 billion years earlier
than (previously think) __________________.

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REVIEW OF TENSES
In the following passage, a journalist describes virtual reality (VR) and her experience with it at Cyberthon, a
twenty-four-hour marathon computer demonstration.
Underline the progressive verbs. Then discuss why the writer uses them in the first paragraph and why she
shifts from simple pas tense verbs to past progressive verbs in the second and third paragraph.
(1)

Some architects are using VR (also called cyberspace, a term coined by writer William Gibson,
who dreamed up VR in his novel Neuromance) to show clients what structure will look like before its built.
(2)
Doctors are using it to practice surgery without making a single cut. (3) And of course, NASA and the
Defense Department (which hope to replace jet pilots with VR screens) have been followingand funding
VR since its inception.
(4)
I waited in line impatiently for my turn at the Cyberhood, which focuses your eyes on a computergenerated 3-D image; you manipulate yourself, or fly, by gripping a ball to the left of the machine. (5) The
ball, Sense8* President Eric Gullichsen kept repeating to the users, is like your head; think of it as your head.
(6)
The trouble with this notion is that most people dont yank, twist, twirl, and push their heads, so most
people were having trouble with the image: They were flipping it upside down, pulling their head back so far
that the image became tiny and distant, hitting the floor with their wide-open eyeballs.
(7)
The man in front of me, a shortish, plump guy in a blue shirt and jeans, was muttering to himself
as he yanked his head. Finally he gave in and straightened up. (8) He turned out to be Robin Williams,
**but no one paid much attention in this crowdthe machine were the celebrities.
*Sense8 is a virtual reality company.
**A well-known American comedian and actor.

Exercise 1
Decide whether a simple tense or progressive tense is appropriate for each blank and give the correct
form of the verb in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.
1. Andre (a) (come) comes form Brazil and (b) (be) ____________ a native speaker of Portuguese.
Currently he (c) (study) _______________ English at the University of Colorado. He (d) (take)
______________ tow courses: composition and American culture.
2. One of my most important in-groups (a) (be) _____________ my church group. Right now we (b)
(provide) ___________________ lunches for homeless people in the city park. Also, some of us (c)
(tutor) _______________ junior high students in math and English for the summer. Others in my
group (d) (spend) ____________ part of the summer doing volunteer work at senior citizen centers.
We all (e) (feel) _______________ that we (f) (gain) ___________ a great deal ourselves by
participating in these activities.
3. Next summer our family (a) (have) _____________ a reunion during the July 4th holiday weekend.
My uncle from Finland (b) (try) _____________ to come, but he (c) (start) _____________ a new
business this year so it (d) (be) _____________ difficult for him to get away. Another uncle (e)
(spend) _______________ the whole summer with us. He (f) (work) ______________ at my
mothers travel agency from June through August.

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4. For many immigrants to the United States, their ethic associations (a) (remain) ______________
important in-groups long after they have left their home countries. Even while they (b) (learn)
________________ a new language, many (c) (look to) ______________ speakers of their native
language as an in-group that (d) (understand) ______________ their struggles to adapt to a new way
of life.

Exercise 2
Underline the present perfect and past perfect verbs in the following passages. Explain what information
is expressed by the perceptive aspect for these verbs. What uses listed in Focus 3 are expressed? (A
perfect verb can convey more than one kind of information). The first has been done as an example.
Example:

1.

1. (d) had seen, heard, learned past perfect


Information: describe events that happen before the moment of focus (Fatt Hing at
the age of nineteen) and that are relevant to the moment of focus.

(a) By 1851, in a matter of three years, there were 25,000 Chinese in California. (b) Fatt Hing was one of these
25,000. (c) His story is typical of the pioneer Chinese, many who came with him and many who came after
him. (d) As a lad of nineteen, Fatt Hing had already seen and heard and learned more about the world than
most of the men in his village, who had seldom set foot beyond the nearest town square. (e) For Fatt Hing was
a fish peddler who went frequently from Toishan to Kwanghai on the coast to buy his fish to sell at the market.
(f) Down by the whavers, where the fishing boats came in, Fatt Hing had often seen foreign ships with their
sails fluttering in the wind. (g) He had seen hairy white men on the decks, and he had often wondered and
dreamed about the land they came from.

2.

(a) The dog has gout more fun out of Man than Man has got out of the dog, for the clearly demonstrable reason
that Man is more laughable of the two animals. (b) The dog has long been bemused by the singular activities
and the curious practices of men, cooking his head inquiringly to one side, intently watching and listening to
the strangest goings-on in the world. (c) He has seen men sing together and fight one another in the same
evening. (d) He has watched them go to bed when it is time to get up, and get up when it is time to go bed. (e)
He has observed them destroying the soil areas, and nurturing it in small patches. (f) He has stood by while
men built strong and solid houses for rest and quiet, and then filled them with lights and bells and machinery.

From James Thurber, Thurbers Dogs, A collection of the Masters Dogs, Written and Drawn, Real and Imaginary, Living and Long Ago, New York,
Simon and Schuster, 1955.

Exercise 3
For each blank below, choose a simple present, present perfect, or present perfect progressive verb.
The first one has been done for you.
(1) Alfredo (join)

joined the Friends of the Theatre in his community five years ago and (be)

______________ an active participant in this group ever since. (2) It (remain) _______________one of
his favourite spare time activities even though he (stop ____________ trying out for roles in the plays last
year because he (be) __________________ too busy. (3) As a member, he (help) ________________
promote the plays. (4) At times, he (look for) ______________________ costumes for the actors. (5) For
last months play, he (work) _________________ with the props crew to get furniture and other props for

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Structure

the stage sets. (6) He (find) ________________ an antique desk to use for one of the sets, and he also
(make) _________________ a fireplace. (7) Most recently, he (try) ________________ to get more
business to advertise in the playbills.

Exercise 4
Choose simple present, present progressive, present perfect, or present perfect progressive for each
blank. More than one answer could be correct; be prepared to explain your choices. The first one has
been done for you.
(1) Ines (consider)

considers her neighborhood in East Lost Angeles to be one of her most important

in-groups. (2) She (live) __________________ in this neighborhood since birth, and she (know)
_________________ almost everyone in it. (3) Most of the people in the neighborhood (be)
__________________ from Mexico, but some (be) ________________ from Central American countries.
(4) Mr. Hernandez, who (live) ________________ next door to Ines, always (insist) ________________
that he (live) ______________ the longest time in the neighborhood. (5) However, Mrs. Chavez, whom
everyone (call) ____________________ Tia, usually (tell) _____________ him to stop spreading tales.
(6) Mrs. Chavez (claim) _____________ that she (be) _______________ around longer than anyone. (7)
Ines (watch) _______________ many of the children younger than herself grow up, an she often (think)
_____________, that is. (8) Just as her older neighbors (do) ___________ for her, she now (help)
________________ her younger neighbors keep out of trouble and (give) _____________ them advice.

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Structure

Exercise
Change the following sentences from active to passive.

1. Beavers use trees to build dams.


__________________________________________________________________
2. The supervisor ignored the employees request for a raise in salary.
__________________________________________________________________
3. The students have taken two quizzes since the beginning of this term.
__________________________________________________________________
4. The office manager will make an announcement about sick leave next week.
__________________________________________________________________
5. The patient must send the medical insurance forms to the insurance company.
__________________________________________________________________
6. People check the machinery five times before they put it in a box for shipping.
__________________________________________________________________
7. The school gave scholarships to many students from low-income families.
__________________________________________________________________
8. Hey! The police are towing your car!
__________________________________________________________________
9. The museum gave the old book to the university.
__________________________________________________________________
10. Someone is going to cut down the weeds on the hill tomorrow.
__________________________________________________________________

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Add the correct form of the passive auxiliary be to the following sentences.
1. Aluminum __________________ produced from bauxite.
2. The first locomotives _____________________ powered by steam.
3. Hundreds of people ____________________ killed because of storms this winter.
4. A lot of coffee ________________ grown in South America.
5. The solar system __________________ formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago.
6. The brain chemical that regulates growth _______________ recently synthesized.
7. The next space module _______________ sent to Venus.
8. The pores in a leaf ___________________ called stomata.
9. Microcomputers ________________ used more and more in the future.
10. A pound of potatoes _______________ needed for the experiment.

REVIEW OF ACTIVEPASSIVE
Read this excerpt from an introductory sociology textbook. Choose one paragraph, and underline all the
passive constructions that you find. With a partner, decide why the author chose to use passive constructions.
CHAPTER 3: SOCIAL MINORITIES AND DISCRIMINATION
INTRODUCTION
(1)
In most societies, certain social minorities are sometimes discriminated against by
society as a whole. (2) Discrimination may occur because of a groups race, religion, ethnic or
cultural background, sexual preference, or even the language that they speak in their homes.
(3)
Such groups are sometimes denied basic rights, legal protections, or access to the same
facilities as the general public. (4) In many societies, discrimination is slowly being
eliminatedat least in terms of legal and governmental policies. (5) But these have not come
quick and easily.
(6)
The United States, for example, has made a great deal of progress in eliminating
discrimination against some of its social minorities. (7) As recently as the 1950s blacks and
whites are not allowed to get married in many southern states. (8) They were forced to
separate drinking fountains, rest rooms, and even schools and libraries. (9) However, as a
result of active protest and political demonstration such as discriminatory laws are changed,
and segregation based on race is no longer permitted.
(10
) But other groups have been less successful. (11) Women have made many gains in
American society, but they are still paid less than men for the same kinds of work. (12) Gay
people still face enormous legal and social discrimination. (13) They are not allowed to serve
in the army or join organization like the Boy Scouts; in many states they can be fired from
their jobs if employers learn of their sexual orientation. (14) They do not have the same kind
of legal protection for family relationships and property that the rest of the society takes for
granted. (15) Courts may take children away from homosexual parents, or deny inheritance
rights to lifelong partners when one partner dies.
(16)
Conditions for all minorities in the United States seem to be improving although it
will be a long time before social attitudes catch up with the progress that has been made in
legal protections.

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Exercise 1
Decide whether active or passive forms should be used in these sentences, and write the correct form in the
blank. There are more than one correct choice.
The age of pyramid building in Egypt (1) ___________________ (begin) about 2900 B.C. The Great
pyramids (2) _________________ (intend) to serve as burial places for the Pharaohs, as the kings of Egypt
(3) ___________________(call). Construction on the largest pyramid (4) ___________________ (start)
around 2800 B.C. for Khufu, the King of the Fourth Dynasty, or Cheops, as he _______________________
(refer to) by Greek historians. It (6) ___________ (be) 482 feet high and 755 feet long. The Pyramids as a
group (7) _______________ (comprise) one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The other Six
Wonders no longer (8) _________________ (stand), and modern archaeologists (9) __________________
(know) of them only through the descriptions that (10) __________________ (write) at the time they still
(11) ___________________ (exist).

Exercise 2
Change the following active sentences into passive.

1.

The World Bank provides easy loans to developing countries in need of funds for economic
development.

2.

Producers have to improve the quality of goods for exports in order to penetrate increasingly
competitive world markets.

3.

Bank Prima has to provide a larger parking site for the growing number of customers.

4.

The value of textile exports dropped significantly last year because certain buying countries had
implemented quota systems.

5.

The government officials are examining the project proposals before they select a particular
contractor.

6.

We need to manage companies professionally as poor management may create big problems.

7.

The Indonesian Hotel Association has developed a new, advance reservation system to accommodate
the increasing number of tourists, and the hotel will implement it early next year.

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8.

Our company is intensifying quality control to meet increasingly tough competition in the global
market.

9.

Some rivers are badly polluted because the government has not taken strict measures against
factories dumping unprocessed wastes into rivers.

10.

Last year Australia and Indonesia signed a memorandum of cooperation after they recorded 59 cases
related to violations of air traffic regulation.

11.

The Senior researcher has to make a slight adjustment to the data before the computer can process
them.

12.

The managers are analyzing all of the data before they can submit a proposal for business expansion.

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Structure

TYPES OF SENTENCES
Good writing requires a mixture of all four kinds of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compoundcomplex. A composition with only short, simple sentences is boring and ineffective, as is writing that uses
too many compound sentences. Writing with complex sentences and participial phrases, structures that use
subordination, is generally considered more mature, interesting, and effective in style.
Before we compare two models of writing to see the differences, let us first review these different types of

sentences.
Clauses
Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause is a group of words that contains (at least) a subject
and a verb.
These are clauses:

These are not clauses:

Ecology is a science
because pollution causes cancer

to protect the environment


after working all day

There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent.


An independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. It can stand alone as
a sentence by itself. An independent clause is formed with subject + verb (+ complement), e.g. Students
normally spend four years in college. Now give your own example:

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

A dependent clause begins with a subordinator such as when, if, that, or who. A dependent clause does not
express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence by itself. A dependent clause is formed with
subordinator + subject + verb (+ complement), e.g. although students normally spend four years in
college. Now give your own example:

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

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Structure

Three groups of words are used to connect sentences in order to form different kinds of sentences. They are
subordinators (subordinating conjunctions), coordinators (coordinating conjunctions), and conjunctive
adverbs.

Subordinators (Subordinating Conjunctions)


after
although
as
as if
as soon as
because

Before
even though
how
if
since
so that

that
though
unless
until
what

when
whenever
where
wherever
whether

which
while
who
whom
whose

Coordinators (Coordinating Conjunctions)


You can remember the seven coordinators by the phrase FAN BOYS
for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

Conjunctive Adverbs
Accordingly
besides
consequently
for example

furthermore
hence
however
in addition

in contrast
indeed
instead
likewise

meanwhile
moreover
nevertheless
nonetheless

on the other hand


otherwise
therefore
thus

Kinds of Sentences
A sentence is a group of words that you use to communicate your ideas. Every sentence is formed from one
or more clauses and expresses a complete thought.
There are basically four kinds of sentences in English: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.
The kind of sentence is determined by the kind of clauses used to form it.
Simple sentence
A simple sentence is one independent clause, e.g. I enjoy playing tennis with my friends every weekend.
Compound sentence
A compound sentence is two or more independent clauses joined together. There are three ways to join
clauses.
1. with a coordinator

I enjoy tennis, but I hate golf.

2. with a conjunctive adverb

I enjoy tennis; however, I hate golf.

3. with a semicolon

I enjoy tennis; I hate golf.

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Structure

Compound sentences with coordinators


This compound sentence is formed as follows: independent clause, + coordinator + independent clause. The
following chart shows coordinators with their meanings.
for
and
nor
but
or
yet
so

Women live longer than men, for they take better care of their health.
(The second clause gives us the reason for the first clause.)
Women follow more healthful diets, and they go to doctors more often.
(The two clauses express equal, similar ideas.)
Women dont smoke as much as men do, nor do they drink as much alcohol. (Nor means and
not. It joins two negative independent clauses. Notice that question word order is used after
nor.)
Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do. (The to
clauses express equal, contrasting ideas.)
Both men and women should limit the amount of fat in their diets, or they risk getting heart
disease. (The two clauses express alternative possibilities.)
Women used to be known as the weaker sex, yet in some ways, they are stronger than men.
(The second clause is a surprising or unexpected contrast to the first clause.)
Men are less cautious than women, so more men die in accidents. (The second clause is the
result of the first clause.)

For each pair of sentences below, choose a coordinator that best fits the meaning and join the two
independent clauses to form a compound sentence. Punctuate them correctly.
1. Nuclear accidents can happen. Nuclear power plants must have strict safety controls.
2. Solar heating systems are economical to operate. The cost of installation is very high.
3. Ecologists know that burning fossil fuels causes holes in the ozone layer. People continue to do it.

Compound sentences with conjunctive adverbs


This compound sentence is formed as follows: independent clause; + conjunctive adverb, + independent
clause, e.g. Amir studied hard last night; therefore, he did the test easily this morning. The following chart
shows the coordinators and conjunctive adverbs that express similar things.

Coordinators
and

but
yet
or
so

Conjunctive Adverbs
besides
furthermore
moreover
also
however
nevertheless
nonetheless
otherwise
accordingly
consequently
hence
therefore
thus

Sentence
Community colleges offer preparation for many
occupations; moreover, they prepare students to
transfer to a four-year college or university.
Many community colleges do not have dormitories;
however, they provide housing referral services.
Students must take final exams; otherwise, they will
receive a grade of incomplete.
Native and nonnative English speakers have different
needs; therefore, most schools provide separate
English classes for each group.

Combine the sentences (1-3) above, using conjunctive adverbs instead of coordinators. Punctuate your new
sentences correctly.

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Structure

Compound sentences with semicolons


This compound sentence is formed with a semicolon alone: independent clause; independent clause, e.g. My
elder brother studies law; my younger brother studies medicine.
This kind of compound sentence is possible only when the two independent clauses are closely related in
meaning. If they arent closely related, they should be written as two simple sentences, each ending with a
period.
Place a semicolon between the two independent clauses in the following compound sentences.
1. The American way of life apparently does not foster marital happiness half of all American
marriages end in divorce.
2. Motherhood causes some women to quit their jobs others continue working despite having young
children to care for.
3. Three hundred guests attended his wedding two attended his funeral.
Use what you have learnt about forming compound sentences to improve the following mini-essay, which
contains many short, simple sentences. Combine sentences wherever possible. Try to use each of the three
methods at least once. There is not just one correct way to combine the sentences; there are many possible
ways.

Robots
1

A robot is a mechanical device that can perform boring, dangerous, and difficult tasks. 2First of all,
robots can perform repetitive tasks without becoming tired or bored. 3They are used in automobile factories
to weld and paint. 4Robots can also function in hostile environments. 5They are useful for exploring the
ocean bottom as well as deep outer space. 6Finally, robots can perform tasks requiring pinpoint accuracy. 7In
the operating room, robotic equipment can assist the surgeon. 8For instance, a robot can kill a brain tumor. 9It
can operate on a fetus with great precision.
10
The field of artificial intelligence is giving robots a limited ability to think and to make decisions.
11
However, robots cannot think conceptually. 12Robots cannot function independently. 13Humans have to
program them. 14They are useless. (Use otherwise to combine sentence 13 and 14.) 15Therefore, humans
should not worry that robots will take over the worldat least not yet.
Exercise
This paragraph has no grammar mistakes, but the writing style is poor. Combine sentences whenever you
think doing so will improve the style, but be careful not to overconnect. You can choose from the following
words, but try not to use any word more than once. Punctuate correctly.

Coordinating
Conjunctions

Conjunctive
Adverbs

and
where
but
so
for
nor
or
yet

however
moreover
otherwise
nevertheless
furthermore
therefore
then
still

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Subordinating Conjunctions
when
while
whenever
as soon as
before
after
since
sothat

wherever
because
so that
as if
if
unless
although
even though

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Structure

Coordinating
Conjunctions

Conjunctive
Adverbs
also
on the other hand
besides
thus
in fact
as a result

Subordinating Conjunctions
as
until

In spite of
the fact that

Not every culture in the world eats every kind of meat. Nearly everybody enjoys chicken. One of the
most famous names in chicken is Kentucky Fried Chicken. The man who started this business was not
always a wealthy man. At one time, he owned a small gas station next to a main highway. Many truck
drivers stopped at his gas station. They wanted to get gas and rest. Many of the drivers had been driving for
many hours. They were hungry. Mr. Sanders realized they were hungry. He began serving sandwiches and
coffee. He served only sandwiches and coffee. The sandwiches were good. The sandwiches didnt cost
much. More and more drivers began to eat at his place. Mr. Sanders began serving chicken.
The drivers had eaten it. They told their friends. His new business grew rapidly. It did not last long.
The highway department builds a new main highway. Much of the traffic bypassed Mr. Sanders station and
restaurant. He had to close the restaurant. This happened. He was sixty-five years old. He knew his recipe for
fried chicken was good. He went around the country trying to sell his idea of opening small restaurants that
would specialize in fried chicken. By 1967, there were almost five thousand Kentucky Fried Chicken
restaurants. You go anywhere in the United States. You will see one. You like fried chicken. You will enjoy
colonels chicken. Colonel Sanders died in 1980. His name will live on.

Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clause(s). In a complex
sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other one. The more important idea is placed in the
independent clause, and the less important idea is placed in the dependent clause.
There are three kinds of dependent clauses: adverb, adjective, and noun. The following chart presents an
overview of them.

Adverb Clauses
A dependent adverb clause begins with an adverbial subordinator such as when, while, because, although,
if, so that, etc.
1. Although women in the United States could own property, they could not vote until 1920.
2. In the United States, women could not vote until 1920 although they could own property.
Notice that there are two possible positions for an adverb clause: before or after the independent clause. If
it comes before the independent clause, it is followed by a comma (sentence 1). If it comes after the
independent clause, no comma is used (sentence 2).

Adjective Clauses
A dependent adjective (relative) clause begins with a relative pronoun such as who, whom, which, whose,
or that, or with a relative adverb such as where or when. An adjective clause functions as an adjective; that
is, it modifies a noun or pronoun. The position and punctuation of dependent adjective clauses will be
discussed in details.

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Structure

3. Men who are not married are called bachelors.


4. Last year we vacationed on the Red Sea, which features excellent scuba diving.

Noun Clauses
A dependent noun clause function as a noun and begins with a wh-question word, that, whether, or
sometimes if. A dependent noun clause can either a subject (sentence 5) or an object (sentence 6). No
commas are necessary.
5. That there is a hole in the ozone layer of the earths atmosphere is well known
6. Scientists believe that excess chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere are responsible for creating
it..

Exercise 1
a. Underline the independent clause of each sentence with a solid line.
b. Underline the dependent clause with a broken line.
c. Circle the subordinator.

1. Because the cost of education is rising, many students must work part-time.
2. Last year, the government reported that drug use is increasing.
3. Doctors are concerned about drug use by young people, who think that smoking marijuana is riskfree.

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Structure

REVIEW OF ADVERB CLAUSE


Read a text about Albert Einstein and summarize it by completing the sentences.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)


In his early years, Einstein showed no obvious sign of genius.
He did not even talk until the age of three. In high school, in
Germany, he hated the system of rote* learning and the drill sergeant*
attitude. One of his teachers remarked, You will never amount to
anything.
Yet there were also some hints* of the man to be. At five,
when he was given a compass,* he was fascinated by the mysterious
force that made the needle move. Before adolescence* Einstein went
through a very religious period, and he frequently argued violently
with his freethinking father because his father strayed* from the path
of Jewish orthodoxy* that Einstein believed in. Einstein calmed down
after he began studying science, math, and philosophy on his own. He
especially loved math. At age sixteen he devised one of his first
thought experiments. These are experiments that an individual must
do in mind; they cannot be done in a laboratory.

*rote:
drill sergeant:
rebellious:
hints:
compass:
adolescence:
strayed:
orthodoxy:

Learning by rote is memorizing without thought or understanding.


An army officer whose job is to train new soldiers.
Someone who refuses to do what others tell him or her to do.
Small signs of something that will happen.
An instrument used for finding directions.
The period of a persons life when he or she develops from child to an adult.
To have gone away from where he or she is supposed to be.
The traditional and accepted beliefs of a particular religion.

1. Until he was three years old, ____________________________________________________


2. When Einstein was in high school, _______________________________________________
3. His high school teachers in Germany didnt like him because __________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
4. In spite of the fact that his high school teachers said he would never amount to anything,
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Before he became a teenager, ___________________________________________________
6. In school, he annoyed his teachers whenever _______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
7. He treated his teachers as if _____________________________________________________

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Structure

Within a year after Einsteins fathers business failed and he moved his family to northern Ital to start a new
business, Einstein dropped out* of school and renounced* his German citizenship. He spent a year hiking in
the Apennine Mountains of Italy, where he visited relatives and toured museums
so that he could forget the bitter memories of his high school days in Germany.
He then decided to enroll in the famous Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in
Zurich. It is interesting to note that he failed the entrance exams because of
deficiencies* in botany and zoology as well as in languages. After a years study
at a Swiss high school, however, the institute admitted him. Eventually, Einstein
became a Swiss citizen.
Even at the institute of Technology, Einsteins rebellious attitude
continued. He cut* lectures, read what he wanted to read, used the schools lab
illegally, and made his teachers hate him. One of the teachers, mathematician
Hermann Minkowski, who later made valuable contributions to Einsteins new
physics, called him a lazy dog. Einstein was able to pass his two major exams
and graduate in 1900 only because he borrowed scrupulous* notes from one of
his classmates, Marcel Grossman, and crammed* for the exams.

*dropped out:
renounced:
deficiencies:
cut
scrupulous:
crammed:

Stopped going to school without finishing the program.


Gave up his citizenship formally.
Weakness or imperfections.
Stayed out of class deliberately.
Careful attention to details.
Learned as much as possible in a short time just before the exam

1. His fathers business in Germany failed, so the family moved in order that ________________
____________________________________________________________________________
2. Even though he failed the entrance test to the Institute of Technology, ___________________
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Einstein had to take courses in botany, zoology and languages before ____________________
____________________________________________________________________________
4. After he had studied for one year in the Swiss high school _____________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Although he cut most of his classes at the Institute, __________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
6. His attendance at the Institute of Technology was so poor that __________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
7. He borrowed his friends lecture notes so that _______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

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Structure

Exercise
Combine the following pairs of sentences making one of the sentence an adverbial clause. Use the
appropriate linking words.
1. The government has imposed a 40 percent tariff on imports of raw materials.
This is why Indonesian cable manufacturers are facing difficult times.

2. A lot of harmful incidents have recently happened in society.


This is because sophisticated technological devices are very vulnerable to electromagnetic devices.

3. The company needed more capital to finance the new toll-road project.
For this purpose, the company has issued bonds amounting to Rp. 1 billion.

4. Private investors in real estate are competing to build new resort areas.
This is because tourism in the Asia-Pacific region has been growing very rapidly.

5. The rate of crime in general has sharply decreased.


This is because the majority of our people are in a very bad economic condition.

6. The company has just installed facsimile machine for its offices.
Up to this time, it used courier services to send documents to its branches all over the country.

