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Pile Groups in Cyclic Loading

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2, 4757

Z. LI*, S. K. HAIGH* and M. D. BOLTON*

Numerous pile groups are subjected to significant cyclic lateral loads due to wind, waves or

earthquakes, and many have failed catastrophically. In this research, centrifuge modelling of a pile

group subjected to cyclic lateral loads has been conducted to investigate the interaction effect in pile

groups and the influence of cyclic lateral loads on the performance of pile groups. Different pile

installation methods were also applied to capture the full range of construction-induced soil conditions

available in the field. Lateral permanent displacements of the pile group were seen to be induced by

one-way cyclic lateral loads but not by two-way symmetric cyclic lateral loads. The lateral secant

stiffness of the pile group increases slightly with increasing number of cycles, and leading piles attract

greater loads than trailing piles. Furthermore, permanent settlements of the pile group accumulate,

which can be attributed to the swaying motion of the pile cap induced by cyclic lateral loads.

doi: 10.1680/ijpmg.2010.10.2.47

KEYWORDS: centrifuge modelling; piles & piling; waves & wave loading

individual pile capacities if the pile spacing is less than eight

times the pile diameter in the direction of lateral load.

Similar conclusions were drawn for driven pile groups from

the test results of Brown et al. (1987) and Rollins et al.

(2005).

Nowadays, monotonically jacked piles are popular for

use in urban construction owing to the minimal noise and

ground vibration caused during their installation.

Compared to bored and driven pile groups, jacked pile

groups exhibit a stiffer axial response resulting from

enhanced normal resistance of the soil surrounding pile

shafts (White & Deeks, 2007). However, the behaviour of

monotonically jacked pile groups under cyclic lateral loads

is not yet fully understood.

In field tests, it is difficult to exert cyclic loading on piles

with large diameters because of the limitations of test

facilities and high costs. Additionally, few real-time failures

of piled foundations subjected to live loads in service are

well monitored and recorded. This lack of well-documented

soilpile response cases has hindered the progress of

research on the effects of cyclic loads and earthquakes on

the behaviour of piled foundations.

Fortunately, centrifuge modelling offers an effective

method to understand the influence of cyclic loads on

piled foundations. Compared with full-scale field tests,

centrifuge modelling tests are more convenient and efficient

to conduct with significantly reduced costs. Centrifuge

modelling can offer physical conditions similar to those in

the field and can reproduce the response of a piled

foundation subjected to cyclic loading. In centrifuge tests,

small-scale model pile loading tests are conducted in

acceleration fields of magnitude many times the earths

gravity, such that full-scale prototype stresses are correctly

reproduced. This ensures that the highly non-linear soil

behaviour can also be replicated realistically. Thereby,

observations from small-scale model piles can be related to

the full-scale prototype situation by appropriate scaling

laws.

The objective of the current work was to investigate a

range of pile installation procedures. Three different

jacking protocols were used: Cyclic jacking corresponds

quite closely to conventional pile jacking in the field, such

as by the Giken method. Model piles are pressed into the

INTRODUCTION

Piled foundations are the most prevalent class of deep

foundations; they are often designed with the intention of

resisting dead load and to demonstrate a factor of safety

during their working life. Numerous piled foundations are

subjected to significant cyclic lateral loads because of their

fluid environment, particularly in high-rise buildings and

offshore platforms, which may suffer wind and wave

actions. Pile heads may also be subjected to largemagnitude cyclic loads arising from the swaying and

rocking motions of superstructures during earthquakes.

These significant cyclic lateral loads lead to permanent

deformations of the soil surrounding the pile shafts,

causing significant accumulated permanent displacements.

Consequently, many piled foundations have failed catastrophically owing to these cyclic loads, causing overturning or collapse of major pile-supported structures.

In order to understand such behaviour, many researchers (e.g. Long & Vanneste, 1994) have investigated the

response of single piles to cyclic lateral loads. However,

piles are rarely constructed in isolation but work together

as pile groups. The response of a pile group under cyclic

lateral loads is generally different from that of an

individual pile because of the interaction between neighbouring piles, resulting in a reduction of pile group

capacity.

The leading piles in a group will carry significantly

higher loads than the trailing piles at the same deflection.

