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Throughout ancient history until our modern era, every civilization in the world has
used wood to create useful as well as beautiful and decorative objects.
We see examples of woodworking by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and
Chinese. Many other ancient cultures around the world also practiced woodworking,
employing many different styles and techniques.
Primitive weapons used for defense and hunting and simple tools used for building
shelters have been used throughout the ages. Archaeologists discovered a wooden club
and digging sticks at the Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River on the border of Zambia
and Tanzania.
As man developed his woodworking skills, he became better able to kill animals for food,
clear land with his axe to grow crops, and build boats, buildings, and furniture.
Woodworking thus became an important process that led to the advancement of
Because of the vast amount of material to cover related to the history of woodworking,
this article will focus on woodworking from ancient times to the Middle Ages, focusing
on some of the more prominent civilizations. Woodworking conducted in other
civilizations will be omitted not because they are less important but again, due to the
sheer volume of material. We will, however, briefly review some of the more prominent
tools woodworkers used throughout history.
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS (3100 B.C): Many ancient Egyptian drawings going back to
2000 B.C. depict wood furniture, such as beds, chairs, stools, tables, beds, and chests.
Theres also physical evidence of these wooden objects, as many were found wellpreserved in tombs due to the countrys dry climate. Even some sarcophagi (coffins)
found in the tombs were crafted from wood.
Ancient Egyptian woodworkers were noted for regularly practicing their craft and for
developing techniques that advanced the craft for future generations. For instance, they
invented the art of veneering, which is the practice of gluing thin slices of wood together.
The earliest examples of veneering are over 5,000 years old, found in the tomb of
Semerkhet. Many of the pharaohs were buried with objects that had African ebony
veneer and ivory inlays.
According to some scholars, Egyptians were the first to varnish, or finish their
woodwork, though no one knows the composition of these finishes. Finishing is the art
of placing some kind of protective sealant on wood materials in order to preserve them.
Ancient Egyptian woodworkers used a variety of tools, including axes, adzes, chisels,
pull saws, and bow drills. During the earliest pre-dynastic period (circa 3100 B.C., about
the time of the first pharaoh), they also used mortise and tenon joints to join pieces of

wood. Pegs, dowels, and leather or cord lashings strengthened these joints. Animal glue
was used during the New Kingdom period (1570 1069 B.C.).
Egyptologists found the worlds oldest piece of plywood in a third dynasty coffin. It was
made of six layers of wood four millimeters thick held together by wooden pegs.
The Egyptians used a variety of wood to build their furniture and other objects. The
wood came from native acacias, local sycamore and tamarisk trees. However, when
deforestation occurred in the Nile Valley starting from the Second Dynasty, they began
importing cedar, Aleppo pine, boxwood, and oak from various parts of the Middle East.
They also imported ebony from Egyptian colonies and used it to construct items that
went into tombs such as inlaid wooden chests.
NOAH AND THE ARK: In the Book of Genesis, we encounter one of the Bibles first
woodworkers Noah. After God revealed his plan to destroy a corrupt humanity by
flooding the earth, He gave Noah a 120-year project build an ark of cypress wood
coated with pitch inside and out.
God furnished him and his three sons with precise instructions and dimensions. The ark
was to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high. If we convert cubits into
feet based on the common cubit of 17.5 inches used by the Hebrews, we get an ark that is
at least 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet tall (about the size of a 4-story building).
The sheer size of the ark staggers the imagination and seems an impossible task for
Noah and his sons. The Scriptures, however, do not suggest that Noah had to build the
ark without the help of hired men. After all, the size of the timbers for such a huge vessel
would likely have been beyond the powers of four men to handle.
After the flood, the ark came to rest upon the mountains of Ararat. The mountains of
Ararat are in present-day Turkey.1
OLD TESTAMENT WOODWORKERS: While Noah and his woodworking crew
displayed exceptional skills in building the ark, the Hebrew Bible paints a different
picture of the Israelite woodworkers during the time of Solomon. As written in Chapter
5 of 1 Kings, Solomon had to import Phoenician artisans from the coastal city of Tyre to
build his temple.
The Phoenicians were skilled in intricate woodworking such as making furniture and
inlaying them with ivory carvings, but as the years passed, the Israelites woodworking
skills improved. In Isaiah 44:13, the prophet describes the carpenter and his tools,
suggesting that during the era of the kings, the Israelites were becoming more adept and
involved in carpentry. In fact, carpenters were among those Israelites exiled to Babylon
after the Babylonians captured Jerusalem in 597 B.C. (Jeremiah 24:1; 29:2).
Lebanese cedar, imported from Lebanon, was one of the most popular building
materials used in the Biblical world by ancient woodworkers because of its high quality,
pleasant scent, and resistance to both rot and insects. Many temples, palaces and
seagoing vessels were made from this wood, including Solomons famed Temple.

This cedar was also used in the construction of the so-called Jesus Boat of the first
century A.D. In 1986, two brothers discovered the boat in the northwestern shore of the
Sea of Galilee after a tremendous drought had lowered the water level. It was similar to
the boats Jesus and his disciples would have used to cross and fish the Sea of Galilee.
Almost 27 feet long and over 7 feet wide, the boats nails and hull construction placed
the boats origin between 100 B.C. and 100 A.D. It was the first near-complete boat ever
found in the Sea of Galilee.
EARLY CHINESE (720 B.C.): Early Chinese civilizations also promoted the art of
woodworking. Its believed that woodworking mushroomed in that country starting
around 720 B.C. When that happened, the Chinese developed many sophisticated
applications of woodworking, including precise measurements used for making pots,
tables, and other pieces of furniture.
During this time, a well-known carpenter, Lu Ban, was credited as being one of the
originators of woodworking in China. Its believed he brought the plane, chalk line, and
other tools to China. Some 1500 years after his death, his teachings were compiled in the
book Lu Ban Jing (Manuscript of Lu Ban).
This book documented his work as a carpenter and contained descriptions of
dimensions for building various objects such as flower pots, tables, and altars. It also
provided specific instructions concerning Feng Shui (wind and water).
Feng Shui is the ancient Chinese practice of geomancy, that is, the positioning of
physical objects in strategic locations in home and work environments to stimulate
optimal wellness, health, and happiness. Ironically, the book says almost nothing of the
intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous.
JAPAN AND THE ORIENT: Woodworkers today who practice the ancient oriental
woodworking techniques take pride in their mastery of the fitted joint and their skill of
not using electric equipment, nails or glue to hold their pieces together. Japan is where
this style of woodworking primarily originated.
One reason for Japans success in such excellent woodworking was that they developed
high-carbon steel tools early in their history. Their use of high-quality blades and the
engineering of the lathe made ancient Japanese woodworkers leaders in crafting round
and curved objects. Cooperage (the making of barrels and casks) and bentwood works
(wood that is artificially shaped for use in making furniture) were popular in Japan for
everyday household objects.
Japanese woodworkers also made exquisitely-sculpted scenery. Their popularity and the
techniques used in the process spread across Southeast Asia.
Another highly skilled form of woodworking was block prints made from inked blocks
of wood. Lacquering also was developed in the orient. It is a technique dominant in
Japan, China, and Korea.

