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TheFundamentalRights,embodiedinPartIIIoftheConstitution,guaranteecivilrightstoallIndians,and
preventtheStatefromencroachingonindividuallibertywhilesimultaneouslyplacinguponitanobligation
toprotectthecitizens'rightsfromencroachmentbysociety.[19]Sevenfundamentalrightswereoriginally
providedbytheConstitutionrighttoequality,righttofreedom,rightagainstexploitation,rightto
freedomofreligion,culturalandeducationalrights,righttopropertyandrighttoconstitutional
remedies.[20]However,therighttopropertywasremovedfromPartIIIoftheConstitutionbythe44th
Amendmentin1978.[21][note2]
ThepurposeoftheFundamentalRightsistopreserveindividuallibertyanddemocraticprinciplesbasedon
equalityofallmembersofsociety.[22]DrAmbedkarsaidthattheresponsibilityofthelegislatureisnotjust
toprovidefundamentalrightsbutalsoandrathermoreimportantly,tosafeguardthem.
[23]Theyactaslimitationsonthepowersofthelegislatureandexecutive,underArticle13,[note3]andin

caseofanyviolationoftheserightstheSupremeCourtofIndiaandtheHighCourtsofthestateshavethe
powertodeclaresuchlegislativeorexecutiveactionasunconstitutionalandvoid.[24]Theserightsare
largelyenforceableagainsttheState,whichasperthewidedefinitionprovidedinArticle12,includesnot
onlythelegislativeandexecutivewingsofthefederalandstategovernments,butalsolocaladministrative
authoritiesandotheragenciesandinstitutionswhichdischargepublicfunctionsorareofagovernmental
character.[25]However,therearecertainrightssuchasthoseinArticles15,17,18,23,24thatarealso
availableagainstprivateindividuals.[26]Further,certainFundamentalRightsincludingthoseunder
Articles14,20,21,25applytopersonsofanynationalityuponIndiansoil,whileotherssuchasthose
underArticles15,16,19,30areapplicableonlytocitizensofIndia.[27][28]
TheFundamentalRightsarenotabsoluteandaresubjecttoreasonablerestrictionsasnecessaryforthe
protectionofpublicinterest.[25]IntheKesavanandaBharativ.StateofKeralacasein1973,[note4]the
SupremeCourt,overrulingapreviousdecisionof1967,heldthattheFundamentalRightscouldbe
amended,subjecttojudicialreviewincasesuchanamendmentviolatedthebasicstructureofthe
Constitution.[29]TheFundamentalRightscanbeenhanced,removedorotherwisealteredthrougha
constitutionalamendment,passedbyatwothirdsmajorityofeachHouseofParliament.[30]Theimposition
ofastateofemergencymayleadtoatemporarysuspensionanyoftheFundamentalRights,excluding
Articles20and21,byorderofthePresident.[31]ThePresidentmay,byorder,suspendtherightto
constitutionalremediesaswell,therebybarringcitizensfromapproachingtheSupremeCourtforthe
enforcementofanyoftheFundamentalRights,exceptArticles20and21,duringtheperiodofthe
emergency.[32]ParliamentmayalsorestricttheapplicationoftheFundamentalRightstomembersofthe
IndianArmedForcesandthepolice,inordertoensureproperdischargeoftheirdutiesandthemaintenance
ofdiscipline,byalawmadeunderArticle33.[33]

RighttoEquality
TheRighttoEqualityisoneofthechiefguaranteesoftheConstitution.ItisembodiedinArticles1416,
whichcollectivelyencompassthegeneralprinciplesofequalitybeforelawandnondiscrimination,[34]and
Articles1718whichcollectivelyfurtherthephilosophyofsocialequality.[35]Article14guarantees
equalitybeforelawaswellasequalprotectionofthelawtoallpersonswithintheterritoryofIndia.[note5]
