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EXPERIMENT 1 : PREPARATION AND STANDARDISATION OF BASE AND ACID

SOLUTION
INTRODUCTION :
Standardization is the process of determining the exact concentration (molarity) of a
solution. Titration is one type of analytical procedure often used in standardization. In a titration,
an exact volume of one substance is reacted with a known amount of another substance. The
point at which the reaction is complete in a titration is referred to as the endpoint. A chemical
substance known as an indicator is used to indicate (signal) the endpoint. The indicator used in
this experiment is phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein, an organic compound, is colorless in acidic
solution and pink in basic solution.This experiment involves two separate acid-base
standardization procedures. In the first standardization the molarity of a sodium hydroxide
solution (NaOH) will be determined by titrating a sample of potassium acid phthalate (KHP;
HKC8H4O4) with the NaOH. In the second procedure the standardized NaOH will be used to
determine the molarity of a hydrochloric solution (HCl).
OBJECTIVE :
To determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and the concentration of
unknown acid .
MATERIALS :
Sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid , phenolphthalein , beaker, volumetric flask, conical flask ,
pipette , burette, burette stand and clamp , small funnel and pipette filter .
PROCEDURE :
i.

Standardisation of 0.1 M NaOh solution with 0.1 M potassium hydrogen phthalate.


20 ml of KHP was pipette into 250 ml of conical flask. 2 drops of phenolphthalein was
drop as an indicator. Potassium hydrogen phthalate was titrate with 0.1 M Sodium hydroxide
until it turns light pink.Volume of Sodium hydroxide used was recorded . The titration was repeat
3 times.

ii.

Standardisation of 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid solution with standardized Sodium hydroxide


solution .
20 ml ofsodium hydroxide was pipette into 250 ml of conical flask. 2 drops of
phenolphthalein was drop as an indicator. Then , it was titrate with 0.1 M Sodium hydroxide
until it turns light pink.Volume of Sodium hydroxide used was recorded . The titration was repeat
3 times.

iii.

Determination of the concentration of unknown hydrochloric acid solution.


20 ml of unknown hydrochloric acid solution was pipette into 250 ml of conical flask. 2
drops of phenolphthalein was drop as an indicator. Then , it was titrate with 0.1 M Sodium
hydroxide until it turns light pink.Volume of Sodium hydroxide used was recorded . The titration
was repeat 3 times.

RESULTS :
Table 1.1 : Titration of known molarity of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide .
Trial 1
0.1
22.3
22.2
0.0901

Initial burette reading NaOH ( ml )


Final burette reading NaOH ( ml )
Volume of NaOH used ( ml )
Molarity

Trial 2
1.0
23.6
22.6
0.0885

Table 1.2 : titration of unknown molarity of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid .

Initial burette reading NaOh ( ml )


Final burette reading NaOh ( ml )
Volume of NaOh used ( ml )
Molarity

Trial 1
0.10
19.90
19.90
0.0889

Trial 2
19.90
39.90
20.00
0.0893

Table 3
16.7
36.50
19.80
0.0884

Table 1.3 : Titration of unknown molarity of hydrochloric acid .

Initial burette reading NaOh ( ml )


Final burette reading NaOh ( ml )

Trial 1
22.60
50.80

Trial 2
29.90
31.50

Volume of NaOh used ( ml )


Molarity

28.20
0.1286

31.60
0.1366

CALCULATIONS :
I.

Titration of known molarity of 0.1 M NaOh

Molarity

volume KHP molarity KHP


volume NaOH

Trial 1
20 0.1
Molarity 22.2
= 0.0901 M
Trial 2 = 0.0885 M
II.

Titration of known molarity of 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid

Molarity

Molarity of standardised NaOH Volume of standardised NaOH


Volume of HCl

Trial 1
Molarity

0.1 19.9
20

= 0.0889 M
Trial 2
= 0.0893 M

Trial 3

=0.0884 M
III.

Titration of unknown molarity of hydrochloric acid.

Molarity

Molarity of standardised NaOH Volume of standardised NaOH


Volume of HCl

Trial 1
Molarity

0.0893 28.2
20

= 0.1259 M
Trial 2
= 0.1411 M
To get ppm :
Molarity(M) x Atomic mass(At Wt) = grams per liter(g/l)
Atomic Mass (Wt.) of HCl = 36.508
0.1335mol/Lx36.508 g/mol =4.8738 g/l
4.8738 g/l x 1000 = 4873.82 mg/l = 4873.82 ppm
To get

mg
ml ,

4.8738 g
L

1mg
1 x 103

4.8738 X 103 mg
L

To get

g
ml ,

= 4.8738 x 10

mg/L

1L
x 106
1000 mL = 4.8738

mg /ml

4.8738 x 106 mg
mL

1 X 103 g 1 g
1 mg 1 mg

= 4.8738x 10 g /ml

DISCUSSIONS
Sodium hydroxide is a secondary standard. A secondary standard is a substance which may be
used for standardizations, and whose content of the active substance has been found by
comparison against a primary standard in this case is KHP. It follows that, a secondary standard
solution is a solution in which the concentration of dissolved solute has not been determined
from the weight of the compound dissolved but by reaction of a volume of the solution against a
measured volume of a primary standard solution . Based on the titration of known molarity of
sodium hydroxide against potassium hydrogen phthalate, the average concentration NaOH is
0.0893 M. The actual molarity of sodium hydroxide in this experiment is 0.1 M.Due to the
hygroscopic property of secondary standard, NaOH readily absorbs moisture and reacts with the
carbon dioxide in the air.
For the secondary titration , sodium hydroxide against the hydrochloric acid .The average
concentration of NaOH is 0.089 M. This is to determine the concentration of the known
hydrochloric acid .The actual concentration is 0.1 M .There is slightly difference in the value of
the HCL due to the sodium hydroxide used, which is a secondary standard .The third titration, is
to obtain the concentration of hydrochloric acid which is 0.1335 M .There is also slightly
difference with the actual which is 0.15 M .Again this is due to the NaOH used .Besides that
misjudge the color of the end point also effect the concentration. This is because higher volume
of NaOH used.

Among precaution that must be practice is to being careful towards the end of the titration. This
is because to avoid over shoot volume of titrant towards the acid used. Besides that , indicator
are used to titrate acid to observe the color change at the end point. The end point of a titration is
indicated when the indicator changes color. An indicator is a weak organic acid or base that has
distinctly different colors in its non-ionized and ionized forms.The indicator used is
phenolphthalein , which will only react with acid.

CONCLUSION
As conclusion , the concentration of sodium hydroxide is 0.0893 M, the known hydrochloric acid
is 0.089 M and the unknown concentration of hydrochloric acid is 0.1335 M .
REFERENCES
1. http://www.titrations.info/titration-errors
2. https://www.dartmouth.edu/~chemlab/techniques/titration.html
3. http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Lab_Techniques/Titration