Maximize
Subject to:
715
25
X31
2X1
X1
+
+
+
15
X22
XX
2
X1, 2
0
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = 40 X2 = 60
(maximize profit)
(wiring capacity
constraint)
(drilling
capacity
constraint)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
Profit = $1,900
24
0
14
0
Electrocomps management realizes that it forgot to include two critical constraints (see Problem
714). In particular, management decides that to ensure an adequate supply of air conditioners for
a contract, at least 20 air conditioners should be manufactured. Because Electrocomp incurred an
oversupply of fans in the preceding period, management also insists that no more than 80 fans be
produced during this production period. Resolve this product mix problem to find the new
optimal solution.
Let X1 = the number of air conditioners scheduled to be produced
X2 = the number of fans scheduled to be produced
Maximize
Subject to:
25
X31
2X1
XX
1
+
+
+
15
X22
XX
2
2
24
0
14
02
08
0 0
(maximize profit)
(wiring capacity constraint)
(drilling capacity constraint)
(a/c contract constraint)
(maximum # of fans
constraint)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
X
X1, 2
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = 40 X2 = 60 Profit = $1,900
1
716
A candidate for mayor in a small town has allocated $40,000 for lastminute advertising in the
days preceding the election. Two types of ads will be used: radio and television. Each radio ad
costs $200 and reaches an estimated 3,000 people. Each television ad costs $500 and reaches an
estimated 7,000 people. In planning the advertising campaign, the campaign manager would like
to reach as many people as possible, but she has stipulated that at least 10 ads of each type must
be used. Also, the number of radio ads must be at least as great as the number of television ads.
How many ads of each type should be used? How many people will this reach?
Let X1 = the number of radio ads purchased
X2 = the number of television ads purchased
Maximize
Subject to:
3,000
X1200
X1 X
+ 7,000
+ X2500
X2
X
X
2
40,00
0 1
10
0
X
0 2
(maximize exposure)
(budget constraint)
(at least 10 radio ads purchased)
(at least 10 television ads
purchased)
(# of radio ads # of television
ads)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
X1, 1
X2
For solution purposes, the fourth constraint would be rewritten as:
X1 X2 0
Optimal Solution: X1 = 175
717
X2 = 10
The Outdoor Furniture Corporation manufactures two products, benches and picnic tables, for
use in yards and parks. The firm has two main resources: its carpenters (labor force) and a supply
of redwood for use in the furniture. During the next production cycle, 1,200 hours of labor are
available under a union agreement. The firm also has a stock of 3500 feet of goodquality
redwood. Each bench that Outdoor Furniture produces requires 4 labor hours and 10 feet of
redwood; each picnic table takes 6 labor hours and 35 feet of redwood. Completed benches will
yield a profit of $9 each, and tables will result in a profit of $20 each. How many benches and
tables should Outdoor Furniture produce to obtain the largest possible profit? Use the graphical
LP approach.
Let X1 = the number of benches produced
X2 = the number of tables produced
Maximize
Subject to:
9
4X1
10X1
X1
+
+
+
20
X62
1,20
0
35X2
3,50
0
XX
,
0
12
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = 262.5 X2 = 25
(maximize profit)
(labor hours constraint)
(redwood capacity
constraint)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
Profit = $2,862.50
718
The dean of the Western College of Business must plan the schools course offerings for the fall
semester. Student demands make it necessary to offer at least 30 undergraduate and 20 graduate
courses in the term. Faculty contracts also dictate that at least 60 courses be offered in total. Each
undergraduate course taught costs the college an average of $2,500 in faculty wages, and each
graduate course costs $3,000. How many undergraduate and graduate courses should be taught in
the fall so that total faculty salaries are kept to a minimum?
Let X1 = the number of undergraduate courses scheduled
X2 = the number of graduate courses scheduled
Minimize
Subject to:
2,500
X1 X
1
+ 3,000
X2
+
X
X
2
X1, 2
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = 40 X2 = 20
1
719
3
20
06
0
Cost = $160,000
MSA Computer Corporation manufactures two models of minicomputers, the Alpha 4 and the
Beta 5. The firm employs five technicians, working 160 hours each per month, on its assembly
line. Management insists that full employment (i.e., all 160 hours of time) be maintained for each
worker during next months operations. It requires 20 labor hours to assemble each Alpha 4
computer and 25 labor hours to assemble each Beta 5 model. MSA wants to see at least 10 Alpha
4s and at least 15 Beta 5s produced during the production period. Alpha 4s generate $1,200 profit
per unit, and Beta 5s yield $1,800 each. Determine the most profitable number of each model of
minicomputer to produce during the coming month.
