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A criminal investigation refers to the process of collecting information or evidence

about a crime in order to: (1) determine if a crime has been committed; (2) identify the
perpetrator; (3) apprehend the perpetrator; and (4) provide evidence to support a
conviction in court. Investigation, therefore, is the most pivotal part of police functions
that not only helps to trace and arrest the criminals but also acts as a preventive measure
in the form of deterrence for other criminals. The successful investigation is the key to
realizing both these goals.
Unfortunately, performance of investigation of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police was
plummeting owing to lack of training in modern investigative skills, archaic methods of
evidence collection, defective methods of evidence preservation, inadequate / limited
knowledge of cellular forensic science, unawareness of scientific investigation techniques
methods, lack of interest in investigation of cases by IO and incapable supervisory
officers. The focus of the investigators remained apprehension of the criminal prior to
reconstruction of crime scene and establishing the linkage of crime scene to the criminal.
The sorry state of affairs of the investigation was evident from the poor conviction
rates, recurrent changes of investigation, dissatisfaction of public, incessant complaints of
corruption against the investigation officers, high percentage of untraced cases, large
number of Proclaimed Offenders at large, non-existence of surveillance records. Besides,
the office of the Superintendent of Investigation in a district which was meant for
supervision of investigation of cases had become redundant and was reduced to a post
Resultantly, despite the increased investment of public resources in investigation
and its separation from the operations, the quality of investigation did not improve as a
result of which police were not able to produce the desired outcome of increased
investment in police.
It was in this backdrop that a comprehensive reforms strategy was devised based
on the following principles:
a. Emphasis will be from crime scene to criminal instead of criminal to crime scene
b. Major focus on crime scene evidence
c. Equipping the investigating officers with modern knowledge for conducting
scientific investigation

In light of this strategy the following principal decisions were made after extensive need
analysis and deliberations:

Establishment of Mobile Forensic Units for crime scene investigation

Enhancing the capacity of Forensic Science Laboratory
Establishment of Police School of Investigation
Establishment of Cellular Forensic Cell
Digitalization of Criminal Record
Establishment of Data Analysis Section for the purpose of planning and

As a first step of the strategy, a Police School of Investigation was established in

May, 2014 in Hayatabad, Peshawar for imparting training in preservation and collection
of evidence, modern investigation techniques including cellular forensic & forensic
medicine and case file management. This school is headed by a Director and is offering
numerous courses in collaboration with University of Peshawar and DFID. In addition to
senior police officers, the school has enlisted a number of subject experts from all over
the country to deliver lectures.
It has been established by converting a dilapidated and abandoned building into a
modern awe-inspiring campus by the Police department from its own resources. The
training facilities include lecture rooms, e-learning center, syndicate rooms, Crime Scene
Demonstration Room and a Library. In order to make the learning effective modern
teaching methodologies including Syndicate and Group work, simulations, lectures,
demonstration, audio-visual sessions, assignments, practical exercises, case-studies etc.
So far 2,332 police officers have been trained in various branches of investigation in this
The Forensics including Forensic Science and Cellular Forensic was one of the
weakest dimensions of our investigation. It gives me immense pleasure to state that
owing to the devotion and tireless efforts of our team, we have been able to considerably
enhance our capacity of forensics. First, the number of Forensic Science Laboratories
have been increased from one to three. We now have Regional Forensic Science
Laboratories in Swat.
Second, the facilities available in these FSLs have been increased. Now it consists
of six specialized units including chemicals and narcotics analysis, latent finger print,
firearms and toolmarks, questioned documents, forensic photography and digital
forensics. Further, it provides forensic services to other organizations including Pakistan