Thisincludestheequalsubjectionofallpersonstotheauthorityoflaw,aswellasequaltreatmentof
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personsinsimilarcircumstances.[36]ThelatterpermitstheStatetoclassifypersonsforlegitimatepurposes,
providedthereisareasonablebasisforthesame,meaningthattheclassificationisrequiredtobenon
arbitrary,basedonamethodofintelligibledifferentiationamongthosesoughttobeclassified,aswellas
havearationalrelationtotheobjectsoughttobeachievedbytheclassification.[37]
Article15prohibitsdiscriminationonthegroundsonlyofreligion,race,caste,sex,placeofbirth,oranyof
them.ThisrightcanbeenforcedagainsttheStateaswellasprivateindividuals,withregardtofreeaccess
toplacesofpublicentertainmentorplacesofpublicresortmaintainedpartlyorwhollyoutofState
funds.[38]However,theStateisnotprecludedfrommakingspecialprovisionsforwomenandchildrenor
anysociallyandeducationallybackwardclassesofcitizens,includingtheScheduledCastesandScheduled
Tribes.Thisexceptionhasbeenprovidedsincetheclassesofpeoplementionedthereinareconsidered
deprivedandinneedofspecialprotection.[39]Article16guaranteesequalityofopportunityinmattersof
publicemploymentandpreventstheStatefromdiscriminatingagainstanyoneinmattersofemploymenton
thegroundsonlyofreligion,race,caste,sex,descent,placeofbirth,placeofresidenceoranyofthem.It
createsexceptionsfortheimplementationofmeasuresofaffirmativeactionforthebenefitofanybackward
classofcitizensinordertoensureadequaterepresentationinpublicservice,aswellasreservationofan
officeofanyreligiousinstitutionforapersonprofessingthatparticularreligion.[40]
ThepracticeofuntouchabilityhasbeendeclaredanoffencepunishablebylawunderArticle17,andthe
ProtectionofCivilRightsAct,1955hasbeenenactedbytheParliamenttofurtherthisobjective.[35]Article
18prohibitstheStatefromconferringanytitlesotherthanmilitaryoracademicdistinctions,andthe
citizensofIndiacannotaccepttitlesfromaforeignstate.Thus,Indianaristocratictitlesandtitlesofnobility
conferredbytheBritishhavebeenabolished.However,awardssuchastheBharatRatnahavebeenheldto
bevalidbytheSupremeCourtonthegroundthattheyaremerelydecorationsandcannotbeusedbythe
recipientasatitle.[41][42]

RighttoFreedom
TheRighttoFreedomiscoveredinArticles1922,withtheviewofguaranteeingindividualrightsthat
wereconsideredvitalbytheframersoftheConstitution,andtheseArticlesalsoincludecertainrestrictions
thatmaybeimposedbytheStateonindividuallibertyunderspecifiedconditions.Article19guaranteessix
freedomsinthenatureofcivilrights,whichareavailableonlytocitizensofIndia.[43][44]Theseincludethe
freedomofspeechandexpression,freedomofassemblywithoutarms,freedomofassociation,freedomof
movementthroughouttheterritoryofIndia,freedomtoresideandsettleinanypartofthecountryofIndia
andthefreedomtopractiseanyprofession.Allthesefreedomsaresubjecttoreasonablerestrictionsthat
mayimposedonthembytheState,listedunderArticle19itself.Thegroundsforimposingthese
restrictionsvaryaccordingtothefreedomsoughttoberestricted,andincludenationalsecurity,public
order,decencyandmorality,contemptofcourt,incitementtooffences,anddefamation.TheStateisalso
empowered,intheinterestsofthegeneralpublictonationaliseanytrade,industryorservicetothe
exclusionofthecitizens.[45]
ThefreedomsguaranteedbyArticle19arefurthersoughttobeprotectedbyArticles2022.[46]Thescope