NEW TESTAMENT CARPENTERS: Recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark,

we find that Jesus adopted father Joseph was a carpenter. In the Jewish culture of that
time (1st century), the father was required to teach the son his trade at age 12. Being a
good Jew, Joseph would have followed this practice and began teaching Jesus at 12 his
carpentry trade.
Carpenters of the time of Jesus were often called upon to construct or repair plows or
threshing sleds, or cut a roofing beam or shape a yoke for a new team of oxen. They also
met the demands for new doors and door frames, or a storage chest, and made a variety
of other repairs. Sometimes they helped with the construction of larger building
projects, such as building a wood balcony, or making doors or stairs for a new
synagogue. And, on occasion, a master carpenter would be asked to create a holy object
such as a Torah cabinet for the storage of Scripture scrolls.
Hebrew carpenters used a variety of wood species depending on what the job required.
They included cypress, oak, ash, sycamore and olive. If it were a special project, they
might have to import expensive cedar from Lebanon, or use the stock of a vine for small
projects. When a carpenter needed wood, he sawed trees into boards using a large
bronze saw with the aid of other workers. He cut thin boards from tree trunks. Trees in
that region, however, were not large or straight.
Among the carpenters tools mentioned in ancient sources were the saw, mallet, adze,
plummet and line, chisel, rule stick, plane and squares. They also used the bow drill,
held in one hand by the handle, which they rapidly set in motion by drawing the
attached bow back and forth.
The bow-lathe was a crude primitive tool, yet a skilled woodworker could produce
decorative spindles and bowls with it much like todays wood turners. He turned the
wood by pulling a leather strap back and forth like a bow. This motion moved the lathe
and enabled the cut to be made in the turning wood. With these tools at hand,
carpenters from Biblical times possessed the skill to create intricate dovetailed, mitered,
and dowelled joints. Combining considerable skill and patience, they often created
splendid wood products.
THE NEAR EAST (800 B.C.): Woodworking in the Middle East goes back for many
centuries, even to Biblical times, as evidenced in the descriptions of some items. For
instance, the Book of Exodus chronicles the construction of wooden holy items for the
Tabernacle of the ancient Hebrews.
The ancient woodworkers of the Near East built great wooden boats out of timber that
grew in the Anatolian plateau (the Asian part of Turkey) along the Levantine coast (the
Mediterranean coastal lands of modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon). This wood
was so coveted that invading armies often demanded it as tribute.
Archaeologists found furniture crafted from wood inlaid with bone, ivory or metal that
dated as far back as 800 B.C. at Gordion, the alleged home of the mythical King Midas.

Near East woodworkers used lathes as well as wedges, mallets, chisels, hammers, drills,
plumb bobs, compasses, and other basic tools.
The wooden windows of the early mosques and private houses still seen today in the
Arabic culture were crafted at the height of ancient Near East woodcarving. The Muslim
woodcarvers of Persia, Syria, Egypt and Spain designed and created exquisite paneling
and other decorations for wall linings, ceilings, pulpits, and all kinds of fittings and
furniture. Their woodwork was elaborate and minutely delicate.
THE ROMANS: The Roman Empire also had its share of skilled woodworkers.
Wielding adzes, lathes, files, planes, saws and drills, including the bow drill, they
constructed aqueducts and waterworks using wooden scaffolding, built impressive
warships and barges, and erected strong and lethal battering rams and catapults for
attacking enemy cities.
They also crafted furniture, including tables and chairs that stylistically represented the
arms of animals or that were carved to represent mythological creatures.
Archaeologists were delighted to find a furniture shop intact in Pompeii, an ancient
resort city destroyed in 79 A.D. when Mt. Vesuvius erupted. They also discovered
wooden furniture and decorations, and the methods of building.
Roman woodworkers used a variety of woods for their wooden creations. Wood species
included ilex, beech, maple, elm, olive, and ash. The most prized wood in the Roman
Empire was the African wood thyine, which was believed to have mystical powers. It was
used by both the Romans and Greeks to make furniture.
Thyine, from the Cedar family, is a fragrant and beautiful wood the Romans called citrus
or citron wood. It comes from a North African tree and was alluded to in Revelation
18:12 as being among the items which would no longer be purchased when Babylon fell.
MIDDLE AGES (400 A.D.): The medieval period, also known as the Middle Ages,
occurred during the one thousand years between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance,
from about 400 A.D. to the 15th century. Since wood was the most common building
material in the Middle Ages, carpenters prospered. They also were considered to be
among the most skilled craftsmen.
Carpenters, however, had to belong to guilds groups that were designed to protect the
interests of people in certain occupations. They also were required to do apprenticeships
with established carpenters. Their tools were much simpler than what we use today, but
they had to know how to use them as well as know math and woodworking. This
knowledge was necessary in order to create furniture, wagons and homes for people of
that era even kings and lords.
All buildings used wood in some way. Buildings were sometimes constructed almost
entirely out of wood, from the framing for their walls and roofs to their siding and
shingles. Even stone buildings required considerable wooden construction. For
instance, while being built, wood was needed for scaffolding, ramps and frames to

support arches until the mortar hardened. Later, wood was used for doors, window
frames, floors, roof beams, and some interior walls.
Although most of the wooden buildings of the Middle Ages have long since vanished, we
still have contemporary illustrations of buildings and other wooden structures either
completed or under construction.
Woodworkers of the Middle Ages also were skilled in creating wooden figurines and
statues, some of which still stand today. These Byzantine or Gothic art pieces showed
that woodworkers exhibited extreme patience in their woodworking and their love of
this skill.
Discovering preserved ancient wooden artifacts thrills modern
archaeologists. It gives them and us a special glimpse into the past and provides a
tangible link between us and the people of past societies. Unfortunately, countless
objects made of wood did not last as long as ones made from clay or metal.
Wood is naturally very durable and capable of lasting for thousands of years without
significant change if kept in moderate, sheltered environments. When the wood is
exposed to fungi (molds and mildews), insects, termites, light, excessive heat, and
excessive moisture, however, it is doomed to suffer biological deterioration. This is what
happened to many of the wooden objects created centuries ago.
Moisture can be one of the most difficult conditions to control. Wood takes on moisture
in high relative humidity conditions and releases it when the humidity is lower.
Excessively high moisture conditions can cause wood to swell. This can result in crushed
components along with finish and glue failure. Excessively low moisture conditions can
damage the wood, too, resulting in splitting, gaps in joints, and lifting veneers and
Because the dimensions of wood can change when exposed to moisture and heat, the
skilled woodworker must be able to anticipate these variations so as to maintain the
integrity of the finished piece. Failing to take moisture content into account is a recipe
for disaster.
One tool that ancient man never had the good fortune to possess is the moisture meter.
Wagner Meters engineered the first practical and portable electromagnetic wave
moisture meters in the 1990s. Since that time, other companies have started
manufacturing pinless moisture meters.
The Wagner moisture meters were designed to cancel out surface moisture.
IntelliSense technology allows its wood moisture meters to measure the percent of
moisture in the wood instead of on the wood, solving the major drawback of most
pinless moisture meters.

