Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

2

Yeast is a single-celled organism that is used in bread-making and brewing.


Some students carried out an investigation into respiration in an active yeast culture.
The active yeast culture was prepared in a glucose solution and was kept in a warm environment.
The glucose was dissolved in cooled, boiled water, (boiling removed the gases from the water)
before the yeast was added.
The yeast culture was stirred and 10 cm3 added to each of test-tubes A and B.
In test-tube B, a few drops of oil were carefully added to form a layer on the surface of the yeast
culture.
The apparatus was set up as shown in Fig. 1.1.
air-tight stoppers

delivery tube

delivery tube

beaker of
warm water

beaker to
support
test-tube

hydrogencarbonate
indicator solution

layer
of oil

hydrogencarbonate
indicator solution

yeast culture
in glucose
solution
Fig. 1.1
The appearance of the yeast cultures and hydrogencarbonate indicator solutions were recorded.
The numbers of bubbles released from test-tubes A and B into the hydrogencarbonate indicator
solution were also recorded.
This was repeated at five minute intervals.
The results and observations were recorded in Table 1.1.

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

3
Table 1.1
time
/ min

appearance of yeast
culture in A and B

number of
bubbles released
in one minute

appearance of the
hydrogencarbonate
indicator solution

pale cream
bubbles
forming

pale cream
no bubbles

red

red

foam starting
to form
on top

bubbles
forming

pale red

red

10

thicker foam
on top

frothy below
oil

pale pink

pale red

15

thicker foam
on top

frothy below
oil

11

yellow-pink

pale pink
red

20

foam 2 cm in
depth

foam
0.5 mm in
depth

16

12

yellow

yellow-pink

(a) (i)

Draw a graph of the results on the grid below. Use the same set of axes to show the
number of bubbles released in one minute for the 20 minute period from test-tubes A
and B.

[5]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

[Turn over

4
(ii)

Describe and explain the results and observations shown in Table 1.1.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]

(iii)

Suggest why the number of bubbles released per minute would decrease for both
test-tubes A and B after a period of 24 hours.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Explain why:


(i)

the yeast culture was stirred at the beginning of the investigation


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii)

the oil was introduced into test-tube B


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

5
(iii)

the test-tubes containing the yeast culture were kept in a container of warm water.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) For this investigation give:


(i)

the independent variable (variable that is deliberately changed)


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii)

two variables that need to be controlled.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(d) The dependent variable in this investigation was the rate of respiration. This cannot be
measured directly.
Describe how the rate of respiration was determined in this investigation.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

[Turn over

6
(e) Fig. 1.2 shows yeast as seen using a microscope.

x 5000

Fig. 1.2
(i)

Name the process that is occurring in Fig. 1.2.


...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii)

You are going to calculate the actual length of a yeast cell shown in Fig. 1.2.
Measure the length of line PQ.
length of line PQ ........................................ mm
Calculate the actual length of the yeast cell.
Show your working.

actual length of cell ................................................... mm [3]


[Total: 23]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

7
2

Fig. 2.1 shows two halves of a fresh strawberry fruit. This is a false fruit as the edible part has
developed from a swollen receptacle and the seeds are found in structures called achenes on the
surface of the strawberry.

Fig. 2.1
(a) (i)

Make a large, labelled drawing of this fruit to show the cut surface. Make a second
large, labelled drawing to show the outer surface. The second drawing should show the
arrangement of the seeds.

cut surface

outer surface
[5]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

[Turn over

8
(ii)

Suggest how the fruit may be dispersed to spread the seeds to new areas.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) (i)

Describe how you would safely test this fruit to show the presence of reducing sugar.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]

(ii)

Describe how you would test this fruit to show the presence of protein.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

9
(c) Fig. 2.2 shows two different strawberry fruits, S and T, from species of strawberry plants that
grow in different habitats.

