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Ontogeny and Phylogeny

VERTEBRATE AXIAL SKELETON

Outline
Components and Development
Cranial Skeleton
Postcranial Axial Skeleton
Vertebrae
Ribs and Sterna

Phylogeny of the Vertebrate Axial Skeleton


Fishes
Tetrapods

COMPONENTS AND DEVELOPMENT

Organization of the Axial Skeleton


Chondrocranium

Skull
Axial Skeleton

Vertebrae

Splanchnocranium

Dermatocranium

Ribs and Sterna

Parts of the Chondrocranium or


Neurocranium

Figure 7.2 Kardong K. 2012

Ossification Centers in the


Chondrocranium

Table 7.1 Kardong K. 2012

Ossification Centers in the


Chondrocranium

Figure 7.11 Kardong K. 2012

Parts of the Splanchnocranium

Figure 7.2 and 7.5


Kardong K. 2012

Parts of the Dermatocranium

Figure 7.2 Kardong K. 2012

Development of the
Dermatocranium

Contributions of the Neural Crest

Figure 7.4 Kardong K. 2012

Axial Support: Vertebrae

Source: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes

Regionalization of the Vertebrae

Figure 8.2 Kardong K. 2012

Regionalization of the Vertebrae

Source: http://cnx.org/resources/415b307f8e5b54228589a42682305067/723_Cervical_Vertebrae.jpg

Regionalization of the Vertebrae

Source: http://cnx.org/resources/415b307f8e5b54228589a42682305067/723_Cervical_Vertebrae.jpg

Figure 8.4 Kardong K. 2012

Types of Centra
according to Shape

Types of Centra
according to Number
Aspondyly
Absence of centrum

Monospondyly
One centrum

Diplospondyly
Two centra

Polyspondyly
> 2 centra
Seen in Dipnoi and
Holocephalan
Source: http://palaeos.com/vertebrates/glossary/glossaryD.html

Types of Vertebrae According to


Organization

Pleurocentrum
Intercentrum

Aspidospondyly

Holospondyly

Sources (L-R): Figure 8.3 Kardong K. 2012 and http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes2.htm

Development of the Vertebrae:


Chondrichthyes and Paleonisciformes

Figure 8.10 Kardong K. 2012

Development of the Vertebrae:


Teleosts
Notochordal sheet
chordal center
Cartilaginous anlagens
Arch centers
Sclerotome
perichordal center
Arch centers dorsal
and hemal arches
Fusion of chordal and
perichordal center
centra
Figure 8.11 Kardong K. 2012

Development of the
Vertebrae: Tetrapods
Mesenchyme from
sclerotome
perichordal rings
intervertebral
bodies/disks
neural arch

Figure 8.12 Kardong K. 2012

Ribs and Sterna

Source: http://www.ethertonchiropractic.com/Mid%20Back%20and%20Rib%20Problems.html

Ribs
Fishes

Amniotes

Figure 8.6 and 8.7 Kardong K. 2012

Sterna

Figure 8.8 Kardong K. 2012


Figure 8.8 Kardong K. 2012

Development of Ribs and Sterna

Source: http://developmenthumanskeletalsystem.weebly.com/ribs-and-sternum.html

From Fish to Tetrapod Axial Skeleton

PHYLOGENY OF THE AXIAL SKELETON

Fish Skull
Chondrocranium
Cartilaginous in agnathans, chondrichthyes,
paleonisciformes, and lungfishes
Ossified in teleosts
Can freely move against dermatocranium (cranial kinesis)

Dermatocranium
Present in osteichthyes
Attached to the pectoral girdle

Splanchnocranium
Cartilaginous in chondrichthyes
Ossified in osteichthyes
Gave rise to jaws in gnathostomes

Origin of the
Jaws

Figure 7.7 Kardong K. 2012

Derivatives of the Splanchnocranium

Table 7.2 Kardong K. 2012

Derivatives of the Splanchnocranium

Figure 7.9 Kardong K. 2012

Types of Jaw Attachment or Suspension

Figure 7.8 Kardong K. 2012

Fish Vertebrae
Notochord prominent
Vertebrae supports
notochord
Aspidospondylous and
amphicoelous
Cartilaginous in
chondrichthyes
Ossified in osteichthyes