The piles in trailing rows are thought to exhibit less lateral

resistance because of interference (shadowing) with the

failure surface of the row of piles in front of them. This

shadowing or group interaction effect is expected to

become less significant as the spacing between piles

increases because there is less overlap between adjacent

failure zones (Ochoa & ONeill, 1989).

Prakash (1962) and Franke (1988) suggest that bored

Manuscript received 26 March 2010, revised manuscript

accepted 17 June 2010.

Discussion on this paper should reach the editor by 15 February

2011.

* Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge,

Cambridge, UK.

47

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Motor

3D load cell

2D actuator

Adaptor

3D load cell

Pile cap

Strain gauges

Strain gauges

Pile cap

Lasers

Model piles

Encoder

Lasers

P3 and P4

350 mm

P1 and P2

Dry sand

Load cells

850 mm

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. The centriguge test package: (a) side view of the test package; (b) front view of the test package

representing the successive repositioning of the driving

head as the pile is driven in the field. Monotonic jacking

represents an ideal procedure more easily achievable in a

model than in the field, in which piles are installed in flight

without intermediate unloading cycles. Pre-jacking refers

to the jacking-in of the model piles prior to centrifuging, at

1g. Although this insertion procedure remains one of soil

displacement, the consequential locked-in stresses must be

very small, so the outcome may be more similar to the

construction of a bored pile in the field.

Regarding conventional pile driving with a hammer, it is

known that hammer blows tend to reduce the axial capacity

of piles compared with monotonic jacking. This mechanism

is known as friction fatigue, which was attributed by White

& Lehane (2004) to densification under cyclic shearing

causing radial stress relief immediately around the pile.

This effect might be seen in the differences between

monotonically and cyclically jacked piles in the centrifuge

tests.

Accordingly, pile group cyclic lateral load tests were

conducted using a 1 in 50 scale model pile group tested at

50g in the centrifuge. Individual pile responses and group

interaction effects are reported. The influence of cyclic

lateral loads on pile group lateral secant stiffness and

accumulated displacements are described. Moreover, since

cyclic lateral loads can give rise to swaying, which induces

cyclic axial loading of the piles, the effect of cyclic lateral

loads on the axial performance of the pile group is

demonstrated.

Haigh et al. (2010).

Model pile group

A 2 6 2 pile group configuration of stainless steel tubular

piles spaced at four times the pile diameter has been

manufactured and instrumented, and placed in the test rig,

as shown in Fig. 1. Stainless steel tubes of 10 mm (0?5 m at

prototype scale) outer diameter and 2 mm (0?1 m at

prototype scale) wall thickness were used as model piles.

The length of each pile was 220 mm (11 m at prototype

scale), and the embedment depth was 180 mm (9 m at

prototype scale). Pile shaft surfaces were smooth, and pile

tips were flat and close-ended. An aluminium plate with

dimensions of 70 6 70 6 35 mm (3?5 6 3?5 6 1?75 m at

prototype scale) was fabricated as a pile cap to give a fixedhead condition.

All the piles were installed with tip load cells to measure

pile base resistance and instrumented with strain gauges on

Axial force

strain gauges

Bending moment

strain gauges

65

70

METHODOLOGY

Test apparatus

Pile group tests were conducted at 50g on the Turner beam

centrifuge at the Schofield Centre, Cambridge University.

A two-axis servo actuator was used to install the pile group

as an integrated assembly and then to apply vertical and

horizontal loads, as shown in Fig. 1. The design of the

45

50

70

the 3D load cell

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260 mm

240 mm

20 000

10 000

30 000

0

40

80

120

160

200

2000

4000

6000

8000

10 000

2D actuator rotated 90

49

10

12 000

pile group

to record pile head axial force, lateral force and bending

moment.

A new three-dimensional (3D) load cell was designed and

manufactured to measure the pile cap axial forces, lateral

forces and bending moments applied to the pile group as a

whole, as shown in Fig. 2. A full wheatstone bridge,

comprising four 5 V d.c. powered 350 V strain gauges, was

attached on the external surface of the cylinder to measure

axial forces. Another two bridges of strain gauges were

attached close to each end of the cylinder to measure

bending moments. Shear forces were calculated based on

the difference in bending moments measured at the top and

bottom of the load cell.

pile diameter was approximately 26, as was the base boundary

separation. Thus, the boundary effects should be negligible

based on the conclusions of Gui et al. (1998).

