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Intemational
CriminalTdbunalfor Rwanda
pourle Rwanda
TribunalP6nallntemadonal
INTHEAPPEALS
CHAMBER
Before: JudgePatrickRobinson,
Presiding
JudgeMehmet Gtiney
JudgeFaustoPocar
JudgeLiuDaqun
JudgeTheodor Meron
Regisbar: AdamaDieng
Date: 7 June2010

THEPROSECUTOR
v.
AloysNTABAKUZE
CaseNo:ICTR-9841-A

URGENTREQUESTOF THEINTERNATIOMLCRIMIML
FORLEAVETO FILEAMICUSCURIAESUBMISSIONS
PURSUANTTO
RULE74 OF THERULESOF PROCEDUREAND EI/IDENCE

ffice of the Prosecutor Counselforthe Defence


HassanA. Jallow PeterE. Erlinder,
LeadCounsel
Alex Obote-Odora Andr6Tremblay, Co-counsel
GeorgeW. Mugwanya
InnekeOnsea
RenifaMadenga IntemationalCdminalBar
Madeleine Schwaa FabioMariaGaliani
Abubacarr Tambadou Virginia
C. Lindsay
EvelynKamau
WilliamMubiru
Priyadarshini Narayanan
AishaKagabo
r qt7/4
Pursuantto Rule74 of the Rulesof procedureand Evidence(RpE),the
Executive
Committeeof the International
criminalBar("lcB")respectfully
requestsleaveto file submissions
in relationto the pendingrequestby Aloys
Ntabakuzefor injunctiverefiefland submitsthe followingin supportof this
requestfor leaveto file amicussubmissions:

I. INTRODUCTION

l. The circumstances
of the casesubjudice areof greatconcernto the
Membersof the InternationalcriminalBarandto everycounselwho
practicesbeforeany international
tribunal,whetherthey representthe
defenceor victims.Thisis especially
truefor counselappearingbefore
the International
CriminalCourtfor two reasons:(1)the nationality
of the
perpetrator
or the victimcantriggerjurisdiction,
irrespective
of the territory
whereinthe crimeswere committed,so investigations
will needto be
conductedin manypartsof the world,and sometimesin areaswherethe
government
is lessthanenthusiastic
aboutthe investigations;
and (2) lt is
not unusualfor counselfor eitherthe defenceor for victimswho are
participating
in ICCpre-trialproceedings
to haverelevantargumentsand
complaints
relatingto crimescommitted
by the governments
who control
the territorywhereinvestigations
needto be conducted.2

2. TheAppealschamber'sdecisionin thiscasewiil havean immediate


impacton the abilityof Counselaroundthe worldto conducttheirwork
independentlywithconfidence in theirprotectedstatusand thereforeon
the properfunctioning
of all of the international
criminatcourtsand
tribunalsand notjust on the ICTR. Forthatreason,it is importantthatthe
submissions
of the lcB be considered
whendecidingthis motion.

I AloysNlabakuze's Extremely Urgentrequest for Injunctionsagainstthegovernment of


Rwandafortheillegalanestof andinvestigation againstleadcounsel,p. Erlinder,for
statements madein thecourseof appellant's defence - articles19,20,28&29ofthestatute
andrule54of theRPE(hereinafter'Mr. Ntabakuze's Request").
' A thirdsourceof interestfor ICBmembers is thatthesolutionof thecase subjudicecould
consofidateprinciplesandrulesof internationallawrelevant in ICCcasesundeiarl.21,(b),
ICCStatute.
Rtsh

OF THE CASE
il. CIRCUMSTANCES

J. co-counsel
Havinginterviewed in thiscaseand consultedwithour
members,the ICBnotesthe followingfacts:

4 . PeterErlinderwas assignedas LeadCounselto Mr. Ntabakuze duringthe


six
trialin thiscaseand hascontinuedas LeadCounselfor approximately
years.

was acquittedon 31 chargesand convictedon 3


5 . At trial,Mr. Ntabakuze
chargesof genocide,the appealof whicharethe subjectof the casesub
judice.

filedhis appealbriefon 25 May2009,and an amended


6 . Mr. Ntabakuze
appeafbriefon 24 June2009.