ofthesearticles,particularlywithrespecttothedoctrineofdueprocess,washeavilydebatedbythe
ConstituentAssembly.Itwasargued,especiallybyBenegalNarsingRau,thattheincorporationofsucha
clausewouldhampersociallegislationandcauseproceduraldifficultiesinmaintainingorder,andtherefore
itoughttobeexcludedfromtheConstitutionaltogether.[47]TheConstituentAssemblyin1948eventually
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omittedthephrase"dueprocess"infavourof"procedureestablishedbylaw".[48]Asaresult,Article21,
whichpreventstheencroachmentoflifeorpersonallibertybytheStateexceptinaccordancewiththe
procedureestablishedbylaw,[note6]was,until1978,construednarrowlyasbeingrestrictedtoexecutive
action.However,in1978,theSupremeCourtinthecaseofManekaGandhiv.UnionofIndiaextendedthe
protectionofArticle21tolegislativeaction,holdingthatanylawlayingdownaproceduremustbejust,
fairandreasonable,[49]andeffectivelyreadingdueprocessintoArticle21.[50]Inthesamecase,the
SupremeCourtalsoruledthat"life"underArticle21meantmorethanamere"animalexistence"itwould
includetherighttolivewithhumandignityandallotheraspectswhichmadelife"meaningful,complete
andworthliving".[51]SubsequentjudicialinterpretationhasbroadenedthescopeofArticle21toinclude
withinitanumberofrightsincludingthosetolivelihood,goodhealth,[52]cleanenvironment,water,[53]
speedytrial[54]andhumanitariantreatmentwhileimprisoned.[55][56]Therighttoeducationatelementary
levelhasbeenmadeoneoftheFundamentalRightsunderArticle21Abythe86thConstitutional
amendmentof2002.[57]
Article20providesprotectionfromconvictionforoffencesincertainrespects,includingtherightsagainst
expostfactolaws,doublejeopardyandfreedomfromselfincrimination.[58]Article22providesspecific
rightstoarrestedanddetainedpersons,inparticulartherightstobeinformedofthegroundsofarrest,
consultalawyerofone'sownchoice,beproducedbeforeamagistratewithin24hoursofthearrest,andthe
freedomnottobedetainedbeyondthatperiodwithoutanorderofthemagistrate.[59]TheConstitutionalso
authorisestheStatetomakelawsprovidingforpreventivedetention,subjecttocertainothersafeguards
presentinArticle22.[60]Theprovisionspertainingtopreventivedetentionwerediscussedwithskepticism
andmisgivingsbytheConstituentAssembly,andwerereluctantlyapprovedafterafewamendmentsin
1949.[61]Article22providesthatwhenapersonisdetainedunderanylawofpreventivedetention,theState
candetainsuchpersonwithouttrialforonlythreemonths,andanydetentionforalongerperiodmustbe
authorisedbyanAdvisoryBoard.Thepersonbeingdetainedalsohastherighttobeinformedaboutthe
groundsofdetention,andbepermittedtomakearepresentationagainstit,attheearliestopportunity.[62]

RightagainstExploitation
TheRightagainstExploitation,containedinArticles2324,laysdown
certainprovisionstopreventexploitationoftheweakersectionsofthe
societybyindividualsortheState.[63]Article23providesprohibitshuman
trafficking,makingitanoffencepunishablebylaw,andalsoprohibits
forcedlabouroranyactofcompellingapersontoworkwithoutwages
wherehewaslegallyentitlednottoworkortoreceiveremunerationforit.
However,itpermitstheStatetoimposecompulsoryserviceforpublic
purposes,includingconscriptionandcommunityservice.[64][65]The
ChildlabourandBegaris
BondedLaboursystem(Abolition)Act,1976,hasbeenenactedby
prohibitedundertheRight
ParliamenttogiveeffecttothisArticle.[66]Article24prohibitsthe
againstExploitation.
