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6/11/2015

C1andC2CapacitanceandPowerFactorofABBOPlusC/ABCondenserBushings

C2OrNotToC2,ThatistheQuestion

C2CapacitanceandPowerFactorofABBOPlusCandTypeT/VCondenserBushings

INTRODUCTION

C2 capacitance and power factor measurement of condenser bushings has been a topic of much
discussionformanyyears.Inspiteofsomeuncertaintiesinthemeasuredvalues,moreandmoreusers
aremakingC2measurements.AspertheIEEEstandards,bushingsrated115kVandabovearetested
forC1andC2capacitanceandpowerfactorvalues.Bothofthesecapacitancesaredependentmainlyon
paper insulation, which is strictly controlled by condenser design, therefore producing predictable test
results.Bushingsratedupto69kVontheotherhandhaveabuiltinC2capacitancethatisdependent
upon outer layers of paper with glue and an oil gap.This capacitance can be affected by stray factors
externaltothebushing.Thesefactorsamongothersmayincludecontaminationonporcelains,airandoil
surrounding the bushing. This paper describes the construction/design of C1 and C2 capacitance and
discussesthefactorsthatcanaffecttheC2valuesinbushingsratedupto69kV.

C1ANDC2CAPACITANCEDESIGN/CONSTRUCTION

AspertheIEEEStandardsC57.19.00andC57.19.01,bushings115kVandaboveareprovidedwithC1
(maincapacitance)andC2(tapcapacitance).TheC1capacitanceisformedbythemainoilimpregnated
paperinsulationbetweenthecentralcurrentcarryingconductorandtheC1electrode/foil,whichisinserted
during the condenser winding process. The C2 capacitance consists of oil impregnated paper tap
insulation between the C1 and the C2 electrodes. The C1 electrode/foil is internally connected to the
voltage tap stud whereas the C2 electrode is permanently connected to the grounded flange. Under
normaloperatingcondition,theC1electrodeisautomaticallygroundedtotheflangewiththehelpofthe
voltage tap cover that makes a connection between the tap stud and the grounded flange. The C2
insulationundertheoperatingconditionisshortedandisnotsubjectedtoanyvoltagestress.Whensucha
bushingisusedinconjunctionwithapotentialdevice,thevoltagetapisconnectedtothisdevice.Under
this condition, the C1 and C2 capacitances are in series and act like a voltage divider. The voltage
developedacrosstheC2capacitanceismodifiedbythepotentialdeviceforoperationofrelays,andother
instruments. The voltage tap can be used for checking the capacitance and power factor of C1 and C2
insulationofthebushing.Inadditionthistapcanbeusedformonitoringthepartialdischargeduringfactory
testsandinsulationcurrentduringfieldserviceoperation.Seefigures1forcondenserdesignandvoltage
tapdetails.

Figure1:Condenserdesign/constructiondetailsofbushingsrated115kVandabove

Condenserbushingsupto69kVaspertheIEEEStandardsareprovidedwithC1capacitance,whichis
themaincapacitance.Thiscapacitanceisformedbyoilimpregnatedpaperinsulationbetweenthecentral
current carrying conductor and the C1 electrode/foil, which is inserted during the condenser winding
process. The C1 electrode is internally connected to test tap. These bushings have a builtin C2
capacitance that is dependent upon a few layers of paper with glue and an oil gap. Under normal
operatingcondition,theC1electrodeisautomaticallygroundedtotheflangewiththehelpofthetesttap
cover that makes a connection between the test tap spring and the grounded flange. The C2 insulation
undertheoperatingconditionisshortedandisnotsubjectedtoanyvoltagestress.Thetesttapisusedfor
checkingthecapacitanceandpowerfactorofC1andC2insulationofthebushing.Inadditionthistapis
sometimesusedformonitoringthepartialdischargeduringfactorytestsandinsulationcurrentduringfield
serviceoperation.Seefigures2forcondenserdesigndetails.