7 . Mr. Ntabakuzerequestedseverance on 24 June


fromhis co-defendants
2009. The requestwas deniedon 24 July2009'

Sincethattime,initialbriefingby all threeco-accused and prosecution


responses havebeenfiled. Oralarguments are not yet scheduled
becauseof delayswithtranslation intoFrenchrequestedby co-appellants
Bagasorais notexpectedto file his reply
Bagasoraand Nsengyiumva.
beforeSeptemberor October.

g. sincelastseptember,Mr. Ntabakuzehasnot beenprovidedan


to meetwithhiscounsel.
opportunity

10.LeadCounselemailedthe Registryon 13 May2010,submitting a work


to travelto Arushaon or about22May in
pfanand askingfor authorization
orderto consultwith Mr. Ntabakuzein orderto reviewall of the pleadings
in lightof the argumentsmadein the briefsof the co-appellantsandthe
legalaidfor fivedaysof
prosecution.Leadcounselrequested
t1t5/*
in Arushain orderto completefinalpreparations
consultations for the
appealand determinewhetherthereis a basisfor additionalmotions.

I l. Mr. Ntabakuzeexpectedto meetwith his attorneyduringthe week


31 May2010.
beginning
I

12.Mr. Ntabakuze's
LeadCounseloriginally
intendedto traveltoArushaon
Thursday,27 May,butwas delayeddueto a courthearingin an unrelated
casewhichhad beenscheduledat shortnoticetor 28 Mayand becausehe
hadscheduleda meetingfor thefollowingMondayto completethe steps
to be properlyauthorized
necessary to appearin the Rwandannational
court.

13.Mr. Ntabakuze's
LeadCounselwasarrestedin Kigale,Rwandaon Friday,
28 May2010and has nowpleadednotguiltyto chargesof genocide
ideologyunderarticle3(2)of LawNo. 18/2008,the "LawRelatingto the
Punishment
of the Crimeof Genocideldeology,"
adopted23 July2008by
the RwandanParliament.Article3(2)providesas follows:

"Thecrimeof genocideideologyis characterized in any behaviour


manifestedby factsaimedat deshumanizing [sic]a personor a groupof
p€rsonswiththe samecharacteristics
in the followingmanner:

(2) marginalising,
laughingat one'smisfortune, defaming,mocking,
boasting,despising,degradingcreateing[sic]confusion aimingat negating
the genocidewhichoccurred,stiring[sic]up ill feelings,takingrevenge,
alteringtestimonyor evidencefor the genocidewhichoccurred;

The statementswhichform the basisof the prosecutionare in substance


identicalto statements
madeduringthe courseof his representation
of Mr.
Ntabakuzein the case subTudice.Mr. Erlinderis a memberof the
International
CriminalBar.

14.LeadCounselis 62 yearsold and in ill health.Mr. Ntabakuze


livesin
actualfearthat his LeadCounselwill notsurvivethejail stayin Rwanda.
nul*
15.Counselaroundthe worldwho are authorized
to appearbefore
internationaltribunals
are nowlivingin actualfearthattheymay no longer
be ableto fulfilltheirmandatesin security.

B. THE INTERNATIONALCRIMINALBAR IS AN APPROPRIATE


ORGANISATIONTO ACT AS AN AMICUSIN THE PRESENTMATTER

16.Rufe74 RPE,entitled"AmicusCuriae"states:

"A Chambermay,if it considersit desirablefor the proper


determinationof the case,inviteor grantleaveto any State,
organizationor personto appearbeforeit and make
submissions on any issuespecifiedby the Chamber."