Let X1 = the number of Alpha 4 computers scheduled for production next month
X2 = the number of Beta 5 computers scheduled for production next month
Maximize
Subject to:
1,200
X1 20
X1X
+ 1,800
(maximize profit)
+ X2 25
=
80 (full employment, 5 workers x 160
X2
01 (make
hours) at least 10 Alpha 4 computers)
0
X
1
(make at least 15 Beta 5 computers)
1
X1, 2
0 5 (nonnegativity constraints)
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = 10 X2 = 24 Profit = $55,200
720
A winner of the Texas Lotto has decided to invest $50,000 per year in the stock market. Under
consideration are stocks for a petrochemical firm and a public utility. Although a longrange goal
is to get the highest possible return, some consideration is given to the risk involved with the
stocks. A risk index on a scale of 110 (with 10 being the most risky) is assigned to each of the
two stocks. The total risk of the portfolio is found by multiplying the risk of each stock by the
dollars invested in that stock. The following table provides a summary of the return and risk:
Stock
Petrochemical
Estimated Return
12
6%
%
Utility
Risk Index
9
4
The investor would like to maximize the return on the investment, but the average risk index of
the investment should not be higher than 6. How much should be invested in each stock? What is
the average risk for this investment? What is the estimated return for this investment?
Let X1 = the number of dollars invested in petrochemical stocks
X2 = the number of dollars invested in utility stocks
Maximize
Subject to:
721
.
12XX
31
X1
+
+
.
(maximize return on
on total investment)
06XX 50,00 (limit
investment)
22
0 0
(average risk cannot exceed 6)
X1,X2 0
(nonnegativity constraints)
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = $20,000 X2 = $30,000 Return = $4,200
The total risk is 300,000 (9 x $20,000 + 4 x $30,000), which yields an average risk of 6
(300,000/50,000 = 6).
Referring to the Texas Lotto situation in Problem 720, suppose the investor has changed his
attitude about the investment and wishes to give greater emphasis to the risk of the investment.
Now the investor wishes to minimize the risk of the investment as long as a return of at least 8%
is generated. Formulate this as an LP problem and find the optimal solution. How much should
be invested in each stock? What is the average risk for this investment? What is the estimated
return for this investment?
Let X1 = the number of dollars invested in petrochemical stocks
X2 = the number of dollars invested in utility stocks
Minimize
Subject to:
9
XX
1
. 1
04X
+
+
4
XX
2
50,00
0 0
0
. 2
X02X
,
1
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = $16,666.67 X2 = $33,333.33 Total risk = 283,333.33 (which
equates to an average risk of 283,333.33/50,000 = 5.67).
The total return would be $4000 (.12 x 16,666.67 + .09 x 33,333.33), which just happens to
be a return of exactly 8% ($4000/$50,000).
724
The stock brokerage firm of Blank, Leibowitz, and Weinberger has analyzed and recommended
two stocks to an investors club of college professors. The professors were interested in factors
such as short term growth, intermediate growth, and dividend rates. These data on each stock are
as follows:
Stock
Louisiana Gas and
Trimex Insulation
Factor
Short term growth
potential, per dollar
invested
Intermediate
growth potential
(over next three
years), per dollar
invested
Dividend rate
Power
.36
Company
.24
1.67
1.5
4%
8%
potential
Each member of the club has an investment goal of (1) an appreciation of no less than $720 in
the short term, (2) an appreciation of at least $5,000 in the next three years, and (3) a dividend
income of at least $200 per year. What is the smallest investment that a professor can make to
meet these three goals?
Let X1 = the number of dollars invested in Louisiana Gas and Power
X2 = the number of dollars invested in Trimex Insulation Co.
Minimize
Subject to:
X
. 1
36X
1.67
X.1
04X
+
+
+
+
X
(minimize total investment)
. 2
0
(nonnegativity
constraints)
1
X2
Optimal Solution: X1 = $1,359 X2 = $1,818.18 Total investment = $3,177.18
725
Woofer Pet Foods produces a lowcalorie dog food for overweight dogs. This product is made
from beef products and grain. Each pound of beef costs $0.90, and each pound of grain costs
$0.60. A pound of the dog food must contain at least 9 units of Vitamin 1 and 10 units of
Vitamin 2. A pound of beef contains 10 units of Vitamin 1 and 12 units of Vitamin 2. A pound of
grain contains 6 units of Vitamin 1 and 9 units of Vitamin 2. Formulate this as an LP problem to
minimize the cost of the dog food. How many pounds of beef and grain should be included in
each pound of dog food? What is the cost and vitamin content of the final product?