employmentofchildrenbelowtheageof14yearsinfactories,minesand
otherhazardousjobs.ParliamenthasenactedtheChildLabour
(ProhibitionandRegulation)Act,1986,providingregulationsfortheabolitionof,andpenaltiesfor
employing,childlabour,aswellasprovisionsforrehabilitationofformerchildlabourers.[67]

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RighttoFreedomofReligion
TheRighttoFreedomofReligion,coveredinArticles2528,providesreligiousfreedomtoallcitizensand
ensuresasecularstateinIndia.AccordingtotheConstitution,thereisnoofficialStatereligion,andthe
Stateisrequiredtotreatallreligionsimpartiallyandneutrally.[68]Article25guaranteesallpersonsthe
freedomofconscienceandtherighttopreach,practiceandpropagateanyreligionoftheirchoice.This
rightis,however,subjecttopublicorder,moralityandhealth,andthepoweroftheStatetotakemeasures
forsocialwelfareandreform.[69]Therighttopropagate,however,doesnotincludetherighttoconvert
anotherindividual,sinceitwouldamounttoaninfringementoftheother'srighttofreedomof
conscience.[70]Article26guaranteesallreligiousdenominationsandsects,subjecttopublicorder,morality
andhealth,tomanagetheirownaffairsinmattersofreligion,setupinstitutionsoftheirownforcharitable
orreligiouspurposes,andown,acquireandmanagepropertyinaccordancewithlaw.Theseprovisionsdo
notderogatefromtheState'spowertoacquirepropertybelongingtoareligiousdenomination.[71]TheState
isalsoempoweredtoregulateanyeconomic,politicalorothersecularactivityassociatedwithreligious
practice.[68]Article27guaranteesthatnopersoncanbecompelledtopaytaxesforthepromotionofany
particularreligionorreligiousinstitution.[72]Article28prohibitsreligiousinstructioninawhollyState
fundededucationalinstitution,andeducationalinstitutionsreceivingaidfromtheStatecannotcompelany
oftheirmemberstoreceivereligiousinstructionorattendreligiousworshipwithouttheir(ortheir
guardian's)consent.[68]

CulturalandEducationalRights
TheCulturalandEducationalrights,giveninArticles29and30,aremeasurestoprotecttherightsof
cultural,linguisticandreligiousminorities,byenablingthemtoconservetheirheritageandprotectingthem
againstdiscrimination.[73]Article29grantsanysectionofcitizenshavingadistinctlanguage,scriptculture
ofitsown,therighttoconserveanddevelopthesame,andthussafeguardstherightsofminoritiesby
preventingtheStatefromimposinganyexternalcultureonthem.[73][74]Italsoprohibitsdiscrimination
againstanycitizenforadmissionintoanyeducationalinstitutionsmaintainedoraidedbytheState,onthe
groundsonlyofreligion,race,caste,languageoranyofthem.However,thisissubjecttoreservationofa
reasonablenumberofseatsbytheStateforsociallyandeducationallybackwardclasses,aswellas
reservationofupto50percentofseatsinanyeducationalinstitutionrunbyaminoritycommunityfor
citizensbelongingtothatcommunity.[75]
Article30confersuponallreligiousandlinguisticminoritiestherighttosetupandadministereducational
institutionsoftheirchoiceinordertopreserveanddeveloptheirownculture,andprohibitstheState,while
grantingaid,fromdiscriminatingagainstanyinstitutiononthebasisofthefactthatitisadministeredbya
religiousorculturalminority.[74]Theterm"minority",whilenotdefinedintheConstitution,hasbeen
interpretedbytheSupremeCourttomeananycommunitywhichnumericallyformslessthan50%ofthe
populationofthestateinwhichitseekstoavailtherightunderArticle30.Inordertoclaimtheright,itis