Wagner meters also are designed to enable woodworkers and flooring installers to
scan many board feet of wood easily and quickly. This is handy when having to check a
large volume of wood samples or for simply doing a quick check of current conditions.
Because Wagner meters have no pins, they do not damage wood surfaces, as do pin
meters. They also read moisture content ranging from 5% to 30%. The MMC220 meter,
Wagners most popular model, is ideal for measuring moisture in all wood species
hardwoods, softwoods, and even exotic tropical woods. It offers moisture measurement
to the tenth-of-a-percent precision.
The Wagner Meters MMC205, ideal for hobbyists, is useful for wood flooring and
woodworking applications that specify common softwood and hardwood species that do
not require moisture measurement to the tenth-of-a-percent precision.
While many ancient tools lacked durability, Wagner meters, made in the USA, are built
to last. Its why they come with an industry-leading 7-year warranty and complete
customer satisfaction guarantee.
ANCIENT TOOLS OF THE TRADE: Tools are like windows to the past. They allow
us to view the civilizations that created them. Obviously, the more wooden objects a
society produces, the more tools it needs and uses.
In some instances, societies advanced slowly or even regressed when it came to the
development and use of woodworking tools. For instance, the Roman joiner had a larger
tool chest than his Medieval counterpart.
Axes and adzes were among the first tools created. Woodworkers used the axe to fell
trees, and the adze, with its blade turned 90 degrees, to dress timber.
The Minoan civilization of Crete used a combination axe-adze and invented the doubleheaded axe. The ax-adze was popular with Roman carpenters.
The handsaw was used in Egypt as far back as 1500 B.C. It had a broad blade, some as
long as 20 inches, curved wooden handles, and irregular metal teeth. Since the blades
were copper, a soft metal, they had to be pulled, not pushed. Because the carpenter
could not bear down on the cutting stroke, sawing wood must have been a slow, tedious
The Romans improved the handsaw in two ways. They used iron for the blades, making
them stiffer, and they set the teeth of the saw to project alternatively right and left. This
made the saw cut slightly wider than the blade and allowed a smoother movement.
The Romans also invented the frame saw and the stiffened back saw, with s blade that is
reinforced at the top to afford straight-through cuts. The frame saw uses a narrow blade
held in a wooden frame and is kept taut by tightening a cord. The principle of the frame
saw lives on in the modern hacksaw.
Roman builders used the try square (also known as the carpenters square), the plumb
line, and the chalk line, tools developed by the ancient Egyptians. Egyptian

woodworkers also used wooden pegs instead of nails and made the holes with a bow
drill, which they moved back and forth.
Since the bow drill is ineffective for heavy drilling and wastes energy, the Romans came
up with a better tool: the auger. The auger has a short wooden cross-handle attached to
a steel shaft whose tip is a spoon-shaped bit. It enabled the woodworker to apply great
rotational force and heavy downward pressure.
Woodworkers in the Middle Ages created a breast auger for drilling deep holes in ships
timbers. It is topped by a broad pad on which the carpenter rested his entire body
The Romans improved upon the Egyptians wooden pegs by inventing forged iron nails.
They also created another dual-purpose tool: the claw hammer.
In addition, the Romans invented the rule, the smooth plane, and several other types of
planes. One historian has called the plane the most important advance in the history of
woodworking tools.
Chisels are more ancient tools. Bronze Age carpenters used them with both integral
handles and socketed wooden handles for house and furniture construction.
The first mallets, shaped like bowling pins, were pounded across the grain and didnt
last long. Eventually, a handle was fitted to a separate head. These made a more durable
hammering surface.

abrasive cloth A coated abrasive with a cloth backing. Emery cloth is an example.
acrylic A man-made resin used in paints and other finishing products. Most commonly
used in water-emulsion paints and varnishes.
adhesive size Adhesive used to apply gold leaf or bronze powder. Rabbit skin glue,
varnish, or polyvinyl adhesive are frequently used for this purpose
airless spray equipment Spray equipment that uses a hydraulic pump to pressurize
liquid instead of using compressed air.
alkali A chemical that will neutralize an acid. Strong alkali can burn skin. Referred to in
chemistry as a "base."
alkyd A synthetic resin frequently used in oil-based paint.
alligatoring Numerous cracks in a paint film. The pattern of cracks resembles alligator
skin. Caused by inflexibility in the paint, too heavy a build-up of old coats of paint,
incompatibility between paint and primer or improper surface preparation.
aluminum oxide A synthetic abrasive used as the cutting agent on sandpaper and
other coated abrasives. The most desirable all-around abrasive for wood finishing. It is
produced in an electric furnace.
aniline dye A synthetic colorant used extensively in the manufacture of wood stains. It
may be formulated to dissolve in oil, water, or alcohol. It is especially well suited for
stains because of its permanence and because it is transparent.
annual rings Growth rings of a tree caused by the variation in growth rate between
spring and summer. Summerwood is denser and darker in color than springwood. Also
called "annular rings"
arris the sharp corner formed by the meeting of two adjacent surfaces of a board. For
example, an arris is formed where the face and the edge of a board meet. Breaking the
arris is the process of slightly sanding off the sharp arris to make it less likely that the
finish will wear off at the arris.
astragal A narrow, half-round moulding.

aught system A system of grading different sizes of abrasive particles for use in coated
abrasives. Most grades useful for wood finishing are designated by several zeros
(aughts), the more zeros the finer the abrasive. Grade O (also written 1/0) corresponds
to a medium grit, 00000 (5/0) is very fine. Coarser grits are designated by numbers that
get larger as the grit gets coarser. Grade 1 is coarse and grade 4 is very coarse. This
system has largely been supplanted by the more accurate mesh system.