7. He moved to his new house assigned only for cabinet ministers.


Already, he has become so arrogant.

8. People in Jakarta have problems with the public transport.


The reason is that the number of vehicles is insufficient to meet the demand.

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ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
1. Introduction
Terms:

Clause: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.


Independent
Clause:
Dependent
Clause:
Adjective Clause:

An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main


subject and verb of a sentence. (It is also called a main clause.)
A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be
connected to an independent clause.
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It
describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun.
(An adjective clause is also called a relative clause.)

2. Using subject pronouns: who, which, that


I thanked the woman.
She helped me.

(a) I thanked the woman who helped me.


(b) I thanked the woman that helped me.

The book is mine.


It is on the table.

In (a): I thanked the woman = an independent clause


who helped me = an adjective clause
The adjective clause modify the noun woman.
In (a): who is the subject of the adjective clause.
In (b): that is the subject of the adjective clause.
Note: (a) and (b) have the same meaning.
who = used for people.
which = used for things.
that = used for both people and things.

(c) The book which is on the table is mine.


(d) The book that is on the table is mine.

3. Using object pronouns: who(m), which, that


1. PRONOUN USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB
The man was Mr. Jones.
I saw him.

(e) The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones.


(f) The man that
I saw was Mr. Jones.
(g) The man
I saw was Mr. Jones.
The movie wasnt very good.
We saw it last night.

(h) The movie which we saw last night wasnt very good.
(i) The movie that we saw last night wasnt very good.
(j) The movie
we saw last night wasnt very good.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Notice in the examples: The adjective


clause pronouns are placed at the
beginning of the clause. (General
guideline: Place an adjective clause
pronoun as close as possible to the noun it
modifies.)
In (e): who is usually used instead of
whom, especially in speaking. Whom is
generally used only in very formal
English.
In (g) and (j): an object pronoun is often
omitted from an adjective clause. (A
subject pronoun, however, may not be
omitted.)
who(m) = used for people
which = used for things
that
= used for both people and things

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Structure

2. PRONOUN USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION


She is the woman.
I told you about her.
(k) She is the woman about whom I told you.
(l) She is the woman
whom I told you about.
(m) She is the woman
that I told you about.
(n) She is the woman

I told you about.


The music was good.
We listened to it last night.

(o) The music to which we listened


(o) The music which we listened to
(o) The music which we listened to
(o) The music

we listened

last night was good.


last night was good.
last night was good.
last night was good.

In very formal English, the preposition


comes at the beginning of the adjective
clause, as in (k) and (o). Usually ,
however, in everyday usage, the
preposition comes after the subject and
verb of the adjective clause, as in the
other examples.

Note: If the preposition comes at the


beginning of the adjective clause, only
whom or which may be used. A
preposition is never immediately
followed by that or who.

4. Using Whose
I know the man.
His bicycle was stolen.

(s) I know the man whose bicycle was stolen


The student writes well.
I read her composition
(t) The student whose composition I read writes well.
Mr. Catt has a painting. Its value is inestimable.
(u) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable.

Whose is used to show possession. It


carries the same meaning as other
possessive pronouns used as adjectives:
his, her, its, and their. Like his, her, its,
and their, whose is connected to a noun:
his bicycle whose bicycle
her composition whose composition
Both whose and the noun it is connected
to are placed at the beginning of the
adjective clause. Whose cannot be
omitted.
Whose usually modifies people, but it
may also be used to modify things, as
in (u).

5. Using where
The building is very old.
He lives there (in that building).
(a) The building
(b) The building
The building
The building
The building

122

where he lives is very old.


in which he lives is very old.
which he lives in is very old.
that he lives in is very old.
he lives in is very old.

Where is used in an adjective clause to


modify a place (city, country, room,
house, etc.).
If where is used, a preposition is not
included in the adjective clause.
If where is not used, the preposition
must be included.

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Structure

6. Using when
Ill never forget the day.
I met you then (on that day).

(c) Ill never forget the day when


(d) Ill never forget the day on which
(e) Ill never forget the day that
(f) Ill never forget the day

I met you.
I met you.
I met you.
I met you.

When is used in an adjective clause to


modify a noun of time (year, day, time,
century, etc.)
The use of a preposition in an adjective
clause that modifies a noun of time is
somewhat different from that in other
adjective clauses: A preposition is used
preceding which, as in (d). Otherwise, the
preposition is omitted.

7. Punctuation of adjective clauses

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Structure

Exercise
Combine the following sentences so that one sentence becomes an adjective clause of the other sentence.
Provide the correct punctuation.
1. International action was needed to deal with the problems faced by exporting countries.
The principal exports of these countries were primary commodities.
2. Our new sales campaign will be launched next week. We are relying on it to acquire a larger share of the
market.
3. The company deals with the export of raw materials.
He has been working for this company since he left school.
4. Many of the workers have been relieved from their jobs.
The manager considered them lacking in capability.
5. The developing countries should make a careful planning in setting up their development programs. The
World Bank has extended a large amount of long-term loans to some of these countries.
6. The country has for the past few years made a significant increase in its foreign reserves.
Its national income depends greatly on tourism.
7. The lecturer gave the students a long explanation about the homework assignment. The explanation totally
confused them.
8. The repairs to Yantis computer were finished the same day. She was very pleased about that.
9. The constantly rising prices of raw materials have made the productivity of his textile factory decrease. He
can have no control over it.
10. The most popular manager has been promoted to one of the Directors of the bank.
Everybody praised him for being a very capable and sociable manager.
11. The psychologist talked to the woman to calm her down. Her child had been kidnapped for over a week.
12. The professor called in the students. The performance of those students was less than satisfactory.
13. Rescuers had to navigate the flooded town in rowboats. Half the town was under water.

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Structure

REDUCED CLAUSES
I. Reduction of adjective clauses to adjective phrases
An adjective phrase is a reduction of an adjective clause. It modifies a noun and it does not contain a subject
and a verb.

(a) The student who is talking to the teacher is from Bengkulu.


(b) The student talking to the teacher is from Bengkulu.
(c) The boy (whom) I saw was Tom.

The adjective clause in (a) can be reduced to


the adjective phrase in (b). Both sentences
have the same meaning.
Only adjective clauses that have a subject
pronoun: who, which, or that are reduced to
modifying adjective phrases. The adjective
clause in (c) cannot be reduced to an adjective
phrase.

There are two ways in which an adjective clause is changed to an adjective phrase:
1. The subject pronoun and the be form of the verb are omitted.
Clause: Last night Prof. Joan Kennedy gave a lecture which was on technological developments
in her country.
Phrase: Last night Prof. Joan Kennedy gave a lecture on technological developments in her
country.
2. If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to omit the subject
pronoun and change the verb to its ing form.
Clause: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.
Phrase: English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.
If the adjective clause requires commas, the adjective phrase also requires commas.
Exercise 1: Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases.
1. Dr. Stanton, who is the president of the university, will give a speech at the commencement
ceremonies.
2. The conclusion which is presented in that book states that most of the automobiles which are
produced by American industry have some defect.
3. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.
4. Pictures that showed the brutality of war entered the living rooms of millions of people in the world
on the nightly news.
5. There must exist in a modern community a sufficient number of persons who possess the technical
skill that is required to maintain the numerous devices upon which our physical comfort depend.
Exercise 2: Change the adjective phrases to adjective clauses.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He read The Old Man and the Sea, a novel written by Ernest Hemingway.
The sunlight coming through the window wakes me up early every morning.
Any student not wanting to go on the trip should inform the office.
Mercury, the nearest planet to the sun, is also the smallest of the nine planets orbiting the sun.
David Keller, a young poet known for his sensitive interpretations of human relationships, has just
published another volume of poems.

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125

Structure

II. Reduction of adverb clauses to modifying phrases


The ways in which the changes are made are the same as the ways in which adjective clauses are changed to
adjective phrases:
1. Omit the subject of the dependent clause and the be form of the verb.
(a) While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
(b) While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
2. If there is no be form of a verb, omit the subject and change the verb to ing.
(c) Before I left for work, I ate breakfast.
(d) Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
An adverb clause can be changed to a modifying phrase only when the subject of the adverb clause and the
subject of the main clause are the same.
No change possible: When the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.
Not all adverb clause can be changed to modifying phrase. Adverb clauses of time, reason and condition are
clauses that can be changed to modifying phrases.
(e) Since he entered the Institute of Technology, Budi has begun to feel confident about his future.
(f) Since entering the Institute of Technology, Budi has begun to feel confident about his future.
(g) Because he lacked the necessary qualifications, he was not considered for the job.
(h) Lacking the necessary qualifications, he was not considered for the job.
(i) Even though helium is rare on Earth, it is common in the universe.
(j) Even though rare on Earth, it is common in the universe.
Exercise 3: Change the adverb clauses to modifying phrases.

1. Because he didnt want to hurt her feelings, he didnt tell her the bad news.
2. After I read the chapter four times, I finally understood the authors theory.
3. Although they are rich, they never buy expensive things.
4. Before he became vice-president of marketing and sales, Sutarto worked as a sales representative.
5. Since he completed his Bachelors degree, he has had three jobs, each one better than the last.
Exercise 4: Discuss the meaning of the following sentences. Which ones give the meaning of because? Which
ones give the meaning of while?
1. Being a self-supporting widow with three children, she has no choice but to work.
2. Watching the childrens energetic play, I felt like an old man even though I am only forty.
3. Struggling against fatigue, I forced myself to put one foot in front of the other.
4. Having guessed at the correct answers for a good part of the test, I did not expect to get a high score.
5. Tapping his fingers loudly on the desk top, he made his impatience and dissatisfaction known.

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NOUN CLAUSES
1. Introduction
A noun is used as a subject or an object.
A noun clause is used as a subject or an object. In other words, a noun clause is used in the same ways as a noun.
(a) His story
was interesting.
(b) What he said was interesting.

In (a): story is a noun. It is used as the subject of the sentence.


In (b): what he said is a noun clause. It is used as the subject of the sentence.
The noun clause has its own subject (he) and verb (said).

(c) I heard his story.


(d) I heard what he said.

In (c): story is a noun. It is used as the object of the verb heard.


In (d): what he said is a noun clause. It is used as the object of the verb heard.

WORD USED TO INTRODUCE NOUN CLAUSES


(1) question words
when who where whom
why what which whose
how

(2) whether, if

(3) that

2. Noun clauses begins with a question word


QUESTION
Where does she live?
What did he say?
When do they arrive?

NOUN CLAUSE
(a) I dont know where she lives.
(b) I couldnt hear what he said.
(c) Do you know when they arrive?

In (a): where she lives is the object of the verb


know. Do not use question word order in a noun
clause. In a noun clause, the subject precedes the
verb.
Notice: does, did, and do are used in questions
but not in noun clauses.

s
v
Who lives there?
What happened?
Who is at the door?*

s
v
(d) I dont know who lives there.
(e) Please tell me what happened.
(f) I wonder
who is at the door

in (d), (e) & (f): The word order is the same in


both the question and the noun clause because
who and what are the subject in both.

v s
Who is she?
Who are those men?*
Whose house is that?

s v
(g) I dont know who she is.
(h) I dont know who those men are.
(i) I wonder whose house that is

In (g): she is the subject of the question, so it is


placed in front of the verb be in the noun clause.

What did she say?


What should they do?

(j) What she said surprised me.


(k) What they should do is obvious.

In (j): what she said is the subject of the


sentence. Notice in (k): A noun clause subject
takes a singular verb (e.g., is).

*COMPARE: Who is at the door? = who is the subject of the question.


Who are those men? = those men is the subject of the question, so be is plural.

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3. Noun clauses which begin with whether or if


YES/NO QUESTION
Will she come?
Does he need help?

NOUN CLAUSE
(a) I dont know whether she will come.
I dont know if she will come.
(b) I wonder whether he needs help.
I wonder if he needs help.
(c) I wonder whether of not she will come.
(d) I wonder whether she will come or not.
(e) I wonder if she will come or not.

When a yes/no question is


changed to a noun clause, whether
or if is used to introduce the
clause.
(Note: whether is more acceptable
in formal English, but if is quite
commonly used, especially in
speaking.)
In (c), (d), and (e): Notice the
patterns when or not is used.

(f) Whether she comes or not is


unimportant to me.

In (f): Notice that the noun clause


is in the subject position.

4. Noun clauses which begin with that


STATEMENT
NOUN CLAUSE
(Expression of an idea or fact)
He is a good actor.
(a) I think that he is a good actor.
(b) I think he is a good actor.
The world is round
(c) We know (that) the world is round.

In (a): that he is a good actor is a


noun clause. It is used as the
object of the verb think.
The word that, when it introduces
a noun clause, has no meaning in
itself. It simply marks the
beginning of the clause.
Frequently it is omitted, as in (b),
especially in speaking. (If used in
speaking, it is unstressed.)

She doesnt understand


spoken English.

In (d): The noun clause (That she


doesnt understand spoken
English) is used as the subject of
the sentence. The word that is not
omitted when it introduces a noun
clause used as the subject of a
sentence, as in (d) and (f).
More commonly, the word it
functions as the subject, and the
noun clause is placed at the end of
the sentence, as in (e) and (g).

(d) That she doesnt understand spoken


English is obvious.
(e) It is obvious (that) she doesnt understand spoken English.
(g) It is a fact that the world is round.

Exercise 1: Combine the two sentences making one sentence into a noun clause.
1.

This is necessary.
More money should be allocated for research.

2.

This is vital
The environment should not be damaged for the sake of commercial gains.
Businessmen were wondering about this
Will the government take other drastic steps to stabilize the economy?

3.

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4.

He told us this
Excess production of a commodity will lead to a glut on the market.

5.

I would like to know this


Has the committee made up the budget for the new project?

6.

The tourist wanted to know this


Where is the nearest shopping center, and can I get good batik there?

7.

The police were trying to find out about this.


Why didnt the alarm system work when the burglars got into the building?

8.

The professor demanded this.


The papers that scored D should be rewritten before the end of the term.

9.

The Manager requested this.


The present supervisor should be replaced because his performance is unsatisfactory.

10.

My academic supervisor pointed this out.


I should pass all the prerequisite subjects with good grades.

Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with a noun clause.

11. The buses are so crowded in the morning.


I wish________________________________________________________________

12. The employees are complaining about the bad working conditions.
I hope ________________________________________________________________

13. I have to work overtime quite often in my new job.


I wish ________________________________________________________________

14. It takes such a long time to get to the new airport.


I wish ________________________________________________________________

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Structure

CLAUSE REVIEW
I.

Adjective Clause
Combine the following pairs of sentences making the second sentence of each pair an
adjective clause.
1. OPEC countries use their oil resources to develop their economies and gain political strength.
They now control the production of price oil in the world.

2. Many companies have a special budget for market research to discover trends among consumers.
The taste and demands of consumers change rapidly.

3. The twin lady doctors are famous for their charity for the street children.
Their needs for education are often neglected.

4. Abu Dhabi is investing billions in oil and gas profits to turn itself into the worlds leader in
renewable energy.
Scientists are hired to develop solar power plants as an alternative energy source there.

5. Babies brains have trillions of neurons.


Some of the neurons have already formed circuits that regulate breathing.

II.

Adverb Clause
Combine the following pairs of sentences by using appropriate conjunction indicated
in brackets.
1. University fresh graduates complain about the lack of job opportunities in the country.
Companies complain about the lack of university graduates with good quality. (contrast)
2. In the early 17th century, the century became a European peasant favorite.
Not only did it yield four times more calories per acre than grain, it also, as an underground crop,
was less likely to be looted by armies living off the land in the war times. (reason)

3. Many food allergies will not develop.


The foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months.
(condition)

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4. The demand for electricity power throughout the island of Java is increasing very high.
PLN has to install a new power station in Jakarta. (result)

5. The policeman was rushed to the hospital.


He had been stabbed in the park. (time)

III.

Noun Clause
Combine the following pairs of sentences.

1. The office manager will explain this to the new secretary.


Where should she work and what should she do?

2. I cant decide this.


Should I buy a brand new laptop or a used one?

3. The president of the company is considering this.


Does he have to hire a new financial manager?

4. The city has forbid this.


Garbage is dumped in the river.

5. Many environmentalists fear this.


The earth will run out essential natural resources before the end of the twenty first century.

IV.

Combining Sentences
Combine the following sentences using the appropriate coordinators or subordinators.
1. Sound must have some material to pass through. It can not travel through a vacuum.

2. Life expectancy in Japan is now over 80. It is several years lower in the UK.

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Structure

3. There were no laws to protect dodo birds. Dodo birds became extinct.

4. The first typewriter was invented in 1714 by Henry Mill. The first typewriter was not very practical.
Henry Mill lived in England.

5. The Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. The Taj Mahal immortalizes the
love of the emperor Shah Jehan for his favorite wife.

6. Television programs change frequently in the United States. The tastes of TV viewers change
constantly.

7. One language experiment used colored plastic shape as substitutes for spoken words. One language
experiment succeeded in teaching a chimpanzee to communicate with her trainers. The chimpanzee
was named Sarah.

8. It is understandable. People like to live in a city.

9. Credit cards are dangerous. They encourage people to buy things. These are things that people do not
really need.

10. Many Americans use their microwave to make popcorn. The Iroquois Indian used heated sand to pop
theirs.

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Grammar Review
(A mini-test)
I.

Use active or passive, in any appropriate tense, for the verbs in parentheses.

1.

The Amazon valley is extremely important to the ecology of earth. Forty percent of the worlds oxygen
(produce) _______________________ there.

2.

The game (win, probably) _____________________ by the other team tomorrow. Theyre a lot better
than we are.

3.

There was a terrible accident on a busy downtown street yesterday. Dozens of people (see)
________________ it, including my friend, who (interview) _____________________ by the police.

4.

In my country, certain prices (control) __________________ by the government, such as the prices of
medical supplies. However, other prices (determine) ___________________ by how much people are
willing to pay for a product.

5.

Yesterday the wind (blow) ___________________ my hat off my head. I had to chase it down the street.
I (want, not) __________________ to lose it because its my favorite hat and it (cost)
_________________ a lot.

6.

Right now Alex is in hospital. He (treat) _________________ for a bad burn on his hand and arm,.

7.

Yesterday a purse-snatcher (catch) ___________________ by a dog. While the thief (chase)


____________________ by the police, he (jump) ___________________ over the fence into someones
yard, where he encountered a ferocious dog. The dog (keep) __________________ the thief from
escaping.

8.

Frostbite may occur when the skin (expose) ____________________ to extreme cold. It most frequently
(affect) ___________________ the skin of the cheeks, chin, ears, fingers, nose, and toes.

9.

The first fish (appear) _____________________ on the earth about 500 million years ago. Up to now,
20,000 kinds of fish (name) _______________________ and (describe) ___________________ by the
scientists.

10.

A network of lines (discover) ______________________ on Mars surface by an Italian astronomer


around the turn of the century. The astronomer (call) _____________________ these lines channels,
but when the Italian word (translate) ____________________ into English, it became canals. As a
result, some people thought the lines were waterways that (build) ___________________ by some
unknown creatures. We now know that the lines are not canals. Canals (exist, not)
_____________________ on Mars.

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Structure

II.

Complete the paragraph, using the words listed. Use each word only once and add the correct
punctuation.
as a result

consequently

however

nevertheless

then

besides

furthermore

moreover

still

therefore

At the beginning of the quarter the students in the section 3 nine oclock grammar class were
miserable. They could not enjoy a cup of coffee during the break ________________ they asked the
instructor if she would think of a way to solve this serious problem. She told them she would buy a large
coffee pot if everyone gave her two dollars ________________ she told them she would buy coffee,
sugar, and cream if everyone gave her seventy-five cents a week. The instructor __________________
didnt

collect

money

for

many

days

____________________

became

more

miserable

__________________ they couldnt stay awake during the second hour of her class. One student from
Saudi Arabia was especially thirsty for a good cup of coffee ___________________ every day for the
next two weeks he reminded the teacher to get the money from the students. Finally he decided to collect
the money himself. He collected two dollars and seventy-five cents from everyone in the class
________________ he gave the money to the teacher. Now everyone is happy. The teacher
__________________ worried about the mess in her office every day after the students get their coffee.
_________________ she is happy, too, because the students are satisfied ___________________ they
will be awake for her class.

III.

Rewrite the paragraphs and connect the sentence, using adjective clauses and adjective
phrases.
When we hear the word pollution, most people think of air pollution. However, there is another kind of
pollution. It is called noise pollution. We are constantly surrounded by sounds. These sounds awake us,
put us to sleep, entertain us, and annoy us. Most people have become accustomed to the noise. These
individuals live in big cities. This noise surrounds them night and day. The fact is that their ears are
immune to the racket around them. This fact surprises me. Indeed, I am always surprised when I see
teenagers. They are wearing radio earphones. Loud rock music bombards their eardrums from these
radio earphones.
I remember the time. I was visiting my friend, Jerry, in New York at this time. Jerry was a student at
New York University. His apartment was on Fifth Avenue. Fifth Avenue is one of the busiest streets in
Manhattan. Nevertheless, he slept like a baby every night in spite of the ambulance and police sirens at
3:00 in the morning. Even his dog never woke up. His dog slept beside his bed.
I enjoyed visiting New York. New York City is a fascinating place. However, I prefer a small town. In a
small town at night, only the soft sound of crickets can be heard.

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Writing Skills

PRINCIPLE OF PARAGRAPH WRITING I


WRITING A TOPIC SENTENCE

PRINCIPLE OF PARAGRAPH WRITING II


WRITING SUPPORTING SENTENCES

PRINCIPLE OF PARAGRAPH WRITING III


PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION
WRITING A CONCLUDING SENTENCE

PRINCIPLE OF PARAGRAPH WRITING IV


SYMBOLS FOR EDITING WRITING
GETTING FEEDBACK & MAKING REVISION

SUMMARY WRITING
PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING I
SELECTING A TOPIC

PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING II


WRITING A THESIS STATEMENT

PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING III


DRAWING AN OUTLINE

PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING IV


WRITING THE INTRODUCTION

PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING V


WRITING THE BODY
PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING VI

WRIING THE CONCLUSION

PRINCIPLE OF ESSAY WRITING VII


PEER EVALUATION GUIDE

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PRINCIPLES OF PARAGRAPH WRITING I


What is a paragraph?
A paragraph is a series of sentences about one idea called the topic. Usually, a paragraph begins with a
general sentence that introduces the topic. This sentence is called the topic sentence, which contains the
main idea in the paragraph. The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about.
The topic sentence is the most general, most important sentence in the paragraph. It should:
introduce the reader to the topic of the paragraph;
state the main idea of the paragraph;
focus the paragraph
The topic sentence contains words that need to explained, described, and supported in the sentences that
follow in the paragraph. These words are called controlling ideas because they control the information that is
given in the paragraph.
Example: Computers can make some jobs easier. (What jobs? How do they make them

easier?)

Since controlling ideas are words about which readers can ask questions that they expect will be answered in
the paragraph, the topic sentence should not simply be a statement of facts; simple facts cannot be developed
into a full paragraph. The following are examples of statements of fact that cannot be topic sentences of
paragraphs:

Christmas is celebrated on December 25th.


Bill Gates owns Microsoft Corp.

Compare them with the following statements:


Although Christmas is celebrated on December 25th, when exactly Jesus was born is not known.
Bill Gates has not only made himself rich but has also provided employment for many people.
These statements can be used as topic sentences of paragraphs.
Exercise 1
Choose the best topic sentence for each of the following paragraphs
(1) _____________________________________________________________________
First, crack two eggs into a bowl. Add two tablespoons of milk or water and a little salt and pepper. Beat the
mixture with a fork. Then you should melt a tablespoon of butter in a small frying pan and pour the egg
mixture into pan. Cook on medium-high heat for five minutes. When the omelet becomes firm on the
bottom, lay think slices of cheese on it. Cook it a minute longer. Then fold it in half with a spatula. Finally,
carefully remove the omelet from the pan and serve it.
a. You need a frying pan and a spatula to make a cheese omelet.
b. I often make cheese omelets for breakfast, lunch, or dinner because it is quick.
c. A cheese omelet is delicious for any meal, and you will have no trouble making one if you follow
these steps.
(2) _____________________________________________________________________
The French keep the fork in the left hand while eating meat; many Americans dont. In France, both hands
should be kept on the table while eating. In the United States, the left hand may be on the lap. The French
break off a piece of bread with their fingers and eat it. Americans, in contrast, pick up the whole piece.
Finally the French eat fruit with a knife and fork. Americans usually use their fingers.

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a. The French and Americans do not do things in the same way.


b. Both Americans and French use knives and forks to eat.
c. The French and Americans have different table manners.
(3) _____________________________________________________________________
Citizens have had to decide whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas
chamber, imprisoned for life, or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. Many citizens argue that
serious criminals should be executed. They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and
also rid society of a cumbersome burden. Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life that capital
punishment is not a deterrent to crime. They believe that society as well as the criminal is responsible for the
crimes and that killing the criminal does not solve the problems of either society of the criminal.
a. Criminals get punished in many different ways.
b. The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society.
c. Statistics have shown that crime rate is not reduced by capital punishment.
Exercise 2
Write a topic sentence for each paragraph in the space provided. Make sure your topic sentence is
general enough. The first one has been done for you as an example.

Bali is a nice place to take a vacation.

