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3.

1 Description of A Pipe Flow


Water pipes in our homes and the distribution
system
Pipes carry hydraulic fluid to various components
of vehicles and machines
Natural systems of pipes that carry blood
throughout our body and air into and out of our
lungs.

Pipe Flow: refers to a full water flow in a closed


conduits or circular cross section under a certain
pressure gradient.
The pipe flow at any cross section can be
described by:
cross section (A),
elevation (h), measured with respect to a horizontal
reference datum.
pressure (P), varies from one point to another, for a
given cross section variation is neglected
The flow velocity (v), v = Q/A.
3

Difference between open-channel flow and the pipe flow

Pipe flow
The pipe is completely filled
with the fluid being transported.

Open-channel flow
Water flows without
completely filling the pipe.

The main driving force is likely


to be a pressure gradient along
the pipe.

Gravity alone is the


driving force, the water
flows down a hill.
4

Types of Flow
Steady and Unsteady flow
The flow parameters such as velocity (v), pressure (P)
and density (r) of a fluid flow are independent of time
in a steady flow. In unsteady flow they are independent.
For a steady flow

v t x ,y ,z

v t x ,y ,z

For an unsteady flow

If the variations in any fluids parameters are small, the


average is constant, then the fluid is considered to be
steady
5

Uniform and non-uniform flow


A flow is uniform if the flow characteristics at any given
instant remain the same at different points in the
direction of flow, otherwise it is termed as non-uniform
flow.
For a uniform flow

v s t

For a non-uniform flow

v s t

Examples:

The flow through a long uniform pipe diameter at a constant rate is


steady uniform flow.

The flow through a long uniform pipe diameter at a varying rate is


unsteady uniform flow.

The flow through a diverging pipe diameter at a constant rate is a


steady non-uniform flow.

The flow through a diverging pipe diameter at a varying rate is an


unsteady non-uniform flow.

Laminar and turbulent flow


Laminar flow:
The fluid particles move along smooth well defined path or streamlines
that are parallel, thus particles move in laminas or layers, smoothly
gliding over each other.

Turbulent flow:
The fluid particles do not move in orderly manner and they occupy different
relative positions in successive cross-sections.
There is a small fluctuation in magnitude and direction of the velocity of the
fluid particles

transitional flow
The flow occurs between laminar and turbulent flow
8

3.2 Reynolds Experiment


Reynolds performed a very carefully prepared pipe flow
experiment.

Increasing
flow
velocity

10

Reynolds Experiment
Reynold found that transition from laminar to turbulent
flow in a pipe depends not only on the velocity, but only
on the pipe diameter and the viscosity of the fluid.
This relationship between these variables is commonly
known as Reynolds number (NR)

VDr

VD

Inertial Forces
NR

Viscous Forces
It can be shown that the Reynolds number is a measure of
the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces in the
flow
FV A
FI ma
11

Reynolds number

rVD VD
NR

where V:
D:
r:
:
:

mean velocity in the pipe [L/T]


pipe diameter
[L]
density of flowing fluid [M/L3]
dynamic viscosity [M/LT]
kinematic viscosity
[L2/T]

12

13

It has been found by many experiments that for flows in


circular pipes, the critical Reynolds number is about 2000
Flow laminar when NR < Critical NR
Flow turbulent when NR > Critical NR
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not always
happened at NR = 2000 but varies due to experiments
conditions..this known as transitional range

14

Laminar Vs. Turbulent flows


Laminar flows characterized
by:

Turbulent flows characterized


by

low velocities
small length scales
high kinematic viscosities

high velocities
large length scales

NR < Critical NR

NR > Critical NR

Viscous forces are

Inertial forces are

dominant.

low kinematic viscosities

dominant

15

Example 3.1
40 mm diameter circular pipe carries water at 20oC.
Calculate the largest flow rate (Q) which laminar flow can
be expected.