backing off The process of removing the wire edge on a plane blade. The back of the
iron rests flat on the face of a fine stone, and the fine stone is used to back off the iron.
backing The material that abrasive particles are attached to in coated abrasives. Paper,
cloth, and fibreboard are common backings.
backlash The slack or play in the adjustment mechanism of the plane.
baller A tool used to round over the end of a dowel.
barefaced joint A joint in which one or more of its shoulders are eliminated. (See
bead A traditional decoration often used with a tongue-and- groove joint to hide the
gap between the boards.
bedding angle The angle at which the frog or bed of the plane holds the plane iron.
bench planes Planes used to smooth the face and edges of a board. They are the most
common types of plane.
bevel (1) An angle other than 90 degrees.
bevel (2) The inside surface that is sharpened on a plane blade, chisel, or other cutting
bevel (3) A tool used to mark angles. It consists of a stock or handle and an adjustable
blade. The edge of the stock rests against the edge of a board and the blade rests across
the face. Also called a bevel square or sliding T bevel.
binders Another name for resins used in paint.
black sable A natural filament used for lettering and striping brushes.
bleeding A paint defect that occurs when natural colors in wood seep (bleed) through
the paint film making a stain on the paint surface.
blistering A paint defect caused by moisture trapped beneath the paint surface. The
moisture breaks the bond between the paint and the wood, lifting the paint film into a
blister. It is the result either of interior moisture from a house or painting in direct
sunlight which causes the film of the paint to dry before the undercoating.

board foot A unit of measure used when purchasing lumber. It is the amount of wood
in a 1 ft. x 1 ft. x 1 in. board (144 cu. in.). Board footage for boards thinner than 1 inch is
calculated using 1" as the thickness. The formula for determining board feet is
( thickness in inches X width in inches X length in feet) / 12.
bow A distortion in a board that causes the face to curve from end to end. If you place
the face of a bowed board on a flat surface the center of the board will rest on the surface
while the ends are above the surface.
block planes Small planes that fit into the palm of your hand. They are used primarily
for trimming.
block cushion grainer A wood-graining tool used to mechanically reproduce wood
grains. It has a rubber face that is covered with concentric, semi-circular grooves.
blond shellac A highly refined grade of shellac that is light amber in color.
boiled linseed oil Oil derived from the seed of the flax plant. The raw oil is not boiled
but heated and driers are added. It is a major ingredient of a variety of finishing
boxing The process of adding a new piece of wood to the front of the mouth of the
bristle Any natural filament used in brush manufacture. In common usage can describe
any type of filament, either natural or synthetic, used in a brush.
brush marks Parallel ridges left by a brush in a brushed on coating.
burn-in stick A type of filler used to repair defects in finished wood surfaces. They
come in a variety of colors to match the existing finish. A heated knife is used to apply
the filler. Also called shellac stick or lacquer stick.
burnish To polish or form a burr edge on a hard tool by rubbing it with another hard
burnished surface A surface that has a smooth, polished look.
button shellac The least refined grade of shellac. It is a dark brown color.

cabinet scraper A scraper with a cast-iron body that holds a scraper blade.
camber A slight convexity, arch, or curvature.
cambium A layer of cells just beneath the bark of a tree where new growth occurs.
camel hair A natural filament used to make brushes for use with lacquers and water
carcass The basic box or frame of a cabinet.

catalyst A chemical that speeds up a reaction between other chemicals. When catalysts
are mixed with certain resins like polyester or epoxy, they cause the resin to harden into
a solid plastic.
chalking A dusty film of pigments left on the surface of weathered paint.
chamfer A bevelled cut on an edge.
cheek The part of the joint that is parallel with the face or edge .
chemical stains Stains that rely on a chemical reaction with natural chemicals in the
wood to produce a color change.
china wood oil See tung oil.
chroma Color intensity.
clearance angle The angle formed between the work and the underside of the cutting
edge of the blade.
closed-coat sandpaper Sandpaper that has the entire surface of the backing covered
with abrasive particles. It cuts fast but clogs easily.
closed-grain Wood with no easily discernible pore structure. Does not require filling to
achieve a smooth finish.
coated abrasives Any product made by attaching abrasive particles to a backing.
Sandpaper, abrasive cloth, and sanding belts are all coated abrasive products.
cold finish A finish that uses solvents that don't dissolve most other types of finishes.
Cold finishes can be safely applied over most previously finished surfaces. Varnish is a
cold finish. See hot finish.
combination plane Any plane that can be used for more than one job.
common pitch Refers to a plane iron held at 45 degrees to the work by the frog or bed.
compass plane A plane used to make convex or concave shapes.
complementary colors Colors opposite each other on the color wheel. Mixing
complementary colors with each other decreases the intensity of their color and makes
them more greyish.
cooked oil Tung oil that has been heat-treated.
corner on a board The corner is the place where the face, edge and end meet.
crook A distortion in the edge of a board that causes the edge to curve from end to end.
When the edge is placed on a flat surface the center of the edge will touch the surface
while the ends are above the surface.
cove A concave moulding cut into the edge of the board.

crazing Thousands of tiny interconnecting cracks that can occur in a finish.

crosscutting The process of cutting a board at approximately a right angle to the grain
cup A distortion in a board that causes the face of the board to curve from edge to edge.
When the blade of a square is placed across the face it will touch near both edges, but
there will be a gap between the square blade and the face of the board in the center of
the board.
cut The relationship between the weight of dry flakes and the volume of solvent used in
making shellac. A one-pound cut consists of one round of dry shellac flakes dissolved in
one gallon of solvent.
cutting angle The angle formed between the work and the top of the blade.

dado A flat bottomed recess cut into the face of a board across the grain. A similar
recess cut with the grain is called a groove. The distinction originated because they are
cut differently from each other when using hand tools. When using power tools both a
dado and a groove are cut in a similar way using a dado blade on a table saw or radial
arm saw or with a router. Many woodworkers no longer make the distinction and simply
call the joint a dado regardless of grain direction.
Danish oil A penetrating oil finish made from a mixture of oils, driers, resins and
solvents. It is generally easier to use than pure tung oil.
denatured alcohol Ethyl alcohol that has been made undrinkable by the addition of
poisonous substances. Also called proprietary solvent. It is used as a solvent for shellac.
distressing The process of intentionally damaging a finish to give it an antique look.
dress To improve or smooth the surface of the wood.
dryers Chemicals added to finishing products to speed up the drying process.
dust nibs Tiny bumps in a finished surface caused by dust particles landing on the wet

edges The narrowest surfaces of a board that are approximately parallel with the grain
edge-grain wood A term applied to quarter-sawed wood, particularly softwood. (Sec
emery A natural mineral used for coated abrasives. One of the harder natural abrasives.