The weather is always sunny and warm. The beaches are


gorgeous with soft, white sand and beautiful, cool water. Thats why it is the perfect place for those who like
swimming in the sea or sunbathing on the beach. There are many restaurants in Denpasar and Kuta and most
of the big hotels offer terrific entertainment nightly.
(1) _____________________________________________________________________
Some people hijack airplanes for political reasons. Others do it for financial reasons. Still others highjack
airplanes because they want to be famous. Whatever the reason, hijacking planes endangers the lives of the
passengers and the crew.
(2) _____________________________________________________________________
For one thing, it is recognized as the best form of physical exercise available. Many different muscles are
used in the act of swimming, and all of these are strengthened and conditioned when swimming is done
regularly. Another reason I like swimming is that it is one of the few days I can cool off and exercise at the
same time. The final reason I prefer swimming is that is something I can do all year even during the rainy
season.
(3) _____________________________________________________________________
First of all, the work is interesting. I learn new things every day, and I get to travel a lot. Secondly, my boss
is very nice. He is always willing to help me when I have a problem. I have also made many new friends at
my job. And, last but not least, the salary is fantastic.
(4) _____________________________________________________________________
Some people like very colorful clothes. They want everyone to look at them. They want to be the center of
things. Other people like to wear nice clothes. But their clothes are not colorful or fancy. They do not like
people to look at them. There are also some people who wear the same thing all the time. They do not care if
anyone looks at them. They do not care what anyone thinks about them.
(5) _____________________________________________________________________
First, prepare for the interview the day before. Do this by selecting your clothes, keeping the employers
expectations in mind. Next, go to bed early the night before the interview. Getting plenty of sleep is
important. In the morning, eat a good breakfast. Your mind will not function at its best on an empty stomach.
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You should allow extra time to get to the interview. Arriving half an hour early is better than being one
minute late. Finally, try to relax during the interview.

Exercise 3
In groups of three narrow down these topics and write a topic sentence for each. Study this example:
Sports
the most effective and efficient sport
and can be practiced by almost everyone.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

138

Walking is a sport that is healthy

high school
radio
internet
movies
good manners

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Writing Skills

PRINCIPLE OF PARAGRAPH WRITING II


Supporting Sentences
While the topic sentence introduces the topic and controls the information given in the other
sentences in the paragraph, the function of these sentences is to add details to the topic. The other sentences
in the paragraph are called the supporting sentences. One important thing about supporting sentences is that
they have to be closely related to the topic sentence.
Exercise 1 Recognizing Irrelevant Sentences
Each of the following paragraphs contains one sentence that is irrelevant. Cross out that sentence and
explain why it does not belong in the paragraph.
(1) Anyone who has used e-mail knows that it has several problems and limitations. Perhaps the
most obvious of these is that e-mail contributes to information overload. Many e-mail users are overwhelmed
by hundreds of messages they receive each week, some of which are irrelevant to them. This is because it is
so easy to transmit messages. E-mail is a very efficient way to distribute information. E-mail can be written
and copied quickly to thousands of people through group mailbox systems. Meanwhile, employees receive
little e-mail training, which results in ineffective message quality and usage patterns.
(2) The Japanese automobile industry uses robots in many phases of its production process. In fact,
one large Japanese auto factory uses robots in all of its promotion stages. Some Japanese universities are
developing medical robots to detect certain kinds of cancer. Another automobile factory in Japan uses robots
to paint cars as they come off the assembly line. Furthermore, most Japanese factories use robots to weld the
parts of the finished car together.
(3) Communicating by electronic mail has caused numerous changes in the way people relate to each
other. First, e-mail is rescuing the introvert from the telephone equipped extrovert, because people who are
too shy to call someone on the phone can send a message by computer. E-mail has made it possible for many
people to start their own business. Second, e-mail allows a more democratic flow of information by
introducing a new way of communicating which does not contain certain social cues found in other forms of
communication (such as types of stationery or formal conversations between boss and employee). Also the
electronic message is instant, so there is no way to use pauses or delay to give hints about the underlying
message, as often happen when people speak on the phone. Last, the messages are uniform and give no
external clues to the senders age, gender, race, or physical condition.
Techniques of support
In order to communicate successfully, a paragraph must be about a single idea. In order for the
paragraph to be complete, the topic sentence must be supported; in other words, the controlling ideas in the
topic sentence must be explained, described, and/of proven with specific supporting details. There are four
basic techniques of support:

Facts
Examples
Physical description
Personal experience

One or more techniques of support must be used in any paragraph that you write.
Facts: Any piece of information that can be easily verified can serve as factual support. Included are
numbers (percentages, number of miles, etc.) and statistics as well as facts that can be found in books,
newspapers, and magazines.

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Example:
One possible way for men and women to share family responsibilities is for people to
change roles: the men would stay at home and the women would become the breadwinners of
the family. This possibility has been surveyed since 1970. back then, 63% said they would have
less respect for a husband who stayed home than for one who had a job outside the home, only
8% would respect him more, and 15% said it would make very little difference. By 1980 things
had begun to change. A much lower 41% said they would respect the stay-at-home husband
less, 6% more, but 42% about the same. Now, only 25% say they would respect a man who
stayed home to do household chores less, 12% more, and a big 50% say the same.
Example: Examples can explain or define a controlling idea, or they can prove an idea or a point made in the
topic sentence. Sometimes a series of short examples is effective evidence for a topic sentence. Other times,
a single extended example can serve as solid support in a paragraph.
Example:
Clothes today are very different from the clothes of the 1800s. One difference is the
way they look. For example, in the 1800s all women in the West wore dresses. The dresses all
had long skirts. But today women do not always wear dresses with long skirts. Sometimes they
wear short skirts. Sometimes they wear pants. Another difference between 1800 and today is
the cloth used to make clothes. In the 1800s, clothes were made only from natural kinds of
cloth. They were made from cotton, wool, silk or linen. But today, there are many new kinds of
man-made cloth. Many clothes are now made from materials such as nylon, rayon, or polyester.
Physical description: Still another way to support a topic sentence is by using physical description, that is,
words and phrases that appeal to the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. Physical description
is often used to explain or describe controlling ideas in the topic sentence.
Example:
Oakley, Inc., the maker of high-end, ultra hip eyewear and footwear, is at war. Thats
the impression you get when visiting its corporate headquarters in Foothill Ranch, California.
The lobby of the two-year old, $40-million building looks like a bomb shelter. Its huge, echoing
vault is straight out of Star Wars. Sleek pipes, watertight doors, and towering metallic walls
studded with oversize bolts suggest a place that is routinely subjected to laser fire and floods.
Ejection seats from a B-52 bomber furnish the waiting area and a full-size torpedo lies in a rack
behind the receptionists armored desk.

Personal Experience: While personal experience is not often used in formal academic papers, it can serve as
a valuable support tool in paragraphs.
Example:
Although e-mail is now beginning to replace regular mail, I am still reluctant to use
it. The main reason is that I have not yet mastered the system. But in addition, I feel that it is
a very impersonal way to communicate. People can get my message but I cannot use my own
stationery or sign my name on the letter. I also think that e-mail is fast and easy rather than
thoughtful. I appreciate getting a real birthday card much more, even though its late, than
birthday greetings on the e-mail. Finally, I feel that you lose a lot of information when you
use computer mail instead of talking to someone in person, especially the tone of voice and
expression.

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Multiple Forms of Support: Often a topic sentence will be supported by more than one technique of
support. For example, a personal experience will contain physical description, or an example will contain
some facts. Multiple forms of support are often more interesting for an audience and provide stronger
evidence for the controlling ideas in a topic sentence.
Example:
The International student needs much money to study at a university in the U.S. The
cost can be divided into three categories. First is the price of house rent; the expense differs
according to the kind of house, for example, a single basement mom with a small kitchen at
one end and a bed at the other costs at least $200 a month, but an apartment with a separate
bedroom and kitchen costs at least $350 a month. The second expense is the cost of food;
this cost is also various for each person. I spend at least $300 per month, so my daily cost for
food is about $10. The final expense is the cost of tuition. This cost is especially high. I need
$2,000 per semester for tuition at this university because I am an out-of-state student. And
that doesnt even count the expenses for books, clothing, and other expenses. Therefore, I
need at least $4,000 for each semester.

Exercise 2.
Take one of the topic sentences that you generated in Exercise 2 of the previous lesson and think of
techniques of support that you can use to support the topic sentence and develop the paragraph.
Example:
Walking is a sport that is healthy and can be practiced by almost everyone.

Personal experience: I was putting on a lot of weight so I started to walk briskly for half an hour everyday. I
lost four kilograms in one month without having to go to an expensive gym.
Facts: children, teenagers, adults and even old people can practice walking. If you go out into the city early
on a Sunday morning, you will see people of all ages walking.

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PRINCIPLES OF PARAGRAPH WRITING III


Patterns of Organization
Whether you are going to write a paragraph or an essay, you have to decide how to present your ideas. There
are several ways to organize your ideas. They are: comparison, contrast, cause and effect, problem solution,
classification, process and argumentation. The following table highlights the different patterns.
Linking your writing purpose to a pattern of organization
Purpose

What do you want to


emphasize in your
paragraph or essay?

Content of the Paragraph or Essay


The qualities that are similar and different
between X and Y.
The major causes of a condition and/or the
effects of this condition.
The parts of an object; the logical divisions of a
concept.
The sequence of steps that should be followed.
A definition of words or ideas.
An argumentation to support an opinion or idea.

Pattern of Organization
Comparison/Contrast
Cause/Effect
Classification
Process
Definition/Clarification
Argumentation

Exercise 1
The paragraphs below are examples of several of these patterns of organization. Study them and decide the
pattern of organization of each and write it in the space provided.
In general, unemployment may be defined as a situation in which people who are qualified for a
job, willing to work, and willing to accept the going wage rate cannot find jobs without considerable
delay. There are three important aspects to this definition. First, a person has to be qualified for a job.
For example, one cannot be considered an unemployed truck driver if one is unable to drive a truck.
Second, a person is not considered unemployed if he or she is not seeking a job that a person is
qualified for and is willing to accept at the going wage rate. However, the delay in finding a job should
be of short duration. The time delay should probably not extend beyond a 30-or 60-day period for most
occupations.
Although electric typewriters and word processors resemble one another in some respects, they
differ in the way they produce a printed page. Both run on electricity and have a keyboard similar to
that of the standard typewriter. However, the electric typewriter prints letters, numbers, and symbols
directly onto a piece of paper. If there are errors, the typist must remove them physically, either by
whiting them out or by erasing them before typing in a correction. With a word processor, on the other
hand, the letters, numbers and symbols first appear on a screen in front of the user. Errors can be
corrected on the screen before the processor prints a copy of the material. In addition, the word
processor prints a copy of the material on a disk and reproduce the text as many times as necessary,
whereas the electric typewriter makes only one good copy; a limited number of copies can be made
with carbon paper. One pays, however, for the word processors advantages; a word processor costs
considerably more than a good electric typewriter.
It is more practical to withdraw your money using an ATM than queuing at the bank, especially
when you are in a hurry. There are a few steps to follow before you can have the money in your hand.
First, if you have just got your new ATM card, make sure that it is already activated; otherwise, you
will not be able to use it. The next thing to do is insert your card and read the instructions on the
monitor. You will be to type your Personal Identification Number (PIN). If it does not mach your
record, it will be useless. But if you type the right PIN, other information will be shown. Press the

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withdrawal button and type the amount of money that your would like to have after you are sure your
account has enough money for withdrawal. If you are not sure, you can check your account before
choosing to withdraw. Then, just wait until the money comes out, take it, and count it before your
leave. Before you leave the ATM chamber, do not forget to take your ATM card back. It is a lot easier
to use an ATM than stand in line for hours, isnt it?
Yuni Istiningsih

There are several reasons why prostitution should be legalized. First, prostitution still happens
even when it is not legalized. On the other hand, if it is legalized, the government will have the power
to control prostitution by issuing a prostitution law. Another reason is that legalizing prostitution will
help decrease the unemployment rate because prostitution will be considered a legal occupation.
Furthermore, since it is a legal occupation, the government will be able to increase its revenue from
income tax. Those who disagree with the proposal point out that prostitution can spread sexually
transmitted diseases. This is undeniably true. However, we must remember that these diseases are not
only spread by prostitution. AIDS, for instance, can also be spread through blood transfusion.
Moreover, the spread of these diseases can be prevented by requiring the prostitutes to use protection
in doing sexual activities. For these reasons, I think it is reasonable for the government to legalize the
practice of prostitution.
Fiona Frederique

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Concluding Sentence
The sentence that ends the paragraph is called the concluding sentence. It usually uses one or more of the
following techniques:

Summarises the material in the paragraph


Offers a solution to the problem stated in the paragraph
Predicts a situation that will result or occur from the statements made in the paragraph
Makes a recommendation concerning material presented in the paragraph
States a conclusion to information given in the paragraph

Exercise 2
The following paragraph can be ended in different ways. Read the paragraph and decide which technique
each of the possible conclusions use.
Doctors have known for over 100 years of the power of hypnosis to alleviate pain. Now increasing numbers
of medical schools are teaching doctors to use hypnosis to end suffering from toothaches, migraine
headaches, childbirth, and even extensive burns. Hypnosis works by distracting the patients attention so
powerfully that, although the pain remains, the patient no longer notices it. Amazing as it may seem, some
patients can be so deeply hypnotized that they could undergo open heart surgery without anesthetic.
(1) Thus, by helping sufferers intensively focus their attention elsewhere, doctors now have one more
weapon in the fight against pain.
_______________________________________________________________________
(2) In other words, hypnosis offers the enormous benefit of natural pain relief without the side effects or
possibility of addiction inherent in drugs.
_______________________________________________________________________
(3) This medical establishments gradual acceptance of hypnosis is just one more sign that doctors are
recognizing the benefits of a more holistic approach to medicine.
_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3
Identify which concluding technique(s) is/are used in the following paragraphs.

(1) There is one problem that makes it more difficult for us to study in this program. We have classes
in three different buildings, and they are not very close together. In fact, it takes ten minutes to walk from
one class to another. When there is snow or ice on the ground, we are often late for classes because we have
to walk so far. In addition, the Language Laboratory is in one building, the office is in another, and the
classrooms are in three other buildings. Therefore, we must always walk in order to attend to any aspect of
learning English. We spend most of our time rushing between buildings, and there is never time to talk with
our teachers or our friends. To solve this problem, I recommend that the administration of this program
schedule all our classes in one building.
(2) Although writing was a major part of Intensive English Program, I didnt learn how to write. I
paid little attention to the writing classes in the Program because I was too busy concentrating on passing the
TOEFL, which is the only way to successfully gain admission to most U.S. universities. I scored 500 on the

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TOEFL but I realized that I made a big mistake in my study plan, because I cant write in English. In other
words, because I had ignored the writing classes by not doing my homework, by not writing paragraphs and
essays, and by not following the basic rules of writing, I am not able to write the required papers in my
university classes. Realizing how important the ability to write is, I am attending a writing class this
semester, and I hope to take advantage of what I am learning in my academic work.

Exercise 4
1. Underline the topic sentence and circle the controlling ideas.
2. What pattern of organization does the paragraph use?
3. Write a concluding sentence for the paragraph.
(1) For the majority of foreign students, it is usually hard to get the required score on the TOEFL exam.
From my experience, I also found it hard, and I can give reasons for that. First of all, you may have very
good English, yet you may still not get the required scores because the most important fact about taking the
TOEFL is to know how to deal with the test itself and how to make the most of the assigned time. For
example, the first time I took the exam I didnt watch the time, and I was, therefore, too late to finish the
grammar section. In my attempt to be quick on the next section, I answered the tenth question in the place of
the ninth, and I didnt realize until I came to the last questions that all my answers were in the wrong spaces.
Before I could make the necessary changes, the time was over. In addition, the TOEFL is full of tricks, and
usually it concentrates on certain subjects or points that foreign students usually dont know.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

(2) There are three reasons why solar cell energy generation has not developed more rapidly. First,
the cost per watt of solar cell generator is more expensive than that of steam power or nuclear power
generation. Therefore, researchers are still looking for ways to make solar cells cheaper. Second, nature plays
a large part in solar cell generation. For example, some days are cloudy and rainy; because there is not
always fine weather, solar energy cant be generated every day. Also, no solar energy is generated at night.
Consequently, solar cells must have the capacity to store energy for use during these times, and these storage
cells are very expensive. As a result, only in low attitude areas can enough solar energy be generated
effectively at this time. Finally, building plants for solar cell generation is extremely expensive: a very large
space is needed, and the need for maintenance is constant. To illustrate, the surface of the solar cell plants
has to be cleaned daily. For all these reasons, it is very difficult to develop solar cell plants and make solar
energy available to the general public for a competitive price.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

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WRITING PRACTICE:
Write a paragraph of approximately 150 words about one of the following topics. Narrow the topic down and
write a topic sentence which contains the main idea and controlling ideas of the paragraph. Support your
main idea by choosing one or more of the techniques of support. End your paragraph with a conclusion.
Which is better livingat home or in a dormitory?
My best teacher / friend
Reasons why I choose my study program
How to make new friends / live economically in Depok
A person/an experience who/which changed my life.

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PRINCIPLES OF PARAGRAPH WRITING IV


When writing a paragraph, the writer usually produces a first draft which he or she then revises and edits.
Use this check list to revise your own paragraph. When you have finished editing your work, exchange your
work with a friend. Evaluate your friends paragraph using this list.
Peer Feedback and Revision of the First Draft
PARAGRAPH EVALUATION GUIDE
Topic: __________________________________________________________
Writer: ________________________

Evaluator: _______________________
Score: 10 - 0

1. The paragraph has a clear topic sentence.


2. The paragraph contains three or more sentences that support the
topic sentence.
3. The details are interesting and appropriate.
4. the paragraph ends with a good closing sentence without repeating
the topic sentence.
5. The paragraph does not contain irrelevant sentences that do not
support the topic sentence.
6. The paragraph is well organized.
7. The paragraph uses appropriate connectors to make the ideas flow
smoothly.
8. The paragraph is free of grammatical errors.
9. The paragraph is free of spelling and punctuation errors.
10. The paragraph is written neatly or typed in a standard format.
Total

_____ / 100

COMMENTS:
Strong points: __________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Suggestions for improvement: _____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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After you have revised the content of your paragraph you should edit the language. The following is a list of
symbols that your teacher and peers will use to edit the language of your paragraphs or essays.
SYMBOLS FOR EDITING WRITING

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PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING I


Academic prose often requires more than one paragraph. Furthermore, because academic prose requires
evidence, often a single paragraph is not sufficient for the amount of essential or specific detail to support
ideas or opinions. Therefore, it is often necessary to construct multiple paragraphs. Each paragraph of an
essay, a technical report, a critique or a research paper will have the same general form: a general topic
sentence with controlling ideas, followed by facts, examples, physical descriptions, and/or experiences that
explain, describe, and/or illustrate those controlling ideas.
An essay has:
1. A beginning: called the introduction, this is the first in the essay.
2. A thesis sentence: generally located at the end of the introduction, this sentence is the most general,
most important sentence in the essay. It contains controlling ideas that limit and direct the rest of the
essay.
3. A middle: called the body of the essay, these paragraphs explain, define, clarify, and illustrate the
thesis sentence. Each body paragraph consists of a topic sentence and several supporting sentences.
The number of body paragraphs depends on the length and complexity of the assignment.
4. An ending: called the conclusion of the essay, this paragraph ends the essay by restating the thesis
statement, offering a solution or recommendation or by making a prediction.
Diagram of an Essay

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Exercise 1
Study the following essay and identify the different parts of the essay.

The Spanish Influence in America


(A standard five-paragraph Essay)
We are all aware that American culture is, in fact, a combination of the contributions of all those
who have settled within its borders. From the founding of the country to the present day, immigrants have
thought with them the traditions of their native lands, many of which have been interwoven into the cultural
patterns of their new homeland. Immigrants from Latin America, who currently comprise about eight percent
of the total population, are no exception to this rule. Hispanic contributions to American culture are reflected
in the words we speak, the foods we consume, and the music we enjoy.
The Spanish influence in the English language in the U.S. began with the early explorers and
continues even today. Spanish place names, from the Rio Grande (in Texas) to San Francisco (in California),
Characterize the southwestern part of the country. Los Angeles, Santa Fe, the Colorado River, and the
Mojave desert are all part of the heritage of the early Spanish settlers. Other Spanish words, such as adios,
amigo, rodeo, and adobe, have actually become part of the English language. More recently, a blend of
English and Spanish known as Spanglish, producing expressions like ir al movies (to go to the movies), has
developed particularly in Texas, California, and South Florida, which have a high concentration of Latino
residents.
From the gourmet-style churrasco (marinated tenderloin of beef) to the everyday taco, Latin food
has become an integral part of American dining habits. Foods ranging from black beans and rice in a Cuban
restaurants to frozen burritos, tropical papayas, and jalapeno peppers on supermarket shelves are evidence
of the Latin influence on the American diet. It is not surprising, therefore, that over $1 billion per year was
spent on Mexican food in the United States in the late 1980s.
American music, too, has become more diverse as a result of the Latino sound. The Salsa beat has
had a startling effect on popular music, just as the rhythms of the tango and the cha-cha-cha have become a
part of the repertoire of dance bands throughout the country. Instruments, such as the congas and the timbale,
also have their origin in Latin countries. Mariachi bands, Brazilian jazz, and the new Miami Sound are
further examples of the strong influence of Hispanic musical traditions on American culture.
The language, the food, the musicthese are but a small part of what Latin Americans have given to
North Americans. In the final analysis, the essence of their contributions to American culture is a
sensibilidad (a unique sense of style), which prompted Time magazine to report, This sensibilidad is
changing the way America looks, the way it eats, dresses, drinks, dances, the way it lives.

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Exercise 2
The paragraphs of the following essay have been jumbled up. Read the paragraphs and put them in the
correct order. First of all, find the paragraph that contains the thesis statement. One paragraph does not
support the thesis statement. Identify this paragraph and cross it out.

WINNING

(a) My first experience of winning occurred in the elementary school gym. Nearly everyday, after
the preparatory push-ups and squat-thrusts, we had to run relays. Although I had asthma as a child, I won
many races. My chest would burn terribly for a few minutes, but it was worth it to feel so proudnot
because Id beaten others or won a prize, but because I had overcome a handicap.
(b) These examples should clarify what winning means to me. I dont trust anything that comes too
easily. In fact, I expect the road to be rocky, and I appreciate a win more if I have to work, sacrifice, and
overcome. This is a positive drive for me, the very spirit of winning.
(c) I have always loved doing sports. Although I did a lot of running when I was young, the sport I
enjoy most now is golf. It gives me the opportunity to do exercises at my own pace out in the open air and
there are never too many people around. While Im walking to the next hole, I can enjoy the fresh green
grass and the soft breeze in the trees. This gives me the energy to cope with my long days at college.
(d) I consider the fact that I am now attending college winning. To get there, I had to surmount many
obstacles, both outside and inside myself. College costs money, and I dont have much of it. College takes
time, and I dont have much of that either with two brothers to care for. But I overcame these obstacles and a
bigger one stilllack of confidence in myself. I had to keep saying, I wont give up. And here I am,
winning!
(e) The dictionary defines winning as achieving victory over others in a competition, receiving as a
prize or reward for achievement. Yet some of the most meaningful wins of my life were victories over no
other person, and I can remember winning when there was no prize for performance. To me, winning means
overcoming obstacles.

The correct order of paragraphs in the essay is:


Introductory paragraph : ___________________
Body paragraph 1

: ___________________

Body paragraph 2

: ___________________

Concluding paragraph : ___________________

Paragraph that should be omitted from this essay: ______________________

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Selecting a Topic
Often the subject for an academic assignment is chosen for the student by the lecturer. However, the student
must frequently narrow the subject to a topic. Selecting a topic for an essay is similar to choosing a topic to
write about in a paragraph. The same process applies when you :
1.
2.
3.
4.

write about WHAT YOU KNOW.


identify your AUDIENCE
decide on the PURPOSE of the essay
select a topic that will INTEREST your audience

Some topics are too broad to be covered in a single essay. These topics need to be narrowed. As you begin to
narrow your topic, decide the pattern of organization that you want to use to present your topic to the
audience. Several patterns of organization are possible for each topic. Look at the following examples:

Unemployment

What Causes People to Lose Their Jobs? (Cause-effect)


How to Combat Unemployment? (Problem solution)
Unemployment in Indonesia in the 60s and in the 90s
(Comparison-contrast)
Poverty in Terms of Income Distribution
(Definition/Clarification)
The Economic Causes of Poverty (Cause-effect)
Government Attempts to Alleviate Poverty
(Problem solution)

Poverty

Exercise 3
Choose two of the subject below. Narrow each to a topic. Use the strategy of treeing to discover different
ways to present your material. Then decide the pattern of organization for each topic.

Environment

Technology

Education

Youth

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PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING II


Thesis Statement
Each essay you write will contain a thesis statement. This thesis statement is usually one sentence that gives
the purpose of the essay. The following are characteristics of a good thesis statement.
A thesis statement:
1. is the strongest, clearest statement in the essay
2. comes at the beginning of the essay, usually at the end of the introductory paragraph
3. must NOT be a simple statement of fact that requires no elaboration. A simple statement of fact has
little possibilities for development
4. should NOT be expressed as a question, because a question contains no attitude or opinion. The
ANSWER to the question is the thesis statement.
5. contain CONTROLLING IDEAS that will be used in the topic sentences of the body paragraphs of
the essay.
6. may be a STATEMENT OF OPINION that will be explained and proved in the body paragraph.
7. may be a STATEMENT OF INTENT that will be explained and illustrated in the body paragraph of
the essay.
Lets look at the thesis statement of the model essay that we studied earlier and see why it is a good thesis
statement.
Hispanic contributions to American culture are reflected in the words we speak, the foods we
consume, and the music we enjoy.
As we can see, this thesis statement has the characteristics of a good thesis. It is not a simple statement of
fact. It contains controlling ideas words, foods, music that are explained in the body paragraphs.
However, it is not easy to write a good thesis statement. A successful thesis statement usually results from a
process of writing and rewriting. Start with a topic that you want to explore and then narrow it down to
something that can be covered adequately in a short essay. In the example below, the writer narrowed his
original thesis statement as he narrowed his topic for a 500-word essay about the University of Indonesia.
The University of Indonesia is wonderful
(the word wonderful is too vague to be supported in the essay)

The University of Indonesia is the perfect university for everyone


(still too general, and perfect is difficult to support)

The University of Indonesia is one of the best universities in Indonesia


(Somewhat qualified, but brings in a bigger topic: other universities)

The University of Indonesia is one of the oldest universities in Indonesia


(more qualified, more objective, but this sentence needs an additional idea to help direct the essay)

Being one of the oldest universities in Indonesia, the University of Indonesia can offer students a
wide choice of education)
(Reasonable, specific, supportable opinion and clear intent for the essay)
A good thesis statement usually results from a process of writing and rewriting. Start with a TOPIC that you
want to explore and then narrow it down to something that can be covered adequately in a short essay.

