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ECE 3TP4: Signals and Systems

T. Kirubarajan (Kiruba)
kiruba@mcmaster.ca

September 5, 2016

Contact

Instructor:
Dr. T. Kirubarajan (Kiruba)
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
Phone: x24305
Email: Kiruba at mcmaster dot ca
Web: http://www.ece.mcmaster.ca/~kiruba
Office: ITB-A112A
Office hours: Tue., Thu., Fri. 12:30-2:30pm
Open-door policy outside above office hours

Contact (2)

Teaching Assistants:

Sara Alizadeh (alizades), ITB A-202


Krishnanth Krishnan (krishk8), ITB A-202
Dan Song (songd8), ITB A-202
Yinghui Wang (wangy12), ITB A-202
Keqi Wei (weik2), ITB A-202
Duo Yang (yangd28), ITB A-203

(McMaster email IDs are given within parentheses.)

Course Web Site

URL:

http://www.ece.mcmaster.ca/~kiruba/3tp4/
The web site will contain
Contact information
Announcements
Lecture notes posted as pdf files
Labs
Worked examples
All other handouts

Class Schedule

Lectures: Tue., Thu., Fri. 11:30am12:20pm, Room: ITB AB102


Tutorial: Wed. 8:30-9:20am, Room:
ITB AB102
Lab: Mon., Tue., Thu. 5:30-8:30pm,
Wed. 2:30-5:30pm, Room: ITB 234

Course Material (1)


Signals
x(t)

x(t)
t

microphone

Analog
Electronics

Physical
C-T
Signal

Electrical
C-T Signal

Electrical
C-T
System

t
Digital Elec.
(Computer)

ADC

Electrical
C-T Signal

Electrical
D-T Signal

Electrical
D-T
System

Electrical
D-T Signal

Course Material (2)


Systems

vin(t)
Voltage

Physical System
vout(t)
Audio
Amplifier
Electronics

abstraction

System Model

Input x(t)

Output y(t)
System

Math
Function

Math Model

Course Objectives

To discover the fundamental principles of


representing signals and linear systems in the
time and frequency domains
To use these principles in the analysis and
design of linear control and communication
systems.

Text

Course Text:
[Lathi] B.P. Lathi, Linear Systems and Signals,
Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005.

Alternative Text:
[Kamen] Edward Kamen and Bonnie Heck,
Fundamentals of Signals and Systems Using the
Web and MATLAB, Third Edition, Prentice Hall,
2007.

EE3TP4 Course Textbook

A copy will be placed on


reserve at the Thode
Library.

EE3TP4 Alternative Text

A copy will be placed on


reserve at the Thode
Library.

Matlab

Octave
OR

MATLAB is more full-featured. The student version is available


at the bookstore for a very good price.
Octave is a free clone and completely open source. You can
download and install it for Windows, Mac, or Linux.

Additional Resources

MATLAB Primer
Online signals & systems demonstration from
John Hopkins University
Online MATLAB for systems tutorial from
Carnegie-Mellon University
OCTAVE: A free MATLAB clone

MATLAB will be used extensively in this course

13

The Value of EE 3TP4 Material

ELEC ENG 3TP4

COMP ENG 4DK4


COMP ENG 4DM4
COMP ENG 4EK4
ELEC ENG 4OI6
COMP ENG 4TL4
ELEC ENG 4TK4
ELEC ENG 4PK4
ELEC ENG 4BC3
ELEC ENG 4PL4
ELEC ENG 4BD4
COMP ENG 4DN4
ELEC ENG 4BE4
ELEC ENG 4BF3
ELEC ENG 4CL4
ELEC ENG 4EM3
ELEC ENG 4OI6
COMP ENG 4TN3
ELEC ENG 4BI6

Computer Communication Networks


Computer Architecture
Microelectronics
Engineering Design
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Communications Systems
Power Electronics
Modelling of Biological Systems
Energy Systems and Management
Biomedical Instrumentation
Advanced Internet Communications
Medical Robotics
Medical Image Processing
Control Systems Design
Photonic Devices and Systems Engineering
Engineering Design
Image Processing
Biomed Design Project

Tentative Outline

15

Introduction (1 hour)
What are signals and systems? Examples from control and robotics,
communications, remote sensing, biomedical, audio-visual entertainment.
Elementary Signals and Basic Operations (2 hours)
Continuous-time and discrete-time; Periodic and non-periodic
Shifting and scaling
Sinusoidal signals; Complex exponentials; Impulse functions
Block diagrams
System properties: Stability, memory, causality, invertibility, time invariance,
linearity
Book sections: 1.1-1.8
Time Domain Representations of Linear Time-Invariant Systems (6 hours)
Convolution discrete-time and continuous-time; impulse response
Stability and causality
Frequency response
Differential and difference equations
Book sections: 2.1-2.4, 2.6-2.8,3.1-3.8, 3.10
Fourier Representations of Signals (5 hours)
Definitions: Discrete-time Fourier Series, Fourier Series, Discrete-time Fourier
Transform, Fourier Transform,
Properties: Symmetries, time-shift properties, convolution, modulation,
Parseval, duality, time-bandwidth product
Book sections: 6.1-6.4, 7.1-7.6

