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24/04/2016

Rebel:(3)JeanFeryRebelinOxfordMusicOnline

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Rebel:(3)JeanFeryRebel
articleurl:http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/23001pg3

Rebel:(3)JeanFeryRebel

(3)JeanFeryRebel[lepre]
(bParis,bap.18April1666dParis,2Jan1747).Violinist,harpsichordist,conductorandcomposer,sonof(1)Jean
Rebel.Heshowedtalentformusicbytheageofeight.HavingattractedthenoticeofLully,hebecamehispupilinviolin
andcomposition.TheMercuregalantmentionedhiminDecember1700asoneoftheinstrumentalistsfromtheOpra
whoaccompaniedPhilippeofAnjoutoSpain.From18August1705hewasoneofthe24ViolonsduRoiandthen
becamebatteurdemesureinthatensembleandintheOpraorchestra.On30March1718heobtainedfromMichel
RicharddeLalanderightsofreversiontothepostofchambercomposertotheking,andhedulysucceededhisbrother
inlawinthispostonLalande'sdeath.HeandhissonFranoiswerealsomusiciansintheroyalchapel.Rebelhad
powerfulpatrons,towhomhededicatedsomeofhisworks,includingthesonataLaTerpsicoretothewifeofJohnLaw,
thefinancier,andLeslmenstoPrinceCarignan.HemarriedClaudeCatherineCoutyandhadsixchildren:Franois,
MadeleineAnglique,JeanCharles,HlneJulie,LouiseAnneandAnneLouise.Ashegrewolderhegraduallygave
uphisvariouspostsinfavourofhissonFranois.
ApartfromsomeLeonsdetnbres,nowlost,JeanFeryRebel'sworksaresecular.Hisearliestpiecesaretrio
sonatasandsonatasforviolinandcontinuo,thelattercomposedabout1695andpublishedin1712.Allthesesonatas
havetitles:LetombeaudeMonsieurdeLullyisasuperbtributetothedeadmaster.Rebelisthusoneofthefirst
composersofsonatasinFrance,alongwithCharpentier,FranoisCouperin(ii),ElisabethJacquetdeLaGuerreand
SbastiendeBrossard.Hepublishedtwoothercollectionsofchambermusic:Picespourleviolonaveclabasse
continue,divisesparsuitesdetons,quipeuventaussisejouersurleclavecinetsurlaviole(1705)andSonates
violonseulmellesdeplusieursrcitspourlaviole(1713).Attheageof36hecomposedhisonlyopera,Ulysse,which
provedunsuccessfulwhenperformedattheAcadmieRoyale(ithadonly5or6performancesaccordingtoanoteon
oneoftheextantcopies).Afragment(Act3scenev)wasrevivedinTlmaque,ouLesfragmentsdesmodernesby
DanchetandCampra,performedin1704.
Rebel'sdancemusic,ontheotherhand,wasextremelysuccessful.HisfirstsuchworkwasaCapricechoreographed
forthefamousMademoisellePrvost.Theworkwasrevivedseveraltimesbetweenitscompositionand1749.Les
caractresdeladanse,ahighlyoriginalpiece,wasperformedbythemostfamouswomendancersoftheperiod,
FranoisePrvost,MarieSallandMarieAnneCupisdeCamargo.ItwasevenstagedinEnglandin1725.Theworkis
akindofpotpourriofthevariousdancesinfashionatthetime.LafantaisieandLesplaisirschamptreswerealsovery
popular.Rebel'slastworkwasLeselemens,precededbyamovementcalledCahos(Chaos).Thetwopieceswere
originallycomposedandperformedseparatelyin1737and1738,andthenpublishedandplayedtogether,Cahos
servingasanintroductiontothesuiteofdancesmakingupLeselemens.Itsharmonicdaring,itsorchestralcolouring
andtheoriginalityofitsconceptionmakeCahosamasterpieceof18thcenturyFrenchinstrumentalmusic.Rebelwas
thefirstFrenchcomposertogivedanceaplaceofitsownoutsidedramaticspectacles.Aswellasbeinginnovative,
thesechoreographedpiecesbearwitnesstoRebel'sart,withtheirplayoforchestraltimbres,theirnuances,their
contrastsproducedbythejuxtapositionofdancesindifferentmoodsandtheiroutstandingrhythmiceffects.

CopyrightOxfordUniversityPress20072016.

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