D 0.04m
1106 at T 20o C
NR

VD

2000

Q V . A 0.05

V (0.04)
2000 V 0.05m / sec
6
110

(0.04) 2 6.28 105 m3 / sec


16

3.3 Forces in Pipe Flow


Cross section and elevation of the pipe are varied along
the axial direction of the flow.

17

For Incompressible and Steady flows:


Conservation law of mass

r.dVol11' r.dVol22' mass flux ( fluid mass)


Mass enters the
control volume

Mass leaves the


control volume

dVol11'
dVol 2 2'
r.
r.
dt
dt
dS1
dS 2
r . A1
r . A2
r . A1.V1 r . A2 .V2 r .Q
dt
dt
Continuity equation for
Incompressible Steady flow

A1.V1 A2 .V2 Q
18

Apply Newtons Second Law:

dV M V 2 M V1
F M a M dt
t

P1 A1 P2 A2 Fx Wx

Fx is the axial direction force exerted on the control volume


by the wall of the pipe.

but M t r .Q mass flow rate

Fx r.Q(Vx2 Vx1 )
F
F

r .Q(V y2 V y1 )
r .Q(Vz2 Vz1 )

F r.Q(V

V 1)

Conservation of
moment equation
19

Example 3.2
dA= 40 mm, dB= 20 mm, PA= 500,000 N/m2, Q=0.01m3/sec.
Determine the reaction force at the hinge.

20

3.4 Energy Head in Pipe Flow


Water flow in pipes may contain energy in three
basic forms:
1- Kinetic energy,
2- potential energy,
3- pressure energy.

21

Consider the control volume:

In time interval dt:


- Water particles at sec.1-1 move to sec. 1`-1` with velocity V1.
- Water particles at sec.2-2 move to sec. 2`-2` with velocity V2.

To satisfy continuity equation:

A1.V1.dt A2 .V2 .dt

The work done by the pressure force

P1. A1.ds1 P1. A1.V1.dt

. on section 1-1

P2 . A2 .ds2 P2 . A2 .V2 .dt . on section 2-2


-ve sign because P2 is in the opposite direction to distance traveled ds2

22

The work done by the gravity force :

Work W .h mg.h
m r .Volume A1 L A1V1dt

The kinetic energy: Work rg. A1.V1dt.(h1 h2 )

1
1
1
2
2
2
M .V2 M .V1 r. A1.V1.dt (V22 V1 )
2
2
2
The total work done by all forces is equal to the change in
kinetic energy:

1
2
P1.Q.dt P2 .Q.dt rg.Q.dt.(h1 h2 ) r.Q.dt (V22 V1 )
2
Dividing both sides by rgQdt
2

V1 P1
V
P
h1 2 2 h2
2g
2g

Bernoulli Equation
Energy per unit weight of water
OR: Energy Head

23

Energy head and Head loss in pipe flow


24

V2
P2
H2

h2
2g

Energy =
head

Kinetic
head

+ Pressure

head

Elevation
head

V
P
H1 1 1 h1
2g

Notice that:
In reality, certain amount of energy loss (hL) occurs when the
water mass flow from one section to another.
The energy relationship between two sections can be written
as:
2
2
V1
P1
V2
P2
h1

h2 hL
25
2g
2g

Example 3.4

The tank is being drained through 12 in pipe. The discharge = 3200 gpm, The
Total head loss = 11.5 ft. find the h?

26

Example
In the figure shown:
Where the discharge through the system is 0.05 m3/s, the total losses through
the pipe is 10 v2/2g where v is the velocity of water in 0.15 m diameter pipe,
the water in the final outlet exposed to atmosphere.