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Exercise 1:
Study the following thesis statement and decide whether they are good thesis statements of not. Give
reasons. Can you turn those that are not so good into better thesis statements?
1. Many rural areas in Indonesia have three serious problems: poverty, lack of education, and poor
medical care.
2. Some of the most notable differences in urban and rural life include the degree of friendliness, pace
of life, and varieties of activities.
3. Mr. Sasmita, who graduated from the English Department of the University of Indonesia, was my
English teacher in high-school.
4. The mass media, for example newspapers, radio and television, have a powerful influence.
5. In the last few years the number of cars on the streets of Jakarta has been increasing.
Exercise 2:
In your groups take one or two of these topics and develop a good thesis statement together. Does your
thesis statement have the characteristics of a good thesis statement?
When you are satisfied with your thesis statement, compare your thesis statements with those produced
by other groups.
Using uniforms in university
Street musicians
Public Transport

Exercise 3:
Choose one of the topics you developed in Exercise 2 and develop a thesis statement of your own.
Exchange your work with a friend and evaluate each others statements by checking whether they have
the characteristics of a good thesis statement.

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PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING III


Paragraph Relationship
In academic essays, the thesis statement is directly related to the topic sentences in the body paragraphs.
Each topic sentence relates to and deals with one or more of the controlling ideas in the thesis. Each set of
supporting sentences that follows a topic sentence relates directly to that topic sentence. In this way, the
essay will be unified and complete.
Diagram of Paragraph Relationship within an Essay

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Exercise 1
Write topic sentences for the body paragraphs of the thesis statement that you developed in exercise 3 of the
previous lesson. Show your topic sentences to a friend and get some feedback.

Essay Outlining
Student writers sometimes have difficulty organizing the material they have gathered for an essay. One way
to organize your ideas is to outline your essay. An essay outline usually consists of words and phrases;
sometimes it consists of complete sentences. While writing your outline for an essay, try to keep the words
and phrases parallel.
The following is an example of an outline:
Outline
Title: __________________________________________________________________________
I. Introduction
Thesis Statement __________________________________________________________
II. Body
A. Paragraph 2
Topic Sentence _________________________________________________________
Supporting Details:

1. __________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________

B. Paragraph 3
Topic Sentence _________________________________________________________
Supporting Details:

1. __________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________

C. Paragraph 4
Topic Sentence _________________________________________________________
Supporting Details:

1. __________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________

III. Conclusion:

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Read the following essay and write an outline of the essay using the frame provided.

EDUCATION IN THE EAST AND THE WEST


Americans have often asked me why I came from Taiwan to study in the United States. They expect
me to say something like to learn English. However, to me, coming here to study involves more than just
learning English. It involves an opportunity to experience a completely different educational system.
Because I have studied in both countries, I have seen several areas in which education in Taiwan and
education in the United States are different.
Students expectations in the classroom in Taiwan are different from those in the United States.
Generally speaking, Taiwanese students are quieter and participate less in class. They are not encouraged to
express their ideas unless asked. They are taught that asking teachers a question is seen as a challenge to the
teachers authority. There is little emphasis on developing student creativity and thinking skills. Students are
expected to memorize everything they are assigned. However, in the United States the curriculum
emphasizes individual thinking, group discussion, and self-expression. Unlike their Taiwanese counterparts,
American students are encouraged to ask questions, express their own opinions and think for themselves.
In addition, there is a great disparity in the educational goals of Taiwanese and American schools.
After twelve years of compulsory education, Taiwanese students have to pass an entrance exam in order to
get into a university. The higher students score on this test, the better the university they can enter.
Taiwanese culture puts a strong emphasis on university admission because getting into the right university
can guarantee future success. As a result, schools often teach to the test instead of providing more moral,
social an physical education. In contrast, the goals of the American educational system include teaching
students how to learn and helping them to reach their maximum potential. American teachers give their
students the freedom to think and solve problems in their own: they do not merely prepare students to answer
questions for an entrance exam.
The last obvious difference between the two countries educational systems is the role of
extracurricular activities such as sports programs and special interest clubs. Even though every Taiwanese
school claims that it pays equal attention to more, intellectual, and physical education, the real focus is on
passing the university admission exam. Little emphasis is placed on activities outside of the classroom.
Teachers can even borrow time from extracurricular activities to give students more practice in the areas
where they have weakness. On the other hand, American educational institutions consider the development
of social and interpersonal skills as important as the development of intellectual skills. It is believed that by
participating in these outside activities, students can demonstrate their special talents, level of maturity and
leadership qualities.
Education is vital to everyones future success. While it may take ten years to grow a tree, a sound
educational system may take twice as long to take root. Although Taiwan and the United States have
different educational systems, both countries have the same ultimate goal: to educate their citizens as well as
they can. This goal can be reached only if people take advantage of all the educational opportunities given to
them. Thats why I came to the United States to study, grow and become a better person.

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EDUCATION IN THE EAST AND THE WEST


I. Introduction
Thesis Statement: _________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
II. Body
A. Paragraph 2 (first difference) topic sentence: _________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
1. Taiwanese students are quieter.
2. ___________________________________________________________________
3. In America _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

B. Paragraph 3 (second difference) topic sentence: _______________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
1. ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

C. Paragraph 4 (third difference) topic sentence: _________________________________


______________________________________________________________________
1. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
III. Conclusion
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 4
Based on the topic sentences for the body paragraphs produced in exercise 3, make an outline for your
essay.

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PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING IV


The Introduction
The introduction is a very important part of the essay as it tells the reader what the essay is all about. The
function of the introduction is
to provide background information
to capture the readers interest
to state the thesis
The introductory paragraph usually consists of three parts:
1. Hook
2. Connecting information
3. Thesis statement
The hook is the opening statement. Just as a fisherman uses a hook to catch a fish, so a writer uses a hook to
catch the readers attention. Writing a good hook is not easy. It requires a great deal of thought and practice.
There are many different ways to write a hook, among others:
1. By asking a question. If the readers want to know the answer to the question, they are hooked and
will read the essay. For example, a writer might begin an essay with this sentence:
Can you prevent youth brawls on the streets?
As this is a big problem in Jakarta, the reader will probably want to know more about the topic.
2. By making an interesting observation or relating an anecdote.
The average American is proud to be American, and he is eager to talk about
American products. However, the average American drives a Japanese or German car
to work every morning. He wears cotton shirts made in Indonesia and pants made in
Bangladesh. His dinner salad has tomatoes from Mexico and salad dressing from
France. Before he goes to bed, he will watch his favorite program on a Japanese
television set.
3. By describing a unique scenario to catch readers attention:
Traveling at more than one hundred miles an hour, he feels as though he is not
moving. He is engulfed in complete silence. For a moment, it is as if he has entered
another dimension.
4. Using a famous quotation or saying as a hook, as in this example:
Give a man a fish, and hell eat for a day. Teach him how to fish and hell eat
forever.
This Chinese proverb could start an essay whether or not to give money to beggars.
5. Using background information related to the thesis statement. The introduction of the essay on the
Spanish Influence in America is an example of this.

Connecting information
After the hook, the writer usually writes three to five sentences that help to introduce the topic to the reader.
These sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples or explanations. The
writer of an article entitled Healing Power of Gossip used the following connecting information (the
underlined sentences) to link the hook to the thesis statement.

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Im telling everyone, a friend of mine used to say when she had a particularly juicy piece of
gossip to share. But remember, you didnt hear it from me. Most of us dont want to miss
out on hearing the latest gossip. But we also dont like to think of ourselves as gossips. Well
here is some information to put our minds at rest. Psychologists say gossip is good for us.

Writing the Introduction


There are many ways to write an introduction depending on how you want to present the topic and the kind
of essay you decide to write. Many introductions use one or a combination of the following techniques to
provide background information and capture the readers attention.
A. Move from general to specific
This type of introduction opens with a general statement on the subject that establishes its
importance and then leads the reader to the more specific thesis statement.
B. Use an anecdote
Another way to write an introduction is to relate an interesting story that will get the reader
interested in the subject. Newspaper and magazine writers frequently use this technique for their
articles.
C. Use a quotation
A quotation is an easy way to introduce your topic. You can quote an authority on your subject or
use an interesting quotation from an article. You can also be more informal and use a proverb or
favorite saying of a friend or relative.
D. Ask a question
Asking one or more questions at the beginning of an essay is a good way to engage the readers in the
topic right away. They will want to read on in order to find the answers to the questions
E. Present facts and statistics
Presenting some interesting facts or statistics on your subject establishes credibility.

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Exercise 1
Now read the following sample introductions. Then, in small groups, identify the technique or techniques
used in each one. Remember that authors often use a combination of techniques to write an introduction.
Karate, which literally means the art of empty hands, is the most widely practiced of all the martial
arts. It is primarily a means of self-defense that uses the body as a weapon for striking, kicking, and
blocking. Originating in the ancient Orient, the art of karate is more than 1,000 years old. It developed first
as a form of monastic training and later became a method of self-defense. During the seventeenth century,
karate became highly developed as an art on the Japanese island of Okinawa. Over the years, this ancient art
as gained much popularity, and today karate is practiced throughout the world. More than a method of
combat, karate emphasizes self-discipline, positive attitude, and high moral purpose.
Technique(s): ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
One student looks at his neighbours exam paper and quickly copies the answers. Another student finds out
the questions in the test before her class takes it and tells her friends. Still another student sneaks a sheet of
paper with formulas written on it into the test room. What about you? Would you be tempted to cheat on an
exam if you knew you wouldnt get caught? According to a recent national survey, 40 percent of American
teenagers would cheat under that condition. What is causing this epidemic of cheating in our schools? Most
students cheat on tests because they want to avoid the hours of studying they need in order to get high
grades, or simply because they are not concerned with honesty.
Technique(s): ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Misty, a five-month-old German shepherd puppy, goes to the hospital twice a week, but not to see a
veterinarian. At this Veterans Administration Hospital, Misty is helping doctors not the other way around.
In what may seem like a role reversal, animals like Misty are visiting the halls of human illness to relieve a
type of pain doctors cannot treat. Their therapy is love, both giving it and helping others return it to them.
Pets ranging from dogs to tropical fish are showing up as therapists in hospitals, nursing homes, prisons and
other institutions.
Technique(s): ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Experience, not theory, has taught me the truth of the popular saying, Two heads are better than one. For
the past two years, the job of secretary in my office has been shared very successfully by two people. This,
job-sharing arrangement has worked out quite well for all involved. All over the business world, the
interest in flexible employment arrangement, like job-sharing, is growing. Explorers are beginning to realize
that there are many talented people out there who are looking for alternatives to traditional patterns of
employment,. In a job-sharing arrangement, a full-time job is shared by two people. As an executive in a
multinational firm, I feel that job sharing is one way that organization can meet the growing diversity of
employees needs. Not only is job-sharing helpful to employees, it also offers several advantages to
employers. With two people working together, tasks tend to be completed more quickly, a wider range of
skills is brought to the job, and most importantly, production is increased.
Technique(s): ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2
Write a hook and connecting information for the thesis statement of your essay.

Several Ways to Write the Introduction


(An overview)

1. General-to-Specific Statement

2. Describing several examples

General Statement
Narrower Statement

Example

Somewhat
Specific Statement

Example
Example

Thesis
General Statements
Thesis

3. Describing an Anecdote

4. Describing a General View;


Contrasting it with the authors view

Commonly held belief


Anecdote
Generalization
Thesis

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However
(other contrast signal)
Authors view
(thesis)

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PRINCIPLES OF ESSAY WRITING V


Writing the Body
The body of the basic academic essay, which is the main part, usually consists of three or four paragraphs
which support the thesis statement. In other words, each topic sentence is related and deals with the
controlling ideas in the thesis. Each set of supporting sentences that follow a topic sentence relates directly to
that topic sentence. We have seen how this works in the diagram of paragraph relationships within an essay
in Principles of Essay Writing III.
The writer develops these paragraphs and uses linking information or transitions to make sure that the
paragraphs flow smoothly from one to the other. Study the sample essays in the previous lessons to see how
this is done.
Exercise 1
Read this essay and write an outline of it. How are the paragraphs linked to each other?

Why do We Lie?
As little children, most of us were taught the virtue of honesty from fairy tales and other stories. The
story of Pinocchio, who begins life as a puppet, teaches us the importance of telling the truth. The boy who
lied by crying wolf too many times lost all his sheep as well as the trust of his fellow villagers. Even
though we know that honesty is the best policy, why do we often lie in our everyday lives? The fact is that
we lie for many reasons.
We sometimes lie to minimize our mistakes. While its true that we all make blunders sometimes,
some of us dont have the courage to admit them because we might be blamed for the errors. For example,
student might lie to their teachers about unfinished homework. They might say they left the work at home
when, in fact, they didnt even do the work. These students dont want to seem irresponsible, so they make
up an excusea lieto save face.
Another reason we lie is to get out of situations that we dont want to be in. if we just dont want to
attend the dorm meeting early on Saturday morning, we might give this excuse: Ive been fighting off a cold
all week, and I need to sleep on Saturday morning, but Ill be sure to attend the next meeting. We lie
because we believe that telling the truth will cause problems. We may feel an obligation to maintain good
relations with our dorm mates. When we dont know how to say no and face whatever problems that may
cause, we often use lies to avoid difficulties.
However, lies are not always negative; in fact, two kinds of lies can yield positive results. The first is
commonly referred to as a white lie. We tell white lies when we dont want to hurt other peoples feelings.
For example, if a good friend shows up with an unflattering new haircut, we could be truthful and say, That
haircut looks awful. It doesnt suit you at all! Instead we are more likely to lie and say, I like your haircut.
It looks good on you, and spare our friends feelings. The second kind of positive lie is the protective lie.
This one can help up get out of or avoid dangerous situations. Parents often teach their children to use this
kind of lie. For example, parents tell their children not to say that they are home alone if they receive phone
calls from strangers. In this situation, lying can prevent harm or disaster.
People lie for many reasons, both good and bad. However, before we resort to lying to cover up
mistakes or to avoid unpleasant situations, perhaps we should rethink our motives for lying. We never know
when our lies might be exposed and cause us embarrassment or the loss of peoples trust.

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Transition Signals between Paragraphs


Transition signals are important not only within paragraphs but also between paragraphs. If you write two or
more paragraphs, you need to show the relationship between your first and second paragraph, between your
second and third paragraph, and so on.
Think of transitions between paragraphs as the inks of a chain. The links of a chain connect the
chain; they hold it together. Similarly, a transition signal between two paragraphs links your ideas together.
Two paragraphs are linked by adding a transition signal to the topic sentence of the second
paragraph. This transition signal may be a single word, a phrase, or a dependent clause that repeats or
summarizes the main idea in the first paragraph.
Study the following model, and notice how the paragraphs are linked by a single word, a phrase, or a
clause.
Model Paragraph Transition.
Aggressive Drivers
The number of vehicles on freeways and streets is increasing at an
Introductory alarming rate. This influx of motor vehicles is creating hazardous
paragraph conditions. Moreover, drivers are in a rush to get to their destinations that
many become angry or impatient with other motorists who are too slow or
who are in their way. Aggressive drivers react foolishly toward others in
several dangerous ways.
Body paragraph 1
Aggressive Drivers
The number of vehicles on freeways and streets is increasing at an
Introductory alarming rate. This influx of motor vehicles is creating hazardous
paragraph conditions. Moreover, drivers are in a rush to get to their destinations that
many become angry or impatient with other motorists who are too slow or
who are in their way. Aggressive drivers react foolishly toward others in
several dangerous ways.
Body paragraph 1

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DISCUSSION SKILLS

DISCUSSION SKILLS

DISCUSSION ETIQUETTE

THE LANGUAGE

OF DISCUSSION

MINI

DISCUSSION

DISCUSSING

CASE FOR
A

PROBLEM

GIVING SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION

PREPARING

USEFUL LANGUAGE

PRACTISING

GIVING

YOUR

YOUR

YOUR

PRESENTATION
FOR YOUR

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

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Discussion Skills

Reasons for having a discussion


o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

It helps you to understand a subject more deeply.


It improves your ability to think critically.
It helps in solving a particular problem.
It helps the group to make a particular decision.
It gives you the chance to hear other people ideas
It improves your English.
It increases your confidence in speaking.
It can change your attitudes.

Strategies for improving discussion skills


Asking questions and joining in discussions are important skills for university study. If you find it
difficult to speak or ask questions in your classes, try the following strategies.

Observe
Attend as many seminars and discussions as possible and notice what other people do. Ask
yourself:

How do other people make critical comments?


How do they ask questions?
How do they disagree with or support arguments?
What special phrases do they use to show politeness, even when they are voicing disagreement?
How do they signal to interrupt, ask a question or make a point?

Practice:
A. Start practicing your discussion skills in an informal setting or with a small group. Start with
asking questions of fellow students. Ask them about the course material. Ask for their opinions.
Ask for information or ask for help.
B. Using the following topic about jokes, start the discussion in small group by taking notes about
your own remarks and prepare some questions to ask, or be ready to agree with another
speakers remarks.

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Discussion Etiquette
(or minding your manners)
Do:

Dont:

speak pleasantly and politely to the group.


respect the contribution of all speakers.
remember that a discussion is not an argument. Learn to
disagree politely.
think about your contribution before you speak. How best
can you answer the question /contribute to the topic?
try to stick to the discussion topic. Dont introduce
irrelevant information.
Be aware of your body language when you are speaking.
agree with and acknowledge what you find interesting.

lose your temper. A discussion is not an


argument.
Shout. Use a moderate tone and medium pitch.
use too many gestures when you speak.
Gestures like finger pointing and table
thumping can appear aggressive.
dominate the discussion. Confident speakers
should allow quieter student a chance to
contribute.
draw too much on personal experience or
anecdote, although some tutors encourage
students to reflect on their own experience

THE LANGUAGE OF DISCUSSION


To help you participate actively in a discussion or a debate in English, a list of useful expressions has been
prepared for various stages in the discussion.
1. Beginning the discussion:
Id like to begin by .
2. Generalizing:
On the whole
In general,
3. Concluding:
Let me conclude by saying that .
In conclusion, I would like to say again that
Giving or Asking for Opinions:
After mastering the phrases for the main stages in a discussion, here are some other phrases that are useful
when giving your opinions or asking for opinions.
1. Asking for an opinion:
What is your opinion of ?
What do you think of/about ..?
2. Asking for a reaction:
What do you think (about that)?
I wonder if you would like to comment, Ida?
3. Giving opinions
Im certain that ..
I strongly believe that .
I think that ..
4. Summarizing:
To summarize, I think we disagree / are in agreement on .

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Phrases to express agreement or disagreement which can be strong, partial, or neutral. Even strong
disagreement can be softened by adding a few words.
1. Expressing agreement/disagreement:
I completely agree.
I agree in principle, but .
I dont agree at all.
I dont think you are right.
Im afraid I dont completely agree with you on that.
2. Phrases used to interrupt people:
It is usually not polite to interrupt someone who is talking. However, in a discussion it is acceptable when the
interruption is made at the right moment, i.e., during a pause in what the speaker is saying, when the speaker
hesitates, or when he/she is changing from one subject to another. To interrupt somebody in mid-sentence is
normally impolite.
a. Interrupting:
Sorry to interrupt, but ..
I dont want to interrupt, but .
b. Commenting:
( A comment is normally short and relevant to what the speaker has just said)
I wonder if I could comment on that last point?
Excuse me, but Id just like to point out that.
c. Coming back to a point:
(Many interruptions are requests for clarification and as soon as you have given the necessary information,
you return to what you were saying by using one of these phrases.)
As I was saying ..
To return to .
d. Rejecting an interruption:
Perhaps I could return to that point later on
If you would be so kind as to let me finish
3. Phrases for requesting clarification, repetition, correcting misunderstandings and asking general
questions.
a. Asking for Confirmation:
Correct me if Im wrong, but .
Are you saying that .
b. Asking for a Repetition:
Im sorry, I dont quite understand what you mean.
Im afraid I didnt quite get your last point. Could you go over it again, please?
c. Correcting Misunderstandings:
I think youve misunderstood me.
That isnt quite what I meant.
d. Rephrasing:
Perhaps I havent made myself clear. What Im trying to say is .
Let me rephrase that ..

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e. Asking for further information:


Could you elaborate on that?
Could you give some details about
f. Giving yourself time to think when someone asks a question:
Thats a very interesting question.
Thats a difficult question to answer.
g. Saying nothing:
(These phrases are useful to avoid giving an answer.)
Well, its rather difficult to say at present.
Im afraid I dont have enough information to answer that question (right now).
h. Questioning:
(These phrases, again, give you time to think of an answer. You can throw the question back at the speaker
who is obliged to explain what he/she means.)
Im not quite sure what you mean by that.
Sorry. I dont understand. Could you please restate your question?

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MINI CASE FOR DISCUSSION

Choose one the following cases and discuss it with your group.
Case Study 1: Batik
Lately, wearing batik has been considered the newest style. Batik is promoted by many
Indonesian young designers who design various modern clothes from batik. People from a wide
range of age can be seen wearing it at many occasions, while they used to wear it for formal
occasions only. This is a very positive trend because it increases the sense of nationality and
develops batik industry throughout the country. Nevertheless, it seems that the trend does not affect
the wearer in terms of knowledge. Many people wear batik for the sake of being stylish and up-todate, but they still have little knowledge about the story behind the material itself.
In a group of 4, discuss what must be done in order to promote genuine awareness about
Indonesian culture and to motivate people to learn more about batik.

Case Study 2: Laws against giving money to street beggars.


A recent public order bylaw in Jakarta forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers, car
windscreen cleaners, and street kids, or the buying of food or goods from illegal roadside stalls.
On 10th September 2007, all seven parties represented at the city council agreed on the bylaw,
which is intended to replace a 1988 regulation and is hoped to make Jakarta a more orderly city.
Punishments for transgressions are jail for between 10 and 60 days or fines ranging from 100,000
rupiah ($11) to 20 million rupiah ($2,100).
Jornal Effendi Siahaan of the City Councils Law section explained that giving money to beggars
only makes such people dependent on random charity in public places and causes them to see
begging as their occupation in life. He is also worried about the existence of beggar syndicates,
whereby the humble beggar becomes a stooge manipulated by more clever and greedy controllers.
Whats more, easy money from begging only encourages the movement of more and more unskilled and
jobless people to the city, causing further social problems.
Meanwhile, according to the Jakarta Post, Yayat Supriatna, a sociologist at Trisakti University,
stated that the fundamental thing here is that many beggars and street vendors are those who
come from rural areas because they cant find jobs there and so they are trying their luck here, the
centre of business. In the meantime, the administration is not ready for the massive influx of rural
people, either in terms of policy or providing facilities for such people.
Yayat said it was peculiar for the administration to complain that it was being burdened by poor
people who made the city filthy when it was the government that was not providing jobs for the
poor. Instead it is the Jakarta people who were doing so because they feel sympathy for beggars
and such people.

You and your friends are high ranking officials of the Department of Social Affairs and have been asked by
the Governor of Jakarta to find the best solution to the problem.

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DISCUSSING A PROBLEM
Some useful language to lead a discussion/meeting:
1. Introducing the subject:
The purpose of todays discussion/meeting is
The first matter/problem/issue we have to consider is
2. Giving an opportunity for someone else to speak
Mira, would you like to say something about this?
What are your views on this, Erna?
Lusi, do you have anything you want to say about.?
3. Finishing a point
Does anyone have anything further to say before we move on to the next point?
4. Directing
This isnt really relevant to our discussion. What were trying to do is ..
Could you stick to the subject, please?
5. Keeping order
We cant all speak at once. Ben, would you like to speak first?
6. Moving to a vote and voting
Could we take a vote on this? Those who agree, would you raise our hands? Those against?
It seems that everyone is in favour.
The proposal has been rejected by 6 votes to 4.
7. Closing the discussion
Well, I think that covers everything. Thank you.
Thats all for today. Thank you.
The Problems to Solve:

The Indonesian government is constitutionally bound to protect freedom of religion and the
right of all people to practice their faith. This includes religious minorities in the country.
However, followers of a sect have been attacked and urged to return to mainstream by the
fundamentalists who do not hesitate to attack their places of worship too. As a result, the sect
followers live in terror and find it difficult to practice their faith. Despite this worrying
condition and the governments obligation to protect the rights of the people to practice their
religion, the authorities have been halfhearted in coming to the rescue of the victimslet
alone providing sense of security for them.

There is going to be a Talk Show to discuss this problem. Some representatives of the government, the sect,
and the fundamentalists have been invited. Divide these roles among the members of your group. Choose
one to be the moderator.

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I. Preparing your presentation


There are eight stages to preparing a presentation.
1. Objectives
Why are you giving this talk?
Who will you be talking to?
How much do they (the audience) know about the subject already?
What effect do you want your presentation to have?
2. Limitations
How long have you got?
Do you have to follow a certain format?
Where will you be giving your presentation?
Can you change the room around to suit your preferences?
3. Main points
Decide on your main points: no more than three points in a 10-minute talk.
Is there a logical connection between these points?
What evidence can you produce to support your points and make your case clear?
4. Beginning
Youll need to get the audiences attention, so introduce yourself.
Check that they can see and hear you all right.
Tell them what your topic is.
Tell them how youll discuss it:
How long is your presentation going to be?
How many parts are there?
Will you take questions as you proceed?
Will you invite discussion at the end?
5. Middle
Prepare your talk so you lead the audience through your main points in a logical and interesting
fashion. It helps if you put variety in the ways you present your case.
Where they are appropriate, you could plan to use:
Examples, anecdotes and case histories
Charts and graphs
Handouts given out at the start, in the middle, or at the end of the presentation
Slides, Video clips, or Objects which people can pass round.
6. End
Summarise the main points of your presentation and make your conclusions. If possible leave the
audience a parting shot to stimulate their thoughts.