ends The narrowest surfaces of a board that are approximately perpendicular with the
grain direction.
end grain A wood surface that has been cut at a 90" angle to the length of the cells,
often the end of a piece of lumber. End grain absorbs finishing material to a greater
degree than other wood surfaces because open-cell cavities are exposed at the surface.
epoxy A synthetic resin used in paints and varnishes. It is extremely hard and wearresistant. It is usually used with a catalyst.
extenders Inert ingredients added to paint to improve its working characteristics. Also
called "suspenders" or "fillers."
exterior protective stain Stain specifically formulated to protect exterior wood as
well as color it. No additional protective top coat is needed when this type of stain is

faces (1) The four surfaces of a board that are approximately parallel to the grain.
faces (2) The two widest surfaces of a board. Also called sides.
face best The widest surface of a board with the least number of defects is sometimes
called the best face or select face. When the meaning is clear from the context it is often
simply called the face.
ferrule The metal band that attaches the filaments to the handle of a brush.
filament A slender fibre or hair used in a brush, commonly called a bristle.
filler stick A type of wax-based wood putty in stick form. It comes in a variety of colors.
Frequently used to fill nail holes after a finish has been applied.
fillet A flat section on a moulding used to separate a section of the moulding.
filling The process of packing the pores of open-grained wood with filler to create a
smooth surface.
fillister A rabbet plane with a fence and depth stop.
fine setting The setting of a plane iron (blade) that will make a shallow cut.
fish eyes Small, round depressions in a finished surface. Frequently caused by
contamination of the finish with silicones.
flagging Split ends at the tips of brush filaments.
flat A finished surface with no gloss.
flat-grain wood Another name for plain-sawed wood, particularly softwood. (See plainsawed.)

flex When applied to coated abrasives, flex refers to a pattern of pre-bent lines in the
backing. Flex increases the life of a coated abrasive by making it more able to withstand
repeated bending.
flint A natural mineral abrasive used to make sandpaper. It is rather soft compared to
synthetic abrasives.
flitch The log, or portion of log, from which veneers are cut. Also a stack of veneers all
cut from the same log and laid in the order in which they are cut.
fluting A decorative moulding that is frequently used as a decoration on table legs. It
has a concave half-round profile.
foam brush A brush that substitutes a single piece of sponge like plastic foam for the
individual filaments of a standard brush.
fore plane A plane about 18 inches long used to surface or dress rough lumber.
french polishing The process of applying shellac with a pad in a series of steps.

garnet A natural mineral abrasive used as the cutting agent in coated abrasives. It is the
most desirable of the natural abrasives for woodwork.
glaze A heavy-bodied stain Used to give an antique look to gold leaf, bronze powder,
and wood finishes. The process of applying a glaze. Also the process of spraying a darker
stain around the edge of a panel, door, or drawer front.
gloss Finishes designated as gloss or high gloss dry to a smooth, shiny, reflective
surface. The opposite of gloss is flat.
grain 1 The orientation of the fibres in the wood, or a term used to describe the visible
pattern of pores and growth rings on a board.
grain 2 The pattern produced by the annual rings in a piece of wood. Grain also refers
to the direction of the wood fibres. For example, "sanding with the grain" means moving
the sandpaper in strokes that parallel the length of the wood fibres.
graining comb A tool used to simulate the straight parallel grain typical of quartersawed wood. It has many closely spaced teeth similar to a hair comb.
graining stain A heavy-bodied stain used in wood graining. Several types of stains are
used but they all are thick and resist flowing once it has been applied.
graining The process of applying a finish that looks like grained wood.
grinding The coarse wearing away of a softer material by the abrasive actions of a
harder material.

grit Abrasive particles used in coated abrasives. The term is often used when referring
to the grade (coarseness) of an abrasive.
groove A flat bottomed recess cut into the face of a board with the grain. A similar
recess cut across the grain is called a dado. The distinction originated because they are
cut differently from each other when using hand tools. When using power tools both a
dado and a groove are cut in a similar way using a dado blade on a table saw or radial
arm saw or with a router. Many woodworkers no longer make the distinction and simply
call the joint a dado regardless of grain direction.
ground coat The base coat for graining. The ground coat is colored to match the
lightest color in the wood that is being imitated.
gutter plane A plane with a convex sole and iron that can be used to make large
architectural mouldings such as the cove moulding.

hand scraper A very simple scraper that consists of a steel blade that is held in your
hardwood Wood derived from broad-leafed trees. The term has no relation to the
actual hardness of the wood. (See softwood. )
heartwood Wood from the center portion of the log. It is generally darker and more
decay-resistant than the younger sapwood.
high spots Areas of the board that are thicker or wider than the rest of the board.
hogging off Making deep, rough cuts in wood with a plane.
hollow-ground iron A hollow-ground iron has a bevel face that is slightly concave.
hollows and rounds The simplest types of moulding planes. The hollow plane has a
concave profile. The round plane has a convex profile.
honing Giving a keen edge to a plane iron.
hook angle The angle of the blade's cutting edge as it relates to the centerline of the
horsehair A natural filament used in brushes. It is usually blended with other
filaments. When the percentage of horsehair in a brush becomes too large the quality of
the brush is degraded.
hot finish A finish that contains solvents that will attack other finishes. Lacquer is a
hot finish. Hot finishes should not be applied over cold finishes. (See cold finish.)
hue Technical name for what is commonly simply referred to as "color."

jack plane A plane 12 to 17 inches long that is used to remove saw marks from lumber
and cut down high spots.
japan colors Colored pigments mixed with a vehicle that is compatible with either oil
or lacquer-based products. It comes as a thick paste that must be thinned before mixing
it with other products.
japan dryer A mixture of driers and solvents that speeds up the drying process of oilbased products. Generally not recommended for addition to modern finishing products,
but it is used when making your own stains.
joinery The art of making joints.
jointer A plane 22 to 36 inches long that is designed to make an edge straight and
square with the face of the board.
jointing Making an edge straight and square with the face of the board.
Note: The distinction between joinery and jointing is confusing. Jointing is the process
of making the edge of a board straight and square with the face. Joinery is the art of
making joints. Use the word "join" to describe attaching two boards with a joint. For
example: "Join the shelves to the carcass with dadoes."

kerf A cut made in a board with a saw.
knot The intersection between a limb and the trunk of a tree that shows up in sawed
lumber as a round, oval, or spike shaped area that is darker and harder than the
surrounding wood. A "tight knot" is firmly attached to the surrounding wood. A "loose
knot" has a layer of bark between it and the surrounding wood and may eventually fall
out leaving a hole in the board. The grain pattern changes sharply around a knot,
making it difficult to plane.

lacquer A tough, fast-drying finish that contains very strong solvents. Lacquer is called
a "hot finish" because the solvents it contains will dissolve most other finishes. For this
reason lacquer should not be applied directly on top of an old finish other than lacquer.
It is usually applied by spraying, but brushing lacquers are available.
latex stain A water-based stain that behaves like oil-based pigmented stain. It should
not be confused with water stain which uses transparent dyes to stain the wood.
length The dimension of a board running parallel with the grain.
lignin The natural glue that holds wood fibres together.
linseed oil Oil derived from flaxseed. The raw oil will not dry. "Boiled" linseed oil has
had driers added to make it dry.