Tentative Outline (2)

16

Applications of Fourier Representations (4 hours)


Frequency response revisited, including differential/difference
equations
Relationships between Fourier representations;
Basic concepts of filtering and filter design; Decibel measures
Case Study: A simplified DSB-SC transmission system
Sampling and ideal reconstruction of continuous-time signals; practical
reconstruction;
Approximating the Fourier Transform using a Discrete-time Fourier
Series of the sampled signal;
Book sections: 6.1-6.4, 7.1-7.6
Laplace Transform (4 hours)
Review of Laplace Transform: Definition, properties, poles and zeros
Region of convergence, inversion;
Application to systems analysis: Causality, stability, system inversion,
Relationships to differential equations and Fourier Transforms;
Fourier Transform from poles and zeros; Time domain response from
poles and zeros.
Book sections: 4.1-4.9

Tentative Outline (3)

z-Transform (4 hours)
Complementary treatment to that for the Laplace transform
Book sections: 5.1-5.4
Applications to Feedback Systems (9 hours)
Basic concepts of feedback
Open and closed loop control
Review of transient response of first and second-order systems;
Reduced-order models
Stability: Root Locus; Nyquist Criterion; Bode Diagram;
Relative stability: Gain and phase margins; Damping ratio
Simple control system design; Proportional, integral, derivative, phase
lag, phase lead
Book sections: Covered in the sections on Laplace/Z/Fourier
transforms.
Epilogue (1 hour)
Characteristics of physical signals
Characteristics of physical systems: Time-variation; Nonlinearities;

Total Lectures: 39 (including reviews and discussions)


Note: The course outline is subject to change. Material from the texts will be
supplemented with additional class notes
17

Upon completion

18

model simple electrical, mechanical and discrete systems with


differential or difference equations.
represent standard signals in terms of time domain or frequency
domain form using Fourier series, Fourier transform, Laplace
transform, or z-transform, as appropriate.
construct the input-output relationship for a range of linear
systems and solve for the output given certain classes of inputs
such as impulse, step, sinusoidal, exponential, etc.
describe the frequency domain characterization of signals and
system performance and interpret signal/system behavior in
terms of frequency content/response.
decompose periodic signals using Fourier series and construct
the output of a linear system when the decomposed signal is
applied to it.

Upon completion (2)

19

explain the fundamental concepts of filtering and be able to


design simple filters to modify frequency content of given
signals.
use the Laplace transform to construct transient and steady
state response of continuous systems to standard signals and
understand system characteristics through s-domain
parameters.
use the z-transform to construct transient and steady state
response of discrete systems to standard signals and
understand system characteristics through z-domain
parameters.
relate discrete-time and continuous-time systems through the
properties of sampling and discretization.
describe the relationships between the frequency domain, the
time domain and the uses of Fourier, Laplace and z- techniques
to assist in analysis and design.
analyze and design simple linear systems using MATLAB.

Grading
Final exam (3hrs): 50%
Midterm test: 30% (max of two 50-minute
midterms; no makeup midterms)
Labs, assignments, pop-up quizzes and
projects: 20%

Bonus project: TBD%


Late penalty for projects and assignments:
10% per day
20

Exam Material

21

Standard McMaster calculator


One "cheat-sheet" (letter-size; both sides;
handwritten only; no worked examples)

Laboratories

The labs in this course use MATLAB and can be


done on your own PC or laptop No need to go
to lab unless you need help.
You can ignore the registrar generated lab
schedule!
The midterm/exam will also assume MATLAB
knowledge. We will review MALAB in class.
You can work in groups of 0, 1, or 2 people.
TAs will be available for help during lab hours.

Announcements

Read Chapter 1 in the textbook.


Test your PC or laptop audio hardware. See the
Laboratories section of the web site for details.
Get MATLAB or Octave, install it, and get it
running. Try running examples from the text. We
will post some sample m-files.
Tutorials will start on Wednesday, September 7.
We will post assignments on the web site and
discuss them during tutorials.

Policy Reminders

24

The Faculty of Engineering is concerned with ensuring an environment that is free of all
adverse discrimination. If there is a problem, that cannot be resolved by discussion among
the persons concerned, individuals are reminded that they should contact the Department
Chair, the Sexual Harassment Officer or the Human Rights Consultant, as soon as possible.

Students are reminded that they should read and comply with the Statement on Academic
Ethics and the Senate Resolutions on Academic Dishonesty as found in the Senate Policy
Statements distributed at registration and available in the Senate Office.

Academic dishonesty consists of misrepresentation by deception or by other fraudulent


means and can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment,
loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: Grade of F assigned for
academic dishonesty), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university. It is your
responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the
various kinds of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy,
specifically Appendix 3, located at http://www.mcmaster.ca/senate/academic/ac
integrity.htm.

The instructor and university reserve the right to modify elements of the course during the
term. The university may change the dates and deadlines for any or all courses in extreme
circumstances. If either type of modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and
communication with the students will be given with explanation and the opportunity to
comment on changes. It is the responsibility of the student to check their McMaster email
and course websites weekly during the term and to note any changes.