All test locations are presented in Fig. 3. The distance

between successive tests was 28 times the pile diameter to

nullify any effects owing to locked-in effective stresses

induced in the sand by the preceding tests.

TEST RESULTS

Based on the scaling laws for centrifuge tests, in order to

express test results at prototype scale the test data from

Axial force at prototype scale: kN

0

10 000

20 000

30 000

0

40

80

120

160

200

2000

4000

6000

10 000

8000

Axial force at model scale: N

Dry fraction E silica sand was used in this project. The sand

has a d50 of 218 mm measured using the single-particle optical

sizing (SPOS) technique (White, 2003). Since the ratio of pile

diameter to average grain size was about 85, larger than the

limiting value of 20 suggested by Gui et al. (1998), the sand

should have behaved like a continuum and scaling effects

should be negligible. The sand was pluviated into a cylindrical

steel tub (850 mm diameter and 400 mm deep) using an

automatic sand-pouring machine (Madabhushi et al., 2006).

A dense homogeneous sand specimen with a relative density

of 83% was achieved. The cylindrical model container was

designed to be strong enough to sustain the large soil

pressures acting during the centrifuge tests. The ratio of

container diameter to individual pile diameter was about 85,

Instrumentation

Vertical displacements at the leading and trailing edges of

the pile cap and lateral displacements of the pile cap were

measured using three lasers mounted under the twodimensional actuator. Additionally, vertical and horizontal

displacements of the actuator were recorded by two

encoders.

10

12 000

pile group

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50

Table 1. Installation forces of the pile group

Test number

ZL07-2

ZL07-4

ZL08-2

ZL08-4

Average

Installation type

Installation force: N

MJ

10 800

CJ

11 100

MJ

9800

MJ

9900

10 400

these centrifuge tests were multiplied by 50 for displacements, 50 for pile group stiffness, and 502 for forces. Test

results at both model and prototype scale are plotted in all

of the following figures. It should be noted that the axes at

left and bottom sides of graphs represent test data at the

model scale, while axes at right and top sides represent

corresponding data at the prototype scale. All numerical

values quoted in the following text and in the tables are

given at model scale.

Pile group installation

The model pile group was pre-jacked at 1g, monotonically

jacked at 50g or cyclically jacked at 50g into dry dense

sand.

Two typical penetration resistance curves for the

monotonically and cyclically jacked pile groups are

presented in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 respectively. The monotonically jacked pile group was pushed into the sand with a

monotonic stroke in-flight, while the cyclically jacked pile

group was successively penetrated 1 mm and then unloaded

to zero head load, with 180 strokes being used during the

installation process. At a final penetration depth of

180 mm, the maximum penetration forces of the monotonically jacked and cyclically jacked pile group are

10 800 N and 11 100 N respectively, as shown in Table 1.

It seems that the cyclic jacking installation obtained a

similar penetration force to the monotonic jacking installation. During the cyclic jacking process, although the

amplitudes of cyclic axial loads were very large, and the

maximum relative displacements between pile shaft and soil

are up to 16% of the pile diameter per cycle, the friction

fatigue effect is not evident.

loop was conducted in each stroke. Thus the whole

installation is equivalent to a set of loading tests conducted

at different embedded depths. The initial pile group vertical

stiffness (Kc,install), in other words the initial gradient of the

pile cap axial loadsettlement curve, increases almost

linearly with increasing embedded depth, as shown in

Fig. 6. The initial pile group base stiffness (Kb,install), that is

the sum of the four individual pile base stiffnesses, is also

plotted here to exclude the benefit from the pile shaft

friction. Kb,install is similar to Kc,install at shallow depths

owing to the negligible shaft friction; while Kb,install is

smaller than Kc,install at depths over 30 mm, this difference

increases with increasing depth since the pile shaft friction

becomes more considerable at depth.

Moreover, the ratio of the Kb,install to the mobilised pile

group base capacity reduces from 3?5 to 1?4 mm21 as the

embedded depth increases from 15 mm to 180 mm, as

shown in Fig. 7. This phenomenon is similar to test results

from Deeks (2008), indicating that the Kb,install is proportional to the soil small strain shear modulus, which is

approximately proportional to the square root of the soil

vertical effective stress (McDowell & Bolton, 2001).