Two centra
Pleurocentrum and
intercentrum

Figure 8.1 Kardong K. 2012

Fish Ribs and Sterna


With dorsal and
ventral ribs
Dorsal rib present in
sharks and a few
Ventral ribs present
in most fishes
Skates and
chimaeras without
ribs

Sternum absent

Figure 8.6 Kardong K. 2012

Agnathana: Ostracoderms
Chondrocranium ossified
Cephalothoracic bony
shield comparable to
dermatocranium
Visceral arches united with
the cephalothoracic bony
shield
Heterostracans,
osteotracans, and
galaeaspids with
impressions of vertebral
elements

FIGURE 7.14 Ostracoderm Pterolepis, an


anaspid. (Kardong K. 2012)

Living Agnathans
Small
chondrocranium
Cartilaginous visceral
skeleton
United as branchial
basket in lampreys

Lacks
dermatocranium

Hagfish (above) and lamprey (below)


Source: http://tolweb.org/Craniata

Living Agnathans: Petromyzontida (Lampreys)

Lamprey (Figure 8.13 Kardong K. 2012)

Gnathostomata: Placodermi

Figure 7.16 Kardong K. 2012

Gnathostomata:
Acanthodii
With small bony plates
Mandibular arch similar to
sharks and osteichthyes
Palatoquadrate with three
ossification centers:
metapterygoid,
autopalatine, and quadrate

Figure 7.17 Kardong K. 2012

Placodermi and Acanthodii

Figure 8.15 Kardong K. 2012

Chondrichthyes
Chondrocranium
completely unossified
Ethmoid and
oticooccipital regions
fused as one unit

Six branchial arches in


primitive ones
Vertebral elements
present
Centra absent in
primitive ones
Figures 7.18 (above) and 8.174 (below)
Kardong K. 2012

Chondrichthyes

Figure 7.18 Kardong K. 2012

Figure 8.14 Kardong K. 2012

Source: http://www.bio.gc.ca/sharks/age-eng.php

Chondrichthyes: Shark

Feeding in Sharks

Figure 7.19 Kardong K. 2012

Actinopterygii
Chondrocranium
Cartilaginous in paleoniscoids
Ossified in gars and teleosts

Dermatocranium present
With extrascapular and opercular bone
Premaxilla and maxilla articulate with
chondrocranium/neurocranium
Vomer, pterygoid, and parasphenoid
common component of the palate

Vertebrae
Cartilaginous in paleoniscoids
Ossified in teleosts
Amphicoelous and aspidospondylous
Figure 7.20 Kardong K. 2012

Actinopterygii: Palaeoniscoids

Figure 7.22. Bowfin (Amia)


Kardong K. 2012

Chondrocranium
unossified except in gars
Dermatocranium covers
Meckels cartilage
Suspensorium formed
by hyomandibula,
palatine, and quadrate
With branchiostegal
membrane

Jaw Opening in Paleonisciformes

Figure 7.23 Kardong K. 2012

Actinopterygii: Palaeoniscoids
Notochord not
constricted
From the skull nearly
to the tail tip

Vertebrae
Unossified in
sturgeons and
paddlefishes
Figure 8.16 Kardong K. 2012

Bowfin
(Amia)

Actinopterygii: Teleost
Skull compressed
laterally and vaulted
dorsally
Nasal capsule unossified
Posttemporal
incorporated in the skull

Premaxilla, dentary,
articular, quadrate, and
symplectic bones
associated with the jaws
and hyoid
Figure 7.24 Kardong K. 2012

Sunction Feeding in Teleost

Figure 7.25 Kardong K. 2012

Actinopterygii: Teleost

Figure 8.16 Kardong K. 2012

Perch Skull

Sarcopterygii
Chondrocranium
Largely cartilaginous in
extant lungfishes
Ossified in rhipidistians thru
the ethmoid and
oticooccipital units

Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forster


Source: http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id159837/?taxonid=16184

Dermatocranium similar
with actinopterygians
Palatoquadrate
Fused with braincase in
early lungfishes
Articulates with nasal
capsule and maxilla in
extant lungfishes
Figure 7.26 Kardong K. 2012