CriminalBar ("lCB")is an association


17.The lnternational of nationaland
professional
regionalbar associations, legalassociations,
individual
membersand non-governmental lt is dedicatedto
organisations.3
advancingthe goalsof the lCC,focusingparticularly
on the rightto a fair
participation
trialfor accusedpersons,the rightto meaningful for victims,
andthe independence
of Counseland LegalRepresentatives
appearing
beforethe Court.a

18.A substantial
numberof Counsel
whoappearin casesbeforetheICTR,
including
Mr.Erlinder,aremembersof theICBandareincludedon the
listof counsel
Registrar's to appearbeforethelnternational
authorized
Court.ICBhasbeforebeengranted
Criminal leaveto submitamicus
by theICCAppeals
observations Chamber.s

3.The ICBwas formallyestablishedat the Conference of Montr€alin June2002.Morethan


350counselwere in attendanceat the foundingof the lCB, representing bar associations,
counsefassociations and NGOsfrom48 countries.Hallers,et als.,eds., Ihe positionof the
defenceat the new lntemationalCriminalCouft and the roleof the Nethedandsas fhe hosf
state,2002at p. vii.
4 The development of sucha Bar associationwas anticipated in rules20 and 21 of the ICC
Rulesof Procedureand Evidence(RPE),whichdirectthe Registrar'tocooperate" with'any
independentrepresentativebody of counseland legalassociations"to promotethe
specializationand trainingof lawyersin the law of the Statuteandthe Rules'andto consult
with any independentrepresentativebody of counsel'fiJorpurposessuch as' managementof
the legalaidesystem,and in mattersrelatedto the Codeof Professional Conduct.
5 SeefCG-O1104-O1tO6-1289, Decisionon "Motionfor Leaveto File ProposedAmicusCuriae
Submission CriminalBar Pursuantto Rule 103of the Rulesof Procedure
of the lnternational
and Evidence",22 April2008.
tcil3,/A

19.ICBmembersare in particular withthe situationof Lead


concerned
Counselbecauseof the natureof the ICCtriggeringmechanism, which
extendsthejurisdiction
to territorywhichis governedby thosewho mayor
maynot be happywiththe creationof jurisdiction.Evenwhenthe
government
has referreditselfto the lCC,thereare oftenindividuals
who
in the referringgovernments
are participating who are guiltyof war crimes
and crimesagainsthumanityandwhowantto usethe international courts
as a toolof victor'sjusticeand as a meansfor hidingtheirown crimes.
Thefearof Counselappearingbeforeall international
courtsand tribunals
is thatGeneralKagame'sactionsin relationto Mr. Ntabakuze's
Lead
Counselwillemboldenthosein othergovernments
to threatendefence
teamsand destroythe independence
whichis necessaryto ensurefair
trialsand an endto impunity.

submitsthatthe issuesin thiscaserelatingto


20.The ICBrespectfully
functionalimmunity,equalityof armsandthe rightto counselof choicewill
benefitfrombeingaddressedby an association
of Counselsuchas the
lCB. The ICBbringstogetherlawyersfromthe lCC,the ICTR,the ICTY
and individuals
and bar associations fromnationalsystemsall overthe
world. Our members,who represent boththe defenceand victiminterests,
justicesystem.Theirvoicesoften
are an importantpartof the international
leadeffortsto discoverthe truth,no matterthe context. The ICBwouldbe
an appropriate to presentthoseviewsso as to assistthe
organization
AppealsChamberin itswork.

C. AMICUSSUBMISSIONSWILLASSISTTHEAPPEALSCHAMBERIN
RESOLVINGTHE ISSUESSUB JUDICE

whichare proposedwilladdressissueswhichhavenot
21.The submissions
beenraisedin the pleadingsby the parties.Theyrelateto basicissues
whichwill impactuponall international
and nationalcriminalcases,
beforethe International
includingthosein situations CriminalCourtand
tribunalsaroundtheworld. Theseissuesare centralto
otherinternational
of counselandthe abilityof counselto
the independence
maintaining
n,z/A
safelyand effectivelyrepresenttheirclientsin an internationalsystemthat
is seento be fair and unbiased.