long oil varnish Varnish that contains 40-100 gallons of oil per 100 pounds of resin.
The large amount of oil makes the film tough, durable and elastic, but it is not suitable
for rubbed finishes and it dries to only a moderate gloss. It is mostly used for exterior

match planes Planes used to make tongue-and-groove joints. These planes are used in
pairs. One plane cuts the tongue. The other plane cuts the groove.
medium oil varnish Varnish that contains 12-40 gallons of oil per 100 pounds of
resin. Sometimes referred to as "all purpose" varnish. It is not as durable as the long oil
varnishes but it dries to a harder and glossier surface. It is more flexible than the short
oil varnishes.
medullary rays A specialized fluid channel found in some species of wood, most
notably oak. The rays radiate from the center of the tree to the outside. In plain-sawed
lumber the rays show up as short dashes dispersed uniformly over the surface. In
quarter-sawed wood the rays make varied wild patterns Quarter-sawed oak that has very
prominent ray patterns is sometimes called "tiger oak" because the pattern resembles
the stripes of a tiger.
meglip A thickening agent used to improve the working characteristics of graining
stains. The actual ingredients of the meglip vary depending on what type of stain it is
added to. Traditional formulas used ingredients such as pumice, talc, whiting,
cornstarch, varnish and stale beer.
mesh system A system for gauging the size of abrasive particles. The particles are
sorted through wire mesh screens The higher the number the finer the abrasive. It is
generally considered the most accurate system for designating the grade (coarseness) of
coated abrasives.
metallic planes Planes that are made almost entirely of metal .
microbevels Small, secondary bevels at the tip of the plane iron.
mildew A fungus that feeds on oils found in paint and other finishing products. It
causes discoloration of the paint
mill marks Marks left by a planer that give the surface of a board a wavy appearance.
mineral spirits Petroleum-based solvents used in oil based paints and varnishes.
Paint thinner.
mitre joint A joint that is cut at an angle. When two boards meet at 90 degrees, the
mitre angle is 45 degrees.

mortise-and-tenon joint A joint in which a projection called a tenon on one board

fits into a pocket called a mortise in the other board.
moulding planes Planes used to make mouldings.
mouldings Decorative recessed or relieved surfaces

neoprene A synthetic rubber that is especially resistant to chemicals and solvents.
Recommended for use in protective gloves and clothing.
ngr stain non-grain-raising stain An aniline dye stain that uses solvents other than
water to dissolve the dye. It won't raise the grain as water stain does.
non-clog sandpaper Sandpaper that has a special coating to keep material from
sticking to the grit.
nylon A synthetic plastic used to make brush filaments. Nylon brushes are particularly
well suited for use with water based materials.

ogee A moulding with an S-shaped profile.
oil colors A paste like combination of pigment and linseed oil or other oils. It is used to
tint oil-based products. It should be thinned before mixing with the finish.
oiticica oil An oil similar in characteristics to tung oil. It is derived from the Brazilian
Licania rigida tree.
opaque A substance that does not allow light to pass through it. In wood finishing, any
finish that hides the underlying wood.
open-coat sandpaper Sandpaper that has empty space surrounding each abrasive
particle, as opposed to closed-coat which has the backing surface completely covered
with grit. It doesn't cut as fast as closed-coat initially, but it will last longer when used on
materials that tend to clog or gum up the sandpaper.
open-grain The appearance of wood with large, visible pores that must be filled with
paste filler to achieve a smooth surface. There are two types of open-grained wood: ringporous and diffuse-porous. Ring-porous woods like oak and ash have large pores at the
beginning of each annual ring. Diffuse porous wood like Philippine mahogany (lauan)
have large pores evenly distributed throughout the wood.
orange peel An improperly sprayed surface with a texture that looks like the surface of
an orange.

orange shellac A refined grade of shellac that still retains some of the orange like
brown color of raw shellac.
overspray Small droplets of the material being applied with a spray gun that miss the
intended area and land on another surface.
ovolo A rounded convex moulding.
ox hair Hair obtained from the ears of cattle. It is used alone to make striping and sign
painters' brushes or blended with China bristle to make high-quality brushes.

pad applicator A finishing tool that consists of a foam pad covered with a piece of
short-napped fabric. Originally designed for house painting, but it is well suited for
other applications such as applying stain.
padding lacquer A special type of lacquer formulated to be applied with a pad similar
to the kind used when French polishing. Also called spot finishing lacquer, it is mostly
used to repair damaged finishes. Unlike most lacquers, it can be applied directly over
many finishes.
palmetto A natural filament derived from the palmetto tree. It is sometimes used as a
substitute for bristle in brushes.
panel-raising plane A plane used to make the bevelled edges of a panel. Panel-raising
planes are often called fielding planes.
paraffin oil A mineral oil used as a lubricant for rubbing out a finish. Also called
rubbing oil.
particle board A man-made reconstituted wood product. It is made from very small
wood chips or particles bonded together with glue under heat and pressure. There are
several grades. The two most common grades are underlayment and industrial.
Underlayment has a slightly rough surface and is intended for use under carpet or other
flooring materials. Industrial grade particleboard has a very smooth surface and is
denser than underlayment. It is intended for use in furniture and as a base for plastic
patina The condition of a wood and its finish that develops over time. Usually it is
characterized by a smooth, worn surface and darkening of the wood. Also includes the
build-up of waxes and oils that have been applied to wood over time and the scars and
marks that are acquired through use. Denotes a genuine antique.
penetrating oil stain An oil-based stain that has oil-soluble dyes rather than
pigments as an ingredient.
perilla oil A natural oil derived from the seeds of the Perilla ocymoides plant. Its
properties are somewhere between tung oil and linseed oil.

phenolic A very durable synthetic resin made from phenol-formaldehyde and phenolfurfural. It is used to make finishing products that are resistant to water, chemicals and
pigmented oil stain An oil-based stain that relies on pigments for its color. Also
called wiping stain.
pigments Minerals and chemicals selected for their color and ground to very fine
plain-sawed Wood that has been cut so that the annual rings make an angle of less
than 45" with the surface of the board. Also called flat-grain or plain-sawn.
pointer A tool used to taper the end of a dowel.
polyester brush filament Filaments manufactured from polyester resin. Well suited
for use with water-based finishes.
polyester resin A synthetic resin. It is often used in two-part catalyzed finishes. It
produces a tough, glossy film, but it is not as wear-resistant as epoxy.
polyethylene A synthetic resin made by polymerizing ethylene. Since it is nontoxic and
odorless it is used for food related items. It is water-resistant and resists many
polystyrene A synthetic resin made from styrene. It is used in paints and varnishes.
polyurethane One of the most widely used resins in synthetic varnish, it is also used in
some paints. It can be chemically hardened by the addition of a catalyst. Oil-modified
polyurethane air dries. It produces a very durable finish that is resistant to wear and
abrasion, water, and weathering. It is very resistant to chemicals and it retains its gloss
longer than most finishes under hard wear.
pores Small openings in the surface of a board. They result when the saw cuts open
large, elongated cells (vessels) in the wood. The vessels serve as fluid channels in the
living tree.
pressure-feed gun A spray gun that is designed to use the pressure of compressed air
to transfer liquid from the cup to the nozzle.
primary colors Basic colors that can be mixed to form all other colors. For pigments
the primary colors are red, blue, and yellow.
primer A paint that is formulated to adhere well to bare wood and also bond to the
next coat. It frequently incorporates a sealer that prevents bleed-through of stains from
the wood.
proprietary solvent See denatured alcohol.
psi Pounds per square inch A way to measure the pressure of compressed air.

