Phy10 Experiment 1 Lab Report

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Phy10 Experiment 1 Lab Report

© All Rights Reserved

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- E104
- E105.docx
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- PHY10 E101
- PHY10 E102
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- E205
- E105 Friction
- Experiment 105 - QUESTIONS
- Lecture 11 Motion in a Plane Introduction to Polar Coordinates
- Law of Cosines
- Physics Lab Report
- 9781921972058

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Department of Physics

Yagi, Kenta B.

2014102958 BSME-2 Group 5

PHY10L-A4

SCORE:

Title page

Data Sheet

Analysis

Conclusion

TOTAL

Instructor

October 22, 2015

20/20

20/20

25/30

10/30

75

Analysis

In Physics, there is what you call Physical Quantities. These quantities

are defined as a physical property that can be quantified or be measured.

Scalar Quantities are one - dimensional physical quantities. It is described

as quantities that are only having magnitude without any direction unlike

vectors. Magnitude just tells how much or the size of the quantity is present.

On the other hand, Vector Quantities are described by both magnitude

and its direction in space.

One of the most common vector quantity is Force which is defined as the

push or pull on the object that acts to change its velocity. For example, if you

were a ball sitting on a field and someone kicked you, a force would have acted

on you. As a result, you would go bouncing down the field. It is usually

expressed in the units of Dyne or Newton.

Adding vectors together will form a Resultant Force. And the one that

opposes this force is called an Equilibrant and just by the name itself, it can be

understood that this has the same magnitude as Resultant Force but with a

different direction. Simply put, equilibrant makes the state of equilibrium at

work. Equilibrium is a state of equilibrium where in the sum of all forces will be

equal to zero.

In adding vectors, there are two methods in doing so. The first method is

by using the Graphical Method which requires measurements to be done

accurately with the use of protractor and ruler and the scaling should be precise

to easily understand the dimensions or magnitude of the vector. This is done by

drawing the vectors head to tail or tail to tail. The Graphical Method is

further broken down into two more ways on how to do it properly: the

Parallelogram Method and Polygon Method.

added. The vectors are connected from tail to tail and from these a

parallelogram will be drawn. The Resultant Vector is from the tails of the two

vectors to the opposite side of the parallelogram.

vectors are connected from head to tail and continuing it until the last vector

is drawn. The Resultant Vector is then drawn from the tail of the first vector to

the head of the last vector.

need not to be accurate because everything is done by computation, analytically,

but the drawing should be properly labelled to prevent having incorrect

information about certain lengths. Knowledge about Trigonometry and

Geometry will be necessary to easily understand what the angles are. It also

provides more accurate details than Graphical Method.

Sine and Cosine Law is used when there are two or three vectors given.

In this method Geometry and Trigonometry knowledge will be the most useful

to easily understand the figure. And as the name implies, it mainly uses the Sine

and Cosine Law in Mathematics which usually is being used when two side of

the triangle are given and one angle or two angles and one side are given and so

on and so forth.

A vector comprises of two components, the horizontal component, Fx, and the

vertical component, Fy. To compute for these components we use the formula:

= for the horizontal component and

= for the vertical component,

but sometimes it might interchange because it will depend on how the angle

theta is positioned. And this will be used for the next method called Component

Method.

Component Method is used for adding two or more vectors analytically.

Components of a Vector can be thought of as the horizontal & vertical

projections of a vector. The Pythagorean Theorem is used in finding the

magnitude of the resultant vector. The horizontal component and the vertical

component will be necessary in obtaining the Resultant Vector. The formula for

this is:

= ( )2 + ( )2

= 1[

| |

]

| |

scalar quantities and vice versa. Consequently, Vector quantities and Scalar

quantities can be multiplied and the product will have the same direction as the

vector combined with the unit of the scalar quantity.

In this experiment, the materials that were used was one (1) force table

where the four (4) pieces of super pulleys with clamp are placed and along with

these are four (4) mass hangers wherein the slotted mass are placed. And also a

protractor to accurately measure the corresponding angle and a weighing scale

is also present to easily measure the mass of an object to be placed on the mass

hangers. The mass hangers should be taken care by not using or applying too

much force on each hanger because there is currently a limit on how heavy it

can only accommodate.