Let X1 = the number of pounds of beef in each pound of dog food
X2 = the number of pounds of grain in each pound of dog food
Minimize
Subject to:
.
90XX
101
X1
12
X1
+
+
+
+
.
(minimize cost per pound of dog food)
60XX =
1 (total weight should be one pound)
62
(Production problem) Winkler Furniture manufactures two different types of china cabinets: a
French Provincial model and a Danish Modern model. Each cabinet produced must go through
three departments: carpentry, painting, and finishing. The table below contains all relevant
information concerning production times per cabinet produced and production capacities for
each operation per day, along with net revenue per unit produced. The firm has a contract with
an Indiana distributor to produce a minimum of 300 of each cabinet per week (or 60 cabinets per
day). Owner Bob Winkler would like to determine a product mix to maximize his daily revenue.
(a) Formulate as an LP problem.
(b) Solve using an LP software program or spreadsheet.
Carpentr
y
(Hours/Cabine
3
2
3
6
Cabinet Style
French Provincial
Danish Modern
Dept. capacity (hrs)
Paintin
g
(Hours/Cabine
1
.1
2
0
Finishin
g
(Hours/Cabine
.
7.
71
2
Net
Revenue per
Cabinet
2 ($)
28
5
28
X31
1.5X1
X
. 1
75XX
+
+
+
+
25
(maximize revenue)
X22
20
(painting hours available)
2
0
. 2
82
(Investment decision problem) The Heinlein and Krarnpf Brokerage firm has just been instructed
by one of its clients to invest $250,000 for her money obtained recently through the sale of land
holdings in Ohio. The client has a good deal of trust in the investment house, but she also has her
own ideas about the distribution of the funds being invested. In particular, she requests that the
firm select whatever stocks and bonds they believe are well rated, but within the following
guidelines:
(a) Municipal bonds should constitute at least 20% of the investment.
(b) At least 40% of the funds should be placed in a combination of electronic firms, aerospace
firms, and drug manufacturers.
(c) No more than 50% of the amount invested in municipal bonds should be placed in a highrisk, highyield nursing home stock.
Subject to these restraints, the clients goal is to maximize projected return on investments. The
analysts at Heinlein and Krampf, aware of these guidelines, prepare a list of highquality stocks
and bonds and their corresponding rates of return.
Projected Rate
of Return (%)
5.3
6.8
4.9
8.4
11.8
Investment
Los Angeles municipal bonds
Thompson Electronics, Inc.
United Aerospace Corp.
Palmer Drugs
Happy Days Nursing Homes
(a) Formulate this portfolio selection problem using LP. (b) Solve this problem.
Let X1 = dollars invested in Los Angeles municipal bonds
X2 = dollars invested in Thompson Electronics
X3 = dollars invested in United Aerospace
X4 = dollars invested in Palmer Drugs
X5 = dollars invested in Happy Days Nursing Homes
Maximize
+
X
Subject to:
+
X
+
X
+
X
.4
.5
+

+
X1,
250,00
0 0
0bonds)
(nonnegativity constraints)
83
(Restaurant work scheduling problem). The famous Y. S. Chang Restaurant is open 24 hours a
day. Waiters and busboys report for duty at 3AM., 7 AM., 11 AM., 3 P.M., 7 P.M., or 11 P.M.,
and each works an 8hour shift. The following table shows the minimum number of workers
needed during the six periods into which the day is divided. Changs scheduling problem is to
determine how many waiters and busboys should report for work at the start of each time period
to minimize the total staff required for one days operation. (Hint: Let Xi equal the number of
waiters and busboys beginning work in time period i, where i = 1, 2,3,4,5,6.)