pumice A light volcanic glass that, in powdered form, is used for rubbing a finish. It is
coarser than rottenstone.
putty A pasty compound used to fill nail holes and defects in wood.

quarter-sawed Wood that has been cut so that the annual rings form an angle of 45"
to 90" with the surface. Also called edge-grain, vertical-grain, or quarter-sawn.
quirk The small groove that defines the edges of the bead.

rabbet joint A corner joint with one shoulder. It is often used to join the top of the
cabinet to its sides, and to attach the back of the cabinet.
rabbet plane A plane with an iron that extends to the edge of the sole.
radius plane A plane used to round or chamfer the edges of a board.
raised grain A condition that occurs when water causes wood fibres to swell so that
some stand above the surface of the board.
rake angle The angle formed between the top of the cutting edge and a line
perpendicular to the work surface.
rank setting The setting of a plane iron (blade) that will a make a heavy cut.
ray marker A woodgraining tool used to imitate the dash shaped marks made by
medullary rays in plain-sawed oak. Consists of a number of small wheels that have short
dashes embossed on their edges.
red sable A natural brush filament obtained from Siberian mink and used for lettering
or artists' brushes.
reed A series of beads cut side by side.
resawing The process of cutting a board into two or more thinner pieces.
rejuvenator Any of various products that are used to restore the appearance of an old
resin A synthetic or natural chemical that dries to a hard impervious film.
ripping The process of cutting a board approximately parallel to the grain.
rotary-cut Wood that is cut by rotating a log against a fixed knife to produce a
continuous sheet. Most veneer and fir plywood is produced in this manner. Oak and
birch plywood also frequently use rotary-cut veneers.

rottenstone A natural abrasive made from powdered limestone. It is finer than pumice
and is often used in a second step when rubbing out a finish.
rounder A tool used to make dowels or round stock.
router plane A plane used to smooth the bottom of a recess, which is a cut indentation
in a piece of wood.
rubbing compound A commercially prepared mixture of abrasive powder and
lubricant that is used for a final rubbing of a finished surface.
runs A defect that occurs when too much finishing material is applied to a vertical

safflower oil A natural oil sometimes used in paint. It is derived from the safflower
sandpaper A coated abrasive with a paper backing. Originally the term applied only to
flint paper, but now is applied to any type of abrasive paper.
sapwood The new wood near the outside of a tree. Generally lighter in color and more
prone to decay than heartwood which is in the center of a log.
sash planes A special moulding plane used to make windows .
satin A term used to describe a finish that is not as dull as a flat finish, but does not
have a high gloss.
scraper A tool used for the final smoothing of wood.
scratch stock A scraping tool used to cut mouldings.
scrub plane A short jack plane generally used to rough-out wood close to its final
dimensions and to remove large bumps and warps in the board.
sealer A finishing material used to seal the pores of bare wood. Also, a coat used
between two incompatible products or a type of primer that prevents bleeding.
shading stain A lacquer-based product that contains dyes or pigments to color it. It is
a semi-transparent surface coating that does not penetrate into the wood. Used
extensively on mass-produced furniture.
sharpening angle The angle that you hold the blade at while you hone it on a
shellac A finishing material made from lac. Lac is a natural resin produced by small
insects. See button shellac, orange shellac, blond shellac, and white shellac.
shooting boards Boards with straight, true edges that are used to guide the plane.

short oil varnish Varnish that contains 5-12 gallons of oil per 100 pounds of resin.
The high percentage of resin makes the dry film very hard and glossy, but it is not as
elastic or durable as varnish that contains more oil. Short oil varnishes are used when a
rubbed finish is desired. Also called piano varnish, rubbing varnish, or polishing
shoulder The part of the joint that is cut 90 degrees to the face or edge of the board. A
joint only has a shoulder when that part of the board that fits into a joint must be
thinner or narrower than the rest of the board.
sides The two widest surfaces of a board, also called faces.
silex filler (paste filler) A product made by mixing boiled linseed oil with powdered
silex and driers. Used to fill the pores of open-grained wood. Usually comes as a paste
that must be thinned before use. Silex is a natural mineral. It is a form of silica derived
from quartz.
silicon carbide One of the hardest synthetic abrasives used for wood finishing. It is
produced in an electric furnace by combining silicon and carbon. Its chemical formula is
SIC. Its most common use in wood finishing is in wet-or-dry sandpaper.
siphon-feed gun A spray gun that uses atmospheric pressure to deliver liquid from the
cup to the nozzle.
skew To set something at an angle.
slipstone A small whetstone that is rounded or tapered.
smooth plane A plane 9 or 10 inches long used to smooth the surface of a board,
softwood Wood produced by trees that have needles rather than broad leaves. The
term has no relation to the actual hardness of the wood.
solvent A liquid used to dissolve other substances. Sometimes it also refers to a liquid
used to hold small particles such as pigments in suspension without actually dissolving
them. The solvents of finishing products usually evaporate leaving only the other
ingredients to form the final film. Popular solvents for wood finishing products are:
turpentine, mineral spirits, naphtha, benzine, alcohol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and
toluene. While it is usually not thought of as such, water is actually a solvent.
soybean oil Also called soya oil. It has properties similar to linseed oil and is often
used in paint.
spirit stain A wood stain that uses alcohol for its solvent.
spiriting off The final step in French polishing. A clean pad dampened with alcohol is
used to remove the lubricating oil from the finished surface.
spokeshave A tool, originally used to smooth wooden wheel spokes, that is very useful
today for smoothing the sculpted shapes of modern furniture.