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7. And then
When you have written your presentation, look it over carefully, from the viewpoint of:
your intended audience
Does it meet the objectives?
Is the structure as logical as can be?
Is it too long?
Then revise the presentation.
8. Visuals
Prepare your visuals (PowerPoint slides, Overhead projector foils, etc.)
Make sure they are clear, and that any text is big enough (no smaller than 5% of screen size, or 24
point)

II. Useful language for your Presentations


Giving a presentation in your own language can be one of the hardest things you ever have to dogiving a
presentation in English for many people, can be a nightmare. Making use of some of the following phrases in
your presentation will make you feel much more confident.
1. The Introduction
At the beginning of any presentation (once you have greeted your audience and introduced yourself, of
course!) it is important to make clear the subject of your presentation, how long you are gong to speak and
the way in which you have arranged your presentation. You also need to tell the audience the best time for
asking questions.
So, the opening of a presentation could sound something like this:
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for coming this morning. My name is
__________, and for the next 20 minutes I shall be talking to you about our new product
product X. If you have any questions while Im speaking, please save them for the end of the
presentation.
Of course, if you dont mind being interrupted, then you say, instead of the last sentence:
If you have any questions while Im speaking, please dont hesitate to interrupt me.
Next. You need to explain to your audience how you have organized your presentation. Perhaps you could
say:
I have divided my presentation into three parts: the history and development of Product X; the
use and application of Product X; and the marketing implications of the product. At the end, I
hope to have some time to be able to answer your questions.
Once you have completed the introductiononce you have told the audience what you are going to sayyou
begin the main part of the presentation. You will find it helpful to prepare some phrases which link your
ideas.

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2. The Main body


In this part of the presentation you are probably going to need bridging language to make it clear to your
audience that you have finished one point and are about to move on to another. Ideally, the move from one
subject to another will be smooth and easy. Some of these phrases might be useful:

And that brings me nicely on to my next point


One point that follows from A is B
Talk of A naturally leads us to consider B

If the links between subject matter are not so easy, then one of these phrases may be necessary:

So thats it for A. Now lets turn to B .


Now, quite distinct from A, we have B
That covers A so what about B ?

Also during the main presentation it is likely that you will want to show your audience some overheads.
Useful languages to introduce these include:

I have prepared an overhead to illustrate this


This point can be seen more clearly in visual form
Lets have a look at this transparency

Throughout the presentation, it is important to keep things as simple as possible. Short, clear statements are
worth a lot more than complicated explanations. The easier it is for you to say, the easier it will be for your
audience to understand.

3. The Conclusion
When you have finished the presentation, dont forget the conclusion. Your conclusion should briefly touch
on all the points you have made.
These phrases will be helpful for this stage of the presentation:

Before I finish, let me just summarize the main points


By way of conclusion, here again are the most important points
To sum up, then, the main aspects of this are

Then, having repeated the main points you should end by thanking your audience and indicating what is
going to happen next, like this:

186

Thank you for your attention, ladies and gentlemen. If there are any questions, Id be delighted to
answer them
That concludes all I have to say on the subject. I hope that I have given you a clear picture of the
problems and opportunities. Perhaps we should now adjourn for a coffee.
Thank you again for giving me this chance to speak to you, ladies and gentlemen. I hope that you
have found the time well spent.

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III. Practising your presentation


Once you have prepared, you need to do five things before you actually give your presentation.

1. Practise
Practise giving your talk on your own.
Get used to the sound of your own voice, ideally in a room of the size you will be using.
Check how long your talk is.
When youre happy with it, try the presentation out on a friend.

2. Visuals
Are your visuals effective?
Practise using your visuals?
Practise talking to the audience, not to the screen.
Practise combining giving your talk with changing the slides.

3. Script
Does the script need tightening up or rewriting?
What form will your final script take?
Will your script be the complete text printed in a large typeface? If so, take care to stay in touch
with your audience, rather than just reading your script to them.
Will your script be key words on index cards? If so, take care to keep the cards in sequence.

4. Space
Arrive in good time:
Spend a few minutes getting familiar with the room and any audio-visual equipment youll be
using.
Allow yourself time to get comfortable in the spacethis is your space where you will give
your talk.

5. Breathing
When people are nervous, they tend to take quick, shallow breaths, which makes their voice
sound weak. This makes them feel even more nervous.
Heres how to overcome this, and feel more relaxed.
a) Breathe in slowly and deeply, concentrating on filling your tummy with air with each breath
b) Breathe out slowly, getting rid of as much air as you can
c) Repeat a) and b) five times

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IV. Giving your presentation


There are four things to remember during your presentation:

1. Presence
As you get up to give your presentation, make a conscious effort to stand tall, take a deep breath and look
as if you enjoy being there.

2. Eye contact
Make eye contact with people in your audience in a friendly way. People respond much better when they
think you are talking to them, not just reading your script to yourself. In a small room, try to make eye
contact with each person in the audience; in a larger hall, make eye contact with different groups in the
audience.

3. Voice

Speak slowly and clearly.


Remember to breathe slowly and deeply.
Speak clearly.
Speak loudly enough so everyone can hear. If you are not sure if they can hear you clearly, ask if
they can.

4. Move
You are allowed to move as you give your presentation. It can help add variety and interest to come to the
front of the podium to deliver a telling point. Try to avoid hiding behind the lectern.

Good luck with your presentations.


Remember that the audiences are on your side: they want you to do well!

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1.

HOW TO HEAR ENGLISH EVERYWHERE

2.

COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE

3.

LISTENING TO NEWS

4.

LISTENING AND NOTE-TAKING

5.

ENGLISH A GLOBAL LANGUAGE

6.

RIGHT AND WRONG ON THE NET

7.

DNA THE MOLECULE OF LIFE

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How to Hear English Everywhere


Two simple definitions

to hear: to receive sound with the ears


to listen: to try to hear

You are very good at languages. Thats obvious, because you already speak one language very wellyour
own! And if you can learn and speak one language well, then you can certainly learn and speak one or more
other languages.
But did you ever ask yourself: How did I learn my own language? In fact, you never really learned it at
allyou just started speaking it. One day, when you were about two or three years old, you started speaking
your language. A few words at first, not full sentences. But you spoke. And very soon you made progress
without even thinking about it. It was like magic!
But it wasnt magic. It was the result of hearing. For two to three years before you spoke, you heard people
speaking your language all day, and maybe all night. You heard people speaking your language. Maybe
you listened to people, but more importantly you heard them. Then, as if by magic, you started to speak. All
that hearing was necessary for you to start speaking. For two to three years words went IN to your head.
Then words came OUT of your head! That is why hearing (and listening to) English as much as possible is
so important to you now. The more English you put in, the more youll get out!
So the important question is, how can you hear a lot of English when youre not in an English-speaking
country or family? Fortunately, there are many ways of hearing English in almost all countries of the word.
Discuss this with your partner and report back to the whole class.

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Communication and Culture


Pre-Listening Activity
Every culture has its own communication style. Think about your culture. Check () your answers.
When people have conversation, do
they
A

interrupt each other?


disagree directly?
touch the other person when talking?
say no directly?

Do students call out answers in class?

Someone invites you to a party that starts


at 08:00. When should you arrive?

Often

Yes, often
Exactly on
time

When someone offers you something, what should you


do?

Sometimes

Not very
often

Yes,
sometimes

No, not very


often

A little early

A little late

Take it right
away

Say no the
first time it is
offered

Work with a partner. Compare answers.


When your answers are different, explain your reasons. Try to give examples.

Listening to Conversation
Listen. People are describing conversation styles in three cultures. Which things are OK to do? Check ()
the boxes. Which are NOT OK? Put an (X) in the boxes. Try to write brief reasons, too, for each answer.

Behavior

Latin America

Korea

Saudi Arabia

1. Touching the other person


while speaking
2. Interrupting someone
3. Saying no directly
4. Disagreeing with someone
5. Calling out answers in class

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Post Listening Activity


Cultures have different ideas about personal spacehow close people generally like to sit or stand from
each other. People in the Middle East stand the closest. Each of the other groups below stands a little farther
away. People in the East Asia stand the farthest away.

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Listening to News
Section 1
Listen to the 6 oclock news and answer the following questions
Tick the THREE other items which are mentioned in the news headlines.

Complete the notes below in brief in the spaces provided.

The government plans to give (1) $ . to assist the farmers.


This money was to be spent on improving Sydneys (2)
but has now been re-allocated. Australia has experienced its worst drought in over fifty years.
Farmers say that the money will not help them because it is (3) ...

An aeroplane which was carrying a group of (4) . was


forced to land just (5) minutes after take-off. The
passengers were rescued by (6) . The operation was
helped because of the good weather. The passengers thanked the pilot for saving their lives
but unfortunately they lost their (7) .

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SECTION 2
You will listen to Helpful Hints through the radio. Complete the notes below based on the information you
get from the presenter.

There are many kinds of bicycles available:


racing
touring
(1)
ordinary
They vary in price and (2) ...
Prices range from $50.00 to (3) ...
Single speed cycles are suitable for (4) .
Three speed cycles are suitable for (5) ..
Five and ten speed cycles are suitable for longer distances, hills and (6).
Ten speed bikes are better because they are (7). in price but (8)
.
Buying a cycle is like (9) .
The size of the bicycle is determined by the size of the (10) .
Source: Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom,

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LISTENING & NOTE-TAKING

Learning from academic lectures


Discuss the following questions:

What do you think the purpose of lectures is?


What do good lectures do?
What problems do lectures pose for students?

Lectures are not simply meant to present information, but to:

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Comprehension of academic lectures


What things do you think are involved in comprehension of an academic lecture?
To comprehend a lecture, a listener has to:

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

What are the features of a good lecture?


To be comprehensible, a lecture should:

Be structured, with an introduction that gives a map of the whole talk and ideas organized in a clear
way

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

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Selecting what to record and writing your notes


You should make notes selectively, aiming to record only the information that you need so that you do not
end up with incomplete information or masses of information that you have difficulty finding your way
through.
During a lecture you have to do three things:

attend to and make sense of the information in the lecture


think critically about the information
take notes of some kind

You cannot do them all at the same time and you need to monitor what you are doing, so that you do not
miss an important point in the lecture. It is not necessary to write full, complete notes during the entire
lecture. Sometimes briefer notes my be better.
It is useful to use graphic and visual features to distinguish different kinds of information. For example, you
can use arrows, lines, boxes, and brackets to show the relationships and connections. You should also use
abbreviations and symbols to help you speed up the note-taking process. The most important thing is that
you use these consistently enough so that you can recall the meaning when you read your notes.
Many words can be abbreviated by simply omitting letters at the end and adding a full stop for examples
admin. administration
atten. attention
apt.
- apartment
What other important words can you abbreviated in this way?

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
There are also abbreviations from Latin which are widely used. Some of them are listed below. Add some
more examples in the list below.

Abbreviations
e.g.
cf.
etc.
i.e.
viz.

Meaning
for example, such as
compare

Quite a number of logical relationships are represented with mathematical symbols, for examples:
> = is greater than
= grows, increases, rises

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Think of other symbols and abbreviations you might use and try to think of your own symbols or
abbreviation that you often use.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
It is essential to remember three basics rules for making notes:
1. be selective
- decide what is important according to the speaker and according to your
knowledge of the subject.
2. be brief

- use abbreviations and symbols

3. be clear

- show how the speakers ideas and arguments are related to each other.

Types of notes
You need to consider the different forces that are pressing on you and influencing the quality and usability of
your notes. They are time, comprehension, your power of attention and you note taking goals. You do not
have much control over these. However one thing you can make strategic choices about is the form you put
your notes in. there are many ways of taking notes. Two of them are linear and visual notes.

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Linear/ Outline notes

The art of Reading Actively


A. Active = purposeful, critical, questioning.
B. Look for Main Ideas
1. Survey (SQ3R) for general ones
2. Read paragraphs for more specific ones
a. Each para usually has one main idea
b. Usually in Topic Sentence (1 st or last)
C. Look for Important Details
1. e.g. proof, example, support for main idea
2. Usually at least one per main idea
3. Which do I consider important?
D. In hunt for main idea and important details
1. Watch for signposts
a) Visual (layout, etc)
b) Verbal (clue words)
2. Strong diagrams, etc
3. Dont ignore difficulties
E. Evaluate the test
1. Be skeptical (Expect the author to prove)
2. Compare with my own experience
3. What do I get from it?
4. Discuss with other students
F. Make notes
1. If need them (for my purposes)
2. At recall stage (of SQ3R)
3. Compare with other students
G. Concentrate:
1. By seeking understanding (not memorization)
2. and see chapter 4 hints
H. Vary reading speed:
1. according to purpose
2. but not at expense of understanding
Liner/outline notes my be more effective if they:
are built around complete, comprehensible phrases
show the relationship between information or relative importance of information
allow plenty of white space so that you can add more text at any point later in the lecture
have a rule-off margin so that you can write your own question, comments or criticisms

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Visual/ pattern notes


The key concept is placed in a circle or box in the center of the page and related ideas or subtopics are
connected in a pattern spreading out. Sometimes, this type of notes is called a brain map.

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Lecture comprehension and note-taking practice


Listening for the larger picture
You are going to hear a lecture entitled Lectures and Note taking. Listen to the lecture once without taking
notes. After you hear it, answer the following question: What is the speakers main point?
Note-taking practice
Now take notes on a separate piece of paper. Remember that your notes should be selective, brief and clear.
The tape will be played once only without stopping.
Comparison of notes
Compare your notes with those of a friend.
If there were parts of the talk you could not follow, ask your friend to explain them to you.
If there were parts that neither of you cold understand, see whether the others in the class can help you.
Use what you have noted down to summarize the speakers main points.

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English:
a Global Language ?

Pre-listening Activity
Discuss these questions in groups of four or five.
1. When do people use English in non-English speaking countries like Indonesia?
2. Why is English used in the above situations? Why dont people use the First language of the country or
another foreign language?
3. Do you think English will one day replace Indonesian as the most important language
in our country?

Vocabulary Preview
A. The underlined words below are from the lecture you are going to listen to. Read each sentence. Write
the letter of the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined word.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____

to make it easier for something to happen


to accept or admit that something is true
share
to decrease in quality
able to speak a language very well
in spite of what has just been mentioned

g. to keep something in good condition


h. started being used instead of another person
or thing
i. clearly
j. able to do something with a high level of
skill.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Many people acknowledge the importance of knowing English.


English is obviously the most important foreign language in Indonesia.
What characteristics do Indonesian and Malaysian have in common?
They decided a meeting might facilitate better communication at work.
You need to use a language you have learnt in order to maintain it.
Because she is a proficient writer, she handles all letters in our office.
He became fluent in English after he lived in New York.
He is great at English now, but his ability may decline after he goes back home.
He only studied English for one month; nevertheless, he decided he knew enough to
travel alone.
10. English has replaced French in many international Situations.

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B. Look at the information on word forms below. Them complete the chart with the correct forms. Use a
dictionary to check your answers.
-ate indicates the action (verb)
-or indicates a person who does the action (noun)
-ion indicates the result of the action (noun)
Verb
facilitate
communicate

Noun

Noun

creator
generation
education

Strategies for Taking Notes


At the beginning of a lecture, the speaker often says how the lecture will be organized. This is the time for
you to decide how to organize your notes. Listen for signal words or phrases that help you organize your
notes on paper.
Read the introduction to a lecture on global music. Work with a partner. Underline words and phrases that
tell you how the lecture will be organized. Decide on one way you would organize your notes based on the
introduction.
Today, Ill give you two contrasting points of view on global music. Some people have said that the
quick spread of music is destroying art. They feel it will weaken the traditional music of each
country, and eventually music everywhere will sound the same. There is another way of thinking
about what is happening now; namely, that it is an exciting development. Recording makes it
possible for musicians to create new types of music and for us to have a wide variety of musical
experiences. Is global music a good thing, or a bad thing?
Look at the following example of notes based on the introduction above. The notes are organized in two
columns, for and against, based on the signal phrase two contrasting points of view. Work with a
partner. Add more ideas to each column.

For
-Exciting change

202

Global Music
Against
- Music everywhere will sound the same

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Listening to the Lecture


A. Use the following table to take notes while listening to the lecture.
English as a global Language
For

Against

Listening for Main Ideas


B. Use your notes to answer the questions below. Circle a, b or c.
1. What is the main reason given for the widespread use of English?
a. English is the most beautiful language in the world.
b. People need a common language in the world.
c. Many people use the Internet.
2. Which reason is NOT given to argue that English is a global language?
a. English is the main language in many countries.
b. English is the official language in many countries.
c. English is the only language used in international meetings.
3. According to the lecture, what is one reason why English should be considered a global language?
a. Everyone who speaks English uses it at home.
b. An estimated one billion people study English every year.
c. Many people need to study English each year.
4. According to the lecture, what is one reason why English should NOT be considered a global language?
a. Many people who speak English are not fluent in it.
b. Other languages, such as French, are used at international business meeting.
c. Many people need to study English each year.
5. The speaker says that English isnt really a global language. What is the main reason given for this?
a. English is the official language of seventy-five countries.
b. There are millions of people in English-speaking countries whose first language is English.
c. English is not replacing other languages for daily communication.

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Listening for details


Close your book. Listen to the lecture again while looking at your notes. Add supporting details to your notes
and correct the mistakes.

After you have listened to the lecture read the statements below and decide whether they are TRUE or
FALSE. Use your notes to correct the statements that are FALSE and make them TRUE.
1. There are 3.5 billion people in the world who study English every year. __________
2. The European Union uses only English in its meetings. __________
3. More than 75 countries use English as the official language. __________
4. The speaker says that all Internet users know English. __________
5. Most people in India speak English, one of the official languages. ___________
6. Airspeak is a good example of using English for specific situations. __________
7. The speaker believes that English will no longer be the main language used in international settings.
_________
8. The speaker believes that English will not replace other languages. __________

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Right and Wrong


on the Net

Pre-Listening
A. Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1. Has anyone every stolen information from you or your computer?
2. Do you think its OK to open and read some elses email?
2. Is it wrong to down load music from the internet?
3. Read the situations below. Would it be acceptable to copy a term paper from the Internet or from a friend
in any of these circumstances?
You have been sick.
You have a part-time job and dont have enough free time.
Youre having a hard time understanding the class.
You dont like the topic of the term paper.
B. Vocabulary Preview
The underlined words below are from a lecture you are going to listen to. Circle the letter of the word or
phrase that is closest in meaning to the boldface word.
1. Don't interfere with their plans. They have to decide by themselves what to do.
a. forget to
b. get involved
c. make easier
2. The programmers have to alter the software because it doesnt work right.
a. change
b. eliminate
c. sell
3. The police enforce the speed limit and give tickets to anyone driving too fast.
a. make people obey
b. decide on
c. forget about
4. Ignoring safety rules can have potentially tragic consequences.
a. punishments
b. results
c. signs
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5. In the 1990s, the last decade of the twentieth century, Internet use increased rapidly.
a. part
b. critical time
c. ten-year period
6. He kept the door closed in order to have privacy.
a. a phone call
b. ability to be alone
c. a nap
7. He feels out of place because he comes from a different background.
a. style
b. scenery
c. environment
8. These guidelines make clear what each person is expected to do.
a. programs
b. letters
c. general rules
9. In this university, it is not acceptable to use sandals to class.
A considered good enough
b. considered wrong
c. considered impressive
10. The University plans to utilize more computers for teaching language.
a. buy
b. train
c. use

C. You will hear a lecture on computer ethics. The speaker will discuss some rules for using computers,
such as Dont use someone elses computer without asking. What are two other rules that might be
mentioned.
1.____________________________________________________________________
2.____________________________________________________________________

Listening
A. Now listen to the lecture and take notes.
B. Use your notes to answer the questions below. Circle a, b, or c.
1. What is the main purpose of the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics?
a. to help people utilize new software better.
b. to help all computer users think about acceptable computer use.
c. to help companies enforce rules of computer use.
2. Which of the following would the speaker not consider an ethical action?
a. helping a neighbour.
b. giving truthful information on your web site.
c. reading someones email without permission.

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3. Whats the speakers point in saying there are situations on the Internet in which you have to decide if
you are stealing or not?
a. Ethical boundaries are never clear.
b. It is not always clear whether our old ethics apply to the Internet or not.
c. There are situation of widespread stealing from the Internet.
4. What goal do Commandments Six, Seven, and Eight share?
a. getting people to use computer resources
b. getting people to use Internet connections wisely
c. getting people to respect the property of others
5. What are the two principles behind the guidelines?
a. fairness and respect
b. fair use of resources and plagiarism
c. respect and appropriation
6. Which statement would the Computer Ethics Institute agree with?
a. Acceptable use policies are a good way to utilize the ten rules.
b. Acceptable use policies need to be enforced by the police.
c. Acceptable use policies should be decided on by the students.

C. Listening for Details


Listen to the lecture again while checking the notes you took on the previous page. Add supporting detains to
you notes and correct any mistakes.
Use your notes to decide if the statements are true or false. Write T (true) or F (false). Correct the false
statements.
_____1. The speaker believes we all share clear rules of ethical computer use.
_____2. The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics are laws the Institute
enforces.
_____3. Another way to say Thou shalt not snoop is respect other peoples
privacy.
_____4. Plagiarism is an example of appropriating someone elses work.
_____5. Editing someone elses files without their permission is an example of
interfering with someone elses work.
_____6. The speaker would agree that using someones password without telling them
is acceptable.
_____7. The speaker says that to appropriate someones ideas means to say someones
ideas are your own.
_____8. The speaker believes that hackers are concerned about the social consequences
of what they do.

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_____9. According to the guidelines, its acceptable to put whatever you want to on
your web site.
_____10. The Computer Ethics Institute tells schools to enforce these rules.

D. With a partner try to complete The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics below.
1. _____________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________________________
6. _____________________________________________________________
7. _____________________________________________________________
8. _____________________________________________________________
9. _____________________________________________________________
10. ____________________________________________________________

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Its in the DNA


Pre-Listening Activity
A. Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1. What do you know about DNA? What kinds of things can it tell us?
2. What is DNA testing used for?
3. Have you recently read or heard about a situation in which DNA testing was used? Tell your group about
it.
Vocabulary Preview
B. The underlined words below are from a lecture about DNA. Read each sentence. Circle the letter of the
word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined word.
1. The second half of the twentieth century was an important era for DNA research.
a. resource
b. period of time
c. experiment
2.

Applications of the new data include improved medical treatment and disease prevention.
a. uses
b. researchers
c. origins

3.

Researchers have found that some genes are linked to specific diseases.
a. relative
b. connected
c. subject

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4.

Water is a compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen.


a. something made up of two or more parts
b. programs of study
c. data collected during research

5.

The fundamental research was done in the 1860s; more advanced research came later.
a. next
b. basic
c. expensive

6.

The pattern in a DNA fingerprint can be used to identify someone,


a. result from a test
b. design made in a regular way
c. part of a person's hand

7.

The new discovery generated a. lot of excitement with the researchers.


a. ended
b. showed
c. made; produced

8.

His doctor told him that he has a potential for certain health problems.
a. no risk getting
b. possibility of getting
c. no chance of getting

9.

Hair and eye color are visible characteristics we inherit.


a. something that can be seen
b. having to do with ability
c. personality

10.

The police had enough evidence to trace the thief, so eventually they arrested him.
a. find
b. copy
c. fool

C. Fill in the blanks with the boldfaced words from Part A.


1. Police are still trying to ________ the missing child.
2. The seventeenth century was the ________ of the scientific revolution in Europe.
3. Research is a ________ part of scientific progress. You can't have progress without research.
4. A chemical ________ is made up of two or more elements.
5. There is a _________ for her to get the same disease her mother had.
6. Good research has always _________ more research. The more we learn, the more we want to learn.
7.

DNA testing has several _________, or uses.

8. A DNA fingerprint shows up as a(n) ___________, or design of black bars.

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9. Though there was no ________ evidence at the scene of the crime, the
police were able to collect tiny DNA samples.
10. The researchers believe that the changes in world-wide climate are ___________ to global warming.

Taking Better Notes


Using a Web to Cluster Ideas
One way to organize your notes is to make a web to show how ideas in a lecture are related. An advantage of
using a web is that you can write down the ideas quickly. After the lecture is finished, review your notes to
see if the relationship between the ideas is clear to you. If it is not clear, edit your web to make it clear.
Read the notes below. The topic is DNA. What are the subtopics? Draw lines between the subtopics and their
related details.

Intelligence

Hair Colour
Physical
characteristics

Behavioral
characteristics

DNA
Temperament

height

When you listen to a lecture, try to make a web. Write down main ideas and subtopics when you listen the
first time. Then add details and examples to your web.

Listening to the Lecture


You will hear a lecture about DNA and DNA testing.
A. Close your book. Listen to the lecture and take notes.

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B. Use your notes and check () the ideas below that were mentioned in the lecture.
_____ 1. DNA testing is difficult to do.
_____ 2. A DNA test sample is like a fingerprint because it is unique.
_____ 3. Scientists need to gather large samples in order to get a good DNA print.
_____ 4. The speaker considers the Human Genome Project an important
_____ 5. DNA testing can be used to identify a person's potential for developing

achievement.
serious illnesses.

_____ 6. The police use/can DNA testing to prove someone's guilt in a crime.
_____ 7. Information gathered from DNA testing can be used against people in a U.S. court.
_____ 8. Targeted medicine is based on all humans having the same DNA.