Rhipidistia: Labyrinthodont Teeth

Source: http://www.miguasha.ca/mig-en/eusthenopteron.php

Cranial Kinesis in Sarcopterygians

Figure 7.26 Kardong K. 2012

Sarcopterygii

Figure 8.21 Kardong, K. 2012

Sarcopterygii

Eusthenopteron axial skeleton, Figure 8.22 Kardong, K. 2012

Function of Amphicoelous Vertebrae

Figure 8.18 Kardong K. 2012

Fish Caudal Fins


Heterocercal
Ostracoderm,
chondrichthyes,
osteichthyes

Homocercal
Teleosts

Diphycercal
Lungfishes and
bischirs

Protocercal
Amphioxus
Figure 8.19 Kardong K. 2012

Tetrapod Skull
Chondrocranium
Ossified and complete
Reduced mobility

Dermatocranium
With fenestration
Number of bones reduced
Detached from the pectoral girdle

Splanchnocranium
Palatoquadrate gave rise to epipterygoid and quadrate
Hyoid arch reduced as hyoid bone
Contributed to stapes, thyroid and laryngeal cartilages

From Fish to Tetrapod Skull

Figure 7.27 Kardong K. 2012

From Fish to Tetrapod Skull

Figure 7.28 Kardong K. 2012

From Fish to Tetrapod Skull

Figure 7.28 Kardong K. 2012

Tetrapod Vertebrae, Ribs and Sterna


Vertebrae
Ossified with fused
elements
One centrum
retained

Ribs
Dorsal ribs retained
Biccipital in amniotes

Sterna
Absent in ceacilians
and snakes
Vary across group

Figure 7.31Kardong K. 2012

Amphibia
Chondrocranium
Largely cartilaginous
Incomplete dorsally
Basioccipital usually
absent
Paired occipital exists as
exoccipital

Many dermal bones are


lost or fused
4 roofing bones
Intertemporal,
supratemporal, tabular,
and postparietal lost

Icthyostega Skull
Figure 7.29 Kardong K. 2012

Amphiba

Necturus (left) and Frog (right)


Figure 7.30 and 7.31
Kardong K. 2012

Amphibia
Splanchnocranium
reduced
Mandible suspended by
articular and quadrate
bones
Hyoid
From the fusion of the ventral
parts of the branchial arches
Supports the tongue in adult
Sources (left-right): http://www.arthursclipart.org/frogs/frogs/page_02.htm and
http://courses.washington.edu/chordate/453photos/skull_photos/anamniote_skull_photos.htm

Amphibia

Figure 7.31Kardong K. 2012

Amphibia
Vertebrae
Rhachitomous in early
labyrinthodonts
Stereospondylous in
later labyrinthodonts
With single centrum
in modern amphibians
Amphicoelous
apodans
Opisthocelous in
salamanders
Procoelous in anurans

Amphibian Axial Skeleton: Sternum

Figure 8.8 Kardong K. 2012

Amniote

Lower arch/ zygomatic arch


Upper arch/supratemporal arch
squamosal and postorbital

Figure 8.34 Kardong K. 2012

Amniote Skull

Figure 7.44 Kardong K. 2012

Amniote

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tetrapod_vertebrae.svg

Stem Reptiles
Retained bones of
labyrinthodonts
Single occipital condyle
Parietal foramen

Otic notch lacking


Sound transmission may be
though the lower jaw.

Hyoid arch produced


stapes/columella.
Captorhinid skulls. (a) Captorhinus. (b) Pareiasaurus. (c) Procolophon.
Source: http://www.accessscience.com/search.aspx?rootID=791165

Stem Reptiles

Figure 8.26
Kardong, K. 2012

Parareptilia: Testudines
Represent one descent from
the captorhinids
Retain anapsid temporal roof
Seen in sea turtles
Lost in other species

Parietal foramen lost


Large tympanic membrane
with notch
Teeth lost in contemporary
species
Figure 7.37 Kardong K. 2012

Parareptilia: Testudines

Parateptilia: Testudines

Figure 8.27 Kardong K. 2012

Eureptilia: Tuatara (Sphenodon)


and Crocodilia
With diapsid skull
Complete upper and lower
temporal bars

Parietal foramen usually


present
Tympanic ear well developed
Dentary expanded
Articular bones with
retroarticular process
Figure 7.37 Sphenodon Skull (Kardong K. 2012)