There are three (3) objectives that this experiment is aiming for. The first

is that the students can determine the resultant forces using graphical and

analytical method. The second is so that the students can determine the first

condition of equilibrium and its implications. And lastly, so that the students

can identify and differentiate vector from scalar quantities and compare

resultant from and equilibrant.

During the experiment, there are procedures to be followed to make it

more successful in achieving its objectives. The first step is that the Force Table

is assembled so that the pulleys are properly placed within the table. The second

step is that the mass hangers are suspended using a string that passes through a

frictionless pulleys and putting different masses on each pulleys. The third step

is by trial and error, the fourth mass hanger is adjusted whether its angle or

the mass applied are insufficient or not and continuing this until the ring is fixed

at the center of the table. The fourth mass hanger is the only one to be adjusted

because the other mass hangers are having a fixed mass and angled. The next

step is pulling the string and testing whether it will come back to the center of

the table and if not, adjust the mass hanger again. If the trial is a success the

data gathered should be recorded and make use of this to make compute for the

resultant with the use of the Polygon Method and Component Method. And

once done, repeat the procedures and use different masses on the next trial.

Trial 1:

Actual Value

Mass

Angle

30.00g

0.00

45.00g

60.00

60.00g

300.00

85.00g

171.00

Polygon Method:

Scale: 1mm: 1g

F4 = 85.00g = 171

% = |

85 85

| 100

103.9

= 0.00%

%

=|

171 171

| 100

171

= 0.00%

Component Method:

= = 1 + 2 + 3

= 30.00 + 4560 + 6060

= 82.50

= = 1 + 2 + 3

= 0 + 4560 + 6060

= 12.99

2

= ( )2 + ( )

= (82.50)2 + (12.99)2

= 83.52

= tan1(

) = 8.95

% = |

85 83.52

| 100 = 1.74%

100

% = |

171171.05

171

| 100 = 0.03%

shown that the angle measured during the

experiment was 171.00 and with a mass

of 85.00g. And upon solving for the most

accurate masses and angles, the methods

Polygon and Component had been used.

With the polygon method the mass that has

been measured is 85.00g and the angle is

171.00. The percentage error for the

resultant and angle was both 0%. Next is

Figure 5. Trial 1 trial and error.

the resultant as 83.52g and the angle of

171.05. The percentage error for the resultant and angle was 1.74% and 0.03%,

respectively.

Trial 2:

Actual Value

Mass

Angle

60.00g

20.00

30.00g

90.00

30.00g

290.00

71.60g

199.00

Polygon Method:

Scale: 1mm: 1g

F4 = 71.00g = 198

%

=|

71.60 71

| 100

71.60

= 0.84%

%

=|

199 198

| 100

199

= 0.50%

Component Method:

= = 1 + 2 + 3

= 6060 + 0 + 3070

= 66.64

= = 1 + 2 + 3

= 6020 + 30.00 + 3070

= 22.33

2

= ( )2 + ( )

= (66.64)2 + (22.33)2

= 70.28

= tan1(

) = 18.53

% = |

% = |

71.6 70.28

| 100 = 1.84%

71.6

199198.53

199

| 100 = 0.24%

Meanwhile in Trial 2,

looking back again at the table,

it is shown that the angle

measured during the

experiment was 199.00 and

with a mass of 71.60g. To

solve for a more accurate

resultant and angle, Polygon

Method and Component

Method are used. First is with

the polygon method the mass that has been measured is 71.00g and the angle is

198.00. The percentage error for the resultant and angle was 0.84% and 0.50%,

respectively. While the component method, produced the resultant as 70.28g

and the angle of 198.53. The percentage error for the resultant and angle was

1.84% and 0.24%, consecutively.

The highest percentage error present within the data was in the second

trial, having a 1.84% of error in calculating the resultant. In my own thoughts,

the factors that might have affected the data is when measuring the angle or

mass of the slots, it should be carefully looked upon and be sought thoroughly

because just a single decimal place can greatly affect the result of the data.

