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About Accounts payable invoice matching [AX 2012]

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About Accounts payable invoice matching [AX 2012]


Updated: February 1, 2013
Applies To: Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R3, Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R2, Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 Feature Pack, Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012
Accounts payable invoice matching is the process of matching vendor invoice, purchase order, and product receipt information. Differences among these documents
are called matching discrepancies. Matching discrepancies are compared with the tolerances that are specified. If a matching discrepancy exceeds the tolerance
percentage or amount, match variance icons are displayed in the Vendor invoice form and in the Invoice matching details form.
For example, you enter a purchase order with one line item for 1,000 batteries at a price of 1.00 each. The purchase order is approved and submitted to the vendor.
The vendor ships 1,000 batteries, and you enter a product receipt for 1,000 batteries at a price of 1.00 each. The inventory cost for the batteries is updated with this
price.
An invoice arrives for 1,000 batteries at a price of 1.10 each. Your legal entity policy allows a 5 percent net unit price tolerance for this category of item. A price of 1.05
would be acceptable, but 1.10 is not. When you enter the invoice information, a price matching discrepancy is identified and you can save the invoice until the
discrepancy is resolved.
You can use the following types of Accounts payable invoice matching:

Invoice totals matching Match the total amounts on the invoice to the total amounts on the purchase order. This type of invoice matching includes the least
amount of detail, so you can use this option to set up controls that minimize the staff time that is required to review invoice matching information.
Two-way matching Match the price information on the invoice to the price information on the purchase order.
Three-way matching Match the price information on the invoice to the price information on the purchase order. Also match the quantity information on the
invoice to the quantity information on the product receipts that are selected for the invoice.
Charges matching Match the charges information (amounts) on the invoice to the charges information (amounts) on the purchase order.

Note
Other forms of invoice validation can be done using vendor invoice policies.
Two-way matching and three-way matching always match price information by the unit price. You can also configure these matching policies to match price
information by the price total.

Net unit price matching Match price information for two-way matching or three-way matching by comparing the net unit price for each line on the invoice
with the corresponding net unit price on the purchase order. The net unit price is determined by the following formula: Net amount of the line / Quantity of
the line
Price totals matching Match price information for two-way matching or three-way matching by comparing the net amount (price total) for each line on the
invoice with the corresponding net amount on the purchase order. The net amount is determined by the following formula: (Unit price * Line quantity) + Line
charges - Line discounts

Typically, invoice matching calculations are automatically performed when you edit vendor invoices in the Vendor invoice form. Invoice matching can also be
performed as part of an invoice review process. You can view the results of automatic invoice matching in the Vendor invoice form and related invoice matching
forms.

Invoice totals matching


You can use invoice totals matching to help make sure that total invoice amounts do not deviate from expected amounts by more than an acceptable variance. Six
totals are compared in the Invoice totals matching details form, as shown in the following table. If the allowable tolerance for invoice totals matching is 20%, the
100% variance percentage for the total discount amount is considered a matching discrepancy.

Total field

Actual invoice total

Expected invoice total

Variance percentage

Balance

495.00

495.00

0%

Total discount

0.00

9.90

100%

Charges

64.90

64.90

0%

Sales tax

139.98

137.50

2%

Round-off

0.00

0.00

0%

Invoice amount

699.88

687.50

2%

Match variance icon

Invoice totals matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Match invoice totals check box in the Accounts payable parameters form. Matching is performed
on the expected invoice totals and the actual invoice totals. The expected invoice totals are calculated based on the prices, charges, and sales tax information from

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the purchase order and the quantities from the invoice.

Two-way, price totals matching


Use two-way matching to help make sure that the variance between the price information on the purchase order and the invoice is within acceptable tolerances.
You can compare price information for the net amount of each line on the invoice, and all pending and previously posted invoice lines, with the net amount of the
corresponding purchase order line. This is called price totals matching.
Price totals matching can be based on a percentage, an amount, or a percentage and amount.
If a purchase price total tolerance percentage is specified, five fields are compared, as shown in the following table. Because the purchase price total tolerance
percentage is 10%, the price total variance percentage of 50% represents a matching discrepancy.