T
Fig. 2.2

(i)

Describe two similarities, visible in Fig. 2.2, between the two fruits.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

Complete Table 2.1 to describe two differences, visible in Fig. 2.2, between the two
fruits.
Table 2.1

feature

seeds
shape
[2]
[Total: 17]

UCLES 2015

0610/62/F/M/15

2
1

Fig. 1.1 shows part of an orange.

Fig. 1.1
(a) Make a large, labelled drawing of the cut surface of this fruit to show the internal structure.

[4]
Juice can be extracted from fruits on a commercial scale. This process uses an enzyme to
digest part of the plant structure to release a larger volume of juice.
The juice of citrus fruits, such as the orange, is acidic.
Students investigated the effect of pH on the activity of this enzyme.
Buffer solutions X and Y were used to change the pH.
Pieces of Universal Indicator paper were used to test the pH of buffer solutions X and Y.
UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

3
(b) Observe the shade of the pieces of Universal Indicator paper shown in Fig. 1.2 and estimate
the pH by comparing with the chart.

pH

Fig. 1.2
pH of buffer X .....................................

pH of buffer Y .....................................
[2]

Four plastic cups A, B, C and D were set up as shown in Table 1.1.


Table 1.1
volume of contents added / cm3

contents
A

crushed fruit

25

25

25

25

buffer X

buffer Y

water

enzyme

(c) Suggest why water was added to cups A and C.


...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[1]

UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

[Turn over

4
The contents of plastic cups A, B, C and D were stirred and left to stand for 10 minutes. The
contents were then filtered into measuring cylinders.
The results are shown in Fig. 1.3.
40

40

40

40

35

35

35

35

30

30

30

30

25

25

25

25

20

20

20

20

15

15

15

15

10

10

10

10

0 cm3

0 cm3

0 cm3

0 cm3

B
Fig. 1.3

(d) Complete Table 1.2 by recording:

the units in the appropriate place


the volume of filtered juice shown in Fig. 1.3.
Table 1.2
volume of juice filtered / ...
A

..

....

...

...

[2]
(e) Compare the volumes and describe the appearance of the filtered juice in measuring
cylinders:
(i)

A and B
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

5
(ii)

C and D.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(f)

Describe the effect of pH on the enzyme by comparing the volumes and the appearance of
the filtered juice in measuring cylinders B and D.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]

(g) (i)

State two variables that were controlled in this investigation.


1 ........................................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Suggest two ways in which you could modify this investigation to produce more accurate
results.
1 ........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total: 20]

UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

[Turn over

7
(c) Fig. 2.2 shows a section through two blood vessels, a vein and an artery, as seen on a
prepared slide when viewed with the use of a microscope.

125
vein

artery
Fig. 2.2

The diameter of the blood vessel in Fig. 2.2, shown by line XY, can be calculated using:
diameter =
(i)

measured length of line XY on image


magnification

Measure, in mm, the length of line XY on Fig. 2.2.


measured length of XY ................................................... mm [1]

(ii)

Use the information above and your answer to (i) to calculate the diameter shown by line
XY, in mm.
Show your working. Give your answer to one decimal place.

diameter ................................................... mm [1]

UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

[Turn over

8
(iii)

The length of XY may not be the most accurate measurement of the diameter of the
blood vessel in Fig. 2.2.
Suggest how you could determine a more accurate measurement of the diameter.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(iv)

The vein and artery in Fig. 2.2 have features that are different.
Complete Table 2.1 to name three features that are different and describe the differences
that you can observe in Fig. 2.2.
Table 2.1
feature

vein

artery

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

..........................................

[4]

UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15

9
(d) When running the heart rate increases. After running the heart rate returns to normal.
(i)

Plan an investigation to compare the increase in heart rate as a result of exercise for
students who take regular exercise with those who do not.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[4]

(ii)

Draw a suitable table with headings and units to show how you would record the
measurements.

[3]
[Total: 20]
UCLES 2015

0610/61/M/J/15