Figure2:Condenserdesign/constructiondetailsofbushingsratedupto69kV

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C1andC2CapacitanceandPowerFactorofABBOPlusC/ABCondenserBushings

FACTORSAFFECTINGC1ANDC2CAPACITANCEANDPOWERFCATOR

Asmentionedearlier,theC1andC2capacitanceandpowerfactorofbushingsrated115kVandabove
aremainlydependentuponoilimpregnatedpaperinsulation,whichisstrictlycontrolledbydesign.Dueto
thisdesignandconstruction,thepowerfactorandcapacitancetestvaluesarenotaffectedtoomuchby
external factors under normal circumstances. However, under conditions of contamination and high
humidity,thepowerfactorandcapacitancemaybesignificantlyaffected.Inaddition,thesevaluesmaybe
affectedbysupportingstructureduringtestingparticularlywoodencratesthatarewet.TheIEEEStandard
C57.19.01 specifies a limit 0.5 % for the power factor. Type O Plus C, type T and type V condenser
bushingsmeetthisrequirementandthetestedpowerfactorvaluesarewellbelowtheIEEElimit.

Bushingsratedupto69havethemainC1capacitance,whichisstrictlycontrolledbydesign.Likethe115
kV and above bushings, the C1 power factor and capacitance test values of these bushings are not
affected too much by external factors under normal circumstances. However, under conditions of
contaminationandhighhumidity,thepowerfactorandcapacitancemaybesignificantlyaffected.TheC2
capacitanceofthistypeofbushingisbuiltinandisdependentuponafewouterlayersofpaperwithglue
andanoilgapbetweentheflangeandthecondenser.Variationsintheamountofgluecanhavesome
effect on the power factor.The close proximity of the C1electrode with the mounting flange results in
somefringingeffectbetweenthetwoparts.Asaresultofthis,theporcelains,oilandairsurroundingthe
bushingcanhavesomeeffectonthepowerfactorandcapacitancetestvalues.Inparticular,highcurrent
Type T and V bushings with long internal ground foils tend to exhibit higher power factors because of
greaterfringingeffectbetweenthesmallflangeandthelonggroundfoil.Dependinguponthedesign,the
C2powerfactorofthesebushingscanrangefrom0.1%to2%.Duetothisdesignandconstruction,the
C2powerfactorofsomecondenserbushingsupto69kVmaythereforeexceedtheC1powerfactorlimit
ofO.5%specifiedintheIEEEStandard.IEEEStandarddoesnotspecifyanylimitforpowerfactorforC2
forthesebushings.TheC1powerfactorontheotherhandiswellbelowthe0.5%limitspecifiedbythe
IEEEstandard.

Forbushingsupto69kV,IEEEStandardonlyrequiresstampingofC1powerfactorandcapacitanceon
thenameplate.Asaresultoffrequentrequestsfromcustomers,ABBAlamo,TNhasstartedstampingthe
C2powerfactorandcapacitancetestvaluesonthebushingnameplate.Withthisaddition,thenameplates
ofallOPlusC,TypeTandVcondenserbushingsarenowstampedwithfactorytestvaluesofC1andC2
powerfactorandcapacitance.Wecompliedtotheelectricalindustrysothatuserscanbetterassess the
condition of the bushing insulation. Because of reasons mentioned within this paper, users may see a
greatervariationinC2powerfactorandcapacitancevaluesindifferentbushingsofthesamedesign.Itis
importanttocomparetheinitialtestvaluesbeforeinstallationwiththenameplatevalue.While checking
the C2 power factor and capacitance values of these bushings, it is important to compare the field test
values with the initial benchmark value after installation. Any significant deviation from the benchmark
valuewouldbeacauseforconcernandshouldbeinvestigated.Test values with lower end in air may
varyfromthosewithbushingsmountedonthetransformerwithlowerendimmersedinoil.

Conclusions

Because of the inherent design of C2 capacitance in bushings up to 69 kV, the C2 power factor and
capacitance can be affected by external factors. These factors could include external contamination,
humidity, and stray effect of other objects. As a result of this, the field installed C2 power factor and
capacitancetestvaluescanvaryfromthenameplatevalues.Testvalueswithlowerendinairmayvary
from those with bushing mounted on the transformer with lower end immersed in oil. Sometimes,
variationsmaybenoticedbetweenbushingsofthesamedesign.Theinitialtestvaluesbeforeinstallation
should be compared with the factory nameplate values. While checking the C2 power factor and
capacitance values of these bushings, it is important to compare the field installed test values with the
initialbenchmarkvalueafterinstallation.Anysignificantdeviationfromthebenchmarkvaluewouldbea
causeforconcernandshouldbeinvestigated.

AdditionalinformationonbushingmaintenancecanbefoundinABBbushinginstructionleafletsIL44665
and44666.
http://alamo.abbus.com/Bushings/C1C2paperA.htm

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