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1.

The table below refers to four membrane transport processes: diffusion, facilitated diffusion,
osmosis and active transport. If the statement is correct, place a tick ( ) in the appropriate box
and if the statement is incorrect, place a cross (X) in the appropriate box.
Process

Takes place against a


concentration
gradient

Requires energy in the


form of ATP

Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Active transport
(Total 4 marks)

2.

(a)

The diagram below shows a model of the cell membrane and various molecules being
transported through the membrane into the cell.
Z

(i)

Name the structures labelled X, Y and Z.


X ........................................
Y ........................................
Z .........................................
(3)

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(ii)

Name the transport process across the membrane shown by the different molecules
and their arrows P, Q and R.
P .........................................
Q ........................................
R ........................................
(3)

(b)

Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation in a gene coding for a membrane protein.


Explain why people suffering from cystic fibrosis find it difficult to digest their food.
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)

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3.

The diagram below shows the structure of a molecule found in the cell surface membrane.
A

B
F a tty a c id

F a tty a c id

P h o s p h a te
R e g io n X

(a)

Name the type of molecule shown in the diagram.


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(1)

(b)

Name A and B as labelled on the diagram.


A .................................................................................................................................
B .................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Region X is said to be hydrophobic. What is meant by the term hydrophobic?


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(1)

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(d)

Explain why the cell surface membrane is described as a fluid-mosaic.


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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

4.

(a)

Explain what is meant by the term diffusion.


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(2)

(b)

State two factors which influence the rate of diffusion across a cell surface membrane.
1 .................................................................................................................................
2 .................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Give one way in which active transport differs from diffusion.


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(1)
(Total 5 marks)

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5.

(a)

Describe the roles of protein molecules in facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Facilitated diffusion ....................................................................................................
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Active transport ...........................................................................................................
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(5)

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(b)

Experiments were carried out to compare the uptake by cells of a substance (substance X)
in the presence and absence of a respiratory inhibitor. A respiratory inhibitor is a
substance that prevents the formation of ATP.
In each experiment the cells were incubated in a solution of substance X for five hours.
The concentration of substance X in the cytoplasm was measured throughout.
The graph below shows the changes in the concentration of substance X in the cell
cytoplasm during the experiments.
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12

C e lls in c u b a te d w ith
s u b s ta n c e X o n ly

C o n c e n tra tio n o f s u b s ta n c e X
in s id e th e c e ll / g c m 3

10

4
C e lls in c u b a te d w ith
s u b s ta n c e X a n d th e
re s p ira to ry in h ib ito r

T im e / h o u rs

Claremont High School

(i)

Describe the changes in the concentration of substance X in the cytoplasm of the


cells incubated with the respiratory inhibitor present, during the five hours of the
experiments.
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(2)

(ii)

Suggest an explanation for the changes you have described.


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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

6.

(a)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the term facilitated diffusion.


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(2)

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(ii)

State two ways in which active transport differs from facilitated diffusion.
1 .........................................................................................................................
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2 .........................................................................................................................
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(2)

(b)

In an investigation into the effects of osmosis on red blood cells, seven samples of red
blood cells were placed in potassium chloride solutions of different concentrations. After
two hours, each sample was examined to find the percentage of cells that had swollen and
burst (lysed). The results are shown in the graph below.

100
90
80
70
P e rc e n ta g e o f
re d b lo o d
60
c e lls th a t
h a d b u rst
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 .0 4

0 .0 5

0 .0 6

0 .0 7

C o n c e n tra tio n o f p o ta s s iu m c h lo r id e /m o l d m

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0 .0 8
3

(i)

Calculate the difference between the percentage of red blood cells that burst in 0.05
mol dm1 and 0.07 mol dm1 potassium chloride solutions.
Show your working.

Answer ................................
(2)

(ii)

With reference to water potential, explain why most of the cells burst when
placed in 0.05 mol dm3 potassium chloride solution.
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(3)

(iii)

Suggest what would happen if red blood cells were placed in a 0 1 mol dm
3 solution of potassium chloride.
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(1)

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(c)

Explain why plant cells do not burst when placed in distilled water.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

7.

An experiment was carried out to compare the uptake of two substances, A and B, by
Amoeba. Amoeba is a single-celled aquatic organism.
Cells of Amoeba were placed in a solution containing equal concentrations of both
substances and kept at 15 C. The concentration of each substance in the cytoplasm of the
cells was measured every 30 minutes over a period of 6 hours.
The results of this experiment are shown in the graph below.