Listening for Details


A. Close your book. Listen to the lecture again. Add supporting details to your notes and correct any
mistakes.
B. The sentences below are not true. Use your notes to correct the sentences.
1.

In 1860, Crick and Watson described the DNA structure.

2. In 1962, scientists understood how cells tell DNA what to do.


3. Your DNA fingerprint is the same as your sister's or your brother's.
4. The patterns on a DNA fingerprint form unique blue lines.
5. The presence of a certain gene defect causes a person to develop a disease.
6. Scientists have found a genetic cause for Alzheimer's disease.
7. The speaker believes DNA doesn't tell us much about a person.
8. The speaker thinks there are more negative than positive effects of DNA testing.

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C. Some information is missing from the web below. Use your notes to complete the web.

__________________________(1)

Police
Free innocent people

DNA Testing

(2)

Alzheimers Disease
Identify health risks
(3)

Employers wont hire you


(4)

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+
get early treatment
(5)

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Extensive Reading

THIS PART IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE


STUDENTS WITH ADDITIONAL
READING ARTICLES
TO ENHANCE
THEIR
READING AND ANALYTICAL
SKILLS

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Extensive Reading

INTRODUCTION TO EXTENSIVE READING

Extensive reading is meant to help you develop the habit of reading huge amounts in English. By
reading a lot, you can improve your English significantly, particularly your vocabulary. This will be
very useful to help you succeed in your studies at university.

In this course you are required to read 4 articles. The articles are arranged according to the number
of words each contains, from about 800 to 200 words. You should select and read two passages
before the mid-term test. Read the other two articles before the final test. Fill out an article review
form provided at the end of the book (Form1) after reading each article and hand it in to your
teacher when you finish.

Happy Reading!

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Extensive Reading

HUMAN AGGRESSION
Anthony Storr
Penguin Books, 1971
Introduction
1

That man is an aggressive creature will hardly be disputed. With the exception of certain
rodents, no other vertebrate habitually destroys members of his own species. No other animal takes
positive pleasure in the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind. We generally describe the
most repulsive examples of mans cruelty as brutal or bestial, implying by these adjectives that such
behaviour is characteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. In truth, however, the
extremes of brutal behaviour are confined to man; and there is no parallel in nature to our savage
treatment of each other. The somber fact is that we are the cruelest and most ruthless species that has
ever walked the earth; and that, although we may recoil in horror when we read in newspaper or
history book of the atrocities committed by man upon man, we know in our hearts that each one of
us harbours within himself those same savage impulses which lead to murder, to torture and to war.

To write about human aggression is a difficult task because the term is used in so many
different senses. Aggression is one of those words which everyone knows, but which is nevertheless
hard to define. As psychologists and psychiatrists use it, it covers a very wide range of human
behaviour. The red-faced infant squalling for the bottle is being aggressive; and so is the judge who
awards a thirty-year sentence for robbery. The guard in a concentration camp who tortures his
helpless victim is obviously facing aggressively. Less manifestly, but no less certainly, so is the
neglected wife who threatens or attempts suicide in order to regain her husbands affection. When a
word becomes so diffusely applied that it is used both the competitive striving of a footballer and
also of the bloody violence of a murderer, it ought either to be dropped or else more closely defined.
Aggression is a portmanteau term which is fairly bursting at its seams. Yet, until we can more
clearly designate and comprehend the various aspects of human behaviour which are subsumed
under this head, we cannot discard the concept.

One difficulty is that there is no clear dividing line between those forms of aggression which
we all deplore and those which we must not disown if we are to survive. When a child rebels against
authority it is being aggressive; but it is also manifesting a drive towards independence which is a
necessary and valuable part of growing up. The desire for power has, in extreme form, disastrous
aspects which we all acknowledge; but the drive to conquer difficulties, or to gain mastery over the
external world, underlies the greatest of human achievements. So writers define aggression as that
response which follows frustration, or as an act whose goal-response is injury to an organism (or
organism surrogate). In the authors view these definitions impose limits upon the concept of
aggression which are not in accord with the underlying facts of human nature which the word is
attempting to express. It is worth noticing, for instance, that the words we use to describe intellectual
effort are aggressive words. We attack problems, or get out teeth into them. We master a subject
when we have struggled with and overcome its difficulties. We sharpen our wits, hoping that our
mind will develop a keen edge in order that we may better dissect a problem into its component
parts. Although intellectual tasks are often frustrating, to argue that all intellectual effort is the result
of frustration is to impose too negative a colouring upon the positive impulse to comprehend and
master the external world.

The aggressive part of human nature is not only a necessary safeguard against predatory
attack. It is also the basis of intellectual achievement, of the attainment of independence, an even of
that proper pride which enables a man to hold his head high amongst his fellows. This is no new
conception. The historian Gibbon, in a famous passage, displays a very similar idea of human nature
to that which psychotherapists profess. Whereas the later refer to sexual instincts and aggressive
instincts. Gibbon writes of the love of pleasure and the love of action:
To the love of pleasure we may therefore ascribe most of the agreeable, to the love of action we

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may attribute most of the useful and respectable qualifications. The character in which both the one
and the other should be united and harmonized would seem to constitute the most perfect idea of
human nature.

Gibbon recognizes quite clearly that the most deplorable manifestations of aggression share identical
roots with valuable and essential parts o human endeavour. Without the aggressive, active side of his
nature man would be even less able than he is to direct the course of his life or to influence the world
around him. In fact, it is obvious that man could never have attained his present dominance, nor even
have survived as a species, unless he possessed a large endowment of aggressiveness.
5

It is a tragic paradox that the very qualities which have led to mans extraordinary success
are also those most likely to destroy him. His ruthless drive to subdue or to destroy every apparent
obstacle in his path does not stop short at his own fellows; and since he now possesses weapons of
unparalleled destructiveness and also apparently lacks the built-in safeguards which prevent most
animals from killing others of the same species, it is not beyond possibility that he may yet
encompass the total elimination of homo sapiens.

What follows are the reflections of a psychotherapist upon the aggressive component in
human nature. The view which are put forward are anything but dogmatic. All psycho-therapists
suffer from the fact that, although their knowledge of a few people may be rather profound, their
conclusions are necessary drawn from a limited and highly selected sample of the population.
Moreover, many of the theories which are available in the practice of psychotherapy are difficult to
substantiate scientifically, because the psychotherapist is endeavouring to deal with the person as a
whole. Psychologists working in laboratories can construct experiments in which, for example,
aggressive emotions can be more or less separately aroused and studied; and the conclusions which
they reach can be statistically expressed. The disadvantage of nearly all such experiments is that the
situations upon which they are based are so restricted that they are far removed from life as it is
lived. Aggression, for example, is inextricably mingled with fear and sex in many situations. It is
very much to be hoped that, in time, there will be a rapprochement between the precise but limited
viewpoint of the experimentalist, and the less defined but wider conceptions of the psychotherapist.
In the meantime, we must do the best we can with incomplete and unproved hypotheses.

The present preoccupation of Western society with the problem o aggression is, of course,
dictated by the fear of destruction by nuclear weapons which overhangs us all. The problem of war
is more compelling than ever before in history. The complexities of the circumstances which
provoke war are such that no one man and no one viewpoint can possibly comprehend them all.
Anyone who promised a solution to a problem so perennial is too arrogant to be trusted; and no such
solution will be put forward here. The author believes, however, that if stability in world affairs is
ever to be achieved, the psychological point of view deserves equal consideration with the political,
economic and other aspects. The study of human aggression and its control is, therefore, relevant to
the problem of war although, alone, it cannot possibly provide a complete answer.

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TAKING RESPONSIBILTY
Now that it has become absurd to continue to maintain the fiction that climate change in the
form of global warming is part of a natural cycle, it is time for industriesall industriesto
accept accountability for the footprint they leave on this planet, writes Patrick
Guntensperger.
All future generations have the right to expect that the current generation is not prospering by writing
environmental checks that will be drawn on our childrens account. Everyone living has the responsibility of
leaving the planet in a condition that is acceptable to those who will inherit our environmental assets as well
as our planetary liabilities.
Resource-based industriesmining, oil and gas extraction, lumber and fisheries, and any other business that
gathers and sells the raw materials that exist on Planet Earthcan be said to have a special set of
responsibilities to the planet and the people who occupy it. A not unreasonable point of view is that those
industries take commodities that have been given to all the occupants of Earth and sell them at a profit to
their fellow occupants. Certainly those other occupants need those resources; certainly they benefit from
having them extracted, refined, and made available for use; nevertheless, those resources are a planetary
legacy from which a small segment of the planets population is reaping enormous profits.
Among the renewable resources industries is the fishing industry. It is only reasonable to expect that those
who catch and sell the creatures from our oceans do so in a way that ensures the survival of the species they
capture. Simply decimating fish populations, as was done to the codfish of the eastern North American
coastal fishing grounds, is not merely short-sighted; it is bad economics and worse business. Worse still; it is
immoral. To eliminate a population of animals that were once so plentiful that they could literally be
gathered by dipping buckets over the gunwales is a demonstration of greed so monumental it is staggering.
Of course, the fishing habits in this region are nothing to brag about either. Even the small, independent
fishermen from outlying islands know that blasting coral reefs with dynamite or pouring cyanide into the
waters to fill their boats for the market is wrong. They know that, but they do it anyway because there is a
profit to be made, and that comes first.
For those who make their living from theoretically renewable resources, the responsibility attached to their
actions is clear: ensure that the resource is actually renewed. Take what can be taken in a sustainable way.
Those who make a living by taking a species from the sea must also be stewards, responsible for the
sustainability and well-being of that species.
The partially renewable resource industries include the lumber and pulpwood industries. These are described
as partially renewable because, while the forests can be replanted and continue to produce timber and
pulpwood indefinitely, the virgin, first-growth ecosystem that was destroyed to cut the first shipment is gone
forever. The wildlife habitat, the biodiversity, the rare species that once occupied that parcel of land will not
regenerate in our lifetime or in hundreds of lifetimes. Nevertheless, the world continues to demand wood and
paper products; that demand is not going to go away any time soon, and the industries that supply that
demand will be around as long as there are trees.
What is unconscionable, however, is the rape and pillage approach that too many forestry companies take
and companies in Indonesia are the worst offenders in the world. For a company to wipe out a delicate
ecosystem by clearcutting millions of hectares of rainforest and then simply move on to the next virgin tract
of land, leaving nothing but a moonscape behind, has absolutely no acceptable justification.

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There are many ways to make forestry a truly sustainable industry. Selective logging, restricting the cut to
the annual growth rate, and above all, reforestation are all straightforward ways of using land that has already
been exploited and avoiding moving into the last few stands of untouched forest in the world.
The players in that partially renewable resource industry clearly have a responsibility to minimize the
devastation they cause. Equally clearly, they have an obligation to make the land that once contained
irreplaceable virgin forest into a sustainable source for harvesting timber in partial compensation for having
taken something that they can never give back.
The final categorynonrenewable resource-based industrieshas an even more compelling and specialized
obligation. Those industries have a moral duty to develop alternatives to replace the resources they are
exploiting. International law ought to require that oil, gas, coal, and other non-renewable resource industries
spend a significant percentage of their revenue on the research, development, and deployment of alternatives
to their products.
To continue to extract a resource that will be totally depleted in the foreseeable future and yet upon which
the entire worlds economy depends, without a foolproof backup plan is astonishingly irresponsible. Those
alternative sources exist in the form of hydrogen, wave, tidal, geothermal, wind, solar, and other absolutely
clean energy forms, and simply need a focused effort to be made practical.
To disregard them and continue to increase our use of and dependence upon fossil fuels, which are killing the
planet, is a fairly serviceable definition of insanity.
The Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine, July 2007.

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LEARNING THE HARD WAY


In a developing country such as Indonesia, where many citizens still struggle to put food on
the table every day, getting an education is a lesser priority. Even for those who do all that
is supposedly required to educate and better themselves, it often is not enough. Maggie
Tiojakin reports.
The journey from childhood to adulthood is often defined by the education a person receives. The long road
that stretches from here to there is bound to come to several crossroads where crucial decisions are
required for the future. But what happens when the road ahead is nothing but a wasteland.
In a perfect world, each person would have unlimited access to education and schools would have adequate
funding and provisions from the government. For each goal accomplished, a reward would await; and no one
would be left behind.
Clearly, however, it isnt a perfect worldat least, not on this part of the globe, where public schools are
constantly struggling to stay afloat and the educational system keeps falling one hopeful student after
another. Jobs are scarce and the only thing many people have going for them is the hope that something will
eventually turn up.
There are an estimated 4 million Indonesians between the ages of 10 and 44 who are illiterate, placing the
country 95th among 175 countries surveyed in 2005 (UNESCO). And of the 78 million people up to 18 years
of age, 26 million have either dropped out of school, been expelled or have never seen the inside of a
classroom, according to 2006 data from the National Education Ministry.
Have we failed the young generation? Maybe, maybe not, says Ali Nurwan, the vice principal of one of the
more prestigious public schools in Jakarta. There are dozens of reasons why our system is not working
properly. Perhaps, in another, more promising, worldthese children would lead totally different lives. They
would all go to school and get the education they deserve. At the same time, am I absolutely sure that if they
had gone to school their lives would change for the better? Unfortunately, no.
While having a degree under ones belt is no guarantee of a better life, the door is often firmly shut to job
seekers who lack either the prerequisites or the connections (or both).
Yudis is a university graduate who majored in economics. His father works a greengrocer, while his mother
is a part-time domestic servant who takes in laundry. On the day of his graduation, his parents did not have
time to come to the ceremony. He has been unable to find an office job and has become a Metromini driver.
I paid for my own education by working different jobs, he says quietly from behind the wheel. I thought
that once I finished school, I could finally get to work in an office or something. Make some decent money,
you know? But here I am.
His eyes appear dim under the brim of a green baseball cap. I guess my parents were right, school is a waste
of money.
A recent survey by the National Bureau of Statistics found more than 30 percent of high school graduates
resort to menial jobs and illegal occupations in order to support themselves, while 12 percent of college
students dwell in unemployment at any given time.
Who should we blame? asks Purwantoro, who teaches Child Development Studies at Atma Jaya
University in Jakarta. Its easy to yell at the government, but will it help create new job opportunities?
Everthing has to be reconstructed, from the quality of education to the morality of the educators and students.
How many years is that going to take? Ill tell you how many: a whole decade and more.
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Experiences such as Yudis are part of the reason why some parents refuse to enroll their children in school,
and why the students themselves often choose to drop out. Whats the point?
Wakino, who works as a driver for a family in the capital, complains of his oldest sons decision not to finish
his high school education. When Wakino demanded an explanation, his son replied, Every good career
opportunity has been filled by someone with a better education than what I can offerwhy bother finishing
school if Im going to get stuck with the rest of the people who never even learned how to read?
Public education is a very complicated issue, says Nuraini Hasan, a member of the school council at a
public school in East Jakarta. Do you know that there are schools out there which are on the brink of getting
shut down each month because they cant make ends meet?
This may be hard to believe in an age of chat rooms and digicams, but manyif not mostpublic schools
outside of Jakarta cant even afford a computer. A laboratory often consists of an old microscope, a small
surgical table for biology experiments and dusty glass tubes which look as though they have never been
touched, much less used. In smaller regions and towns that you will never find by looking at a map, a
classroom is little more than a tent under which students huddle every morning behind termite-infested
desks.
Poor public school facilities contribute to a number of issues that plague the educational system, which
include students inability to access information (library), practice their knowledge (laboratory) and follow
up on their own studies (bare necessities, such as notebooks, pencils, and rulers).
According to the Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education and the Global Campaign for Education,
Indonesia finished 10th out of 14 countries in the Asia Pacific evaluated for their educational system. Scorewise, it achieved 42 out of 100or a big, fat F. Sri Lanka, a country that has endured a devastating three
decades of civil war and which visiting Indonesians are quick to point out does not boast the big-building
development of their homeland, still beats Indonesia on the education front with a B (Republika daily, 2005).
A survey by the Human Development Index found 60 percent of Indonesian elementary school teachers, 40
percent of middle and high school teachers and 34 percent of skill-oriented teachers are rated as incompetent
to teach at a national level. In addition, 17 percent of all teachers nationwide do not have the credentials to
teach their particular subjects.
The statistics are brutal, but what about the reality of things? With international schools increasing in number
in recent years, Indonesia cant be that desperatecan it?
International schools are the top dogs in our country, responds Ali. They are backed by a system that has
been proven to work in first-world countries. Their methods of teaching follow the Western curriculum,
relying on a different process of studying. We cant adopt this in our public schools because we lack the
manpower as well as funding.
We need to raise the bar higher, says Nuraini, speaking candidly in her second-floor office. The
curriculum has to be changed in a way that will accommodate the students interest rather than force them to
excel at anything.
Purwantoro disagrees. I believe the first thing we need to do is train the educators. If we manage to get
qualified teachers out there, then we may have ourselves some kind of hope. If we want to educate the next
leaders of this country, we must first understand what it means to lead.
The way the system is designed, all three of the education levelselementary, secondary and tertiary
should prepare students to compete on a higher and more professional level. In universities, the playing field
should change form and status, aiming to create a learned generations who possess enough knowledge to

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enter the global competition. Yet, in order to achieve such goals, everyone involvedfrom the National
Education Ministry to curriculum administrators and parentshas to play an active role.
Of course, its all good on paper, notes Ali, but, in reality, theres a huge gap between the desired status
and the actual status.
This is why education is complex, because it cuts across the board and everyone is a part of it. Purwanto
says. Once we have that, once we can get everybody on the same pageor at least the majority of them
then were good to go. The rest will fall into place.
The Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine, May 2008.

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Emotional Intelligence
The following reading is adapted from 77ie Author Talks About EmotionsSuccess Depends on Self-Control, He Says
by Patricia Holt. Reprinted with permission from the San Francisco Chronicle 1995.

Daniel Goleman is discussing his famous 'impulse control' test at a San Francisco
lecture and has the entire audience's attention. Goleman, a psychologist and science
writer, is the author of the best-seller Emotional Intelligence, a fascinating book
about recent discoveries in brain research that prove emotional stability is more
important than IQ in determining an individual's success in life. One of the
highlights of the book, that Goleman explains to his audience of foundation leaders, educators, and grants
donors, is a test administered thirty years ago that Goleman calls 'The Marshmallow Challenge.'
In this experiment, four-year-old children were individually called into a room at Stanford University during
the 1960s. There, a kind man gave a marshmallow to
each of them and said they could eat the
marshmallow right away, or wait for him to come back from an errand, at which point they would get two
marshmallows.
Goleman gets everyone laughing as he describes watching a film of the preschoolers
while they waited for the nice man to come back. Some of them covered their eyes
or rested their heads on their arms so they wouldn't have to look at the marshmallow, or played games or
sang to keep their thoughts off the single marshmallow and waited for the promised double prize. Others
about a third of the groupsimply watched the man leave and ate the marshmallow within seconds.
What is surprising about this test, claims Goleman, is its diagnostic power: A dozen years later the same
children were tracked down as adolescents and tested again. "The emotional and social difference between
the grab-the-marshmallow preschoolers and their gratification-delaying peers was dramatic," Goleman says.
The ones who had resisted eating the marshmallow were clearly more socially competent than the others.
"They were less likely to go to pieces, freeze or regress under stress, or become rattled and disorganized
when pressured; they embraced challenges and pursued them instead of giving up, even in the face of
difficulties; they were self-reliant4 and confident, trustworthy and dependable."
The third or so who grabbed the marshmallow were "more likely to be seen as
shying away from social contacts, to be stubborn and indecisive, to be easily upset
by frustrations, to think of themselves as unworthy, to become immobilized by stress, to be mistrustful or
prone to jealousy, or to overreact to certain situations with a sharp temper."
And all because of a single marshmallow? In fact, Goleman explains, it's all because of a lone neuron in the
brain, only recently discovered, that bypasses the neocortexthe area of the brain where rational decisions
are madeand goes straight to the amygdala, or emotional center of the brain. It is here that quicker, more
primitive 'fight or flight' responses occur, and are stored for future use. The more that emotional memories
involving temper, frustration, anxiety, depression, impulse, and fear pile up in early adolescence, the more
the amygdala can "hijack the rest of the brain," Goleman says, "by flooding it with strong and inappropriate
emotions, causing us to wonder later, 'Why did I overreact?'"
But if the emotions stored in the brain are those of restraint, self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation,
empathy, hope, and optimism, then we become endowed with an 'emotional intelligence' that serves rather
than enslaves us for the rest of our lives.
The bad news, says Goleman, is that a widely praised but disturbing study from out of the University of
Vermont has shown a "decline in emotional aptitude among children across the board." Rich or poor, East

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Coast or West Coast, inner city or suburb, children today are more vulnerable than ever to anger, depression,
anxiety what he calls a massive 'emotional malaise.' The good news, however, involves another recent
discoverythat the amygdala takes a long time to mature, around fifteen or sixteen years, which means to
Goleman that "emotional intelligence can be taught, not only in the home but perhaps, more importantly, in
school."
Goleman's own story is as intriguing as his book. The author or co-author of nearly a dozen other books
involving brain research and behavior, he experienced steady but modest sales until Emotional Intelligence
hit the stores. Later came the cover of Time magazine and appearances on television, such as the Oprah
Winfrey show.
"But I think the book also points out the real strength in what has been a feminine preserve in this culture,"
claims Goleman. "Girls are raised to be emotionally astute and perceptive, but sons learn little about
emotions except how to control anger. Women are absolutely more empathic than men on average, but
they've felt powerless to bring up the idea of emotions as a serious topic."
The irony, Goleman feels, is that if he had written a book about women and emotions, school reform,
emotion-based leadership in business, or child psychology, "the book wouldn't have gotten much attention.
As it happens this is a book about all those things, but women and children and school reform are
marginalized in this society. So I come along with a lot of scientific data that says, 'Hey, this stuff is
consequential'; and maybe some doors are opening in our society."

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Wanted: Mars . . . Dead or Alive?


The following reading is taken from Wanted: Mars . . . Dead or Alive? by Geoffrey A. Landis. Adapted from
ODYSSEY'S January 2001 issue: 2001: A Space Odyssey, 2001, Cobblestone Publishing Company, 30 Grove Street,
Suite C, Peterborough, NH 03458. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Cams Publishing Company.

When Mariner 4 flew past Mars in 1965, scientists on Earth got the first-ever close-up view of the Red
Planet. What they saw came as a surprise and a disappointment. The Mars that Mariner's cameras revealed
was a cratered desert with an atmosphere so thin that it was barely more than a vacuum.
The planet was bitterly cold and dry, held no trace of lifenot even microscopic plantsand appeared to
have no water.
The news was shocking, for up until the Mariner pictures, scientists had thought that Mars was a planet a lot
like Earth, only somewhat colder. The Red Planet has always fascinated astronomers. It is certainly the most
earthlike of all the planets in the solar systemfar more hospitable than the furnace of Venus or the
hydrogen clouds of Jupiter and Saturn. But the Mariner spacecraft found that Mars was not so much like
Earth after all.
As revealed by Mariner and its later cousins, Mars is a planet of stunning superlatives. Its great volcano,
Olympus Mons, reaches up almost 25 kilometers above sea level (or the limit where sea level would be, if
Mars had a sea). That's like three Mount Everests stacked on top of each other! Valles Marineris is a canyon
so huge that if it were placed on Earth, it would stretch from New York to Los Angeles. Even the sky of the
Red Planet is differenta pinkish yellow instead of a bright blue. For all these marvels, it's even more
disappointing that Mars doesn't have any life. Or does it?
The robotic spacecraft that followed Mariner to Mars gave us a somewhat modified view of the planet. Mars
is inhospitable now, but was it always cold and dry? Photographs taken in orbit show many features on the
planet surface that look like dry riverbeds. Mars could not have dry riverbeds unless it once had rivers.
Scientists think that long ago, Mars had liquid water, like the Earth. They also speculate that billions of years
ago, Mars had a much thicker atmosphere, which made it warmer than it is now.
Further evidence supporting the theory that Mars once had water recently came from the Mars Global
Surveyor. The craft has mapped the altitude of the Red Planet's surface, which shows that a large area in its
northern hemisphere is very low compared to the rest of the planet. This low area is smoothmuch
smoother than the highlands and mountains in the planet's southern hemisphere. Some scientists think that
the low area is the basin of an ancient ocean that once existed on Mars. However, other scientists disagree,
and think
that there is not enough evidence to be certain.
But let's assume that the scientists are correct about the ocean. On Earth, in every habitat where liquid water
can be found, there is some form of life. So, if Mars once had liquid water, it might once have supported life
as well.
Could life still exist there? On Earth, living things are very tenacious. From the polar snows to the ocean
depths, life has learned to survive no matter how extreme the environment. So, if life started on Mars when
it was warm and wet, maybe as it slowly grew cooler and drier, life forms adapted to survive.
But those life forms would have had some serious adapting to do, since we know that the surface of Mars
today is extremely harsh. Besides no water and a very thin atmosphere with no oxygen, the planet's surface is
flooded with ultraviolet light, which kills bacteria.
Perhaps life on Mars is hidden deep underground in hydrothermal springs. Perhaps the water on Mars is very
salty. Since salt water freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water, it could still be liquid even at Mars'
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temperatures. Recently, scientists found places on Mars where, according to their analysis, water had burst
up from underground aquifers and flowed across the planet's surface in geologically recent time.
If there is underground water on Mars, it is possible that there are forms of bacteria living in these springs.
Such life would be very primitive, perhaps like the extremophile1 bacteria that live in underground springs
on Earth. If we do find life on Mars, even simple bacteria, we will know that life is not unique to Earth, but
exists on two planetsand perhaps is common across the galaxy.
You may wonder if we will ever find out for certain whether life exists on Mars. Although robot 'rovers'
continue to help scientists discover more about the Red Planet, some people think that question will only be
answered for sure when human astronauts venture onto its surface. The astronauts would use microscopes to
examine soil samples taken from many spots on the surface, and drill down into the aquifers. They would dig
into dried lakebeds and look for frozen life in the polar caps. In fact, right now, some scientists are
proposing plans for an expedition to Mars in fifteen to twenty years time. This question might finally be
answered in the first quarter of the twenty-first century.
1

Extremophile: organism that exists at its best in extreme environments, e.g., extremes of temperature

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The Exodus of Languages


The following reading is adapted from the article The Exodus of Languages: How the loss of languages is much like the
loss of a species by Jessica Kwik 1998. Reprinted from Imprint Online with permission from the author.