Example
In the figure shown:
Where the discharge through the system is 0.05 m3/s, the total losses through the pipe is 10 v2/2g
where v is the velocity of water in 0.15 m diameter pipe, the water in the final outlet exposed to
atmosphere. Calculate the required height (h =?)
below the tank

Calculate the required


height (h =?)
below the tank
0.05
2.83m / s
2

4 0.15

Q
A

Q
A

0.05

6.366m / s
2

4 0.10

p1 V12
p2 V22

z1

z 2 hL
rg 2 g
rg 2 g
2
2

6.366
102.83
0 0 (h 5) 0
20

2 * 9.81

h 21.147 m

2 * 9.81

Without calculation sketch the (E.G.L) and (H.G.L)

Basic components of a typical pipe


system

30

Calculation of Head (Energy) Losses:


In General:
When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some
resistance due to which some of energy (head) of fluid is lost.
Energy Losses
(Head losses)
Major Losses
loss of head due to pipe
friction and to viscous
dissipation in flowing
water

Minor losses
Loss due to the change of
the velocity of the flowing
fluid in the magnitude or in
direction as it moves
through fitting like Valves,
Tees, Bends and Reducers.
31

3.5 Losses of Head due to Friction


Energy loss through friction in the length of pipeline is commonly
termed the major loss hf
This is the loss of head due to pipe friction and to the viscous
dissipation in flowing water.
Several studies have been found the resistance to flow in a pipe is:
- Independent of pressure under which the water flows
- Linearly proportional to the pipe length, L
- Inversely proportional to some water power of the pipe diameter D
- Proportional to some power of the mean velocity, V
- Related to the roughness of the pipe, if the flow is turbulent

The resistance to flow in a pipe is a function of:

The pipe length, L

The pipe diameter, D

The mean velocity, V

The properties of the fluid ()

The roughness of the pipe, (the flow is


turbulent).

33

Darcy-Weisbach Equation
2

L V
8f LQ
hL f

D 2 g g D5 2

Where:
f is the friction factor
L is pipe length
D is pipe diameter
Q is the flow rate
hL is the loss due to friction

It is conveniently expressed in terms of velocity (kinetic) head in the pipe

The friction factor is function of different terms:

rVD e
e

VD e
f F N R , F
, F
,
D

D
D
Renold number

Relative roughness

Friction Factor: (f)


For Laminar flow: (NR < 2000) [depends only on
Reynolds number and not on the surface roughness]

64
f
NR

For

turbulent flow in smooth pipes (e/D = 0) with


4000 < NR < 105 is

0.316
f 1/ 4
NR

35

Friction Factor f
The thickness of the laminar sublayer decrease with an increase in NR
laminar flow
NR < 2000

f independent of relative
roughness e/D

Smooth

' 1.7e

pipe wall

64
NR

N f
1
2 log 10 R
f
2.51

f varies with NR and e/D


transitionally
rough
e

pipe wall

0.08e ' 1.7e

e

1
2.51
D
2 log 10
3.7 N R f
f

Colebrook formula

turbulent flow
f independent of NR
NR > 4000

pipe wall

rough

0.08e
'

1
D

2 log 10 3.7
e
f

Moody diagram
A convenient chart was prepared by Lewis F. Moody and commonly
called the Moody diagram of friction factors for pipe flow,
There are 4 zones of pipe flow in the chart:
A laminar flow zone where f is simple linear function of NR
A critical zone (shaded) where values are uncertain because
the flow might be neither laminar nor truly turbulent
A transition zone where f is a function of both NR and relative
roughness
A zone of fully developed turbulence where the value of f
depends solely on the relative roughness and independent of
the Reynolds Number

38

Laminar

Marks Reynolds Number


independence

Typical values of the absolute roughness (e) are given in


table 3.1

40

Notes: Alternative to Moody Diagram


Swamee-Jain Equation (1976)

0.25

5.74
e
log10 3.7 D Re 0.9

Explicit expression 10-6<e/D,10-2; 5000<NR<108

41

Problems (head loss)


Three types of problems for uniform flow
in a single pipe:
Type 1:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

head loss ?

Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Type 3:
Given the kind of pipe, the head loss and flow rate

size of pipe ?