Table 1 lists the maximum installation force of the pile

group at the final penetration depth for all centrifuge tests.

The average value of the installation force is 10 400 N, and

the coefficient of variation is 5?4%; therefore, these pile

group centrifuge tests are very repeatable.

Additionally, during the jacking process, individual piles

of a pile group shared the pile cap force equally, and had

the same force distribution, as shown in Fig. 8. This

indicates that the pile group was jacked vertically without

any obvious eccentric force.

250 000

500 000

750 000

60

20

40

80

Pile cap

80

120

160

200

5000

10000

15000

Pile initial stiffness at model scale: N/mm

10

jacking installation

40

80

120

160

200

2

1

3

Stiffness ratio at model scale: 1/mm

40

Pile bases

10

group base capacity during cyclic jacking installation

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51

0

2500

5000

2500

Pile 1

5000

Pile 2

40

40

80

80

120

120

160

160

200

500

1000

1500

2500

2000

10

2500

5000

0

200

500

1000

1500

2500

2000

5000

10

2500

Pile 4

Pile 3

40

40

80

80

120

120

160

160

200

500

1000

1500

2000

10

2500

200

500

1000

1500

2000

10

2500

(a)

Pile base axial force at prototype scale: kN

0

2500

2500

5000

40

80

80

120

120

160

160

Pile 1

40

5000

200

500

1000

1500

2500

2000

5000

10

2500

200

Pile 2

500

1000

0

2

1500

2500

2000

5000

10

2500

40

80

80

120

120

160

160

Pile 3

40

200

500

1000

1500

2000

10

2500

200

Pile 4

500

1000

0

2

1500

2000

10

2500

(b)

Fig. 8. Penetration resistances of individual piles for a jacked pile group: (a) pile head axial force of individual piles during

penetration process; (b) pile base resistance of individual piles during penetration process

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60

5

11

10

10

20

20

5

10

160

1000

875

600

200

1000

1000

600

750

600

One-way

One-way

One-way

Two-way

Two-way

Twoway

160

Two-way

Two-way

Two-way

Two-way

Two-way

PJ

PJ

MJ

MJ

CJ

MJ

PJ

PJ

PJ

Pile

type

Cyclic load

type

Cyclic load

amplitude: N

Cyclic load

number

PJ

ZL08-1-2

ZL08-1-1

ZL08-4-2

ZL08-4-1

ZL074

ZL07-2

ZL08-3-4

ZL08-3-3

ZL08-3-2

ZL08-3-1

In the current research, force-controlled lateral load cycles

were conducted at the pile cap. The cyclic load ratio RH, that

is the minimum load/maximum load in a cycle, is considered

to be an important characteristic of cyclic loads. Two typical

RH values are used here, RH 5 0 representing one-way cyclic

loads and RH 5 21 representing two-way cyclic loads. The

cyclic load frequency is not considered here since the loading

rate was chosen to be around 0?1 mm/s to obtain quasi-static

behaviour. The parameters of these cyclic lateral loads are

listed in Table 2.

Figure 9(a) presents the pile cap lateral response of the

monotonically jacked and cyclically jacked pile groups in

the first two-way lateral load cycle. The cyclic lateral load

displacement curves of both jacked pile groups in the

following load cycles are similar to those in the first cycle,

without any permanent lateral displacement or pile group

lateral stiffness variation. It is seen that a cyclically jacked

pile group has a similar response to a monotonically jacked

pile group under subsequent cyclic lateral loads. Therefore,

only the monotonically jacked pile group is used to

represent the behaviour of the jacked pile group in this

paper.

Figure 9(b) presents pile cap lateral forcedisplacement

curves for the pre-jacked pile group subjected to cyclic

lateral load with a small amplitude of 200 N. It should be

noted that an axial load was applied on the pile cap to

model the dead weight of the structure before cyclic lateral

loading. A small lateral load was induced because the pile

group was not perfectly vertical, causing a non-zero initial

lateral load at the onset of lateral cycling. This initial lateral

load seems to have negligible effect on the pile group

behaviour under cyclic lateral loads. These lateral force

displacement curves form narrow hysteresis loops, with the

secant stiffness reducing marginally with increased lateral

displacement. It is seen that no permanent lateral displacement of the pile group was accumulated during the cyclic

loading process. Under small-amplitude two-way cyclic

lateral loads, the deformation of the soil surrounding the

pile shaft, especially at depth, is very small. Thus the pile

cap cyclic lateral loaddisplacement response is quasielastic and repeatable without any pile cap permanent

displacement.

