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C60 International Conference

Tradition and Innovation - 60 Years of Constructions in Transilvania

Slope Protection and Stabilisation on DN1C, km 113

George Corbescu1, Marius Bucur1, Dorin-Vasile Moldovan2, Radu Vasile Cot2, Lavinia-Elena Muntean3

Geobrugg AG Geohazard Solutions, Aachstrasse 11, Romanshorn, Switzerland

The Technical University, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania

Abstract: Part of the investment Design and building of DN 1C Dej Baia Mare measures were required to
provide overall stability and protection against surface failure in the case of a slope situated at km 113. The objective of
this paper consists in presenting the solution chosen as early as the design stage and its implementation in the field.

Keywords: mesh, high tensile steel, nails, stabilisation.

Solutions under analysis

Consequent to the cut into the slope to expand the carriageway, it became necessary to implement other complementary
measures to provide stability to the produced slope. Two categories of solutions were investigated: stiff solutions, such
as support walls or flexible solutions, such as the anchored steel wire mesh. The stiff solution required a large amount
of cutting at the base of the slope to build the raft of the support wall. Moreover, the stability factor, which was very
close to the limit, would have turned into an under the unit ratio and the building time would have stretched over some
weeks. Oppositely, the anchored steel wire mesh solution did not require a modification of the slope geometry, the
building time would have been shortened and the visual and environmental impact would have been minimal. The cost
issue was another item to consider.
The financial analysis (cost-profit) also contributed to the decision of protecting and stabilising the slope with a high
tensile steel wire mesh system (Rt 1.770 N/mm2).

The TECCO slope protection system

The Tecco (picture 1) for stabilising slopes and sides performs this operation, irrespective of the nature of the soil and
protects the steep slopes against rock or weathered or loose boulders or stone falling/breakouts, under the action of
external factors and weather conditions.
For this purpose, the slope to be protected is covered with a high tensile steel wire mesh, after having been cleaned,
levelled and profiled. Dependent on the ground nature, the mesh is fixed with full core bars or self-drilling bars
tensioned by screwing the nut up to a tightening moment that is previously calculated.
Through the anchor spike plates, the mesh presses the slope surface and prevents deformations, slippage or breakout. As
it is an active system, the external stressing increases system safety and efficiency.
The systems actively stabilises the ground by tensioning, and gives provision against failures in a parallel plan to the
slope for a layer of maximum 1.50 m thickness and also against local failures among the anchor bars at a similar
thickness of 1.50 m. An external active tensioning for the surface with an average force of 5 kN/m2 is also supplied.

Picture 1: Active stabilisation of soil or rock slopes with high tensile steel wire mesh and nails

C60 International Conference

Tradition and Innovation - 60 Years of Constructions in Transilvania

Adopted solution
From a geological point of view, the slope in question consisted of marl clay powders, with a variable thickness of 2.20
m 4.00 m, followed by yellowish grit stone. Considering the ground nature, Ischebeck TITAN 40/16 mm bars were
chosen. Mixed stresses brought bars, in the most unfavourable circumstances, to a load of up to 89% of their bearing
As an overall stability was necessary, the anchor lengths were selected at 4 m 6 m. As the type of anchor bars and
their lengths were determined, the superficial instabilities of the ground were analysed with the help of Ruvolum , a
software with predetermined physical and mechanical characteristics for the Tecco mesh of G65/3 (where 65 mm is the
diameter of the circle inscribed in the rhomboidal eyes of the mesh and 3 mm is the thickness of the mesh wire); the
resulting mesh square being 2.50 m x 2.00 m (where 2.50 m represents the distance between the anchor bars
horizontally, and 2.00 m is the distance along the vertical line).

Implementation of solution on the ground

Once the solution was selected, the surface was prepared for stabilisation (Picture 1) and anchors were put into place
(Picture 2). The drilling technology was of self-drilling type with left inside core; the grout material was cement

Picture 1: Preparation of surface for stabilization

Picture 2: Nails building

To prevent washing of fine material, under the protection, the Tecmat erosion control mat was inserted. It has an
irregular structure made of polypropylene extruded monofilaments. The Tecco system was then mounted and
tensioned. The mesh ends are knotted together to avoid their breakout in the marginal areas. The connections by clips at
every mesh eye provide a strength that is at least equal to that of filed panels. When the slope is cut at an angle of 37,
i.e. above the consolidated area, re-vegetation by seeding in an erosion control mat was opted for.

Photo 3: Tecco system in use

Regger R., Flum D. Slope stabilization with high-performance steel wire meshes in combination with nails and anchors. Int.
Symposium, Earth Reinforcement, IS Kyushu, Fukuoka, Japan, 2001
Rorem E., Flum D. TECCO high-tensile wire mesh & revegetation, system for slope stabilization. International Erosion Control
Association, IECAs 35th annual conference, Philadelphia, USA, 2003
Flum D., Regger R. The dimensioning of flexible surface stabilization systems made from high-tensile wire mesh in combination
with nailing and anchoring in soil and rock. International Conference on Slope Engineering, Hong Kong, 2003