Match
variance icon

Invoice net
amount

Expected net
amount

Unmatched purchase price


total (variance amount)

Unmatched purchase price total


percentage (variance percentage)

Purchase price total


tolerance percent

105.00

100.00

5.00

5%

10%

150.00

100.00

50.00

50%

10%

If a purchase price total tolerance amount is specified, five fields are compared, as shown in the following table. Because the purchase price total tolerance amount
is 100.00, the price total variance amount of 105.00 represents a matching discrepancy.

Match
variance icon

Invoice net
amount

Expected net
amount

Unmatched purchase price


total (variance amount)

Unmatched purchase price total in


accounting currency (variance amount)

Purchase price
total tolerance

150.00

100.00

50.00

50.00

100.00

205.00

100.00

105.00

105.00

100.00

If price totals matching is set up with a percentage tolerance and a tolerance amount, sometimes referred to as a not-to-exceed amount, both tolerances are
considered when evaluating whether a line has a matching discrepancy. If either the percentage or the amount exceeds the tolerance, as shown in the 150.00 and
205.00 lines in the following table, the line has a matching discrepancy.

Match
variance
icon

Invoice net
amount

Expected
net amount

Unmatched purchase price


total percentage (variance
percentage)

Purchase price
total tolerance
percent

Unmatched purchase price


total in accounting currency
(variance amount)

Purchase price
total tolerance

105.00

100.00

5%

10%

5.00

100.00

150.00

100.00

50%

10%

50.00

100.00

205.00

100.00

105%

10%

105.00

100.00

Two-way matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Line matching policy field in the Accounts payable parameters form. Depending on the selection in
the Allow matching policy override field, you can select two-way matching for a specific vendor, item, or item and vendor combination in the Matching policy
form, and for a specific purchase order in the Purchase order form.
Price totals matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Match price totals field in the Accounts payable parameters form. The purchase price total
tolerance percentage and tolerance amount (not-to-exceed amount) are also specified in that form.

Two-way, net unit price matching


Use two-way matching to help make sure that the variance between the price information on the purchase order and the invoice is within acceptable tolerances.
You can compare price information for the net unit price of each item on the invoice. This is called net unit price matching.
Nine line amounts are compared in the Invoice matching details form, as shown in the following table. If the allowable price tolerance for net unit price matching
is 10%, the 22.61% variance for the net unit price is considered a matching discrepancy.

Line field

Invoice value

Purchase order value

Variance percentage

Unit price

55.40

55.38

0%

Price unit

1.00

1.00

0%

Matching icon

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Charges on purchases

50.00

0.00

100%

Discount

0.00

0.00

0%

Discount percent

0.00

0.00

0%

Multiline discount

0.00

0.00

0%

Multiline discount percentage

0.00

0.00

0%

Net amount

271.60

221.52

22.61%

Net unit price

67.9000

55.3800

22.61%

Two-way matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Line matching policy field in the Accounts payable parameters form. Depending on the selection in
the Allow matching policy override field, you can select two-way matching for a specific vendor, item, or item and vendor combination in the Matching policy
form, and for a specific purchase order in the Purchase order form.
Net unit price matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Enable invoice matching validation field in the Accounts payable parameters form. The net unit
price tolerance percentages can be configured for items, item groups, vendors, vendor groups, item and vendor combinations, or legal entity by using the Price
tolerances form.

Two-way, price totals matching and net unit price matching


You can use price totals matching and net unit price matching together. This example assumes the following configuration:

The net unit price tolerance for the USB Drive item is 10%.
The price totals matching tolerance for the legal entity is 15% or 500.00.

The purchase order contains the following line.

Item number

Quantity

Unit price

Net amount

USB Drive

1,000

10.00

10,000.00

Three invoices are entered, as shown in the following table. There is an invoice matching discrepancy for Invoice 3 because the variance of 1,880.00 exceeds the
purchase price total tolerance amount of 500.00. For price totals matching, the invoice net amount includes all previously posted invoices in addition to the invoice
that you are currently working with.