essentialthattheeducationalinstitutionmusthavebeenestablishedaswellasadministeredbyareligious
orlinguisticminority.Further,therightunderArticle30canbeavailedofeveniftheeducationalinstitution
establisheddoesnotconfineitselftotheteachingofthereligionorlanguageoftheminorityconcerned,ora
majorityofstudentsinthatinstitutiondonotbelongtosuchminority.[76]Thisrightissubjecttothepower
oftheStatetoimposereasonableregulationsregardingeducationalstandards,conditionsofserviceof
employees,feestructure,andtheutilisationofanyaidgrantedbyit.[77]
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RighttoConstitutionalRemedies
TheRighttoConstitutionalRemediesempowerscitizenstoapproachtheSupremeCourtofIndiatoseek
enforcement,orprotectionagainstinfringement,oftheirFundamentalRights.[78]Article32providesa
guaranteedremedy,intheformofaFundamentalRightitself,forenforcementofalltheotherFundamental
Rights,andtheSupremeCourtisdesignatedastheprotectoroftheserightsbytheConstitution.[79]The
SupremeCourthasbeenempoweredtoissuewrits,namelyhabeascorpus,mandamus,prohibition,
certiorariandquowarranto,fortheenforcementoftheFundamentalRights,whiletheHighCourtshave
beenempoweredunderArticle226whichisnotaFundamentalRightinitselftoissuetheseprerogative
writsevenincasesnotinvolvingtheviolationofFundamentalRights.[80]TheSupremeCourthasthe
jurisdictiontoenforcetheFundamentalRightsevenagainstprivatebodies,andincaseofanyviolation,
awardcompensationaswelltotheaffectedindividual.ExerciseofjurisdictionbytheSupremeCourtcan
alsobesuomotuoronthebasisofapublicinterestlitigation.[78]Thisrightcannotbesuspended,except
undertheprovisionsofArticle359whenastateofemergencyisdeclared.[79]

DirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicy
TheDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicy,embodiedinPartIVoftheConstitution,aredirectionsgiventothe
Statetoguidetheestablishmentofaneconomicandsocialdemocracy,asproposedbythePreamble.[81]
Theysetforththehumanitarianandsocialistinstructionsthatweretheaimofsocialrevolutionenvisagedin
IndiabytheConstituentAssembly.[82]TheStateisexpectedtokeeptheseprinciplesinmindwhileframing
lawsandpolicies,eventhoughtheyarenonjusticiableinnature.TheDirectivePrinciplesmaybeclassified
underthefollowingcategories:idealsthattheStateoughttostrivetowardsachievingdirectionsforthe
exerciseoflegislativeandexecutivepowerandrightsofthecitizenswhichtheStatemustaimtowards
securing.[81]
Despitebeingnonjusticiable,theDirectivePrinciplesactasacheckontheStatetheorisedasayardstick
inthehandsoftheelectorateandtheoppositiontomeasuretheperformanceofagovernmentatthetimeof
anelection.[83]Article37,whilestatingthattheDirectivePrinciplesarenotenforceableinanycourtoflaw,
declaresthemtobe"fundamentaltothegovernanceofthecountry"andimposesanobligationontheState
toapplytheminmattersoflegislation.[84]Thus,theyservetoemphasisethewelfarestatemodelofthe
ConstitutionandemphasisethepositivedutyoftheStatetopromotethewelfareofthepeoplebyaffirming
social,economicandpoliticaljustice,aswellastofightincomeinequalityandensureindividualdignity,as
mandatedbyArticle38.[85][86]
Article39laysdowncertainprinciplesofpolicytobefollowedbytheState,includingprovidingan
adequatemeansoflivelihoodforallcitizens,equalpayforequalworkformenandwomen,properworking
