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# Lecture 29

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Low Pass Filter

Previously:
Vout
Vout

Vin

Vin

R1

R2
R1

R2

If s = j ,

Vout

Vin

R1

R2
C2

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Vout
=
Vin
Vout
Vin

R2

1
C2 s
R1

1
C2 s
R
1
=
= 2
1
R1
R1
R2 +
C2 s
R2

1 + R2 C 2 s

## Ideal Op Amps Used to Control Frequency Response

Low Pass Filter

Vout

Vin

R1

Vout
R
= 2
Vin
R1

R2

1 + R2 C 2 s

C2
At DC (s=0), the gain remains the same as before (-R2/R1).
At high frequency, R2C2s>>1, the gain dies off with increasing frequency,
Vout
Vin

1
C
s
= 2

R1
R1C 2 s

1
= 2 f H = H
R2 C 2

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Low Pass Filter

AV

AV

DB

AV

DB

R2
= 20 Log
R1

DB

Vout
= 20 Log
Vin

## -3dB drop at fH (Vout has dropped in half!)

Slope = 20 dB / Decade

fH
fH

1
=
2 R2 C 2

Log(f)

## At DC (s=0), the gain remains the same as before (-R2/R1)

At high frequency, R2C2s>>1, the gain dies off with increasing frequency

Implements a Low Pass Filter: Lower frequencies are allowed to pass the filter
without attenuation. High frequencies are strongly attenuated (do not pass).
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High Pass Filter

Vout

Vin

R1

R2

Vout

Vin

R1

Vout
=
Vin

R2
1
R1 +
C1 s

Vout
RCs
= 2 1
Vin
1 + R1C1 s

C1

Vout
R2
=
Vin
R1

R2

## At DC (s=0), the gain is zero.

At high frequency, R1C1s>>1, the gain returns to its full
value, (-R2/R1)

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High Pass Filter

AV

DB

AV

DB

R
= 20 Log 2
R1

-3dB drop at fH

Vout
R2 C1 s
=
Vin
1 + R1C1 s

fL

Log(f)

1
fL =
2 R1C1

## At DC (s=0), the gain is zero.

At high frequency, R1C1s>>1, the gain returns to its full value, (-R2/R1)

Implements a High Pass Filter: Higher frequencies are allowed to pass the filter
without attenuation. Low frequencies are strongly attenuated (do not pass).
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## Ideal Op Amps Used to Control Frequency Response

Band Pass Filter (combination of high and low pass filter)

Vou

C1

R1

Vin
Vout
Vin

1
R2
C2 s
=
1
R1 +
C1 s

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R2
C2

Low
Pass

High
Pass

1
C2 s
1
R2 +

R2 C1 s
C2 s
1

=
=
1
1
1
+
R
C
s
+
R
C
s
2 2
1 1

R1 +
C1 s
R2

Vout
Vin

## Ideal Op Amps Used to Control Frequency Response

Band Pass Filter (combination of high and low pass filter)

R2 C1 s

Vout
1

=
1
1
+
Vin
+
R
C
s
R
C
s
2 2
1 1

AV

DB

AV

DB

R2
= 20 Log
R1

1
fL =
2 R1C1
1
fH =
2 R2 C 2
fH
fL
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Slopes = 20 dB / Decade
+
-3dB drop at fH

f L << f H

Log(f)
ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

## Ideal Op Amps Used to Control Frequency Response

Band Pass Filter (combination of high and low pass filter)

R2 C1 s

Vout
1

=
1
1
+
Vin
+
R
C
s
R
C
s
2 2
1 1

AV

Slopes = 20 dB / Decade
+

DB

AV

DB

R
= 20 Log 2
R1

## More than a -3dB drop at fL and fH

fL < fH
fL
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fH

and

fL fH

Log(f)
ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

## General Frequency Response of a Circuit

Poles and Zeros

Generally, a circuits transfer function (frequency dependent gain expression) can be written as the
ratio of polynomials:
vout
( 1z s )(1 + 2 z s )(1 + 2 z s )...
(
1z ) 1 ( 2 z )2 1 ( 3 z )2 ...
vout
=A
=A
2
2
2
(1 + 1 p s )(1 + 2 p s )(1 + 3 p s )...
vin
vin
1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ...
1p

2p

3p

Complex Roots of the numerator polynomial are called zeros while complex roots of the
denominator polynomial are called poles
Each zero causes the transfer function to break to higher gain (slope increases by 20 dB/decade)
Each pole causes the transfer function to break to lower gain (slope decreases by 20 dB/decade)

-20

dB
/D
ec a

Typically, =RC
de

dB
/D
eca

de

40

vout
20 Log
vin

e
B/D
d
0

e
ca d

eca
D
/
B
0d

de

=
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2z

1p

2p

3p

3z
ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

To this point we have assumed the open loop gain, AOpen Loop, of
the op amp is constant at all frequencies.
Real Op amps have a frequency dependant open loop gain.