Solving Turbulent flow Problems


There are 3 types of problems
Given: L, D, V solve for hf
Compute ks/D, Re then f from moody diagram then
find hf and V
Given: hf, L, D solve for V
2 gh
D
Compute ks/D the value
Then calculate f, V
L
and Q
Given: Q, L, hf solve for D, Iterative solution
3/ 2

Iterative process Assume f, calculate V and Re, check f from


moody diagram
Assume new f, calculate V and Re, then check f

Moody Diagram

Fully rough pipes

Smooth pipes

Reynolds number

1/ 2

Relative roughness e/D

Resistance Coefficient f

N R f 1/ 2

D3 / 2 2 gh f

Example 1
The water flow in Asphalted cast Iron pipe (e = 0.12mm) has a diameter 20cm
at 20oC. Is 0.05 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km
Type 1:
head loss ?
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

0.05m 3 /s
V
1.59m/s
2
2
/4 0.2 m

T 20o C 1.0110 6 m 2 /s
e 0.12mm
e 0.12mm

0.0006
D 200mm
VD 1.59 0.2
5
NR

314852

3
.
15

10
1.0110 6
2
L V2
1,000 m 1.59
hf f
0.018

2
D 2g
0.20 m 2 9.81 m/s

11.55 m

Moody

f = 0.018

45

Example 2
The water flow in commercial steel pipe (e = 0.045mm) has a diameter 0.5m
at 20oC. Q=0.4 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km
Type 1:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

head loss ?

Q
0.4
V
2.037 m / s

2
A 0.5
4

497 10 6
497 10 6
6

1
.
006

10
T 42.51.5 20 42.51.5
0.5 2.037
6
NR

1
.
012

10
1.006 10 6
e
0.045
5

10
D 0.5 103
Moody
f 0.013
2
1000 2.037
h f 0.013

5.5 m / km
0.5 2 9.81

Example 3
Cast iron pipe (e = 0.26), length = 2 km, diameter = 0.3m. Determine the
max. flow rate Q , If the allowable maximum head loss = 4.6m. T=10oC

Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

LV
hF f
D 2g
V2

2000

0.3 2 9.81
0.0135
V2

1
f
4.6 f

497 10 6
497 10 6
6

1
.
31

10
T 42.51.5 10 42.51.5
0.3 V
6
NR

2
.
296

10
V
2
6
1.3110
e
0.26
5

8
.
67

10
0.00009
3
D 0.3 10

Trial 1
eq1
f 0.01
V 1.16 m/s
2
eq

N R 2.668 105

e
8.67 10 4
D
Moody
f 0.02

V2

0.0135

1
f

N R 2.296 106V
2

Trial 2
eq1
f 0.02
V 0.82 m/s
2
eq

N R 1.886 105

e
8.67 10 4
D
Moody
f 0.021

V= 0.82 m/s , Q = V*A = 0.058 m3/s

Example 3.5
Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave
pipe in its best condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to
have a head loss of 2m/km of pipe length.
Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Solution 1:
LV2
hf f
D 2g

2ghf 1/ 2 D 1/ 2
V

L f

2
0.12
1000 V
2
2 f
V

f
3 2(9.81)

Table 3.1 : wood stave pipe: e = 0.18 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm

e 0.3

0.0001
D 3
At T= 10oC, = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec N R

VD

3V
6

2
.
29

10
.V
6
1.31 10

Solve by trial and error:


Iteration 1:
Assume f = 0.02

0.12
V
V 2.45m / sec
0.02
2

N R 2.29 106.2.45 5.6 106


From moody Diagram: f 0.0122

Iteration 2:
update f = 0.0122

V2

0.12
V 3.14m / sec
0.0122

N R 2.29 106.3.14 7.2 106


From moody Diagram: f 0.0121 0.0122
Iteration

NR

0.02

2.45

5.6106

0.0122

3.14

7.2106

0.0121

Convergence

V2 3.15 m/s
Solution: Q VA 3.15.