Diapsid Skull: Crocodiles and Alligators

Diapsid Skull: Crocodiles and Alligators

Diapsid Skull: Crocodiles and Alligators

Eureptilia: Tuatara (Sphenodon)


and Crocodilia
Vertebrae
Amphicoelous in
Sphenodon
Procoelous in crocodiles

Ribs
Continuous to the tail in
Sphenodon
Long in the trunk of
crocodiles

Sternum
Associated with gastralia
in crocodiles

Eureptilia:
Lepidosauramorpha
Lizards
Lower temporal bar lost
Early lizards with
metakinetic joint
Modern lizards with
additional mesokinetic joint

Figure 7.39
Kardong K. 2012

Cranial Kinesis in Lizards

Figure 7.36 and 7.40 Kardong K. 2012

Lingual Feeding in Lizards


Lingual process (Lp)
Basihyal (Bh)
Anterior process (Ap)
Ceratohyal (Ch)
Ceratobranchials I and II (CbI & CbII)

Figure 7.41 Kardong K. 2012

Eureptilia:
Lepidosauramorpha
Snakes
Both upper and lower temporal
bars lost
Frontal and parietal grow
downwards to the sides
With prokinetic skull
Mandible suspended by the
quadrate
Compound bone from fused
surangular and angular
Mandibular symphysis flexible

Cranial Kinesis in Snakes

Left-right: Figure 7.36 and 7.43


Kardong K. 2012

Eureptilia:
Lepidosauramorpha
Vertebrae
Amphicoelous in basal lizards
Procoelous in modern lizards
and snakes
Snakes with additional process
Zygosphene and zygantrum

Ribs
Long at the trunk of lizards
Begins at the 2nd vertebra in
snakes
Figure 8.29 Kardong K. 2012

Aves
With modified diapsid skull
Upper temporal bar lost

Chondrocranium incomplete
dorsally and ossified
Dermatocranium modified
Suture lines obliterated
Small vomers and
ectopterygoids
Epipterygoids usually lost
Parietal foramen closed
Jaws drawn into beaks
Figure 7.46 Kardong K.2012

Neognathous and Paleognathous Palate

Palate bones, in ventral view, of (a) domestic fowl (Gallus gallus, Neognathae); (b) emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae, Palaeognathae). After Pycraft 1901b. Key: bp, basipterygoid process; mxp,
maxillopalatine; pal, palatine; pmx, premaxilla; pt, pterygoid; qu, quadrate; ros, parasphenoid
rostrum; vo, vomer.
Source: http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0001551.html

Cranial Kinesis in Birds

Figure 7.47 Kardong K.2012

Birds Hyoid

Left: hyoid apparatus in dorsal view. Right: in ventral view. Prling = lingual process. Fe = hyoid
fenestra. Chy = hyoid body. Str = tracheal sulcus. Cbl = branchial horn I. Ebl = epibranchial I.
CblI = branchial horn II. EblI = epibranchial II.
Source: http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/07/30/adaptation-perfected-matamata-head/

Aves

Figure 8.31 Kardong, K. 2012

Mammals
With synapsid skull
Temporal fenestra bounded by jugal
and squamosal (zygomatic arch)

Pelycosaurs and therapsids


Skull similar to primitive amniotes
With temporal opening

Advanced therapsids and mammals


Enlarged temporal opening
Vertical bar between orbit and
temporal fenestra lost
Figure 7.48 Kardong, K. 2012
Shaded portions indicates lost bones

Modern Mammals
Chondrocranium
Incomplete dorsally
Fontanels in infants
Ethmoid ossifies into
turbinates

Dermatocranium
Several bones lost in therian
mammals septomaxilla,
prefrontal, postorbital,
quadrotojugal, and
supratemporal
Postparietals fused as
interparietal
Figure 7.50 Monotreme Skull (Kardong, K. 2012)

Metatheria

Opposum Skull
Figure 7.51 Kardong, K. 2012

Eutheria
Chondrocranium
Single occipital condyle
With mesethmoid and
cribriform plate

Temporal bone derived


the 3 skull components
With secondary palate
that includes
Hard palate from
premaxilla, maxilla, and
palatine
Soft palate
Figure 7.52 and 7.53 Kardong, K. 2012

Eutheria

Figure 7.54 Dogs Skull (Kardong, K. 2012)

Cat Skull

Mammalia

Summary
What are the phylogenetic trends in the
following?
Chondrocranium
Splanchnocranium
Dermatocranium
Vertebrae
Ribs and sterna