14
C o n c e n tra tio n
in c y to p la s m /
12
g c m 3
S u b s ta n c e A

10
8
6

S u b s ta n c e B
4
2
0

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T im e / h o u rs

10

(a)

Compare the uptake of substance A by the cells with the uptake of substance B
during the period of 6 hours.
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(3)

(b)

Substance B enters the cells by diffusion. Describe and explain how the results of
this experiment support this statement.
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(3)

(c)

Explain why an increase in temperature to 25 C would increase the rate of diffusion


of substance B into the cells.
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(2)

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(d)

Substance A is taken into Amoeba by active transport. Describe the process of


active transport.
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(5)
(Total 13 marks)

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8.

Cylinders of potato were placed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations for 12


hours. The graph below shows the percentage change in length of the cylinders after
12 hours.
+10
+8
+6
+4
P e rc e n ta g e
change
+2
in le n g th
o f th e
0
c y lin d e rs

C o n c e n tra tio n
o f su c ro se
s o lu tio n m o l / d m
0 .1

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4

0 .5

0 .6

2
4
6
8
10

(a)

Explain the change in length which occurred when a cylinder of potato was
placed in a sucrose solution of concentration 0.3 mol dm3.
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(2)

Claremont High School

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(b)

During spring, shoots grow out of potatoes. This causes a rise in the
concentration of sugars in the potatoes.
(i)

Draw a curve on the graph opposite to represent the changes in length you
would expect if the investigation had been carried out with potatoes that
had grown shoots.
(2)

(ii)

Explain why the curve you have drawn has this shape.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

9.

Animals have evolved a heart and a circulation system as a mechanism which


overcomes the limitations of diffusion. However, diffusion is still important in animals.
2+
For example, calcium (Ca ) ions can be absorbed by facilitated diffusion from the
bloodstream into muscle cells.
(a)

Describe how ions such as Ca


facilitated diffusion.

2+

pass through the cell surface membrane by

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(4)

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2+

(b)

The graph below shows the diffusion of Ca ions into a cell at two different
temperatures over a 10 minute time period.
10

C o n c e n tra tio n o f c a 2+ io n s in th e
c e ll / a rb itra ry u n its

K ey
at 20
at 30

0
0

10

T im e / m in u te s

(i)

Describe the uptake of Ca


C.

2+

ions by the cell over the 10 minute period at 30

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(3)

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(ii)

Use the graph to describe the effect of a 10 C temperature rise (from 20 C to


2+
30 C) on the uptake of Ca ions into this cell.
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(2)

(iii)

Suggest an explanation for the effect you have described in part (ii).
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(2)
(Total 11 marks)

10.

The diagram below shows the structure of the cell surface membrane.

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(a)

(i)

Name the molecules A and B.


A .....................................................................................................................
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B .....................................................................................................................
.......
(2)

(ii)

Give one function of the molecule labelled A.


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(1)

(iii)

Explain why the molecules labelled B form a bilayer.


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(3)

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(b)

The proteins in the cell surface membranes of two cells (A and B) were stained
using different coloured dyes. One cells membrane proteins were stained with a green
dye and the other cells membrane proteins with a red dye. The cells were then fused
(merged together) to form one cell.
The diagram below shows the distribution of the proteins in the cells before and after
fusion.

Use your knowledge of the properties of cell surface membranes to explain these
results.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

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11.

(a)

The table below refers to three transport mechanisms. If the statement is true,
put a cross in the appropriate box.
Facilitated
Active
Statement
Osmosis
diffusion
transport
Movement of water
Requires ATP
Molecules move down their
concentration gradient
Carrier proteins are needed
(6)

(b)

An experiment was carried out to measure the uptake of substance B by some


red blood cells.
The red blood cells were placed in a solution containing substance B and kept at
25 C. The concentration of substance B in the cytoplasm of the cells was measured
every hour over a period of 10 hours.
The results of this experiment are shown in the graph below.
20
18
16
14
12
C o n c e n tra tio n
in c y to p la s m /
g c m -3

S u b s ta n c e B

10
8
6
4
2
0
0

10

T im e / h o u rs

Claremont High School

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(i)

Describe the changes in cytoplasm concentration of substance B shown in


the graph and explain how these changes support the statement that
substance B enters the cells by diffusion.
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(4)

(ii)

Suggest how the shape of the graph would change if the temperature in the
experiment was decreased to 10 C. Give an explanation for your answer.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

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