Figure 9(c) presents pile cap lateral forcedisplacement

curves for the pre-jacked pile group subjected to cyclic

lateral load with a large amplitude of 1000 N. Although

the cyclic lateral loads induced a significant pile cap lateral

displacement of 2?1 mm (21% of pile diameter), these

cyclic forcedisplacement curves are also repeatable. No

permanent lateral displacement accumulated during the

ZL08-2

individual pile head axial force, base resistance and shaft friction

are 2475 N, 1965 N and 510 N respectively. The ratio of the pile

base resistance to the pile head axial force is around 80%.

The load at the pile cap reduced to zero after the

installation. However, residual stresses were locked in the

piles. This is because the surrounding sand prevents the pile

from rebounding upwards, producing negative (downwards) skin friction on the upper part of the shaft and

positive (upwards) skin friction on the lower part of the

shaft. At the same time, a portion of the base resistance still

remains at the pile tip, as shown in Fig. 8(b). The ratios of

the residual force to the ultimate capacity of the base

resistance and shaft friction are about 8% and 30%

respectively. These ratios are not as large as those from

other test results (Poulos, 1987; Jacobsz, 2002) owing to the

smooth surface of the pile shaft used in these tests.

MJ

Test number

52

Lateral displacement at prototype scale: mm

500

250

_100

_250

_200

_500

0.1

0.2

100

_100

_250

_200

_500

_600

_1200

_1500

_2

_1

_50

800

3000

1500

_0.2

The 2nd_5th cycles

600

0.4

0.2

0

Lateral displacement at model scale: mm

(b)

_3000

(c)

50

250

_0.4

1200

500

100

_50

20

200

(a)

_100

10

_25

25

50

2000

The 2nd_5th cycles

400

1000

_400

_800

_1.0

_1000

_0.5

0.5

1.0

_0.1

100

_10

Lateral force at model scale: N

Monotonic-jacked

Cyclic-jacked

_0.2

_20

Lateral force at prototype scale: kN

200

_10

_5

0

5

10

53

_2000

(d)

Fig. 9. Lateral forcedisplacement curves of pile groups under cyclic lateral loads: (a) monotonic-jacked and cyclic-jacked pile

groups in the first two-way lateral load cycle in test ZL07-2 and ZL07-4; (b) pre-jacked pile group under two-way cyclic lateral loads

in test ZL08-3-1; (c) pre-jacked pile group under two-way cyclic lateral loads in test ZL08-3-4; (d) jacked pile group under two-way

cyclic loads in test ZL08-4-1

to those curves under small-amplitude cyclic lateral loads.

However, these curves displayed local softening with a

reduced tangent stiffness of the pile cap whenever the pile

2.0

Pre-jacked 200 N

1.8

Pre-jacked 1000 N

Jacked 600 N

1.6

Jacked + 1000 N

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

10

Cycle number

lateral load tests

of the monotonically jacked pile group under two-way

cyclic lateral loads is similar to that of the pre-jacked pile

group, although the local softening behaviour in the force

displacement curves is even more evident, as shown in

Fig. 9(d).

Figure 10 shows the overall pile cap lateral secant

stiffnesses in each load cycle, normalised by the stiffness

value in the first cycle. The secant stiffness is calculated

based on the position of the pile cap at the beginning of

that cycle, not the initial pile cap position. The pile secant

stiffness is seen to increase slightly with increasing number

of lateral load cycles. The best explanation is that the cyclic

lateral movement of the pile group induces local densification of the sand surrounding the pile shafts.