Item number

Quantity

Unit price

Net amount

Invoice 1: USB Drive

800

10.80

8,640.00

Invoice 2: USB Drive

100

10.80

1,080.00

Invoice 3: USB Drive

200

10.80

2,160.00

Total

Price match icon

Price total match icon

11,880.00

Three-way matching
Use three-way matching to help make sure that the variance between the price information on the purchase order and the invoice is within acceptable tolerances,
and to make sure that the quantity on the invoice matches the quantity on the corresponding product receipts.
The same line amounts are compared in the Invoice matching details form as for two-way matching. In addition, the quantity on the invoice is matched to
product receipt quantities that have been received. If the invoice quantity differs from the matched product receipt quantity, a quantity matching error exists.

Line field

Invoice value

Purchase order value

Variance percentage

Unit price

55.40

55.38

0%

Price unit

1.00

1.00

0%

Matching icon

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Charges on purchases

50.00

0.00

100%

Discount

0.00

0.00

0%

Discount percent

0.00

0.00

0%

Multiline discount

0.00

0.00

0%

Multiline discount percentage

0.00

0.00

0%

Net amount

271.60

221.52

22.61%

Net unit price

67.9000

55.3800

22.61%

Line field

Invoice value

Invoice quantity

4.00

Total product receipts matched

0.00

Matching icon

Three-way matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Line matching policy field in the Accounts payable parameters form. Depending on the selection in
the Allow matching policy override field, you can select three-way matching for a specific vendor, item, or item and vendor combination in the Matching policy
form, and for a specific purchase order in the Purchase order form.

Charges matching
You can use charges matching to help make sure that charges amounts do not deviate from expected amounts by more than an acceptable variance percentage.
The total amounts for each charges code that applies to the invoice and purchase order are compared in the Compare charges values - Invoice: %1 form, as
shown in the following table. If the allowable tolerance for the charges code is 25%, the 99,999,999,999.99% variance percentage for the License charges code is
considered a matching discrepancy.
Note
A variance percentage of 99,999,999,999.99% means that the expected amount based on the purchase order is zero and the actual amount on the invoice is a
positive value.

Charges match
icon

Invoice charges
code

Actual total
calculated value

Expected total
calculated value

Variance
amount

Variance
percentage

Tolerance
percentage

License

25

25

99,999,999,999.99%

25%

Freight

200

200

0%

25%

Expedite

100%

25%

Charges matching is controlled for the legal entity by the Match charges check box in the Accounts payable parameters form. You can set up variance tolerance
percentages for charges in the Charges tolerances form.
Note
Charges matching is performed only on charges codes for which the Compare purchase order and invoice values check box is selected in the Charges code
form.

Related functionality
Vendor invoices are often based on product receipts that represent actual shipments, instead of on purchase orders. Sometimes the invoiced amounts do not
match the purchase order amounts, and sometimes the shipped quantities do not match the invoiced quantities. You can help manage this information in the
following ways:

Create a vendor invoice based on product receipts. Product receipts are automatically suggested for invoices, and you can select which product receipts to
use. You can also select specific product receipt line items from multiple purchase orders, if you have to. For more information, see Key tasks: Vendor
invoices.
View and approve quantity differences between the invoiced quantity on the invoice and the received quantity on the product receipt. If there is a

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difference, you can save the invoice and later match it to a different product receipt, or change the invoiced quantity to match the received quantity. For
more information, see Key tasks: Vendor invoices.
Enter invoice amounts that were not included on the original purchase order, so that the invoice information matches the invoice that you received from the
vendor. You can compare the charges for purchase orders with the charges for invoices. If necessary, you can add charges to invoices and allocate them to
invoice lines. For more information, see Account for vendor invoice variance due to charges.
View and approve price match discrepancies between the invoice net unit price and the purchase order net unit price. You can set up price tolerance
percentages for legal entities, vendors, and items. If the vendor invoice line price is not in the acceptable price tolerance, you can save the invoice until it is
approved for posting, or until you receive a correction from the vendor. For more information, see Record the receipt of vendor invoices and match against
received quantities and Resolve net unit price invoice matching discrepancies.

See also
Set up Accounts payable invoice matching
Vendor invoice (form)
Invoice matching details (form)
Invoice totals matching details (form)
Charges totals details/Compare charges values (form)

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