One way of identifying if the pulleys are balanced within the force table

is by making sure that the ring is at the center of the table. This is because if it is

at the center of the table it means that the masses of the different mass hangers

are equally placed that it balances each others opposing forces. For example, if

there are only two pulleys, if one pulley have a mass of 15g, then the other

pulley also has a 15g mass, hence, we can therefore conclude that if they are

having the same magnitude but opposes when it comes to their direction they

would have a resultant of zero. The mass hangers have consequently equal

masses and yet we can either include them or disregard them to the measuring

of the grams of each slotted mass. We can disregard the masses of the mass

hangers if they are placed at correct angles without the masses because their

resultant will just be equal to zero because they oppose one another. But when

the angles are changed the mass of the mass hangers should also be included

because changing the angle of the mass hangers affects the direction of the

vectors being measured.

If the string is pulled the released, the ring sometimes fail to go back to

the center. The reason is that when you pull the string, the force the pull is

exerting on the string is being used as the mass of the fourth mass hanger

instead of a slotted mass. Also if the string is slowly or steadily being released it

can be seen that the ring will slowly and gently go back to the center where it

should be. And if this happens, it means that the force being exerted by the pull

is equivalent to the needed mass that would balance out the pulleys.

In the experiment each of the masses plays a vital role in balancing out

the final mass hanger and obtaining the resultant. If there are no other mass

hangers, there will be nothing to evaluate and no data will be gathered because

it will just be in a one - sided direction unless if there is atleast two pulleys. And

every angle in the table corresponds to opposition of forces. In addition to that,

the other pulleys are present so that we can manually sort out what can be the

optimal value of the fourth angle and mass with the use of trial and error

method. Lastly, without other opposing forces present, the final or the optimal

value which can place the ring at the center cannot be obtained because one

pulley represents one vector and one vector only represents one direction.

If the order of adding each vector is changed, it will not affect the

resultant at all. This is because adding vectors are also like adding integers in

which the order on how you add the terms are not important. The Commutative

Property shows that even if the order of adding the terms are changed, there

would always be the same results.

In getting the resultant of the vectors, the most accurate, efficient and

practical method is by using the analytical method specifically the Component

Method. Because in component method, you will have a lesser time dealing

with mistakes unlike the graphical method which consumes so much time just

by making sure that the angles and the measurements are exact. Also it is the

most accurate of all the method because you use different techniques or

theorems which had been proven by mathematicians a very long time. Also with

the use of the this method, you can pinpoint how long or how big the angle or

measurements are because it provides decimal points which with the use of

protractor and rulers are not sufficient of giving and making it more edgy than

the other methods. It is practical to use the component method because if you

are given different vectors, you can easily calculate the needed data and the only

thing needed is a calculator. Whilst the graphical methods requires a protractor

and a ruler, and also making the graph accurate takes more time.

Conclusion:

At the end, we observed that different concepts in physics are used with

just a simple experiment expounding our knowledge and experience for future

preferences.

In obtaining more accurate results, the usage of the Analytical method

will be much preferable because there is lesser room for error. With the analytic

method it is easier to know what would be the exact angles and measurements

of the resultants. Though graphical method is also useful to visually imagine

how the vectors will look like if they are together in a two dimensional plane

the only problem is that it can consume so much time because the scaling and

measuring needs to be accurate.

Equilibrium simply means that everything is balanced. Like in the

experiment, if the ring is at the center of the table it means that there is a state of

equilibrium between the forces acting upon the strings. And if the ring is made

perfectly at the center, then the equilibrium is equal to zero.

Also in this experiment, it would be easier to understand the concept of

scalar and vector quantities due to its application. Scalars are just the magnitude

while the vectors are a magnitude with a direction in a way. Resultant vectors,

as discussed was the sum of all the vectors added up together. And if the there is

another vector with equal magnitude with the resultant but with a different

direction, it is called a equilibrant because it cancels out the pull of one vector

due to their equal magnitude but opposing directions.

The data gathered is not exactly perfect but is almost at the brink of being

perfect but due to some factors that affect the experiment like the critical

measuring of the angles and masses. But even if it is not so much accurate, the

results that were collected provided additional information on how to deal with

certain problems and be knowledgeable about the precautions.

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