This local densification due to lateral cycling will reduce

the radial effective stresses on the pile as it passes its neutral

position, where the lateral load is zero, rather in the fashion

of White & Lehanes (2004) friction fatigue model for axial

cycling. This would explain the local tangent stiffness

reduction. The response is analogous to the post-holing

effect described by Fleming et al. (1992) as involving a gap

opening up around piles under combined axial and cyclic

lateral loading, leading to the failure of piles close to their

neutral position. Soil densification could also explain overall

secant stiffness enhancement when the pile has been pushed

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54

Lateral displacement at prototype scale: mm

0

50

100

150

The 2nd_60th cycles

1000

2500

500

1250

0

_1

0

0

1

2

Lateral displacement at model scale: mm

_50

3.5

3.0

175

Maximum displacement

Minimum displacement

150

2.5

125

2.0

100

1.5

75

1.0

50

0.5

25

0

100

101

0

102

(a)

Cycle numbers

2.0

100

1.5

75

1.0

50

0.5

25

0 0

10

101

102

(b)

Cycle numbers

the pile cap lateral secant stiffness in each load cycle increased

and the displacement amplitude reduced slightly with

increasing number of force-controlled lateral load cycles, as

shown in Fig. 11(c). Evidently, the effect of cyclic lateral loads

on the lateral accumulated displacement and pile cap secant

stiffness is greatest for the first load cycle, with the effect of

cyclic loads diminishing as cycling continues.

With one-way cyclic shearing, the induced lateral stress

states will be large at maximum displacement and small

at the end of the return leg. This lack of symmetry is

thought to lead to the progressive lateral displacements, in

contrast to symmetrical two-way loading.

Interaction effect within pile groups

Figure 12 presents the lateral forcedisplacement curves of

individual piles of the pre-jacked pile group under two-way

cyclic lateral loads with an amplitude of 1000 N. Piles P1

and P2 are in the same row; piles P3 and P4 are in the other

row. The spacing of individual piles is four times the pile

diameter. It is evident that the lateral responses of individual

piles in different rows are quite different from each other.

During the first quarter-cycle, the pile group moves

forward in the positive direction. The piles P1 and P2 are

leading piles, and their lateral secant stiffnesses are much

larger than those of the trailing piles P3 and P4, while the

behaviours of individual piles in the same row are similar to

each other. This is because the soil restraining the leading

edges of the trailing piles is affected by the movement of the

leading piles, and thus the stress level and the stiffness of

the soil is reduced by this pile group interaction effect,

causing the behaviour of the trailing piles to be less stiff

than those of the leading piles. The maximum force exerted

on pile P1 or P2 is 330 N, while that on pile P3 or P4 is

100 N, as shown in Fig. 12. When the pile group is

unloaded and loaded in the opposite direction, piles P1 and

P2 become trailing piles, and piles P3 and P4 are leading

piles. The responses of piles P3 and P4 are much stiffer than

those of piles P1 and P2. The minimum force exerted on

pile P1 or P2 is 2170 N, while that on pile P3 or P4 is

2400 N. Although the extreme forces of individual piles in

different rows are different, the force amplitudes of these

individual piles are similar, indicating that the globe secant

stiffnesses of the individual piles of the pile group under

two-way cyclic lateral loads are similar to each other.

Moreover, the interaction effect of individual piles is also

evident for the pile group under one-way cyclic lateral

loads, as shown in Fig. 13. The responses of the leading

piles P1 and P2 are around 27% stiffer than the trailing

piles P3 and P4 owing to the pile group interaction effect.

(c)

cyclic lateral loads in test ZL08-2: (a) cyclic lateral force

displacement curves; (b) maximum and minimum displacement; (c) displacement amplitude

lateral stresses on the leading edge of the pile.

On the other hand, Fig. 11(a) presents the response of the

monotonically jacked pile group subjected to one-way cyclic

lateral loads with an amplitude of 1000 N. Unlike two-way

cyclic lateral loads, one-way cyclic lateral loads induce

significant accumulated permanent lateral displacements of

the pile group, as shown in Fig. 11(b). This accumulated

permanent lateral displacement increases approximately

linearly with increasing number of cycles on a logarithmic

During the cyclic lateral loading process, a constant axial

force of approximately 1800 N was applied to the pile cap

to model the dead load of the superstructure. However, a

swaying motion of the pile group is induced by the pile cap

lateral movement, leading to individual pile head cyclic

axial forces and displacements. Fig. 14 shows the variation

of individual pile head axial forces of the monotonically

jacked pile group subjected to cyclic lateral loads with an

amplitude of 600 N.

