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Introduction

Richardson’s idea of the independence of the macroscopic flow features on viscosity

cartoon picture (in reality it is important that the flow is 3D)

• pressure P 2

mean velocity U (unknown)

Problem: How much fluid flows through the pipe per unit of time?

Or: what is the mean velocity of fluid U in the pipe (defined by πR 2 U = amount of fluid per unit time)?

u 2= u 3= 0

“Poiseuille's flow”

parabolic
velocity
profile

Re = UR/ν

pressure P 1
density %
viscosity ν
pressure P 2

mean velocity U (unknown)

Richardson’s philosophy: U should be independent of ν once Re is large

(and the flow becomes turbulent)

U = P’R 2/8%ν

In practice the formula works quite well – a remarkable fact given the rough derivation! Corrections to the formula: c=c(Re, roughness coefficient of the wall), but it does become almost constant for large Re and a given wall roughness. It seems to be absolutely hopeless to try to derive this from NavierStokes.

pressure =L

so that pressure

er unit len th = 1

p

g

• density =1

• viscosity ν

pressure =0

mean velocity u (unknown)

then u should be independent of ν ‘ (which plays the role of 1/Re’)

In our setup Re’

would differ by

a constant factor

from the standard

Re=RU/ν

3

viscosity ν

(which also plays a crucial

role in the regularity theory)

velocity should be 10 U

(can be hard to achieve in practice in some cases)

also, our camera should run 100 times faster

In reality, the situation is not so bad,

due to the Richardson effect.

1. Dependence of ² on U and R assuming ² is constant in r.

This could of course

be also derived based

on our previous formula

U = const. (P’/% ) 1/2 R 1/2

extinction

due to viscosity

diameter

Kolmogorov

length

λ = const. R / Re 3/4

(for typical garden hose flows Re 10 5 – 10 6 )

², ν, %

Note that we do not list the macroscopic velocity U. Therefore we are talking about local timescales, as observed in the system of a moving particle

τ=const.(R/U)Re‐1/2

of order 10 5 sec in a typical

garden hose flow

f(ν )
ν 2
ν 1

and

k
k+dk

cartoon picture in the frequency space

E(k)

ambiguity at low
frequencies created
by the choice of φ
“inertial range”
1/λ
k

conceptually ‐ Fourier decomposition of t  u(t) on a unit time interval

(or an interval of a fixed length – we are working modulo multiplicative constants) .

φ –compactly supported in the unit interval, with ∫ |φ(t)| 2 dt=1.
c
φ(t)u(t) = (2π ) −1 Z φu(ω )e iω t dω
2
−1
Z |φu| dt
= (2π )
Z |φu| c 2
dω = Z E (ω )dω

a “frozen field” passing by at speed U

Structure with

spatial frequency k

• i cos α

α angle between the vectors U and k.

velocity u(x,t)

u = 0

Note the change of notation

Write the solutions u as u=U+v, where U is the “average” and v is the “fluctuations”.

Often notation U=<u> is used. In the simple situation of pipe flow we can think of time averages.