Number of Waiters and
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time
3 A.M7 A.M.
7 A.M11 A.M.
11 A.M3 P.M.
3 P.M7 P.M.
7 P.M11 P.M.
11 P.M3 A.M.
Busboys Required
3
12
16
9
11
4
Let Xi = the number workers beginning work at the start of time period i (i=1,2,3,4,5,6)
1
21
69
1
14
(min. staff
size)
(period 1)
(period 2)
(period 3)
(period 4)
(period 5)
(period 6)
(nonnegativity)
Minimize
Subject to:
X
X
X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X
1 2 3 4 5 6
84
(Animal feed mix problem) The Battery Park Stable feeds and houses the horses used to pull
touristfilled carriages through the streets of Charlestons historic waterfront area. The stable
owner, an exracehorse trainer, recognizes the need to set a nutritional diet for the horses in his
care. At the same time, he would like to keep the overall daily cost of feed to a minimum.
The feed mixes available for the horses diet are an oat product, a highly enriched grain,
and a mineral product. Each of these mixes contains a certain amount of five ingredients needed
daily to keep the average horse healthy. The table below shows these minimum requirements,
units of each ingredient per pound of feed mix, and costs for the three mixes.
In addition, the stable owner is aware that an overfed horse is a sluggish worker.
Consequently, he determines that 6 pounds of feed per day are the most that any horse needs to
function properly. Formulate this problem and solve for the optimal daily mix of the three feeds.
Diet Requirement
(Ingredients)
A
B
C
D
E
Cost/lb
Let
Minimize
s.t.
Feed Mix
Enrich
ed
Grain
3
1
5
1.5
.5
$0.14
Oat
Produc
t
2
.
53
1
.
5
$0.09
Minera
l
Produc
1
.
56
2
1.
5
$0.17
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
.
3
XX
2
52
1.5X2
X.2
5XX
2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
X1,
X3
X3
.
5X
6
2X3
1.5X3
XX33
X2,
6
2
9
8
5
6
0
(minimize cost)
(ingredient A)
(ingredient B)
(ingredient C)
(ingredient D)
(ingredient E)
(maximum feed per day)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
Minimum
Daily
Requirement
6
2
9
8
5
86
(Media selection problem) The advertising director for Diversey Paint and Supply, a chain of
four retail stores on Chicagos North Side, is considering two media possibilities. One plan is for
a series of half page ads in the Sunday Chicago Tribune newspaper, and the other is for
advertising time on Chicago TV. The stores are expanding their lines of doityourself tools, and
the advertising director is interested in an exposure level of at least 40% within the citys
neighborhoods and 60% in northwest suburban areas.
The TV viewing time under consideration has an exposure rating per spot of 5% in city
homes and 3% in the northwest suburbs. The Sunday newspaper has corresponding exposure
rates of 4% and 3% per ad. The cost of a halfpage Tribune advertisement is $925; a television
spot costs $2,000.
Diversey Paint would like to select the least costly advertising strategy that would meet
desired exposure levels.
(a) Formulate using LP.
(b) Solve the problem.
Let
Minimize
Subject to:
+ 2,000
+ X2.
+
.05X
X03X
,
1
X2
.
.4
6
(minimize cost)
(city exposure)
(suburb exposure)
(nonnegativity
constraints)
811
(College meal selection problem) Kathy Roniger, campus dietician for a small Idaho college, is
responsible for formulating a nutritious meal plan for students. For an evening meal, she feels
that the following five mealcontent requirements should be met: (1) between 900 and 1,500
calories; (2) at least 4 milligrams of iron; (3) no more than 50 grams of fat; (4) at least 26 grams
of protein; and (5) no more than 50 grams of carbohydrates. On a particular day, Ronigers food
stock includes seven items that can be prepared and served for supper to meet these
requirements. The cost per pound for each food item and the contribution to each of the five
nutritional requirements are given in the accompanying table:
Iron
(mg/lb)
0.2
0.2
4.3
3.2
3.2
14.1
2.2
Calorie
s/
295
1216
394
358
128
118
279
Food Item
Milk
Ground Meat
Chicken
Fish
Beans
Spinach
Potatoes
Cost/
Pound
0.60
2.35
1.15
2.25
0.58
1.17
0.33
What combination and amounts of food items will provide the nutrition Roniger requires at the
least total food cost?
Let X1 = the number of pounds of milk per student in the evening meal
X2 = the number of pounds of ground meat per student in the evening meal
Etc., down to X7 = the number of pounds of potatoes per student in the evening meal
9
150
00
4
5
02
65
0
Minimize
.6X
S.T. (Cal.)
295X
118X
128X
3.2X
9X
2.35X
+
279X
+
(Protein)
16X
(Carbs.)
22X
1216X
1.15X
7 (Cal.)
