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Acid Base Titration:

Acid-base titrations depend on the neutralization between an acid and a base when
mixed in solution. In addition to the sample, an appropriate pH indicator is added to
the titration chamber, reflecting the pH range of the equivalence point. The acidbase indicator indicates the endpoint of the titration by changing color. The
endpoint and the equivalence point are not exactly the same because the
equivalence point is determined by the stoichiometry of the reaction while the
endpoint is just the color change from the indicator. Thus, a careful selection of the
indicator will reduce the indicator error.

Precipitation Titration
A special type of titrimetric procedures involves the formation of precipitates during
the course of a titration. The titrant react with the analyte forming an insoluble
material and the titration continues till the very last amount of analyte is consumed.
The first drop of titrant in excess will react with an indicator resulting in a color
change and announcing the termination of the titration.

Complexometric titration
Complexometric titrations rely on the formation of a complex between the analyte and the titrant.
In general, they require specialized complexometric indicators that form weak complexes with
the analyte. The commonest example is the use of starch indicator to increase the sensitivity of
iodometric titration, the dark blue complex of starch with iodine and iodide being more visible
than iodine alone. Other complexometric indicators are Eriochrome Black T for the titration of
calcium and magnesium ions, and the chelating agent EDTA used to titrate metal ions in

Redox titration
Redox titrations are based on a reduction-oxidation reaction between an oxidizing agent and a
reducing agent. A potentiometer or a redox indicator is usually used to determine the endpoint of
the titration, as when one of the constituents is the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate. The
color change of the solution from orange to green is not definite, therefore an indicator such as
sodium diphenylamine is used. Analysis of wines for sulfur dioxide requires iodine as an
oxidizing agent. In this case, starch is used as an indicator; a blue starch-iodine complex is
formed in the presence of excess iodine, signalling the endpoint.

Gas phase titration

Gas phase titrations are titrations done in the gas phase, specifically as methods for determining
reactive species by reaction with an excess of some other gas, acting as the titrant. In one
common gas phase titration, gaseous ozone is titrated with nitrogen oxide according to the
O3 + NO O2 + NO2.
After the reaction is complete, the remaining titrant and product are quantified. This is used to
determine the amount of analyte in the original sample.

Zeta potential titration

Zeta potential titrations are titrations in which the completion is monitored by the zeta potential,
rather than by an indicator, in order to characterize heterogeneous systems, such as colloids. One
of the uses is to determine the iso-electric point when surface charge becomes zero, achieved by
changing the pH or adding surfactant. Another use is to determine the optimum dose for
flocculation or stabilization.

Back titration

Back titration is a titration done in reverse; instead of titrating the original sample, a known
excess of standard reagent is added to the solution, and the excess is titrated. A back titration is
useful if the endpoint of the reverse titration is easier to identify than the endpoint of the normal
titration, as with precipitation reactions. Back titrations are also useful if the reaction between the
analyte and the titrant is very slow, or when the analyte is in a non-soluble solid.

Endpoint and equivalence point

Though equivalence point and endpoint are used interchangeably, they are different terms.
Equivalence point is the theoretical completion of the reaction: the volume of added titrant at
which the number of moles of titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte, or some
multiple thereof (as in polyprotic acids). Endpoint is what is actually measured, a physical
change in the solution as determined by an indicator or an instrument mentioned above.
There is a slight difference between the endpoint and the equivalence point of the titration. This
error is referred to as an indicator error, and it is indeterminate.