"I have made an impression on this first group of Inuit people. My arrival to arctic Canada was a cold
one, but I'm warmed thinking of the events that will someday be stories to tell. The Inuit were surprised to
see my white skin and they told rather humorous jokes about me in Inuktitut.' They stopped laughing
though, when they heard my rebuttal in a dialect of their own tongue. I think I will enjoy this journey from
Greenland to Siberia."
It is doubtful that Knud Rasmussen1 made such a diary entry on his travels, but these events did take place in
the 1920s. Inuit communities throughout arctic Canada understood the Inuktitut spoken by the Greenlandborn Rasmussen. Since the dialects had a common core that could be understood, the diverse dialects show a
common origin, or the same mother language. This divergence of language contrasts with the converging of
languages today that is endangering languages worldwide.
Languages seem to be converging to a smaller number, as languages like English seem to eat up regional
ones. The three languages used the most by first language speakers today are Mandarin Chinese, English,
and Spanish. English is being used more and more as the main language for business, science, and popular
culture. Evidence suggests that the dominant languages are squeezing out the local tongues of various
regions in the world. Linguists estimate that of the approximately 6,500 languages worldwide, about half are
endangered or on the brink of extinction. According to some linguists, the estimated rate of language
extinction is one lost in the world every two weeks. If this sounds like the world is losing a species, in a way
it is.
When a language is lost, meaning no living person can teach another, a world perspective is lost. Some
foreign language expressions simply cannot be translated. Colloquial phrases are pleasant to the ear, not only
because they are familiar, but also because they reflect a unique aspect of a culture. Aboriginal languages in
Canada and other countries such as Australia have words that reflect a way of life that is connected closely to
the Earth. There are fifty different words that mean 'snow' in one Canadian native language, and in the
Eastern Arrernte language of Central Australia the word nyimpe translates to 'the smell of rain.'
These various views of the world are essential for science to help create new ways of understanding and new
connections between the human and the natural world. Botanists have discovered new species of plants by
digging deeper into the meaning of Aboriginal names of flora that seemed identical. Archaeologists are also
using languages to track migrations of historical cultures. University of Waterloo Professor Robert Park
knows that the ancestral origins of the present Canadian Inuit communities can be partly explained by the
language spoken by the Inuit today. The Thule culture spoke the same Inuktitut of present-day Inuit to a
greater or lesser degree. Dr. Park knows the prehistoric Thule migrated east from Alaska and eventually to
Labrador and Greenland by the evidence of the mutually intelligible, living dialects of today.
Languages are much like living creatures that become endangered when numbers dwindle. Local natural
disasters, war, and famine are some of the reasons languages slip through the cracks of history. The
language that bore the different daughter languages for the Eskimo and Inuit was almost wiped out after
World War II. The mother language, Proto-Eskimo Aleut, was under siege when the Aleut people were
forced to leave their land. Fortunately, some Proto-Eskimo Aleut, which originated 6,000 to 8,000 years ago,
is still spoken. Languages also so become endangered when they are not passed on to children or when a
metropolitan language dominates over others.

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Some groups are taking action in preserving languages. Revival of languages such as Irish is gaining ground.
There is an Irish-language television channel and the largest age group of fluent Irish speakers is now the
under-twenty-fives. International organizations are mobilizing for the cause as well: UNESCO has mapped
the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger of Disappearing in 1996. The editor of the atlas believes the
preservation of moribund languages, which are spoken only by the elderly, should be a priority since they are
on the brink of extinction.
Preservation can occur in two ways. First, linguists can study moribund languages and seek to preserve the
components of the language: the sounds, the vocabulary, the grammar, and the traditions. The second way is
to teach children the language and have linguists advise on language maintenance. An example of this latter
method is the Maori language of New Zealand. It has seen a resurgence in the number of speakers from the
1960s and 1970s when there was virtually no parent to child transmission. New Zealand has since set up
'language nests' in early childhood centers to teach children Maori, exposing 100,000 children to their native
tongue so far.
For many linguists, preserving endangered languages is vital; a loss in global languages means a loss of the
diverse ideas and cultures those languages once held.
---------------1
Knud Rasmussen: A Danish explorer and ethnologist who extensively researched Inuit culture.

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Alien Species: Fitting In


The following reading is adapted from Alien Species Often Fit in Fine, Some Scientists Contend by Mark Derr.
Copyright 2001 by the New York Times Co. Reprinted by permission.

Governments, private groups, and individuals spend billions of dollars a year trying to root out non-native
organisms that are considered dangerous to ecosystems, and to prevent the introduction of new interlopers.
But a number of scientists question the assumption that the presence of alien species can never be acceptable
in a natural ecosystem. While applauding efforts to banish harmful organismslike the brown tree snakes
that have destroyed most of Guam's native species of forest birds, or the star thistle (a prickly weed that is
toxic to horses, and has invaded much of the West)they say that portraying introduced species as
inherently bad is an unscientific approach.
"Distinctions between exotics and native species are artificial," said Dr. Michael Rosenzweig, a professor of
evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona, because they depend on picking a date and calling the
plants and animals that show up after that 'exotic.' Ecosystems free of species defined as exotic are, by
default, considered the most natural. "You can't roll back the clock and remove all exotics or fix habitats,"
Dr. Rosenzweig said. "Both native and exotic species can become invasive, and so they all have to be
monitored and controlled when they begin to get out of hand."
At its core, the debate is about how to manage the world's remaining natural
ecosystems and about how, and how much, to restore other habitats. Species
that invade a territory can harm ecosystems, agriculture, and human health. They can threaten some native
species or even destroy and replace others. Next to habitat loss, these invasive species represent the greatest
threat to biodiversity worldwide, many ecologists say.
Ecologists generally define an alien species as one that people, inadvertently or deliberately, carried to its
new location. Across the American continents, exotic species are those introduced after the first European
contact. That date, rounded off to A.D. 1500, represents what ecologists consider to have been a major shift
in the spread of species, including crops and livestock, as they began to leapfrog with humans from continent
to continent.
"Only a small percentage of alien species cause problems in their new habitats," said a professor of ecology
and evolutionary biology at the University of Tennessee. "Of the 7,000 alien species in the United States
out of a total of 150,000 speciesonly about 10 percent are invasive," he pointed out. The other 90 percent
have fit into their environments and are considered naturalized. Yet appearances can deceive, ecologists
caution, and many of these exotics may be considered acceptable only because no one has documented their
harmful effects. What is more, non-native species can appear innocuous for decades, then turn invasive.
One example is the Brazilian pepper, which landscapers introduced into South Florida in the late nineteenth
century. It started to spread widely in the 1950s and has now crowded out native vegetation throughout the
Florida Everglades. Once a species begins to run amok, it is extremely difficult to eradicate.
Faced with such uncertainty, many ecologists argue for strong steps to be taken,
stressing the need to actively take precautions to prevent exotic species from
becoming problematic. Their approach is to remove exotics from natural ecosystems. But a number of
experts question the scientific wisdom of trying to roll back ecosystems to a time when they were more
natural.
"Defining which species belong in an ecosystem is based less on science than on historical, cultural, moral,
geographic, and theological arguments," said Dr. Mark Sagoff, who studies the issue at the University of
Maryland's Institute for so Philosophy and Public Policy. "Science cannot judge an ecosystem with exotics to

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be worse, or less natural, than one without them," he said, "without also taking into account [all] the effects
of those species on their environments."
Even many ecologists who would like to rid ecosystems of all exotics admit that this goal is impractical.
According to the director of conservation programs at a nonprofit group called Nature Conservancy, a return
to pre-settlement ecosystems simply cannot be accomplished. "For one thing," he said, "many exotic species
have become so integrated into ecosystems that [other] animals, some endangered, rely on them for food and
shelter."
"This is not the only problem that can result from the removal of exotics," Dr. Rosenzweig said. In
Australia's Northern Territory, for example, the eradication of the non-native water buffalo that were
ravaging vegetation led to the explosive growth of a little-noticed plantthe giant mimosawhich was
introduced from Central America in the 1890s. This shrub has been more destructive and harder to remove
than the water buffalo.
In an issue of the science journal Evolutionary Ecology Research, Dr. Rosenzweig, the editor, challenges the
prevailing view that invasive alien species reduce biodiversity. The exotics increase the number of species in
the environment, he wrote. Even if alien species cause extinctions, the extinction phase will eventually end,
and new species may then begin to evolve, he explained.
"Ecologists should focus on managing the environments that include exotic immigrants," Dr. Rosenzweig
said, "and creating new ones where necessary to enhance species' survival and biodiversity."

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Is pop culture dumbing us down or smartening us up? (1)


Twenty years ago, a political philosopher named James Flynn uncovered a curious fact. Americansat least,
as measured by I.Q. testswere getting smarter. This fact had been obscured for years, because the people
who give I.Q. tests continually recalibrate the scoring system to keep the average at 100. But if you took out
the recalibration, Flynn found, I.Q. scores showed a steady upward trajectory, rising by about three points
per decade, which means that a person whose I.Q. placed him in the top ten per cent of the American
population in 1920 would today fall in the bottom third. Some of that effect, no doubt, is a simple by-product
of economic progress: in the surge of prosperity during the middle part of the last century, people in the West
became better fed, better educated, and more familiar with things like I.Q. tests. But, even as that wave of
change has subsided, test scores have continued to risenot just in America but all over the developed
world. What's more, the increases have not been confined to children who go to enriched day-care centers
and private schools. The middle part of the curvethe people who have supposedly been suffering from a
deteriorating public-school system and a steady diet of lowest-common-denominator television and mindless
pop musichas increased just as much. What on earth is happening? In the wonderfully entertaining
"Everything Bad Is Good for You" (Riverhead; $23.95), Steven Johnson proposes that what is making us
smarter is precisely what we thought was making us dumber: popular culture.
Johnson is the former editor of the online magazine Feed and the author of a number of books on
science and technology. There is a pleasing eclecticism to his thinking. He is as happy analyzing "Finding
Nemo" as he is dissecting the intricacies of a piece of software, and he's perfectly capable of using
Nietzsche's notion of eternal recurrence to discuss the new creative rules of television shows. Johnson wants
to understand popular culturenot in the postmodern, academic sense of wondering what "The Dukes of
Hazzard" tells us about Southern male alienation but in the very practical sense of wondering what watching
something like "The Dukes of Hazzard" does to the way our minds work.
As Johnson points out, television is very different now from what it was thirty years ago. It's harder.
A typical episode of "Starsky and Hutch," in the nineteen-seventies, followed an essentially linear path: two
characters, engaged in a single story line, moving toward a decisive conclusion. To watch an episode of
"Dallas" today is to be stunned by its glacial paceby the arduous attempts to establish social relationships,
by the excruciating simplicity of the plotline, by how obvious it was. A single episode of "The Sopranos," by
contrast, might follow five narrative threads, involving a dozen characters who weave in and out of the plot.
Modern television also requires the viewer to do a lot of what Johnson calls "filling in," as in a "Seinfeld"
episode that subtly parodies the Kennedy assassination conspiracists, or a typical "Simpsons" episode, which
may contain numerous allusions to politics or cinema or pop culture. The extraordinary amount of money
now being made in the television aftermarketDVD sales and syndicationmeans that the creators of
television shows now have an incentive to make programming that can sustain two or three or four viewings.
Even reality shows like "Survivor," Johnson argues, engage the viewer in a way that television rarely has in
the past:
When we watch these shows, the part of our brain that monitors the emotional lives of the people around
usthe part that tracks subtle shifts in intonation and gesture and facial expressionscrutinizes the action
on the screen, looking for clues. . . . The phrase "Monday-morning quarterbacking" was coined to describe
the engaged feeling spectators have in relation to games as opposed to stories. We absorb stories, but we
second-guess games. Reality programming has brought that second-guessing to prime time, only the game in
question revolves around social dexterity rather than the physical kind.

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How can the greater cognitive demands that television makes on us now, he wonders, not matter?
Johnson develops the same argument about video games. Most of the people who denounce video
games, he says, haven't actually played themat least, not recently. Twenty years ago, games like Tetris or
Pac-Man were simple exercises in motor cordination and pattern recognition. Today's games belong to
another realm. Johnson points out that one of the "walk-throughs" for "Grand Theft Auto III"that is, the
informal guides that break down the games and help players navigate their complexitiesis fifty-three
thousand words long, about the length of his book. The contemporary video game involves a fully realized
imaginary world, dense with detail and levels of complexity.
Indeed, video games are not games in the sense of those pastimeslike Monopoly or gin rummy or
chesswhich most of us grew up with. They don't have a set of unambiguous rules that have to be learned
and then followed during the course of play. This is why many of us find modern video games baffling:
we're not used to being in a situation where we have to figure out what to do. We think we only have to learn
how to press the buttons faster. But these games withhold critical information from the player. Players have
to explore and sort through hypotheses in order to make sense of the game's environment, which is why a
modern video game can take forty hours to complete. Far from being engines of instant gratification, as they
are often described, video games are actually, Johnson writes, "all about delayed gratificationsometimes so
long delayed that you wonder if the gratification is ever going to show."
At the same time, players are required to manage a dizzying array of information and options. The
game presents the player with a series of puzzles, and you can't succeed at the game simply by solving the
puzzles one at a time. You have to craft a longer-term strategy, in order to juggle and cordinate competing
interests. In denigrating the video game, Johnson argues, we have confused it with other phenomena in teenage life, like multitaskingsimultaneously e-mailing and listening to music and talking on the telephone and
surfing the Internet. Playing a video game is, in fact, an exercise in "constructing the proper hierarchy of
tasks and moving through the tasks in the correct sequence," he writes. "It's about finding order and meaning
in the world, and making decisions that help create that order."

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Is pop culture dumbing us down or smartening us up? (2)


It doesn't seem right, of course, that watching "24" or playing a video game could be as important
cognitively as reading a book. Isn't the extraordinary success of the "Harry Potter" novels better news for the
culture than the equivalent success of "Grand Theft Auto III"? Johnson's response is to imagine what cultural
critics might have said had video games been invented hundreds of years ago, and only recently had
something called the book been marketed aggressively to children:
Reading books chronically understimulates the senses. Unlike the longstanding tradition of gameplaying
which engages the child in a vivid, three-dimensional world filled with moving images and musical soundscapes, navigated and controlled with complex muscular movementsbooks are simply a barren string of
words on the page..
Books are also tragically isolating. While games have for many years engaged the young in complex social
relationships with their peers, building and exploring worlds together, books force the child to sequester him
or herself in a quiet space, shut off from interaction with other children. . . .
But perhaps the most dangerous property of these books is the fact that they follow a fixed linear path. You
can't control their narratives in any fashionyou simply sit back and have the story dictated to you. . . . This
risks instilling a general passivity in our children, making them feel as though they're powerless to change
their circumstances. Reading is not an active, participatory process; it's a submissive one.
He's joking, of course, but only in part. The point is that books and video games represent two very
different kinds of learning. When you read a biology textbook, the content of what you read is what matters.
Reading is a form of explicit learning. When you play a video game, the value is in how it makes you think.
Video games are an example of collateral learning, which is no less important.
Being "smart" involves facility in both kinds of thinkingthe kind of fluid problem solving that
matters in things like video games and I.Q. tests, but also the kind of crystallized knowledge that comes from
explicit learning. If Johnson's book has a flaw, it is that he sometimes speaks of our culture being "smarter"
when he's really referring just to that fluid problem-solving facility. When it comes to the other kind of
intelligence, it is not clear at all what kind of progress we are making, as anyone who has read, say, the
Gettysburg Address alongside any Presidential speech from the past twenty years can attest. The real
question is what the right balance of these two forms of intelligence might look like. "Everything Bad Is
Good for You" doesn't answer that question. But Johnson does something nearly as important, which is to
remind us that we shouldn't fall into the trap of thinking that explicit learning is the only kind of learning that
matters.
In recent years, for example, a number of elementary schools have phased out or reduced recess and
replaced it with extra math or English instruction. This is the triumph of the explicit over the collateral. After
all, recess is "play" for a ten-year-old in precisely the sense that Johnson describes video games as play for
an adolescent: an unstructured environment that requires the child actively to intervene, to look for the
hidden logic, to find order and meaning in chaos.
One of the ongoing debates in the educational community, similarly, is over the value of homework.
Meta-analysis of hundreds of studies done on the effects of homework shows that the evidence supporting
the practice is, at best, modest. Homework seems to be most useful in high school and for subjects like math.
At the elementary-school level, homework seems to be of marginal or no academic value. Its effect on

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discipline and personal responsibility is unproved. And the causal relation between high-school homework
and achievement is unclear: it hasn't been firmly established whether spending more time on homework in
high school makes you a better student or whether better students, finding homework more pleasurable,
spend more time doing it. So why, as a society, are we so enamored of homework? Perhaps because we have
so little faith in the value of the things that children would otherwise be doing with their time. They could go
out for a walk, and get some exercise; they could spend time with their peers, and reap the rewards of
friendship. Or, Johnson suggests, they could be playing a video game, and giving their minds a rigorous
workout.

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August 5, 2002
ANNALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

The Naked Face


Can you read people's thoughts just by looking at them? (1)
Some years ago, John Yarbrough was working patrol for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. It
was about two in the morning. He and his partner were in the Willowbrook section of South Central Los
Angeles, and they pulled over a sports car. "Dark, nighttime, average stop," Yarbrough recalls. "Patrol for
me was like going hunting. At that time of night in the area I was working, there was a lot of criminal
activity, and hardly anyone had a driver's license. Almost everyone had something intoxicating in the car.
We stopped drunk drivers all the time. You're hunting for guns or lots of dope, or suspects wanted for major
things. You look at someone and you get an instinctive reaction. And the longer you've been working the
stronger that instinctive reaction is."
Yarbrough was driving, and in a two-man patrol car the procedure is for the driver to make the approach and
the officer on the passenger side to provide backup. He opened the door and stepped out onto the street,
walking toward the vehicle with his weapon drawn. Suddenly, a man jumped out of the passenger side and
pointed a gun directly at him. The two of them froze, separated by no more than a few yards. "There was a
tree behind him, to his right," Yarbrough recalls. "He was about seventeen. He had the gun in his right hand.
He was on the curb side. I was on the other side, facing him. It was just a matter of who was going to shoot
first. I remember it clear as day. But for some reason I didn't shoot him." Yarbrough is an ex-marine with
close-cropped graying hair and a small mustache, and he speaks in measured tones. "Is he a danger? Sure.
He's standing there with a gun, and what person in his right mind does that facing a uniformed armed
policeman? If you looked at it logically, I should have shot him. But logic had nothing to do with it.
Something just didn't feel right. It was a gut reaction not to shoot-- a hunch that at that exact moment he was
not an imminent threat to me." So Yarbrough stopped, and, sure enough, so did the kid. He pointed a gun at
an armed policeman on a dark street in South Central L.A., and then backed down.
Yarbrough retired last year from the sheriff's department after almost thirty years, sixteen of which were in
homicide. He now lives in western Arizona, in a small, immaculate house overlooking the Colorado River,
with pictures of John Wayne, Charles Bronson, Clint Eastwood, and Dale Earnhardt on the wall. He has a
policeman's watchfulness: while he listens to you, his eyes alight on your face, and then they follow your
hands, if you move them, and the areas to your immediate left and right-- and then back again, in a steady
cycle. He grew up in an affluent household in the San Fernando Valley, the son of two doctors, and he is
intensely analytical: he is the sort to take a problem and break it down, working it over slowly and patiently
in his mind, and the incident in Willowbrook is one of those problems. Policemen shoot people who point
guns directly at them at two in the morning. But something he saw held him back, something that ninety-nine
people out of a hundred wouldn't have seen.
Many years later, Yarbrough met with a team of psychologists who were conducting training sessions for
law enforcement. They sat beside him in a darkened room and showed him a series of videotapes of people
who were either lying or telling the truth. He had to say who was doing what. One tape showed people
talking about their views on the death penalty and on smoking in public. Another featured a series of nurses
who were all talking about a nature film they were supposedly watching, even though some of them were
actually watching grisly documentary footage about burn victims and amputees. It may sound as if the tests
should have been easy, because we all think we can tell whether someone is lying. But these were not the
obvious fibs of a child, or the prevarications of people whose habits and tendencies we know well. These
were strangers who were motivated to deceive, and the task of spotting the liars turns out to be fantastically
difficult. There is just too much information--words, intonation, gestures, eyes, mouth--and it is impossible
to know how the various cues should be weighted, or how to put them all together, and in any case it's all
happening so quickly that you can't even follow what you think you ought to follow. The tests have been
given to policemen, customs officers, judges, trial lawyers, and psychotherapists, as well as to officers from
the F.B.I., the C.I.A., the D.E.A., and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms-- people one would
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have thought would be good at spotting lies. On average, they score fifty per cent, which is to say that they
would have done just as well if they hadn't watched the tapes at all and just guessed. But every now and
again-- roughly one time in a thousand--someone scores off the charts. A Texas Ranger named David
Maxwell did extremely well, for example, as did an ex-A.T.F. agent named J.J. Newberry, a few therapists,
an arbitrator, a vice cop-- and John Yarbrough, which suggests that what happened in Willowbrook may
have been more than a fluke or a lucky guess. Something in our faces signals whether we're going to shoot,
say, or whether we're lying about the film we just saw. Most of us aren't very good at spotting it. But a
handful of people are virtuosos. What do they see that we miss?

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The Naked Face


Can you read people's thoughts just by looking at them? (2)
All of us, a thousand times a day, read faces. When someone says "I love you," we look into that person's
eyes to judge his or her sincerity. When we meet someone new, we often pick up on subtle signals, so that,
even though he or she may have talked in a normal and friendly manner, afterward we say, "I don't think he
liked me," or "I don't think she's very happy." We easily parse complex distinctions in facial expression. If
you saw me grinning, for example, with my eyes twinkling, you'd say I was amused. But that's not the only
way we interpret a smile. If you saw me nod and smile exaggeratedly, with the corners of my lips tightened,
you would take it that I had been teased and was responding sarcastically. If I made eye contact with
someone, gave a small smile and then looked down and averted my gaze, you would think I was flirting. If I
followed a remark with an abrupt smile and then nodded, or tilted my head sideways, you might conclude
that I had just said something a little harsh, and wanted to take the edge off it. You wouldn't need to hear
anything I was saying in order to reach these conclusions. The face is such an extraordinarily efficient
instrument of communication that there must be rules that govern the way we interpret facial expressions.
But what are those rules? And are they the same for everyone?
In the nineteen-sixties, a young San Francisco psychologist named Paul Ekman began to study facial
expression, and he discovered that no one knew the answers to those questions. Ekman went to see Margaret
Mead, climbing the stairs to her tower office at the American Museum of Natural History. He had an idea.
What if he travelled around the world to find out whether people from different cultures agreed on the
meaning of different facial expressions? Mead, he recalls, "looked at me as if I were crazy." Like most social
scientists of her day, she believed that expression was culturally determined-- that we simply used our faces
according to a set of learned social conventions. Charles Darwin had discussed the face in his later writings;
in his 1872 book, "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," he argued that all mammals show
emotion reliably in their faces. But in the nineteen-sixties academic psychologists were more interested in
motivation and cognition than in emotion or its expression. Ekman was undaunted; he began travelling to
places like Japan, Brazil, and Argentina, carrying photographs of men and women making a variety of
distinctive faces. Everywhere he went, people agreed on what those expressions meant. But what if people in
the developed world had all picked up the same cultural rules from watching the same movies and television
shows? So Ekman set out again, this time making his way through the jungles of Papua New Guinea, to the
most remote villages, and he found that the tribesmen there had no problem interpreting the expressions,
either. This may not sound like much of a breakthrough. But in the scientific climate of the time it was a
revelation. Ekman had established that expressions were the universal products of evolution. There were
fundamental lessons to be learned from the face, if you knew where to look.
Paul Ekman is now in his sixties. He is clean-shaven, with closely set eyes and thick, prominent eyebrows,
and although he is of medium build, he seems much larger than he is: there is something stubborn and
substantial in his demeanor. He grew up in Newark, the son of a pediatrician, and entered the University of
Chicago at fifteen. He speaks deliberately: before he laughs, he pauses slightly, as if waiting for permission.
He is the sort to make lists, and number his arguments. His academic writing has an orderly logic to it; by the
end of an Ekman essay, each stray objection and problem has been gathered up and catalogued. In the midsixties, Ekman set up a lab in a ramshackle Victorian house at the University of California at San Francisco,
where he holds a professorship. If the face was part of a physiological system, he reasoned, the system could
be learned. He set out to teach himself. He treated the face as an adventurer would a foreign land, exploring
its every crevice and contour. He assembled a videotape library of people's facial expressions, which soon
filled three rooms in his lab, and studied them to the point where he could look at a face and pick up a flicker
of emotion that might last no more than a fraction of a second. Ekman created the lying tests. He filmed the
nurses talking about the movie they were watching and the movie they weren't watching. Working with
Maureen O'Sullivan, a psychologist from the University of San Francisco, and other colleagues, he located
people who had a reputation for being uncannily perceptive, and put them to the test, and that's how
Yarbrough and the other high-scorers were identified. O'Sullivan and Ekman call this study of gifted face
readers the Diogenes Project, after the Greek philosopher of antiquity who used to wander around Athens

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with a lantern, peering into people's faces as he searched for an honest man. Ekman has taken the most
vaporous of sensations-- the hunch you have about someone else-- and sought to give them definition. Most
of us don't trust our hunches, because we don't know where they came from. We think they can't be
explained. But what if they can?