conditions,reductionoftheconcentrationofwealthandmeansofproductionfromthehandsofafew,and
distributionofcommunityresourcesto"subservethecommongood".[87]Theseclauseshighlightthe
Constitutionalobjectivesofbuildinganegalitariansocialorderandestablishingawelfarestate,bybringing
aboutasocialrevolutionassistedbytheState,andhavebeenusedtosupportthenationalisationofmineral
resourcesaswellaspublicutilities.[88]Further,severallegislationspertainingtoagrarianreformandland
tenurehavebeenenactedbythefederalandstategovernments,inordertoensureequitabledistributionof
landresources.[89]
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Articles4143mandatetheStatetoendeavourtosecuretoallcitizenstherighttowork,alivingwage,
socialsecurity,maternityrelief,andadecentstandardofliving.[90]Theseprovisionsaimatestablishinga
socialiststateasenvisagedinthePreamble.[91]Article43alsoplacesupontheStatetheresponsibilityof
promotingcottageindustries,andthefederalgovernmenthas,infurtheranceofthis,establishedseveral
Boardsforthepromotionofkhadi,handloomsetc.,incoordinationwiththestategovernments.[92]Article
39ArequirestheStatetoprovidefreelegalaidtoensurethatopportunitiesforsecuringjusticeareavailable
toallcitizensirrespectiveofeconomicorotherdisabilities.[93]Article43AmandatestheStatetowork
towardssecuringtheparticipationofworkersinthemanagementofindustries.[91]TheState,underArticle
46,isalsomandatedtopromotetheinterestsofandworkfortheeconomicupliftofthescheduledcastes
andscheduledtribesandprotectthemfromdiscriminationandexploitation.Severalenactments,including
twoConstitutionalamendments,havebeenpassedtogiveeffecttothisprovision.[94]
Article44encouragestheStatetosecureauniformcivilcodeforallcitizens,byeliminatingdiscrepancies
betweenvariouspersonallawscurrentlyinforceinthecountry.However,thishasremaineda"deadletter"
despitenumerousremindersfromtheSupremeCourttoimplementtheprovision.[95]Article45originally
mandatedtheStatetoprovidefreeandcompulsoryeducationtochildrenbetweentheagesofsixand
fourteenyears,[96]butafterthe86thAmendmentin2002,thishasbeenconvertedintoaFundamentalRight
andreplacedbyanobligationupontheStatetosecurechildhoodcaretoallchildrenbelowtheageof
six.[57]Article47commitstheStatetoraisethestandardoflivingandimprovepublichealth,andprohibit
theconsumptionofintoxicatingdrinksanddrugsinjurioustohealth.[97]Asaconsequence,partialortotal
prohibitionhasbeenintroducedinseveralstates,butfinancialconstraintshavepreventeditsfullfledged
application.[98]TheStateisalsomandatedbyArticle48toorganiseagricultureandanimalhusbandryon
modernandscientificlinesbyimprovingbreedsandprohibitingslaughterofcattle.[99]Article48A
mandatestheStatetoprotecttheenvironmentandsafeguardtheforestsandwildlifeofthecountry,while
Article49placesanobligationupontheStatetoensurethepreservationofmonumentsandobjectsof
nationalimportance.[100]Article50requirestheStatetoensuretheseparationofjudiciaryfromexecutivein
publicservices,inordertoensurejudicialindependence,andfederallegislationhasbeenenactedtoachieve
thisobjective.[101][102]TheState,accordingtoArticle51,mustalsostriveforthepromotionofinternational
peaceandsecurity,andParliamenthasbeenempoweredunderArticle253tomakelawsgivingeffectto
internationaltreaties.[103]

FundamentalDuties

Anyactofdisrespecttowardsthe
IndianNationalFlagisillegal.