32

22.27 m3 /s

Alternative Method for solution of Type 2 problems


D3 / 2 2 gh f
f

NR

1/ 2

Type 2. Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Determines relative roughness e/D

Given N R

f and e/D we can determine f (Moody diagram)

Use Darcy-Weisbach to determine velocity and flow rate

Because V is unknown we cannot calculate the Reynolds number


However, if we know the friction loss hf, we can use the Darcy-Weisbach equation
to write:

1/ 2 1/ 2
LV2
2ghf
D
V

L f
1 D 3 / 2 2ghf 1/ 2
Re 1/ 2


f L

hf f

We also know that:

3/ 2

D 2 gh f
1/ 2
NR f

D 2g
VD
Re

1/ 2

Can be calculated based on


available data

unknowns

Quantity plotted along the top of the Moody diagram

Moody Diagram

Fully rough pipes

Smooth pipes

Reynolds number

1/ 2

Relative roughness e/D

Resistance Coefficient f

N R f 1/ 2

D3 / 2 2 gh f

Example 3.5
Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave pipe in its best
condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to have a head loss of 2m/km
of pipe length.
Type 2: Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Solution 2:
At T= 10oC, = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec

D 2 gh f
f

L
3/ 2

NR

1/ 2

(3)3 2

1.31 106

2(9.81)(3)
9.62 105
1000

Table 3.1 : wood pipe: e = 0.18 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm e 0.3 0.0001
D 3
From moody Diagram: f 0.0121
1/ 2

2 gh f
LV
hf f
V

D 2g
L
2

1/ 2

D

f

3.15m / sec , Q VA 3.15.

32

22.27 m3 /s

f = 0.0121

Example (type 2)
1
H = 4 m, L = 200 m, and D = 0.05 m
H

What is the discharge through the


galvanized iron pipe?

2
L

Table : Galvanized iron pipe: e = 0.15 mm

e/D = 0.00015/0.05 = 0.003

= 10-6 m2/s
We can write the energy equation between the water surface in the reservoir and the
2
2
free jet at the end of the pipe:

p1

h1

V1
p
V
2 h2 2 hL
2g
2g

2
V2
L V
04000
f
2g
D 2g

V2

2g 4
78.5

1 4000 f
L
1 f
D

Example (continued)
Assume Initial value for f : fo = 0.026
Initial estimate for V:

78.5
0.865 m/sec
1 4000 0.026

Calculate the Reynolds number N R

DV

5 104 V 4.3 104

Updated the value of f from the Moody diagram f1

Iteration

78.5
0.819 m/sec
1 4000 0.029

NR

DV2

= 0.029

5 104 V 4.1 104

NR

0.026

0.865

4.3104

0.029

0.819

4.1104

0.0294

0.814

4.07104

0.0294

V 2 0.814 m/s
Solution:
Convergence

Q VA 0.814

0.05 2

1.60 103 m3 /s

Initial estimate for f


A good initial estimate is to pick the f value that is valid for a fully rough pipe with
the specified relative roughness

fo = 0.026

e/D = 0.003

Solution of Type 3 problems-uniform flow in a


single pipe
Given the kind of pipe, the head loss and flow rate
Determines
equivalent roughness e
Problem?

size of pipe ?

Without D we cannot calculate the relative


roughness e/D, NR, or N R f

Solution procedure: Iterate on f and D


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Use the Darcy Weisbach equation and guess an initial value for f
Solve for D
Calculate e/D
Calculate NR
Update f
Solve for D
If new D different from old D go to step 3, otherwise done

Example (Type 3)
A pipeline is designed to carry crude oil (S = 0.93, = 10-5 m2/s) with a discharge of 0.10
m3/s and a head loss per kilometer of 50 m. What diameter of steel pipe is needed?
Available pipe diameters are 20, 22, and 24 cm.
From Table 3.1 : Steel pipe: e = 0.045 mm
Darcy-Weisbach:
2