spontaneous combustion Self-ignition resulting from chemical reaction. When oily

rags are piled together and there is no air circulation the oxidizing oils will generate
enough heat to cause the rags to burn without any external ignition source.
sprung plane A plane that can be held at an angle of 15 to 30 degrees.
square (1) The state of being at a 90 degree angle. For example the edge of a board is
square if it forms a 90 degree angle with the face.
square (2) The process of making something conform to a 90 degree angle. For
example when you square a carcass, you adjust it until the corners form 90 degree
square (3) A tool used to mark and check for a 90 degree angle. The three most
common types used in woodworking are the framing square (a large tool with two arms
made of a single flat piece of steel, the longer arm is called the blade, the shorter arm is
called the tongue), the try square (a small tool with a fixed stock or handle and a blade),
and the combination square (also called a machinist's square, it has a stock that can be
moved along the blade. It can also mark 45 degree angles and may include a small spirit
square (4) A unit of measure equal to 100 square feet. Usually used to refer to roofing
stain Any of several products used to artificially color wood. Stains may have dyes,
pigments or chemicals that produce the color. Stains may either penetrate into the
wood, form a film on the surface or react chemically with substances in the wood.
stick The board that the moulding is cut into.
sticking or striking The process of cutting mouldings.
stopped A cut or joint that ends before the edge or end of a board. For example, a
stopped dado ends before the front edge of the board.
stripper Any product that uses chemicals or solvents to soften an old finish for
removal. Paint stripper.
stropping A process sometimes used when sharpening a plane blade in which a piece
of leather that is impregnated with a fine abrasive is used to make the cutting edge very
sunflower oil A natural oil with properties similar to linseed oil.
sword striper A brush with very long flexible filaments that is used for pin-striping
and freehand graining.
synthetic varnish Varnish that uses man-made resins in place of natural resins.

tack rag A piece of cheesecloth that has been treated so that it attracts dust.
tampico A natural filament derived from plants in the cactus family. It is resistant to
chemicals and is used primarily in brushes used to apply chemical stains.
tannin An acid found in wood. It forms different-colored compounds when it reacts
with certain chemicals. Most chemical stains depend on a reaction with the tannin in
taper A gradual angle cut on one or more faces of a board. For example, table legs often
have a taper cut on the two inside faces.
tear-out A condition that occurs when the grain of a board changes direction and the
plane blade starts to chip the wood.
temper The correct heat treatment of a tool's metal, to make it stay sharp longer.
tinting colors Pigments suspended in any of several liquids. They are used to tint or
color finishing products.
tongue-and-groove joint A two-part joint in which a projection on one board called a
tongue fits into a groove on the other board.
traditional planes Planes with a wood body and a blade held in place with a wood
transitional planes Planes that have wood bodies, but have metal working parts that
are used to secure and adjust the plane.
trying planes Planes 20 to 24 inches long used to flatten the surface of a board and
remove the marks left by the jack on the fore plane.
tung oil A natural oil derived from the seeds of the Chinese tung tree. It is used by itself
or mixed with other oils to make penetrating oil finishes. It is also used in many paints
and varnishes. It dries faster and harder than linseed oil. Also called China wood oil,
China nut oil, or nut oil. It is manufactured in South America.
tuning The process of adjusting all of the working parts of a plane to their optimum
positions and removing all imperfections in the casting left from the manufacturing
turning A piece of wood that has been shaped on a lathe.
turpentine (spirits of turpentine) A solvent used in oil-based finishes. It is distilled
from the gum of pine trees. Because it is more expensive than other solvents like
mineral spirits, turpentine is not included in most modern formulas. It is still regarded
as the ideal thinner for products containing linseed oil because it increases brushability
and flowing characteristics and because it aids in the drying process by conveying
oxygen to the oil.

twist A distortion in a board that results in the ends of a board not being parallel. When
the face of a twisted board is placed on a flat surface, one corner of the board will be
lifted off the surface.

universal plane Any plane that can be used with cutters of different sizes.
universal tinting colors Tinting colors that are compatible with oil- or water-based
products. Their liquid consistency makes them easier to mix than the paste-type tinting
colors. Even though they are called universal, they may not be compatible with some
lacquers, epoxies, or catalyzed finishes. Check for compatibility before using with these

value The lightness or darkness of a color. Adding white lightens a color's value, while
adding black darkens its value.
varnish A transparent finish made with natural or synthetic resins and oils. They
harden by combining with oxygen and are more resistant to water and alcohol than
varnish stain A colored varnish that stains and varnishes the surface in one step.
vegetable stain Stain that derives its color from natural plant dyes instead of chemical
dyes or pigments.
vehicle The liquid part of a finish. It consists of the solvents, oils, and resins.
veneer A thin sheet of wood. Face veneers are usually made from expensive wood
species and applied over cheaper wood's core Veneers are made from inexpensive woods
like fir and are used for the inner plies in plywood. Veneers may be produced by rotary
process, slicing or sawing.
vertical-grain lumber Another name for quarter-sawed lumber.
vinyl A general name for several synthetic resins including polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl
chloride, and polyvinyl butyral. The dry film of most vinyls is colorless, tasteless,
odorless, nontoxic, abrasion resistant, chemical resistant, weather resistant and flexible.

warp Any distortion in the shape of a board caused by changes in the moisture content
of the wood. (See: bow, crook, cup, and twist)
water stain A clear, permanent aniline dye stain that uses water as its solvent. It will
raise the grain of the wood because it uses water.

water-emulsion varnish Commonly called latex varnish, it is a water-based product

that produces a varnish-like finish. The resins are emulsified in water much like they are
in latex paint.
wax A fatty substance that may be animal, vegetable, or mineral in its origin. Beeswax is
obtained from honeycombs. Paraffin wax is a petroleum product. Carnauba wax is from
the Brazilian wax palm, and ceresin is a synthetic wax. Wax is used to polish and protect
a finish. Some antique finishes use wax as the only protective coat.
wet-or-dry sandpaper Sandpaper that uses waterproof glue to attach the abrasive
particles to a water-resistant paper backing.
whetstones Abrasive stones used to sharpen edge tools.
white shellac The most highly refined grade of shellac. It is bleached to remove all of
the orange cast of the raw shellac.
whitewood Wood that has not yet been finished. Even if the natural color of the wood
is quite dark it is called whitewood in this respect. wood putty A doughy product used to
fill nail holes and defects in wood.
wrinkles A finishing defect that occurs when the underlying finish dries more slowly
than the top surface. This causes the top surface to have a wrinkled texture.

york pitch A reference to a blade bedded at a high 50- degree angle.



Ma. Julia Cazandra L. Belza

Grade VII- Unity
Sir Noel P. Bermudez
New York, New York
By: Frank Sinatra
Start spreading the news, I'm leaving today.
I want to be a part of it, New York, New York.
These vagabond shoes, are longing to stray
Right through the very heart of it, New York, New York.

I wanna wake up, In a colony that doesn't sleep.

And find I'm king of the hill, top of the heap.

These little town blues, are melting away.

I'll make a brand new start of it, in old New York.

If I can make it there,

I'll make it anywhere.
It's up to you, New York, New York.

New York, New York.

I want to wake up, in a colony that never sleeps.
And find I'm A-number-one, top of the list, king of the hill, A-number-1...

These little town blues, are melting away.

I'm gonna make a brand new start of it,
In old New York, and...

If I can make it there, I'm gone make it anywhere.

It's up to you, New York, New York!

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