The maximum compression axial force is beyond 1200 N

and the maximum pull-out axial force is around 200 N. A pile

cap permanent settlement of 0?42 mm accumulated cycle by

cycle during this cyclic lateral loading process, as shown in

Fig. 15. The maximum accumulated permanent settlements

in all tests are listed in Table 3. The settlement increases with

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Pile lateral displacement at prototype scale: mm

_100 _50

50 100 150

0

400

Pile 1

200

Pile head lateral force at model scale: N

500

_200

100

150

Pile 2

200

500

_500 _200

_400

400

50

_2

_400

_1

_100 _50

50

100

150

Pile 3

200

500

_200

_400

_500

400

_2

_1

_100 _50

50

100

150

Pile 4

200

500

_500 _200

_2

_1

_400

400

_100 _50

55

_500

_2

_1

Fig. 12. Lateral forcedisplacement curves of individual piles under two-way cyclic lateral loads

settlement of the pre-jacked pile group is much larger than

that of the monotonically jacked pile group. This is because

the pile group jacked in at 50g has a stiffer base response than

the pre-jacked pile group owing to the stresses induced during

insertion. The jacked pile group also has a higher shaft

resistance and therefore higher stiffness caused by the larger

radial stress in the soil surrounding the pile shafts induced

during the jacking process.

CONCLUSIONS

Cyclic lateral loads with different amplitudes were applied

to model pile groups after installation in the centrifuge. The

groups subjected to cyclic lateral loads were investigated.

The installation forces of monotonically jacked pile

groups and cyclically jacked pile groups are similar to each

other, the friction fatigue effect not being evident during

the cyclic jacking process.

In the cyclic jacking installation, the initial pile group

vertical stiffness and the initial pile group base stiffness in

each loading stroke increased with increasing embedded

depth. The ratio of the initial pile group base stiffness to the

mobilised pile group base capacity reduced with increasing

embedded depth, indicating that the pile group base

stiffness is proportional to the small strain shear modulus

of soil.

75

100

125

750 300

50

Pile 1

75

100

125

750

Pile 2

200

500 200

500

100

250 100

250

0

0.5

300

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

50

75

100

125

3.0

0

0.5

750 300

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

50

75

100

125

Pile 3

Pile 4

3.0

750

200

500 200

100

250 100

250

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

500

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Fig. 13. Lateral forcedisplacement curves of individual piles under one-way cyclic lateral loads

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On: Thu, 24 Feb 2011 06:08:23

3.0

300

50

1000

2500

500

1250

0

_500

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Piles 3 and 4

1500

0

_1250

3750

1000

2500

500

1250

0

_500

200

400

600

1000

800

1200

0

_1250

1.0

0.5

25

_25

_0.5

0

Elapsed time: s

Fig. 14. Axial force variation of individual piles during the cyclic

lateral load test ZL08-4-1

50

Piles 1 and 2

Piles 3 and 4

Average

200

400

600

800

Elapsed time: s

1000

3750

Piles 1 and 2

1500

56

1200

lateral load test ZL08-4-1

Test number

Pile type

Cyclic load amplitude: N

Cyclic load number

Permanent settlement: mm

ZL08-3-1

ZL08-3-2

ZL08-3-3

ZL08-4-1

ZL08-4-2

ZL08-1-1

ZL08-1-2

ZL08-2

PJ

200

PJ

600

PJ

875

MJ

600

MJ

750

PJ

+600

PJ

+1000

MJ

+1000

10

1?6

5

2?4

5

3?0

10

0?42

10

1?23

11

2?5

5

1?3

60

2?05

group accumulate under one-way cyclic lateral loading but

not with two-way symmetric cyclic loading. This accumulated permanent lateral displacement increases approximately linearly with the logarithm of the number of oneway cycles.

The pile group lateral secant stiffness increases slightly

under cyclic lateral loads, possibly caused by the local

densification of sand surrounding individual pile shafts.

However, when the pile group is close to its original

location, the stress level of the sand at the pilesoil interface

can drop, inducing local softening of the pile group. Both

observations are consistent with the effects of cyclic

densification.