2
L V
hf f
D 2g

16 fLQ
D

2
2
g

h
f

Q

2
2
L A
1 16 fLQ2
L Q 4
hf f
f
5
2
4
D 2g
D 2 g 2
D 2g D

1/ 5

16 1000 0.102
D
2
2

9
.
81

50

Make an initial guess for f :

fo = 0.015

1/ 5

f 1/ 5 0.440 f 1/ 5

D 0.440 0.0151/ 5 0.190 m

Now we can calculate the relative roughness and the Reynolds number:

e 0.045 103

0.00024
D
D
NR

VD

Q D 4Q D 4Q 1
1
3
3

12
.
7

10

66
.
8

10
A D 2 D
D

update f
f = 0.021

Updated estimate for f

f1 = 0.021

e/D = 0.00024

Example Contd
D 0.440 f 1/ 5
1
D

N R 12.7 103

Solution:
D = 0.203

From moody diagram, updated estimated for f :


f1 = 0.021

Use next larger commercial


size:

D = 0.203 m

N R 62.5 103
e
0.00023
D
Iteration

NR

update f

e/D

0.015

0.190

66.8103 0.00024

0.021

0.203

0.021

62.5103 0.00023
Convergence

D = 22 cm

Example 3.6
Estimate the size of a uniform, horizontal welded-steel pipe installed to carry 14
ft3/sec of water of 70oF (20oC). The allowable pressure loss is 17 ft/mi of
pipe length.

Solution 2:
From Table : Steel pipe: ks = 0.046 mm

LV2
Darcy-Weisbach: hL f
D 2g
Q VA

8 f 5280 14
D

2
9
.
81

17

Let D = 2.5 ft, then

Q
2

L A
L Q 2 42
1 16fLQ 2
hL f
f

D 2g
D 2g 2D 4 D 5 2g 2

8 fLQ 2
D 2
g hL

1
/5

f 1/ 5 4.33 f 1/ 5

1/ 5

V = Q/A = 2.85 ft/sec

Now by knowing the relative roughness and the Reynolds number:

e 0.003

0.0012
D
2.5
VD

2.85 * 2.5
NR

6.6 *105
5
1.08 *10

We get f =0.021

A better estimate of D can be obtained by substituting the latter


values into equation a, which gives

D 4.33 f 1/ 5 4.33 * 0.0211/ 5 2.0 ft


A new iteration provide
V = 4.46 ft/sec
NR = 8.3 x 105
e/D = 0.0015
f = 0.022, and
D = 2.0 ft.
More iterations will produce the same results.

Major losses formulas


Several formulas have been developed in the past.
Some of these formulas have faithfully been used in
various hydraulic engineering practices.
1. Darcy-Weisbach formula
2. The Hazen -Williams Formula

3. The Manning Formula


4. The Chezy Formula
5. The Strickler Formula

64

Empirical Formulas 1
Hazen-Williams
D 5cm V 3.0m / sec
V 1.318CHW Rh0.63S 0.54

British Units

V 0.85CHW Rh

0.54

0.63

SI Units

Simplified

D 2
Rh hydraulic Radius
S
C HW

hf

10.7 L
1.852
Q
1.852
CHW
D 4.87

wetted A
D
4
wetted P
D
4

hf
L
Hazen Williams Coefficien t

SI Units

CHW Hazen Williams Coefficien t

CHW Hazen Williams Coefficien t

68

When V 3.0m / sec


CH

Vo
C Ho

0.081

Where:
CH = corrected value
CHo = value from table
Vo = velocity at CHo
V = actual velocity

69

Empirical Formulas 2
Manning Formula
This formula has extensively been used
for open channel designs
It is also quite commonly used for pipe
flows
70

Manning
1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V Rh S
n

Rh hydraulic Radius

Simplified

wetted A D

wetted P
4

hf

L
n Manning Coefficien t

10.3 L nQ
hf
D 5.33

SI Units
71

1 2/ 3 1/ 2
V Rh S
n
2
Q
h f 10.3n 2 L 16 / 3
D

L 2 2
h f 6.35 1.33 n V
D
n = Manning coefficient of roughness (See Table)
Rh and S are as defined for Hazen-William
formula.