295X
118X
3.2X
.5X
81X
7 (Iron)
14.1X
279X
.8X
74X
2.25X
394X
1216X
.2X
.58X
358X
394X
.2X
83X
2.2X
7 (Fat)
1.4X
7X
28X
128X
3
2
16X
1.17X
.5X
.33X
358X
4.3X
96X
4
3
14X
8X
19X
63X
X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7
7
812
(High tech production problem) Quitmeyer Electronics Incorporated manufactures the following
six microcomputer peripheral devices: internal modems, external modems, graphics circuit
boards, CD drives, hard disk drives, and memory expansion boards. Each of these technical
products requires time, in minutes, on three types of electronic testing equipment, as shown in
the table the following table:
Test device 1
Test device 2
Test device 3
Internal
Modem
7
2
5
External
Modem
3
5
1
Circuit
Board
12
3
3
CD
Drive
6
2
2
Hard
Drive
18
15
9
Memory
Board
1
17
72
The first two test devices are available 120 hours per week. The third (device 3) requires more
preventive maintenance and may be used only 100 hours each week. The market for all six
computer components is vast, and Quitmeyer Electronics believes that it can sell as many units
of each product as it can manufacture. The table that follows summarizes the revenues and
material costs for each product:
Device
Internal modem
External modem
Graphics circuit board
CD drive
Hard disk drive
Memory expansion board
Revenue Per
Material Cost
In addition, variable labor costs are $15 per hour for test device 1, $12 per hour for test device 2.
and $18 per hour for test device 3. Quitmeyer Electronics wants to maximize its profits.
(a) Formulate this problem as an LP model.
(b) Solve the problem by computer. What is the best product mix?
(c) What is the value of an additional minute of time per week on test device 1? Test device 2?
Test device 3? Should Quitmeyer Electronics add more test device time? If so, on which
equipment?
Let X1 = the number of internal modems scheduled for manufacture each week
X2 = the number of external modems scheduled for manufacture each week
Etc., down to X6 = the number of mem. expansion boards scheduled for mfg. each week
Maximize
161.35
92.95
135.50
82.50
249.80
191.75
S.T.
12
18
17
15
17
X1,
72
00
72
00
60
00
815
(Material blending problem) Amalgamated Products has just received a contract to construct
steel body frames for automobiles that are to be produced at the new Japanese factory in
Tennessee. The Japanese auto manufacturer has strict quality control standards for all of its
component subcontractors and has informed Amalgamated that each frame must have the
following steel content:
Material
Manganese
Silicon
Minimum Percent
2.1
4.3
5.05
Carbon
Maximum Percent
2.
4.
3
6
5.35
Amalgamated mixes batches of eight different available materials to produce one ton of steel
used in the body frames. The table below details these materials. Formulate and solve the LP
model that will indicate how much of each of the eight materials should be blended into a 1ton
load of steel so that Amalgamated meets its requirements while minimizing cost.
Material
Available
Alloy 1
Alloy 2
Alloy 3
Iron 1
Iron 2
Carbide 1
Carbide 2
Mangane
se
(
70
55
.0
.0
12
.0
1
5.
.0
0
0
Carbide 3
Silico
n
(
15.0
30.0
26.0
10.0
2.
5
24.0
25.0
23.00
Carbo
n
3(
1.
.0
3
.0
18.0
20.0
25.0
Poun
ds
Availab
No limit
30
No0limit
No limit
No limit
5
0
20
0
100
Cost Per
Pound ($)
0.
0.
12
13
0.
15
0.
09
0.
07
0.
10
0.
12
0.09
4
24
68
69
12
01
03
05
20
01
200
00
Minimize
.12X
S.T. (Mn
.7X
(Mnmax)
.7X
(Simin)
.13X
.55X
.55X
+
.30X
.15X
.15X
.12X
.12X
.09X
.01X
.01X
.26X
.07X
.05X
.05X
.10X
.025X
.10X
.24X
.12X
.25X
.09X
23X
24X
8 (Simax)
+
.15X
.25X
.30X
7
+
.18X
.23X
+
6
.03X
Alloy 2 lim.
.26X
.03X
8 (Cmin)
.20X
.25X
.18X
.10X
.01X
.025X
8 (Cmax) .03X1
.20X
.01X
.03X
.25X
Carbide 2 lim.
Carbide 3 lim.
X
X
Carbide 1 lim.
Weighs 1 ton
4
+
X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X ,X
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
X
0
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