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West Visayas State University

Lamabunao Campus
School of Management
Lambunao,Iloilo

Presented to:
Myrna L. Pios
(Instructor)

Presented by:
Charles Angelo Blanza III-Brandy
(Student)

Introduction
The human body is divided into many different parts called organs. All of
the
parts
are

controlled by an organ called the brain, which is located in the head. The
brain weighs about 2. 75 pounds, and has a whitish-pink appearance. The
brain is made up of many cells and the brain is said to the center of the
human being. The brain flashes messages out to all the other parts of the
body.
Brain consists of four main structural divisions or lobes. They are: frontal,
parietal, occipital and temporal. All lobes carry particular function and
dysfunction of any can bring the person serious troubles.
In this paper I will describe four lobes of the brain, as well as identify how
these lobes relate to psychological functions.

Body
Frontal Lobes
Frontal lobes are responsible for reasoning, planning, movements,
emotions, parts of speech and problem solving functions. Frontal lobes are
considered to be the center of the emotional control and the shelter of
humans personality.
It is the only part of the brain where lesions are capable of causing a wide
range of different symptoms. The frontal lobes are involves in memory,
spontaneity, initiation, language impulse control, motor functions, as well as
sexual and social behavior. These lobes are very vulnerable to injury because
of their location at the cranium front. They are also situated in proximity to
sphenoid wing.
In the frontal lobes there are asymmetrical differences that are very
important, as left part is involved in control of the language related
movement and the right is important to non-verbal abilities. But many
researchers claim that this distinction is not absolute and with many people,
both lobes for both functions are involved.
When the motor function of the frontal lobe is disturbed, it is usually
characterized by fine movements loss, as well as diminishing of strength in
arms, hands and fingers. People with damaged frontal lobe can have
spontaneous facial expressions or even difficulties in speaking (Brown,
1972).
But what is interesting about damages of the frontal lobes, it almost has no
influence on the persons IQ level. And as IQ tests involve convergent, rather
then divergent thinking, it is possible to assume that frontal lobe damage is
influencing divergent thinking, or problem solving ability.
Behavioral spontaneity is said to be the other area associated with the
frontal lobes. It had been notices that people with damaged frontal lobes

speak fewer words or spoke two much (left and right frontal lesions) (Kolb
and Milner, 1981).
People that experiences damage of the frontal lobes can also have
difficulties in interpreting and expressing feedbacks from the environment.
They may not react to questions, behave risk and not comply with set rules
(Miller, 1985).
Frontal lobes damage also can greatly influence persons social behavior, as
the personality can be significantly changed after the injury, especially of
both. Left frontal lobe damage leads to pseudodepression and right- to
pseudopsychopatic. Abnormal sexual behavior can be introduced after orbital
frontal damage. Or sexual interest can be reduced due to dorolateral lesions
(Walker and Blummer, 1975).
In order to check the functioning of the frontal lobe, following tests are
involved: Wisconsin Card Sorting, Token Test and Finger Tapping.

Parietal Lobes
Parietal lobes are responsible for orientation, recognition, stimuli
perception and movement. They can be divided into two functional parts,
where one is involved in perception and sensation and the other is dealing
with sensory input integration with visual system. The sensory information is
integrated and the perception is formed, and then the spatial coordinate
system is constructed to show world around. When parietal lobes are
damaged, patients experience striking deficits.
Gerstmanns Syndrome can be the result of the left parietal lobe damage.
This syndrome includes the confusion of right and left, difficulties in writing,
as well as difficulties with math. People cannot perceive object in the normal
manner and have language disorders (aphasia).
When the right parietal lobe is damaged it can result in neglecting the part
of body or space. The person will not be able to get dressed and wash
himself. The person will not be able to write and draw.
Balints Syndrome is caused by the damage of large lesions to both sides
(bi-lateral damage).This syndrome is also called motor and visual attention
syndrome and is characterized by the inability to control gaze, to integrate
components of the visual scene and reach object using visual guidance
(Westmoreland et al., 1994).When the area between temporal and parietal
lobes is damages, it can lead to memory and personality deficits.

Occipital Lobes

Occipital lobes are responsible basically for visual processing and are the
center of visual perception system. They are not very much vulnerable to
injuries due to their location at the back of the brain, but nevertheless any
injury can produce changes to the visual-perception system. Occipital lobes
peristriate region is involved in visuospacial processing, movement and color
discrimination.
When one side of occipital lobe is damaged it can result in homonomous
vision loss with the same field cut in both eyes. Disorders of this lobe can
also cause visual illusions and hallucinations. Visual illusions appear in the
form of distorted objects and abnormal coloring of those. Visual
hallucinations, when there are no external stimuli for such an image, appear
after temporal lobe seizures or lesions to occipital part.
Word blindness is another problem with occipital lobe injury; the person just
becomes unable to recognize words. The person with occipital lobe problems
is also unable to recognize movements of the objects, which is called
movement agnosia, and also have difficulties with reading and writing. The
patient can even loose sight or obtain what is called cortical blindness, when
the person has normal eyes, reflexes and eye movements, but lacks the
perception pattern and has no idea of visual information.

Temporal Lobe

Temporal lobe is responsible for perception and recognition of auditory


stimuli. It has two essential sulci running parallel Sylvian fissure, and they
separate temporal lobe into three gyri: superior temporal, middle temporal
and inferior temporal.
This lobe type is very important for language, especially in managing
lexical and semantic information. There are eight main symptoms of the
temporal lobe damage, which include disturbance of selective attention of
auditory, of visual input, auditory sensation and perception, disorders of
visual perception, impaired organization and categorization of verbal
material, as well as long-term memory, altered personality and affective
behavior, as well as altered sexual behavior, and finally disturbance of
language comprehension (Kolb and Wishaw, 1990).
Damage of temporal lobes leads to selective attention to visual or auditory
input. When the left side of the lobe is injured it results in decreased recall of
visual and verbal content. When the right side is damaged, it results in tonal
sequences decreased recognition and decrease in musical abilities. Temporal

lobes are in the sensory input primary organization. Temporal lobe seizures
can also have serious effects on the personality of the individual.

Conclusion

In the conclusion I would like to summarize that there are four structural
divisions of the brain- frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. They all
perform their functions, even though sometimes those functions are
interrelated. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning, movements, parts of
speech, problem solving, emotions and reasoning. Parietal lobes care about
orientation, recognition, movement and stimuli perception. Occipital lobes
are responsible for visual processing and temporal- for perception and
recognition of auditory stimuli. Any damages caused to any lobe can result in
serious psychological problems.

Reaction

After all of the work and research that I have done it is very evident to me
that the brain is one of the most wondrous organs that humans could have. It
guides us through almost every second of our life. Even a small part of our
brain have a dysfuction it can bring us into big trouble. Our brain is the most
important part in our body it is the one who serves as the controller. If you
are like most people, you have probably never thought of a connection
between your brain and your overall life. The truth, however, is that not only
is there a connection, but that it is a very significant connection indeed! After
you have begun to examine how essential a role your brain plays in virtually
every aspect of your life, you will surely decide to take the simple, basic
steps necessary for it to be in the healthiest, most effective condition.
The bottom line is that your brain is much more than an organ which just
happens to be there-- it is a significant, contributing factor in the total quality
of your life.