72

73

74

Example
New Cast Iron (CHW = 130, n = 0.011) has length = 6 km and diameter = 30cm.
Q= 0.32 m3/s, T=30o. Calculate the head loss due to friction using:
a) Hazen-William Method

10.7 L
1.852
hf
Q
1.852
CHW
D 4.87
hf

10.7 6000
1.852
0
.
32
333m
1.852
4 .87
130
0.3

b) Manning Method

10.3 L nQ
hf
D 5.33
2
10.3 6000 0.011 0.32
hf
470 m
5 .33
0.3
2

Minor losses
It is due to the change
of the velocity of the
flowing fluid in the
magnitude
or
in
direction [turbulence
within bulk flow as it
moves through and
fitting]

Flow pattern through a valve

76

The minor losses occurs du to :


Valves
Tees
Bends
Reducers
Valves
And other appurtenances

It has the common form


V2
Q2
hm k L
kL
2g
2 gA2
minor compared to friction losses in long pipelines but,
can be the dominant cause of head loss in shorter pipelines

77

Losses due to contraction


A sudden contraction in a pipe usually causes a marked drop in pressure
in the pipe due to both the increase in velocity and the loss of energy to
turbulence.
Along wall

Along centerline

V2
hc kc
2g

Value of the coefficient Kc for sudden contraction

V2

Different pipe entrance

increasing loss coefficient

Loss due to pipe entrance


General formula for head loss at the entrance of a pipe is also
expressed in term of velocity head of the pipe

hent K ent

2g

81

Head Loss at the entrance of a Pipe


(flow leaving a tank)

Reentrant
(embeded)
KL = 0.8

Sharp
edge
KL = 0.5

Slightly
rounded
KL = 0.2

Well
rounded
KL = 0.04

V2
hL K L
2g

82

Head Loss Due to a Sudden Contraction

V 22
hL K L
2g
2

V2
hL 0.5
2g

83

Head losses due to pipe contraction may be greatly reduced by


introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a confusor

kc'
2

V2
hc' kc'
2g

Head Loss Due to Gradual Contraction


(reducer or nozzle)

85

Losses due to Expansion


A sudden Expansion in a pipe

(V1 V2 )
hE
2g

Note that the drop in the energy line is much


larger than in the case of a contraction

abrupt expansion

gradual expansion

smaller head loss than in the case of an abrupt expansion

Head Loss Due to a Sudden Enlargement

V 12
hL K L
2g

A1
K L 1

A2

or :

hL

V1 V2

2g
88

Head losses due to pipe enlargement may be greatly reduced by


introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a diffusor

V V2
hE' k E'
2g
2
1

Head Loss Due to Gradual Enlargement


(conical diffuser)

hL K L

V2
2g

100

200

300

400

KL

0.39

0.80

1.00

1.06

90

Gibson tests

91

Another Typical values for various amount of rounding of


the lip

92

Head Loss at the Exit of a Pipe


(flow entering a tank)
KL = 1.0

V2
hL
2g

KL = 1.0

KL = 1.0

KL = 1.0

the entire kinetic energy of the exiting fluid (velocity V1) is


dissipated through viscous effects as the stream of fluid mixes
93
with the fluid in the tank and eventually comes to rest (V2 = 0).