Customs, Excise & Taxation Department, ANF, NAB, Anti-corruption Establishment,

Frontier Corps, FATA administration, Malakand Levies and Gilgit Baltistan.
Third, the KP Police has been able to procure Mobile Crime Scene Vehicles which
enable the crime scene investigators to arrive at and approoach the crime scene with the
proper equipment to conduct a thorough investigation. This helps the investigators in
making an even stronger case by processing evidence right at major crime scenes.
Fourth, cellular forensic cells have been established in the offices of District Head
of Investigation and Counter-Terrorism Department. Meanwhile, the investigators are
being constantly trained in techniques of cellular forensics. This has enabled the KP
Police to overcome the three major challenges of terrorism, kidnapping for ransom and
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police has developed and launched a Centralized Crime
Tracking and Analysis System for enhancing the capacity of investigators. The new
system is based on digitalization of criminal record and geo-tagging technology. All the
data, including pictures of the crime scenes, latitude and longitude coordinates and
incident details are stored in the main database using Android mobile phones. Further, it
has been made mandatory to incorporate the CNIC number and the Mobile Number of
complainant and the accused in the FIR and FIR index respectively.
The geo-tagging technology ensures the preservation of the crime scene and
records all the evidence especially trace evidence available and collected from the crime
scene. It eliminates the chances of tampering with and contamination of the primary
evidence available at the crime scene during the process of evidence collection and later
investigative process. It also helps the investigating officers in their case investigation
and interrogations. It helps not only the investigators but also provides the judges a
permanent visual record of the scene that can be analyzed during the course of
prosecution. It has also helped in development of a centralized database of images of
terrorists, crime scenes, vulnerable places and sensitive villages.
The Digitalization of Criminal Record along with the geo-tagging has led to the
concept of Hot-spot of Policing. Hot spot policing serves two functions. First, it helps in
identifying the areas notorious for certain types of criminal or terrorist activity. Secondly,
it enables the police to take its offensive-defensive measures to prevent the occurrence of
that criminal or terrorist activity. These measures include conduct of search, strike and
sweep operations; establish check posts at entry and exit points; conduct random snap
checking; deploy surveillance etc.

The Research and Analysis Sections of CTD and CPO, and the Directorate of
Information Technology (IT) have been established to carry out a comprehensive study
on the available crime data for mapping and analysis. The results of such studies are
then incorporated into hot spot policing by the local police in their weekly combing
operations and search & strike operations in militant / criminal infested areas and their
This Crime Tracking and Analysis Unit have a section dedicated for surveillance
and apprehension of suspects and accused at large. This includes CRVS, IVS, VVS, TIS
and CIA picket. Using CRVS, the FIR can be searched through Computerized National
Identity Card (CNIC) number and string of name, father name and address of the person
using mobile phones. This has greatly enhanced real time verification capabilities of the
Police department leading to improved investigations and interrogations. Lastly, and most
importantly, the system enables the Police personnel deployed on Police pickets to verify
the background of every individual through a click on their mobile phones and apprehend
them on the spot in case of involvement in any criminal activity.
The IVS is Police data of hardened criminals, proclaimed offenders, terrorists,
militants, wanted criminals and legally-issued Proof of Identification (POR) provided to
Afghan refugees which is further linked with the NADRA database. It enables to verify
the identity of the criminal or terrorist apprehended through his CNIC or finger prints. In
addition the system also enables the Police investigators to share the fingerprints lifted
from any crime scene with NADRA authorities who provide complete detail of the
person within 72 hours.
The VVS is a vehicles-record maintained by Excise Department and has been
linked with the cell-phone SIMs. It helps the investigators in identifying whether the
vehicles used in any terrorist or criminal activity is stolen or having fake number plates.
Further, it reveals the true facts about the owner of the vehicle.
The Tenant Information System which is the digitization of the tenant data and its
integration with criminal record is proving extremely beneficial for the Police stations in
tracking the movement of suspects and apprehending them. It also helps in planning and
conducting targeted search and strike operations.
Similarly, the CIA surveillance pickets have been established outside all the jails /
prisons throughout the province for the surveillance of accused / convicts involved in the

commission of Offences against property (Dacoity, Robbery, Burglary, MV Theft /

Snatching), Extortion, Kidnapping for ransom and ATA cases.
I must take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable services rendered by
successive Additional Inspectors General of Police (Investigation) Mr. Shaukat Hayat,
Mr. Qudrat Ulllah Marwat and Mr. Muhammad Ali Baba Khel for playing a vital role in
the successfully implementing our investigation reform initiatives.
I would also like to appreciate the hard work of Director IT Naveed Gul and
Director Research who have contributed towards actualizing the envisioned training
reform initiatives.