22,1fgrantedleave,the lcB proposesto filesubmissions


on an expedited
basisaddressing
the followingissuesand/orany otherissuesrequested
by the Court:

A. Whetherequalityof armsguarantees
are retevantwhendefiningthe
scopeof functionalimmunityin the circumstances
of thiscase. In
otherwords,whetherit mattersthat a formerprosecutorsuchas
carla del Ponteor the currentlcrR or rcc prosecutorscan make
identicalstatements to thosemadeby Mr. Ntabakuze's Lead
counseland be protectedby immunity,
whilea defencecounsel
who is activeon a casebeingarguedbeforethe lcrR is not
protected.

B. Whetherthe arrestof Mr. Ntabakuze's


leadcounselconstitutes
a
breachof the rulesgoverningthe functionalimmunityof defence
counselactingbeforelcrR andthe conditions
for a fairtrial.

c. whether the actionsof the Rwandaprosecutor/ Government


amountto obstructionof the courseof justiceat the lcrR by
deprivingMr. Ntabkuze's
of de factorepresentation
and disrupting
the proceedings
notjust in thiscase,butin any casein which
counselor investigators
seekto travelwithinRwanda.

D. whetherthe fearsexpressed
by counselappearingin othercases
beforethis and otherinternational
courtsand tribunalsare
reasonable,
and if so,whetherthosefearsundermine
the
independence
of counselandthe rightto a fair and unbiasedtrial.
tqn/A
CONCLUSION
Fortheforegoingreasons,the lcB respectfully
requeststhatthe Appeals
Chambergrantthis requestand allowa shorttimefor the filingof submissions
on the aboveissuesor anyof themor anyotherissueswhichthe Appeal
Chamberfindsmay be of assistance.

Datedthis7'"day of April2010

At The Hague,Netherlands

-V. C' ?r'-tkuua,


V'rgi
Counselfor
the
Executive
Committee
of theInternational
Criminal
Bar
i.,*il{i# $fiii*ft$
l{;*;s*$ #ilie$
ffi TRANSMISSION SHEET
FOR FILING OF DOGUMEilTS WITH GMS

SECTION
COURTMANAGEMENT
(Art.27 of the Directivefor the Registry)

I . GEI{ERAL I]{FORMATION o be completed by the Ghamberc


I ll TrialChamber ll n triatChamberlll
ffil'rialChamber
To: / N. M. Diallo R. N. Kouambo C. K. Hometowu
LJ OIC,JLSD I orc,JPU Ll r. A.Talon X AppealsChamber / TheHague
P.Besnier C. K. Hometowu (Appealsffeam
lV) K. K. A. Afande
R. Muzigo-Morrison
From: [_JChamber ! Defence Office X Other:International
U Prosecutor's Griminal
Bar
(names) (names) (names)
(names)
GaseName: vs. Aloys NTABAKUZE
TheProsecutor A
CaseNumber: ICTR-98-41-
Dates: 7 June 2010
Transmitted: Document's date:7 June2010
No.of Pages: 07 OriginalLanguage: X English I Frepoh :. n Kinyarwanda
Titleof neOUeSr OFTHEINTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL BAR .,' Z =
Document: FORLEAVETO FILEAMIGUSCURIAESUBMISSIONS PURSUANTJS <-
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Level:
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n exParte fromparties
n Strictty UnderSeal n
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of Appeal
flConfidential E Disclosure ! Order ! AppealBook
X pubtic I JudgementXlMotion I Bookof Authorities
ll - TRANSIATIOI{ STATUS ON THE FILING DATE (To be the QffibAt t Filing P
actionregardingtranslation.
CMSSHALLtakenecessary
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