AOpenLoop ( s ) =

AO B
T
=
s + B s + B

where,
s = j
AO Open loop gain at DC

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## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

AOpenLoop ( j ) =
AOpenLoop ( j ) =

AO B

2 + B2
AO

2
1+
B2

## At Low Frequencies: AOpenLoop = AO

At High Frequencies: AOpenLoop

AO B

For most frequencies of interest, >>B , the product of the gain and frequency is
a constant, T

2
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## For the "741" Op Amp,

AO ~ 200,000 = 106 dB

B ~ (2 ) 5 Hz
T ~ (2 ) 1 MHz

GBW

## For the " Op 07" Op Amp,

AO ~ 12,000,000 = 141 dB

B ~ (2 ) 0.05 Hz
T ~ (2 ) 0.6 MHz
GBW

If the open loop bandwidth is so small, how can the op amp be useful?
The answer to this is found by considering the closed loop gain.

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## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

Previously, we found that the closed loop gain for the Noninverting configuration was (for finite open loop gain):
AV ,ClosedLoop

AOpenLoop
Vout
R1
=
=
, where =
Vin 1 + AOpenLoop
R1 + R 2

## Using the frequency dependent open loop gain:

AV ,ClosedLoop =

AV ,ClosedLoop

AV ,ClosedLoop

AOpenLoop
Vout
=
Vin 1 + AOpenLoop

AO B

s + B
=
A
1 + O B
s + B

Low
AO B
=
Pass
s + B (1 + AO )

AO B
AO

(1 + AO )
B (1 + AO )
1
=
=
=

s
s
s
+1
+1 1+
B (1 + AO )
B (1 + AO )
H

A
V ,ClosedLoop

@ DC

where,

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Open LoopGain

Amplifier has a
lower gain than
the Open Loop
Amplifier

T
= B (1 + AO ) =
AV ,ClosedLoop

Closed LoopGain

@ DC

AV ,ClosedLoop =
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AOpenLoop
1 + AOpenLoop

## The closed Loop Amplifier has a higher

bandwidth than the Open Loop Amplifier

## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

Closed Loop Gain set
by feedback network
below H
Closed Loop Gain
set Open Loop
Gain above H

(Gain

x Bandwidth

) Open

Loop

= (Gain x Bandwidth

) Closed

Loop

Example: 741 Op Amp is used as a low pass filter with fL=10kHz. What is the
maximum voltage gain possible for this circuit?
From before, we can write:

(200 , 000

x 5 ) Open

(Gain ) Closed
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Loop

Loop

= (Gain x 10 , 000

= 100 V

) Closed

Loop

Maximum
ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

For the Inverting Configuration:
By sup erposition,

vVin

R1

Vout

R2

v = vout

R1
R2
+ vin
R1 + R2
R1 + R2

R2
v = vout + vin
R1
but ,
vout = v AV ,OpenLoop
so,

vout
AV ,OpenLoop

AV ,ClosedLoop

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= vout + vin

R2
R1

AV ,OpenLoop
vout
=
=
vin 1 + AV ,OpenLoop

R2

R1

## Real Op Amp Frequency Response

Inserting the frequency dependent open loop gain:
AV ,ClosedLoop

AV ,OpenLoop R2

=
1 + AV ,OpenLoop R1

AV ,ClosedLoop

AO B

s + B

=
A
1 + O B
s + B

AV ,ClosedLoop =

AV ,ClosedLoop

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R2
AO B

=
R1 s + B + AO B

AO B

s + B (1 + AO )

R2

R1

AO B
B (1 + AO ) R2
R2

=
R1 s + B (1 + AO ) R1
B (1 + AO )

AO R2

(1 + AO ) R1
=

+1
B (1 + AO )

AV ,ClosedLoop

AO R2

(1 + AO ) R1
=

+1
B (1 + AO )

AV ,ClosedLoop

A
=

V ,ClosedLoop
s
1+

(
)
+

A
B
O

## Closed Loop Bandwidth

H = B (1 + AO ) =

T
AV ,ClosedLoop

## Closed Loop DC Gain

AV ,ClosedLoop

@ DC

@ DC

AV ,OpenLoop R2

=
1 + AV ,OpenLoop R1

The frequency behavior is the same as for the the Non-Inverting case!
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