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The Naked Face


Can you read people's thoughts just by looking at them? (3)
Paul Ekman got his start in the face-reading business because of a man named Silvan Tomkins, and Silvan
Tomkins may have been the best face reader there ever was. Tomkins was from Philadelphia, the son of a
dentist from Russia. He was short, and slightly thick around the middle, with a wild mane of white hair and
huge black plastic-rimmed glasses. He taught psychology at Princeton and Rutgers, and was the author of
"Affect, Imagery, Consciousness," a four-volume work so dense that its readers were evenly divided between
those who understood it and thought it was brilliant and those who did not understand it and thought it was
brilliant. He was a legendary talker. At the end of a cocktail party, fifteen people would sit, rapt, at
Tomkins's feet, and someone would say, "One more question!" and they would all sit there for another hour
and a half, as Tomkins held forth on, say, comic books, a television sitcom, the biology of emotion, his
problem with Kant, and his enthusiasm for the latest fad diets, all enfolded into one extended riff. During the
Depression, in the midst of his doctoral studies at Harvard, he worked as a handicapper for a horse-racing
syndicate, and was so successful that he lived lavishly on Manhattan's Upper East Side. At the track, where
he sat in the stands for hours, staring at the horses through binoculars, he was known as the Professor. "He
had a system for predicting how a horse would do based on what horse was on either side of him, based on
their emotional relationship," Ekman said. If a male horse, for instance, had lost to a mare in his first or
second year, he would be ruined if he went to the gate with a mare next to him in the lineup. (Or something
like that-- no one really knew for certain.) Tomkins felt that emotion was the code to life, and that with
enough attention to particulars the code could be cracked. He thought this about the horses, and, more
important, he thought this about the human face.
Tomkins, it was said, could walk into a post office, go over to the "Wanted" posters, and, just by looking at
mug shots, tell you what crimes the various fugitives had committed. "He would watch the show "To Tell the
Truth,' and without fault he could always pick the person who was lying and who his confederates were," his
son, Mark, recalls. "He actually wrote the producer at one point to say it was too easy, and the man invited
him to come to New York, go backstage, and show his stuff." Virginia Demos, who teaches psychology at
Harvard, recalls having long conversations with Tomkins. "We would sit and talk on the phone, and he
would turn the sound down as Jesse Jackson was talking to Michael Dukakis, at the Democratic National
Convention. And he would read the faces and give his predictions on what would happen. It was profound."
Ekman's most memorable encounter with Tomkins took place in the late sixties. Ekman had just tracked
down a hundred thousand feet of film that had been shot by the virologist Carleton Gajdusek in the remote
jungles of Papua New Guinea. Some of the footage was of a tribe called the South Fore, who were a peaceful
and friendly people. The rest was of the Kukukuku, who were hostile and murderous and who had a
homosexual ritual where pre-adolescent boys were required to serve as courtesans for the male elders of the
tribe. Ekman was still working on the problem of whether human facial expressions were universal, and the
Gajdusek film was invaluable. For six months, Ekman and his collaborator, Wallace Friesen, sorted through
the footage. They cut extraneous scenes, focussing just on closeups of the faces of the tribesmen, and when
the editing was finished Ekman called in Tomkins.
The two men, protg and mentor, sat at the back of the room, as faces flickered across the screen. Ekman
had told Tomkins nothing about the tribes involved; all identifying context had been edited out. Tomkins
looked on intently, peering through his glasses. At the end, he went up to the screen and pointed to the faces
of the South Fore. "These are a sweet, gentle people, very indulgent, very peaceful," he said. Then he pointed
to the faces of the Kukukuku. "This other group is violent, and there is lots of evidence to suggest
homosexuality." Even today, a third of a century later, Ekman cannot get over what Tomkins did. "My God!
I vividly remember saying, "Silvan, how on earth are you doing that?' " Ekman recalls. "And he went up to
the screen and, while we played the film backward, in slow motion, he pointed out the particular bulges and
wrinkles in the face that he was using to make his judgment. That's when I realized, "I've got to unpack the
face.' It was a gold mine of information that everyone had ignored. This guy could see it, and if he could see
it, maybe everyone else could, too."
ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

243

Extensive Reading

Ekman and Friesen decided that they needed to create a taxonomy of facial expressions, so day after day they
sat across from each other and began to make every conceivable face they could. Soon, though, they realized
that their efforts weren't enough. "I met an anthropologist, Wade Seaford, told him what I was doing, and he
said, 'Do you have this movement?'" --and here Ekman contracted what's called the triangularis, which is the
muscle that depresses the corners of the lips, forming an arc of distaste-- "and it wasn't in my system,
because I had never seen it before. I had built a system not on what the face can do but on what I had seen. I
was devastated. So I came back and said, 'I've got to learn the anatomy.' " Friesen and Ekman then combed
through medical textbooks that outlined each of the facial muscles, and identified every distinct muscular
movement that the face could make. There were forty-three such movements. Ekman and Friesen called
them "action units." Then they sat across from each other again, and began manipulating each action unit in
turn, first locating the muscle in their mind and then concentrating on isolating it, watching each other
closely as they did, checking their movements in a mirror, making notes of how the wrinkle patterns on their
faces would change with each muscle movement, and videotaping the movement for their records. On the
few occasions when they couldn't make a particular movement, they went next door to the U.C.S.F. anatomy
department, where a surgeon they knew would stick them with a needle and electrically stimulate the
recalcitrant muscle. "That wasn't pleasant at all," Ekman recalls. When each of those action units had been
mastered, Ekman and Friesen began working action units in combination, layering one movement on top of
another. The entire process took seven years. "There are three hundred combinations of two muscles,"
Ekman says. "If you add in a third, you get over four thousand. We took it up to five muscles, which is over
ten thousand visible facial configurations." Most of those ten thousand facial expressions don't mean
anything, of course. They are the kind of nonsense faces that children make. But, by working through each
action-unit combination, Ekman and Friesen identified about three thousand that did seem to mean
something, until they had catalogued the essential repertoire of human emotion.

244

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

245

Appendices

FORM 1

ARTICLE REVIEW FORM


Name

: ___________________________________________________________

Student Number

: ___________________________________________________________

Faculty & Class

: ___________________________________________________________

1. Title of the Article: ____________________________________________________________


2. Author(s): ___________________________________________________________________
3. Explain in two or three sentences why you have chosen this article.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
4. Explain briefly in four or five sentences what the article is about.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the writers message or purpose in writing this article?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
6. Give your personal comment on the article as a conclusion of your article review.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

246

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

FORM 1
Peer-Evaluation Sheet
For Presentations
Date: _____________
Evaluator:_____________________
Class:

Topic:
Presenter can

Content

Individual Scores

Group
Score

Deliver an interesting
presentation and use variety of
resources (statistics, data,
examples, etc.) while having an
original point of view
Organize the presentation (intro,
body, and conclusion)
Delivery
Deliver the presentation without
reading word-to-word from his/her
notes or the slides
Express his/her ideas in a
convincing manner to the
audience
Keep the time well and keep the
audience attention
Make use of appropriate eyecontact, posture and body
language
Presentation Use interesting, clear, easy-to- read,
aids
and purposeful visual aids
Language
Use appropriate vocabulary
Speak loud enough, without
pausing too long and too often.
He/she has clear pronunciation
Have accurate grammar
Handling
Handle questions appropriately
questions
Average Score:
Individual = (total score/3) x 20
Group = (total score/3) x 20
Final Score = (Average Individual Score+Average
Group Score)/2
Strengths:

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Weaknesses: __________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Scoring scheme:
1
2
3
Poor
Marginal
Adequate
* Half scores (e.g.: 3.5) are possible to be given.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

4
Good

5
Excellent

247

Appendices

FORM 3

Peer Feedback and Revision of the First Draft


PARAGRAPH EVALUATION GUIDE
Topic : ________________________________________________________________________
Writer: ________________________

Evaluator: _______________________
Score: 10 - 0

1. The paragraph has a clear topic sentence.


2. The paragraph contains three or more sentences that support the
topic sentence.
3. The details are interesting and appropriate.
4. the paragraph ends with a good closing sentence without repeating
the topic sentence.
5. The paragraph does not contain irrelevant sentences that do not
support the topic sentence.
6. The paragraph is well organized.
7. The paragraph uses appropriate connectors to make the ideas flow
smoothly.
8. The paragraph is free of grammatical errors.
9. The paragraph is free of spelling and punctuation errors.
10. The paragraph is written neatly or typed in a standard format.
Total

_____ / 100

COMMENTS:
Strong points: __________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Suggestions for improvement: _____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Readers Name________________________________________________ Date __________2008

248

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

Peer Evaluation Guide for Essay Writing

FORM 4

Authors Name _____________________________________ Class/Faculty: _________________


Title / Topic ____________________________________________________________________
Introduction:

This part focuses the readers attention on the subject of the essay
The hook successfully catches the readers attention.
Every parts in the introduction lead effectively into the thesis statement.
There is a thesis statement that clearly and specifically states the main ideas.

Body paragraphs:

Each paragraph has a clear and specific topic sentence.


All the body paragraphs support or explain the thesis using appropriate method (by
giving facts, examples, reasons, narration, description, comparison, cause and
effect, process analysis, etc.).
Each paragraph is logically developed (there is no irrelevant sentence)

Conclusion:

This part completes the development of the thesis statement (by giving interesting
suggestions, recommendations, or predictions).
The author provides a logical final statement or repeats the thesis statement in brief
The conclusion summarizes the main ideas and makes them clear and easy to
follow.

Language:

The author uses standard word order.


There is no enjambment (run-on sentences) and no fragmentary.
The author uses standard modifiers and coordinators.
There are effective transitions from one sentence to the other.
The author uses standard inflections (e.g., plurals, possessives, -ed, -ing with verbs
and ly with adverbs).
There is no mistake in the subject-verb agreement (we were vs. we was)
The author has purposefully chosen vocabulary, sentence variety, information, and
voice to affect reader.
There is effective use of capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and formatting
(paragraphs noted by indenting).

The part I like best is: _____________________________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
This piece of writing can be improved by: _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(1) Not at all

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

(2) Somewhat

(3) A great deal

249

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING AN ESSAY

Appendices

250

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

Referencing

Examples of Referencing

Books
single author

2 authors

3, 4 or 5
authors

6 or more
authors

In-Text Example
The theory was first
propounded in 1993 (Comfort,
1997, p. 58)
or
Comfort (1997, p. 58) claimed
that.
Madden and Hogan (1997, p.
17)
or
to achieve consistency
(Madden & Hogan, p. 45).
or
(Madden & Hogan, 1997,
p. 45)
Guerin, Labor, Morgan,
Reesman and Willingham
(2005, p. 6) found .
Cite all authors in first
citation in text
or
Guerin et al. (2005, p. 6)
found .
Use as subsequent 1st citation
per following paragraphs
(Rodgers et al., 1996, p. 35)

Reference List Example


Comfort, A. (1997). A good age. London;
Mitchell Beazley.

Book

Madden, R., & Hogan, T. (1997). The


definition of disability in Australia:
moving towards national
consistency. Canberra: Australian
Institute of Health and Welfare.

Book

Guerin, W. L., Labor, E., Morgan, L,


Reesman, J. C., & Willingham, J.
R. (2005). A handbook of critical
approaches to literature. New
York: Oxford University Press.

Book

Book

No author

(Employment the Professional


Way, 2000)

Multiple works
by same
author

University research (Brown,


1982, 1988) has indicated that
.

Rodgers, P., Smith, K., Williams, D.,


Conway, L, Robinson, W., Franks,
F., et al. (2002). The way forward
for Australian libraries. Perth:
Wombat Press
Employment the professional way: a guide
to understanding the Australian job
search process for professionally
qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton,
Vic: Australian Multicultural
Foundation.
Brown, P. (1982). Corals in the Capricorn
group. Rockhampton: Central
Queensland University.

In recent reports (Napier,


1993a, 1993b)

Brown, P. (1988). The effects of anchor on


corals. Rockhampton: Central
Queensland University.
Order chronologically in the reference list.
Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney:
Allen & Unwin.

Multiple works
published in
the same year
by the same
author

Editor

Use a/n/ etc. to differentiate


between works in the same
year

(Kastenbaum, 1993, p. 51)

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Endnote (which
reference type?)

Book

Book

Book

Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea.


Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Order alphabetically by title in the
reference list.
Kastenbaum, R. (Ed.). (1993).
Encyclopedia of adult development.

Edited Book

251

Appendices

Books
Different
Editions

In-Text Example
(Renton, 2004, p. 51)

Article or
chapter in a
book

As discussed by Blaxter
(1976)

Article or
chapter in a
bookno
author
E-book

(Solving the Y2K Problem,


1997)

Print
Journals
Article

Article no
author
Newspaper
article
Newspaper
articleno
author
Press release

252

(Pettinger, 2002, p. 45)

In-Text Example
As mentioned by Wharton
(1996).
or
when abseiling
(Wharton, 1996, p. 8)
Its a growing problem in
the U.K. (Anorexia
Nervosa, 1969)
(Towers, 2000)

(Rate Rise, 2005)

(Watersmith, 2000)

Endnote (which
reference type?)

Reference List Example


Phoenix: Onyx Press.
Renton, N. (2004). Compendium of good
writing. (3rd ed.). Milton: John
Wiley & Sons.

Book

An edition number is placed after the title


of the workthis is not necessary for a first
edition
Blaxter, M. (1976). Social class and health
inequalities. In C. Carter & J. Peel
(Eds.), Equalities and inequalities
in health (pp. 120-135). London:
Academic Press.
Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D.
Bowd (Ed.), Technology today and
tomorrow (p. 27). New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold.
Pettinger, R. (2002). Global organization.
Oxford: Capstone Publishing.
Retrieved September 28, 2004,
Curtin University Library &
Information Service E-Books:
http://opac.lis.curtin.edu.au/

Reference List Example

Book Section

Book Section

Electronic Source
(put September 28, 2004 in
the Access Date field,
Curtin University Library
& Information Service EBooks in URL)

Endnote (which
reference type?)

Wharton, N. (1996). Health and


safety in outdoor activity
centres. Journal of Adventure
Education and Outdoor
Leadership, 12 (4). 8-9/
Anorexia nervosa. (1969). British
Medical Journal, 1, 529-530.

Journal Article

Towers, K. (2000, January 18).


Doctor not at fault: Coroner.
The Australian, p. 3.
Rate rise scares new home buyers
away. (2005, April 29). Sydney
Morning Herald, p. 35.
Watersmith, . (2000, March 1). BHP
enters new era. [Press release].
Merlbourne: BHP Limiterd.

Newspaper Article

Journal Article

Newspaper Article

Report
(put 2000, March 1 in
the Year field,
Press release in
Report Number)

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

Electronic
Journals

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Full text from


an electronic
database

(Madden, 2002)
or
As Madden (2002)
states

Madden, G. (2002). Internet


economics and policy:
an Australian
perspective. Economic
Record, 78, 343-358.
Retrieved October 16,
2002, from
ABI/.inform database.

Journal Article

Full text from an


electronic
databaseno
author

The Internet has had a huge


impact on the Australian
economy (internet
Economics, 2002)

Journal Article

Full text
newspaper,
newswire or
magazine from an
electronic
databaseno
author
Full text from
internet

(WA Packed, 2004)

Internet economics and policy:


an Australian perspetive.
(2002). Economic
Record, 78, 343-358.
Retrieved October 16,
2002, from ABI/Inform
database.
WA packed with overseas
appeal. (2004, November
12). The West Australian,
p. 47. Retrieved
November 13, 2004,
from Factiva database.

Article from
Curtin E-Reserve

(Davidhizar & Dowd, 1997)

Article from a
database in CDROM format
(BPO)

(La Rosa, 1992)

(Sopensky, 2002)

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Sopensky, E. (2002). Ice rink


becomes hot business.
Austin Business Journal.
Retrieved October 16,
2002, from
http://www.bizjournals.c
om/Austin/stories/2002/1
0/14/smallb1.html
(Davidhizar, R., & Dowd, S.B.
(1997). The art of giving
an effective presentation.
Health Care Supervisor,
15(3), 25-31. Retrieved
October 16, 2002, from
Curtin University of
Technology Library &
Information Service EReserve: http://opac. Iis.
Curtin.edu.au
La Rosa, S.M. (1992).
Marketing slays the
downsizing dragon.
Information Today, 9(3),
58-59. Retrieved October
16, 2002, from UMI
Business Periodicals
Ondisc database.

Newspaper
(put November 13,
2004 in the Notes
field, Factiva
database in Type of
Article)
Journal Article
(put October 16,
2002, in the Access
Date field.
http://www.bizijourn
als.com/austin/storie
s/2002/10/14/smallb
1.html in database)
Journal Article
(put October 16,
2002 in the Access
Date field, Curtin
University Library &
Information Service
E-Reserve in
Database)

Journal Article
(put October 16,
2002 in the Access
Date field, UMI
Business Periodicals
Ondisc in Database)

253

Appendices

World Wide
Web
Document on
WWW

Document on
WWWNo
author
Document on
WWWNo
date

Government
Publications
Acts of
Parliament

In-Text Example
Its essential you
learn how to reference
(Dawson, smith,
Deubert & GreySmith, 2002)
(Leafy Seadragons,
2001)

(Royal Institute of
British Architects,
n.d.)

Reference List Example


Dawson, J., Smith, L., Deubert, K., & Grey-Smith,
S. (2002). S Trek 6: Referencing, not
plagiarism. Retrieved October 31, 2002,
from http://studytrekk.Iis.curtin.edu.au/

Electoronic source
(use Access Date &
URL fields for
retrieved statement)

Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons (2001).


Retrieved November 13, 2002, from
http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadrag
ons/
Royal Institute of British Architects (n.d.). Shaping
the future: Careers in architecture. Retrieved
May 31, 2005, from
http://www.careersinarchitecture.net/

Electronic source
(use Access Date &
URL fields for
retrieved statement)
Electronic source
(put Royal Institute
of British Architects
in the Author field,
n.d. in Year, use
Access Date & URL
fields for retrieved
statement

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

The Commonwealths
Copyright Act 1974.
(In future references, omit date)

Legislation is included in a list of


references only if it is important to
an understanding of the work. Set
the list apart from the main body
of the reference under the
subheading Legislation. Essential
elements: Short Title of Act Year
(Jurisdiction) eg.

Enter in-text citation


manually

Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth)

Cases

(The State of New South Wales


v. The Commonwealth, 1915)

Australian
Bureau of
Statistics
Bulletin

(Australian Bureau of Statistics,


1999)

Australian
Bureau of
Statistics from
AusStats

(Australian Bureau of Statistics,


1999)

254

If legislation is obtained from an


electronic database, add a
retrieved statement as for
electronic journal articles.
The state of New South Wales v.
The Commonwealth (1915) 20
CLR 5.

Australian Bureau of Statistics,


(1999). Disability, ageing
and carers: summary of
findings (No. 4430.0).
Canberra ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics,
(1999). Disability, ageing and
carers: summary of findings
(No. 4430.0). Canberra ABS.
Retrieved October 14, 2002,
from AusStats database

Case
(put 20 CLR 5 in the
Abbreviated Case Name
field)
You will need to edit the
in-text citation for it to
appear correctly
Report
(put No. 4430.0 in the
Accession Number field)

Report
(put No. 4430.0 in the
Accession Number field,
October 14, 2002 in Date,
AusStats database in Type)

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

Government
Publications

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Census
Information

(Australian Bureau of Statistics,


2001)

Government
Reports

(Resource Assessment
Commission, 1991)

Australian Bureau of Statistics.


(2001). Census of
population and housing:
B01 selected
characteristics (First
release processing) postal
area 6050. Retrieved
November 20, 2002, from
AusStats database.
Resource Assessment
Commission. (1991).
Forest and timber enquiry:
draft report (No. 1).
Canberra: Australian
Government Publishing
Service.

Secondary
Sources
Book

Journal article

In-Text Example
.including neuralgia (Carini
and Hogan, as cited in
Thibodeau & Patton, 2002, p.
45)
or
Carini and Hogans study (as
cited in Thibodeau & Patton,
2002, p. 45)
Carini and Hogans study (as
cited in Patton, 2002)
or
origins of neuralgia
(Carini and Hogan, as cited in
Patton, 2002, p. 2154)

Report
(use Date & Type fields for
retrieved statement)

Report
(put No. 1 in the Accession
Number field, Australian
Government Publishing
Service in Institution)

Reference List Example


Thibodeau, G. A. & Patton, K. T.
(Ed.). (2002). The human body in
health and disease. St. Louis, Mo.:
Mosby.

Book

Record the book that you actually


sourced.
Patton, K. T. (2002). Neuralgia and
headaches. Science, 400, 21532155.

Journal Article

Record the journal that you actually


sourced

Other Sources

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Personal
communication,
e-mail and
discussion lists
with no web
archive
Films and
videorecordings

It was confirmed that an


outbreak occurred in
London (S. Savieri, personal
communication, 24 April,
1999).

Not included in reference list


as they cannot be traced by
the reader

enter in-text citation


manually.

(Scorsese & Lonergan,


2000)

Scorsese, M. (Producer), &


Lonergan, K.
(Writer/Director).
(2000). You can
count on me
[Motion picture].
United States:
Paramount
Pictures.

Film or Broadcast
(put Scorsese, M and
Lonergan, K in the
Director field,
Writer/Director in
Alternate Title, Motion
picture in Medium,
United States in Country,
Paramount Pictures in
Distributor)
You will need to edit the

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

255

Appendices

Other Sources

In-Text Example

Television and
radio
programmes

(Crystal, 1993)

ERIC document
(microfiche)

Davis and Lombardi (1996)


put forward the proposal
that

E-mail
discussion list
web archive

(Little, 2002)

Reference List Example

Crystal, L. (Executive
Producer). (1993,
October 11). The
MacNeill Lehrer
news hour
[Television
broadcast]. New
York and
Washington, DC:
Public
Broadcasting
Service.
Davis, R.K., & Lombardi,
T.P. (1996). The
quality of life of
rural high school
special education
graduates. In
Rural goals2000:
Building
programs that
work
[Microfiche].
(ERIC Document
No. ED394765).
Little, L. (2002, April 16).
Two new policy
briefs. Message
posted to
ECPOLICY
electronic mailing
list, archived at
http://www.askeri
c.org/Virtual
Listserv_Archives/ECPOLIC
Y/2002/Apr_2002/Msg00003
.html

citation in your Word


document to add
(Producer)
Film or Broadcast
(put Crystal, L. in the
Director field, Executive
Producer in Alternate
Title, Television
broadcast in Medium,
New York and
Washington DC in
Country, Public
Broadcasting Service in
Distributor)
Generic
(put Microfiche in the
Type of Work field, ERIC
Document No.
ED394765 in Publisher)

Newspaper Article
In Type of Article put
Message posted to
ECPOLICY electronic
mailing list, archieved at
http://www.askeric.org/V
irtualListserv_Archives/
ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2
002/Msg00003.html

It is very important that you check the assignment guide for your Department of School as some details, e.g.
punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalized for not conforming to your
schools requirements.

256

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Appendices

Web sites

Sites with potential for language activities

Gateway sites & Resources

ITs Magazine Online


Jeopardy: one of many games that may help
practice question forms
Plumb Designs Visual Thesaurus: spatial map of
linguistic associations
Teen Advice Online: Teenager Counsellor give
answers to problems
Worlds Chat

Address
http://www.its-online.com
http://www.station.sony.com/jeopardy
http://www.plumbdesign.com
http://www.teenadvice.org
http://www.worlds.com

Sites with potential for reading activities

Gateway sites & Resources

Alexandria Digital: fiction recommendations


based on current choices
CraYoN: Create Your Own Newspaper
Electronic Newstand: directory of magazines
TheCase: weekly mysteries and lesson plans
Yahoo! Headlines: todays news

Address
http://www. alexlit.com
http://www.crayon.net
http://www.enews.com
http://www.thecase.com
http://www.headlines.yahoo.com

Sites with potential for speaking activities

Gateway sites & Resources

The Exploratorium: San Francisco interactive


science museum
Learn2.com: FYI site, online tutorials
NASA: Ask an Astronaut and Solar System
Simulator
Web Museum: Database and links to art and
artists

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Address
http://www.exploratorium.edu
http://www.learn2.com
http://www.nasa.gov
http://www. subnsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/wm/

257

Appendices

Sites with potential for writing activities

Gateway sites & Resources

Classroom Connect
Electronic Postcards
Intercultural E-mail Classroom
Connections
The Online Writing Lab
Reviews of Internet Projects for EFL
Strategy Inventory for E-mail
Writing: Yu-Chin Sun

Address
http://www.classroom.com
http://www.corbis.com;
http://www.postcards.www.media.mit.edu/Postcards/
http://www.stolaf.edu/network/iecc
http://www.owl.wsu.edu
http://www.hut.fi/-rvilmi
sun@falcon.cc.ukans.edu

For those who want to join mailing lists for students: Cross-cultural discussion and writing
practice for college and university students of English: Latrobe University, send a blank e-mail
message to: announce-sl@latrobe.edu.au to receive an index of lists and further information or
check the web site http://www.latrobe.edu.au/www/education/sl.sl.html

Sites with potential for listening activities

Gateway sites & Resources

258

The Academy Awards: official site of the Oscars


BBC: News channel site, with video, real audio and tips
for teachers
CNN: News channel site, with video clips and links
plus daily quiz
Hollywood.com: trailers, synopses, film interviews
Internet Movie Database: all the information you could
ever need
The International Lyrics Server: searchable index of
lyrics
Timecast: listing of live RealPlayer broadcasts

Address
http://www.oscar.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk
http://www.cnn.com
http://www.hollywood.com
http://www.imdb.com
http://www.lyrics.ch
www.timecast.com

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES