Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 91

ETHANOL PRODUCTION

FROM SUGAR OR SWEET


SORGHUM JUICE

2300 Wall Street Suite K Cincinnati, Ohio 45212-2789 USA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


HISTORY
Worldwide services

Ethanol production
Specialty chemicals
Biotechnology
Pulp & paper

Over 140 ethanol


plants in 36 countries

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


HISTORY
Founded by Dr. Raphael Katzen in 1955
55 Years of Consulting Engineering Services
Process Engineering & Management Services
Technology Development

100 % employee owned corporation


Engineers
Biologists
Mechanical Designers

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


ETHANOL PROJECTS
Feedstocks

Corn
Wheat
Barley
Sorghum
Starches
Molasses
Raw Sugars
Potatoes
Cassava
Cheese Whey

Plant Capacities
< 10MM LPY
> 480MM LPY

Over 140 plants worldwide

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


ETHANOL PRODUCT GRADES

Rectified Spirit
Motor Fuel Grade
Industrial Grade
Neutral Spirits
Industrial Anhydrous

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


ADVANCED FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

Continuous Fed-Batch (Sugars)


Molasses
Juices

Simultaneous Saccharification &


Fermentation (SSF) A KATZEN innovation
for starch dry mills developed in 1981 and
now used by more than 95% of the industry
Grains
Starch solutions
Root crops (potato and cassava)

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


SUGAR BASED FEEDSTOCKS

B-Molasses
C-Molasses
Cane Juice
High-Test Molasses & Syrups
Raw Sugar
Sorghum Juice

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC


SUGARS ETHANOL PROCESS

Storage
Dilution
Desludging
Sterilization
Yeast Propagation
Fermentation

Distillation
Dehydration
Product Storage
Evaporation
Anaerobic Digestion
Utilities

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC


CLARIFICATION AND STERILIZATION

Reduces concentration of salts, gums and


waxes
Provides pasteurization and sterilization
High sugar recovery / high yield
Reduces fouling of heat transfer equipment
Improves product quality

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC


YEAST PROPAGATION FOR MOLASSES
AND SUGAR JUICES

Includes starter tanks


Continuous yeast propagation
Capable of sustained steady state operations
Operated in conjunction with the fed-batch
fermentation

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC


FERMENTATION

Fed batch
High solids feed (up to 40 Brix)
Reduces stress on yeast
Achieves higher final ethanol concentration

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


FERMENTATION

Controlled yeast growth


Most yeast growth occurs during fermenter fill
Simplifies process
Increases yield

Reduced fermentation by-products


Yeast solids, glycerol, organic acids, heads,
congeners

No aeration for maximum CO2 recovery


High efficiency CO2 scrubber
> 99 % recovery of vent ethanol
Low irrigation

Redundant mash cooler trains


Minimum bacterial contamination

Minimal antifoam required

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


FED-BATCH TECHNOLOGY

Reduced beer
stone deposits

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


MOLASSES AND SUGAR JUICE
ETHANOL TECHNOLOGY
Water

Condenser

Molasses
Molasses Clarification
Tanks

FERMENTATION

Yeast Propagation

Fuel Ethanol

Tank

To Carbon Dioxide

Product

Preheater/

Product
Condenser/

Condenser

Scrubber

Water

Cooler
Yeast
Propagation
Cooler

Fermenters

A
Sludges

Rectifier

Beer
Stripper

Sludges

Rectifier
Feed
Tank

Beer Feed

DILUTIONDILUTION
/ DESLUDGING
MOLASSES
OR JUICE
CONCENTRATION AND DESLUDGING

Stea
m
Reboiler

Reboiler

Fusel
Oil
Cooler

Wash
Water

Dehydration
Beds

Fusel Oil
Decanter
Stea
m
Reboiler

Vacuu
m
Pum
p

Stillage
Stea
m
Superheater

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OR VINASSE


CONCENTRATION ANAEROBIC
OR OTHERDIGESTION
OPTIONS

Recycle Water

DISTILLATION / DEHYDRATION

Digestor
Gas

Effluent

Anaerobic
Digestor
Tank

Regeneration
Condenser

Recycle
Dru
m

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


MOLASSES ETHANOL TECHNOLOGY

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


DISTILLATION
Multi-column system
Thermally integrated for
energy efficiency
Reduced evaporator duty
removes approximately one
liter of water for each liter of
ethanol produced

Maximum ethanol recovery

Fully reboiled system


No live steam injection

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


DISTILLATION
Disc & Donut tray beer
strippers
Highest demonstrated onstream time
over 1 year between column
cleanings
all other known technologies
require frequent cleaning

No antifoam required
High ethanol recovery
efficiency
< 300 mg/ L of Ethanol in
Vinasses

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


DEHYDRATION
Molecular sieve
dehydration
Long desiccant life
Simplified process
Direct-coupled with rectification
for reduced energy
consumption & maintenance

Over 70 referenced plants

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


DEHYDRATION
Molecular Sieves

Sieve beads

EVAPORATION
Thermally integrated with
other processes for high
efficiency
High solids output
High on-stream time
1 month between C.I.P.

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


CIP SEQUENCE

Initial rinse
NaOH wash with chemical recovery
Intermediate rinse (evaporator only)
Acid wash (dilute) (evaporator only)
Final rinse
Sanitizer addition (fermentation only)

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


HIGH ETHANOL YIELD

Maximize recovery of all sugars


Minimize reversion reactions
Minimize unwanted side-reactions
Automated CIP system
Minimize bacterial contamination
Optimize yeast growth
Maximize ethanol recovery

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


PROJECT MEAD, NEBRASKA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


ALCO BIO GENT, BELGIUM

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


REEVE AGRI-ENERGY GARDEN CITY, KANSAS

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


AGRANA PISCHELSDORF, AUSTRIA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


PROJECT SIQUINALA-ESCUINTLA, GUATEMALA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


CASTILLA Y LEON (ABENGOA) GALICIA, SPAIN

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


LAICA PUNTA MORALES, COSTA RICA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


HUSKY ENERGY MINNEDOSA, CANADA

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


RAJBURI BAN PONG, THAILAND

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


ENSUS TEESSIDE, UK

KATZEN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


PROCESS DESIGN TO PRODUCTION
53

84

ToBeerWell

CoolingWater

52

90
ColdWater

34

133

5020

Vent

56

56
146

53

VacPumpDrum
72

60

35

4110

AbsrbrBlower

36
55

4100

49

SealCooler

EvapCondnste

76
58

91

57

5090

AbsorbCooler
61

48
5040CoolingWater
33

VentCondensr

47

42

51

46

39

37
65

64

215

78

40
59

50

AbsorberClr

77
154

62

4120

171
31

255

38

139
47
4080

209

4070

Ammonia

Evaporator

12

216 173
3170

Evaporator

175
89

26

14

30

36

15

3120
23

EvapCond

MashCoolrPmp

16
20

Backset

74

22

28

30

229
MashCooler
231

5030

23541

5230

40

43
130
ProcCondHtr
3140

Mingler
8

Grain

7
9

3010

13

WasteNaOH

271

226
137

Water

FermWashTank

EvapCondPump

102

119

25

197

5260

262

102
6010

31

103

3030

205
201

187

110
121
6030

BacksetPump

149

148

111
Evaporator

109

183

174

6020
81

182

ToMashCooler

5210
BeerPump2

123

122

202

Syrup

7040
175

5220

207

208
EvapCondPump

111
RectBottoms

105

173
104

161

203

SyrupPump

106
176

BeerPreheat3

177

62

524

64
104

5350

107

106

109

108

191
187

188

5280

130

232
165

193208
HdsFnlCond

192
189
HdsSecCond

190

150

161

221

HdsPrimCond

96
141
194
222

5310
201

193

188
199
181

198

168

33

204

183

205
207

241

206

242
243

203

HdsFeedPrhtr184

S/RRflxPmp2

217

103

MolSivRecyc

240

101
186

185
113

Heads Column

5320

180
87
94

202
115

5330

218
HeadsBtmPmp

WaterVapor
6040

Dryer
HeadsRflxPmp

206

181

179

144

HdsColRblr

238

171197

234
160
195

216

239
140

HeadsCooler

147
5300

131

164
200

HdsVntCond

190
249

136

5340

194
11

172

5290

118

116
115

1stEffectHtr

214

RectRflxPump
BrStrp2Reblr

192

196

219

65

63
6 57

0psiFlashStm

178

209
EvapCond

142

107

150
105

RectOvhdVapr

117

ToWshngsTank

5240

Stillage

DDGS

182
6050

1stEffCndPmp

195

ToFlashDrum
196

EtOHAbsorber

131
215

186

184
CookerFlash2

28 178

RectFeedPump
246

124
7010

200
112

MashCooling
StmCondPump
185
5510
CookerFlash1

Centrifuge

StmCond

SteamCndsate

120
199

177
BrStrip2Prod

268

127

125

1stEffectCnd
261

157
159

61
5140

126213
7020
212

60

223

FermWashPump

211

StmFlashDrum

119

EvapCondTank

7110

210

117

158

163

128
144EvapSealLiq
15

RectReboiler

3020

To1stEffect
191

135

136

5
3040

79

149

ColdWater

5500
71

81

MSSuperheatr
134
72

96

5540
5130

148

24
MSRegenPump

155
70

114

135

27

146

116

5420

WineAlcohol

ToMashMixTnk

82
90

5530

542

5410
189
114

69
150psiSteam

4140

113

15psi Steam

5490
MolSieveCond

5110

54

87

RctPreheatr2

5120

BeerStrprPmp

7050

17
89

88
263

ToHdsFnlCond
220

7030
21

99

70

Backset
180

160

214

165
16

225

134
5400

25

RctPreheatr1

StillagePump

100

143

FuselOil
76
5390

FuselCooler
122

5430

FinalCondnsr
213
98

5080

145

RegenCndensr
75
124

123

FuselDecantr
170

169

5160
5100

71
HotCondensat

1384150
228

108

BeerPrheat1

32
43

EvapCondnste
7080

CookFeedPump

58

5520

5380
121

67

101

45

86

74
73

264
100

5997

5150

10

3050

4130

44

212

140

118

66
CoolingWater
BeerPump1

LiqTransPump

41

142
85

237
5190

93
154

133

143

145

69

164

CoolingWater
StmFlashDrum

5360

112

153

4090

FermenterPmp

22

3100

4060

26
39

ProductPump

MolSieveUnit

132 80

127
5370

68

3130

FinalMashClr

37

MFGE Product

ProdCooler2

159

139

77

Rectifier

99

5480

251
ProdCooler1

83

129

BeerStrppr#1

5180

4050

23

20
3090

155
21

66
128

163

162

5470

138

78

83
85

MolSieveCond

5450

79

169

75

179
73

97

MSVentCondsr
157

98

211

95

172

156

153

MSSuperheatr

5200

45
BeerPrhtr2
18

84

141

129

3160
7

5440

5270

Beerwell

68

YstSlurryTnk

38

Liquefact#2

3110

Lime

46

94

151

150psiSteam

BrStrprRblr1
258

244

5170

52
6

HeadsPump 147

5060

93

92
2 91
259

34

158

170

BeerStrippr2

42

Fermenters

27
CoolingWaterColdWater
230

120

54

51

29

4030

95

19
Liquefact#1

3070

88

152
257
156

250

5070

DryYeast

174

3080

11

JetCooker
12

67

4040

19

18

4010

10

233VacPumpVent

SachEnzyme
TemperedH20
14

210

49

CoolingWater

5460

152

86

82

55

48

4020
13

3060

132
35

CoolingWater

Water

5250

50

AbsorberPump

44
1
3150

151

5050

63

5010

Nutrient

167

KATZEN Commercial Sweet


Sorghum Plant Observations

2300 Wall Street Suite K Cincinnati, Ohio 45212-2789 USA

Sweet Sorghum Ethanol


Farm Scale or Industrial
Scale?

Farm Scale Typical Concept

Field juicing
Bag fermentation
Portable or small fixed distillation systems
Ferment during harvest or concentrate and
store to ferment over longer time (in smaller
process plant)

Industrial Scale Typical Concept

Sorghum stalk brought to central fixed plant


Diffusion juice extraction or roller pressing depending on plant
capacity
Pre-concentration and fed-batch fermentation with yeast recycle
Biomass bagasse (stalk) boilers
Optional co-generation
Optional Vinasse Concentration or other
Vinasse return to soil
Integrated distillation with molecular sieve drying
Optional alternative feedstocks for off season

The Technology & History


Farm Scale

Was tried in the 1970s for corn & other grains all discontinued
mainly due to market conditions and lack of economy of scale
Recent innovations at Universities, especially Oklahoma U. &
Arizona St. U. and in India & Brazil
Lower tech / lower investment dollars
Disbursed smaller operations
Lower juice yields
Lower ethanol yields
Higher energy costs
Farmer labor undervalued
Most difficult to finance

The Technology & History


Industrial Scale
Sweet Sorghum-to-ethanol technology parallels the
development of sugar juice-to-ethanol technology.
Technical problems solved and commercialization well
known
Need for large plantation (sweet sorghum cane break)
surrounding central plant. Location is everything
Larger Investment Capital
Only works for larger capacities
Higher juice yields

The Technology & History


Industrial Scale - continued
Infection control to improve / maintain yields not likely or
practical on farm scale
Higher ethanol yields
Lower energy cost with bagasse (stalk) fuel and optional cogeneration
Co-generation will be required to qualify for carbon credits
for this reason, farm units probably will not qualify
No difficulty integrating / justifying molecular sieves with
distillation
Professional plant operations team

Comparative Economics
Farm Scale

Costs for field harvest / crushing machine


Cost for bag fermentation
Cost for mobile or small scale distillation systems
Cost for molecular sieves
Cost for processing fuel if bagasse is not the fuel
Cost to dispose or convert vinasse

Comparative Economics
Industrial Scale
Cost for harvest equipment cane harvesters / wagons
Cost for extraction systems with evaporators and
juice insolubles precipitation
Cost for fermenters with yeast recycle systems
Cost for Distillation systems with integrated molecular sieves
Cost for anaerobic biogas systems / vinasse concentrators /
irrigation / or other
Cost for bagasse boilers
Cost for co-generation (CHP)
Infrastructure costs

How can a small farm


operation participate in the
ethanol industry effectively?

One possible alternative is for sweet sorghum growers to produce thick


syrup as feedstock by evaporating juice for existing or central ethanol
plants. Thick juice (syrup) can easily be stored and efficiently transported
longer distances.
Another alternative may be to produce a ~40% ethanol / water mixture by
cutting off the ethanol plant installation at the beer stripper. This dilute
ethanol could be transported to a central plant for distillation / molecular
sieve drying / fuel load out.

What will be Prevailing Market Factors to


Encourage Sweet Sorghum?

Qualifies as an alternate feedstock


Continuing food for Fuel debate sweet sorghum is politically correct
Cost of plant fuel bagasse power avoids this, but only on commercial
scale
Cost and availability of capital Banks and investors are avoiding corn
ethanol, but dont fund farmers. Biomass to power is almost the only
route to Federal funds today.
Demand for ethanol (approval of E-15%) & higher liquid fuel prices (Oil
greater than ~$75 / bbl)
Value of electrical power will surge in future with carbon tax / carbon
credits.
Carbon Credits at farm / plant major incentive, may only apply to
commercial plants with CHP

Multi-Feedstock Ethanol Plants


Ultimately, the most probable long term answer is construction of ethanol plants
which can switch from sweet sorghum in-season to other feedstocks when no sweet
sorghum is available.
The greatest drawback of sweet sorghum (like sugar cane) is that there is no
feedstock for ~1/3 of the year in most climates. By saving surplus bagasse, a
commercial plant could switch to another feedstock after sweet sorghum harvesting
is complete and still operate on bagasse fuel.
What feedstocks? Corn, milo, sweet potato, barley, wheat, cassava, molasses, and
others. Molasses is the simplest because a sweet sorghum ethanol factory requires
little change to process both molasses and sweet sorghum juice.
The additional investment required to enable operating the ethanol plant during the
unused ~1/3 of the year will be justified and should also serve to assuage bankers
and investors fears of crop dependency since there would be flexibility. Feedstock
flexibility would protect against a sweet sorghum crop failure.

What is a commercial size?


More than 5,000,000 gallons per year up to
50,000,000 gallons per year. The most likely capacity
would be somewhere in between.
It is unlikely that very large ethanol plants can access
enough local sweet sorghum to support themselves
anyway.

Sweet Sorghums Achilles Heel: Vinasse


If ethanol plant feedstocks are long on water, then there will be wastewater
to be disposed. Crushing juice from sorghum provides a very dilute ethanol
plant feedstock. Optimum plant design will concentrate (by evaporation) the
juice to fermentation to approximately twice the juice solids level. This not
only improves fermentation and distillation efficiency, but also recovers
some re-usable water from the juice up front. However, disposal of any
amount of vinasse waters will be problematic and expensive.
Even with pre-concentration up front, there still will be a massive amount of
vinasse to be disposed. The most economic method of vinasse disposal is
irrigation, but there probably will not be enough land nearby to economically
irrigate all of the vinasse.
Untreated vinasse creates a problematic odor if there are neighbors where
irrigation is to take place. Anaerobic digestion can minimize odor while
recovering some biogas, but this is expensive.

Sweet Sorghums Achilles Heel: Vinasse


In very dry climates, evaporation ponds are feasible. Once dry, the pond
solids are scoped up and land spread for fertilizer value.
Evaporation of the vinasse to minimize trucked land spreading is possible,
but vinasse evaporation is tricky and expensive. Land spreading will require
licensing which may be difficult to achieve.
Vinasse management is the only area where small field harvesting /
crushing operations have an advantage over commercial operations. This is
not enough advantage to overcome the disadvantages of very small farm
sized economy of scale and requiring fossil fuel to operate the farm sized
plant.

Alternative Feedstocks

Corn (maize)
Barley (whole)
Wheat
Wheat/Wheat
Byproduct
Milo (grain Sorghum)
Triticale
Molasses

Potato and Potato


Waste
Cassava
Sugar juices
Beet sugar concentrate
Whey permeate
Dehulled barley

Corn
(Maize)

South Point Ethanol, USA - 1981

Minnesota Energy

Tarkim Bursa, Turkey

Abengoa Bioenergy
Lacq, France

Bioagra
Wloclawck, Poland

Barley

KATZEN has worked with barley as a feedstock for over 15 years. The
Abengoa plants in Spain frequently utilize barley feedstock when
commodity prices for barley are lower than alternative feedstocks.

The KATZEN-designed barley to ethanol plant for Osage Bioenergy in


Hopewell, Virginia, USA will produce 62 MM gallons of ethanol per year.

Osage is located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA where barley


can be grown as a winter crop in between summer crops such as
soybeans.
- Farmers gain a second cash crop to market.
- Food for fuel debate is negated.

In collaboration with Osage, KATZEN has developed a process for


removing the barley hull prior to producing fermentable mash.
- Hulls can then be used as fuel to power the plant.
- Barley also contains low value constituent Beta glucan. The Osage
plant will use new enzyme technology to convert most of the Beta
glucan into sugars and lesser glucans, resulting in higher ethanol yield
and improved animal feed value of the DDGS.

Abengoa Bioenergy
Galicia, Spain
MAX. HOURLY WIND
PRESSURE

Abengoa Bioenergy
Castilla y Leon, Spain

Wheat

Poundmaker - Lanigan,
Saskatchewan, Canada

Husky Oil
Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada

Husky Oil
Minnedosa, Manitoba, Canada

AGRANA
Pischelsdorf, Austria

Agrana
Austria

Alco Bio Ghent, Belgium

Alco Bio Ghent, Belgium

Wheat Byproduct

PERMOLEX Red Deer, Alberta, Canada

MANILDRA Nowra, NSW, Australia

MGP

Potato and
Potato Waste

SIMPLOT Idaho, USA

Cassava

The potential for cassava ethanol production is an


astounding 20 billion liters per year. Although Asia and
China are leading the way at present, Africa will
eventually follow because 70% of the worlds production
is in Africa.
If farm machinery is developed to mechanize this crop,
cassava could become an important ethanol feedstock in
the southern states.

Most of the current projects in Asia include co-generation. In the


next section we will discuss co-generation project experience at
KATZEN plants.

Cassava ethanol production, either from wet roots or dry chips,


results in very low grade waste.
- Low grade animal feed or fertilizer
- The juice or thin stillage can best be utilized for biogas
production to supply some of the fuel for operating the plant.
- It is also possible to utilize some of the cassava tree stems (not
utilized for replanting) as solid fuel.

Rajburi Ethanol
Baan Pong, Thailand

Rajburi Ethanol
Baan Pong, Thailand

Energy
Integration

KATZEN has created a number of energy integration


strategies.
The next slide shows a simple schematic of an Abengoa
plant in Spain. Abengoa had a gas powered power
generation plant. KATZEN designed the ethanol plant to
utilize both available waste turbine steam as well as flue
gas discharge to dry the grain based DDGS animal feed
byproduct.
The following slide shows the plant in operation. Note that
the turbine flue gas stack is not discharging anything
because all the flue gas is being utilized for steam
production in the boiler. The boiler stack is also not
discharging anything because its exhaust is being used to
dry the animal feed byproduct. The plant is in harmonious
balance at maximum efficiency when the only exhaust is
water vapor from the dryer.

ABENGOA
DRY
ANIMAL
FEED

TO GRID
TO PLANT
GAS

EXHAUST
TURBOGENERATOR

STEAM

BOILER

EXHAUST

DRYER

WET
DISTILLERS
CO-PRODUCT

Abengoa Bioenergia

The next two slides are simple flow diagrams for


the Husky Oil ethanol plant in Lloydminster,
Saskatchewan, Canada. This plant is located on
the site of a heavy oil upgrader facility. The
power plant is operated on gas with gas exhaust
used to operate high pressure boilers. Low
pressure steam from the oil plant is used to
operate the KATZEN distillation system. Exhaust
flue gas can be routed to operate the wheat
DDGS byproduct dryers.

HUSKY
DRY
ANIMAL
FEED

TO GRID
TO PLANT
GAS

EXHAUST
TURBOGENERATOR

HRSG

EXHAUST

DRYER

H.P. STEAM

TO REFINERY

WET
DISTILLERS
CO-PRODUCT

HUSKY
H.P. STEAM
REFINERY

FROM
HRSG

EXHAUST
STEAM

H.P. STEAM

ETHANOL
PLANT

Husky Oil
Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada

Carbery is a famous cheese company in Ireland.


The next slide shows a schematic of the Carbery
process plant.
The feedstock for ethanol production is cheese whey
permeate. The fermentable is lactose or milk sugar.
Lactose can not be fermented by normal fermentation
yeast. A special yeast variety was developed for direct
fermentation of lactose.
The waste from the fermented lactose stillage as well
as all the cheese plant waste was routed to anaerobic
biogas digesters. The biogas is used to fuel part of the
plants steam demand.
The next two slides show the Carbery plant.

Carbery
BOILER

STEAM

METHANE
CHEESE
PROCESSING
WASTE

DIGESTER

LACTOSE
STILLAGE

ETHANOL
PLANT

Carbery - Ireland

Carbery Cork County, Ireland

Thank You

CINCINNATI, OHIO, USA