Head Loss Due to Bends in Pipes

V2
hb kb
2g

R/D

10

16

20

Kb

0.35

0.19

0.17

0.22

0.32

0.38

0.42

94

Miter bends
For situations in which space is limited,

95

Head Loss Due to Pipe Fittings


(valves, elbows, bends, and tees)

V
hv K v
2g

96

97

The loss coefficient for elbows, bends, and tees

98

Loss coefficients for pipe components (Table)

Minor loss coefficients (Table)

Minor loss calculation using equivalent


pipe length
kl D
Le
f

Energy and hydraulic grade lines

Unless local effects are of particular interests the changes in the EGL and HGL are
often shown as abrupt changes (even though the loss occurs over some distance)

Example
Given: Figure
Find: Estimate the elevation required in the
upper reservoir to produce a water
discharge of 10 cfs in the system. What
is the minimum pressure in the pipeline
and what is the pressure there?
Solution:

V2 p
V2 p
1 1 1 z1 hL b b b zb
2g
2g

V2 p
V2 p
1 1 1 z1 hL 2 2 2 z2
2g

2g

0 0 z1 hL 0 0 z2

Vb2 pb
0 0 z1 hL 1 *

zb
2g

L V 2

hL K e 2 K b K E f
D 2g

pb
Vb2
L V 2
z1 zb
Ke Kb f

2g
D 2g

K e 0.5; K b 0.4 (assumed); K E 1.0; f


V

L
430
0.025 *
10.75
D
1

Q
10

12.73 ft / s
A / 4 * 12

z1 100 0.5 2 * 0.4 1.0 10.75

12.73
133 ft
2 * 32.2

300 12.73

133 110.7 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.025

1 2 * 32.2

1.35 ft
pb 62.4 * ( 1.53) 0.59 psig
Re

VD
12.73 * 1

9 * 105

5
1.14 * 10

Example
In the figure shown two new cast iron pipes in series, D1 =0.6m ,
D2 =0.4m length of the two pipes is 300m, level at A =80m , Q
= 0.5m3/s (T=10oC).there are a sudden contraction between
Pipe 1 and 2, and Sharp entrance at pipe 1.
Fine the water level at B

e = 0.26mm
v = 1.3110-6
Q = 0.5 m3/s

Solution
Z A ZB hf
hL h f 1 h f 2 hent hc hexit
2

L1 V1
L2 V2
V1
V2
V22
hL f1
f2
kent
kc
kexit
D1 2 g
D2 2 g
2g
2g
2g
Q
0.5
Q
0.5

1.77 m/ sec , V2

3.98 m/ sec ,

A1
A2
0.62
0.42
4
4
VD
VD
Re1 1 1 8.1105 ,
Re 2 2 2 1.22 106 ,

0.26

0.00043,
0.00065,
D1 600
D1

V1

moody
f1 0.017

hent 0.5,

moody
f 2 0.018

hc 0.27,

hexit 1

L1 V1
L2 V2
V1
V2
V22
hL f1
f2
kent
kc
kexit
D1 2 g
D2 2 g
2g
2g
2g
2
2
300 1.77
300 3.98
h f 0.017
0.018
.
.
0.6 2 g
0.4 2 g

1.77 2
3.982 3.982
0.27

13.36m
0.5
2g
2g 2g

ZB = 80 13.36 = 66.64 m

Example
A pipe enlarge suddenly from D1=240mm to D2=480mm. the
H.G.L rises by 10 cm calculate the flow in the pipe

Solution

p1 V12
p2 V22

z1

z 2 hL
rg 2 g
rg 2 g
p2
p1

V12 V22

hL
z 2
z1
2g 2g
rg
rg

V12 V22 V1 V2

2g 2g
2g
V1 A1 V2 A2
V1

2
0
.
24
V2
4

V1 4V2

0.1

2
0
.
48
4

16V22 V22 4V2 V2

2g
2g
2g

0.1

6V2
0.1
2g
V2 0.57 m / s Q V2 A2 0.57 4 0.482 0.103m 3 / s

Note that the above values are average


typical values, actual values will depend
on the make (manufacturer) of the
components.
See:
Catalogs
Hydraulic handbooks !!

109