When the spacing of individual piles is four times the pile

diameter, interaction effects on the pile group are

significant. Under cyclic lateral loads, the soil within the

pile group in front of the trailing piles is affected by the

movement of leading piles, and thus the stress level and the

stiffness of the soil reduces. The leading piles have larger

pile head secant stiffnesses and carry higher loads than the

trailing piles.

A constant axial force was applied on the pile cap, but a

swaying motion of the pile group was induced by the cyclic

lateral loads. Individual piles were thus subjected to cyclic

axial loads induced by the lateral loads, causing large

accumulated permanent settlements. The settlement

increases with increasing amplitude of cyclic lateral loads.

Additionally, the settlement of the pre-jacked pile group is

much larger than that of the monotonically jacked pile

group, because the more highly stressed soil created by inflight jacking installation causes an increased stiffness in

the soil surrounding individual piles.

These tests provide a better understanding of the

influence of cyclic lateral loads on the performance of pile

construction and design methods.

NOTATION

d50

Kcinstall

Kbinstall

RH

initial pile group vertical stiffness

initial pile group base stiffness

cyclic load ratio

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research was funded by Atkins Geotechnics and by

Giken Seisakusho Ltd. The first author is also supported

by the China Scholarship Council and the Cambridge

Overseas Trust.

REFERENCES

Brown, D. A., Reese, L. C. & ONeill, M. W. (1987). Cyclic lateral

loading of a large-scale pile group. J. Geotech. Engng ASCE

113, No. 11, 13261343.

Deeks, A. D. (2008). An investigation into the strength and stiffness

of jacked piles in sand. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge,

Cambridge, UK.

Franke E. (1988). Group action between vertical piles under

horizontal loads (ed. W. F. Van Impe), pp. 8393. Rotterdam:

Balkema.

Fleming W. G. K., Weltman A. J., Randolph M. F., and Elson W. K.

(1992). Piling Engineering, 2nd edn. Blackie (Halsted Press),

Glasgow, 1992, pp. 168.

Gui, M. W., Bolton, M. D., Garnier, J. et al. (1998). Guidelines

for cone penetration tests in sand. Proceedings International

Conference Centrifuge 98, Tokyo, 1, pp. 155160.

Haigh, S. K., Houghton, N. E., Lam, S. Y., Li, Z. & Wallbridge,

P. J. (2010). Development of a 2D servo-actuator for novel

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Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2010 (eds.

S. Springman and J. Laue), pp. 239244. Zurich: Taylor &

Francis.

Jacobsz, S. W. (2002). The effect of tunnelling on pile foundations.

PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Long, J. H. & Vanneste, G. (1994). Effects of cyclic lateral loads

on piles in sand. J. Geotech. Engng ASCE 120, No. 1, 225

243.

Madabhushi, S.P.G., Houghton, N.E., & Haigh, S.K. (2006). A

new automatic sand pourer for model preparation at

University of Cambridge. Proceedings of the 6th International

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C. W. W. Ng, C. Schaur and Y. H. Wang), pp. 217222. Hong

Kong: Taylor & Francis.

McDowell, G. R. & Bolton, M. D. (2001). Micro-mechanics of

elastic soil. Soils Found. 41, No.6, 147152.

Ochoa, M. & ONeill, M. W. (1989). Lateral pile interaction

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3, 359378.

Poulos, H. G. (1987). Analysis of residual effects in piles.

J. Geotech. Engng ASCE 113, No. 3, 216229.

Prakash, S. (1962). Behaviour of pile groups subjected to lateral

loads. PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana, Urbana,

IL, USA.

Rollins, K. M., Gerber, T. M., Lane, J. D. & Ashford, S. A.

(2005). Lateral resistance of a full-scale pile group in liquefied

sand. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Engng, ASCE 131, No. 1, 115

125.

White, D. J. (2003). PSD measurement using the single particle

optical sizing method. Geotechnique 53, No. 3, 137326.

White, D. J. & Lehane, B. M. (2004). Friction fatigue on

displacement piles in sand, Geotechnique 54, No. 10, 645658.

White, D. J. & Deeks, A. D. (2007). Recent research into the

behaviour of jacked foundation piles. International workshop on

recent advances in deep foundations, The Netherlands, pp. 326.

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