TheFundamentalDutiesofcitizenswereaddedtotheConstitutionby
the42ndAmendmentin1976,upontherecommendationsofthe
SwaranSinghCommitteethatwasconstitutedbythegovernment
earlierthatyear.[18][104]Originallyteninnumber,theFundamental
Dutieswereincreasedtoelevenbythe86thAmendmentin2002,
whichaddedadutyoneveryparentorguardiantoensurethattheir
childorwardwasprovidedopportunitiesforeducationbetweenthe
agesofsixandfourteenyears.[57]TheotherFundamentalDuties
obligateallcitizenstorespectthenationalsymbolsofIndia,including
theConstitution,tocherishitsheritage,preserveitscompositeculture
andassistinitsdefence.TheyalsoobligateallIndianstopromotethe

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spiritofcommonbrotherhood,protecttheenvironmentandpublicproperty,developscientifictemper,
abjureviolence,andstrivetowardsexcellenceinallspheresoflife.[105]Citizensaremorallyobligatedby
theConstitutiontoperformtheseduties.However,liketheDirectivePrinciples,thesearenonjustifiable,
withoutanylegalsanctionincaseoftheirviolationornoncompliance.[104][106]Thereisreferencetosuch
dutiesininternationalinstrumentssuchastheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRightsandInternational
CovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights,andArticle51AbringstheIndianConstitutionintoconformitywith
thesetreaties.[104]
TheFundamentalDutiesnotedintheconstitutionareasfollows:[107]
ItshallbethedutyofeverycitizenofIndia
toabidebytheConstitutionandrespectitsidealsandinstitutions,theNationalFlagandtheNational
Anthem
tocherishandfollowthenobleidealswhichinspiredournationalstruggleforfreedom
toupholdandprotectthesovereignty,unityandintegrityofIndia
todefendthecountryandrendernationalservicewhencalledupontodoso
topromoteharmonyandthespiritofcommonbrotherhoodamongstallthepeopleofIndia
transcendingreligious,linguisticandregionalorsectionaldiversitiestorenouncepractices
derogatorytothedignityofwomen
tovalueandpreservetherichheritageofourcompositeculture
toprotectandimprovethenaturalenvironmentincludingforests,lakes,riversandwildlife,andto
havecompassionforlivingcreatures
todevelopthescientifictemper,humanismandthespiritofinquiryandreform
tosafeguardpublicpropertyandtoabjureviolence
tostrivetowardsexcellenceinallspheresofindividualandcollectiveactivitysothatthenation
constantlyrisestohigherlevelsofendeavourandachievement
whoisaparentorguardiantoprovideopportunitiesforeducationtohischildorward,asthecase
maybe,betweentheageofsixandfourteenyears

Criticismandanalysis
Fewerchildrenarenowemployedinhazardousenvironments,buttheiremploymentinnonhazardousjobs,
prevalentlyasdomestichelp,violatesthespiritoftheconstitutionintheeyesofmanycriticsandhuman
rightsadvocates.Morethan16.5millionchildrenareinemployment.[108]Indiawasranked88outof159
countriesin2005,accordingtothedegreetowhichcorruptionisperceivedtoexistamongpublicofficials
andpoliticians.[109]Theyear19901991wasdeclaredasthe"YearofSocialJustice"inthememoryof
B.R.Ambedkar.[110]Thegovernmentprovidesfreetextbookstostudentsbelongingtoscheduledcastesand
tribespursuingmedicineandengineeringcourses.During20022003,asumofRs.4.77crore
(47.7million)wasreleasedforthispurpose.[111]Inordertoprotectscheduledcastesandtribesfrom
discrimination,thegovernmentenactedtheScheduledCasteandScheduledTribe(PreventionofAtrocities)
Act,1989,prescribingseverepunishmentsforsuchactions.[112]
TheMinimumWagesActof1948empowersgovernmenttofixminimumwagesforpeopleworkingacross
theeconomicspectrum.[113]TheConsumerProtectionActof1986providesforthebetterprotectionof
consumers.TheEqualRemunerationActof1976providesforequalpayforequalworkforbothmenand
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women.[114]TheSampoornaGrameenRozgarYojana(UniversalRuralEmploymentProgramme)was
launchedin2001toattaintheobjectiveofprovidinggainfulemploymentfortheruralpoor.The
programmewasimplementedthroughthePanchayatiRajinstitutions.[115]
Asystemofelectedvillagecouncils,knownasPanchayatiRajcoversalmostallstatesandterritoriesof
India.[116]OnethirdofthetotalnumberofseatshavebeenreservedforwomeninPanchayatsatevery
levelandinthecaseofBihar,halftheseatshavebeenreservedforwomen.[117][118]Thejudiciaryhasbeen
separatedfromtheexecutive"inallthestatesandterritoriesexceptJammuandKashmirand
Nagaland."[111]India'sforeignpolicyhasbeeninfluencedbytheDirectivePrinciples.Indiasupportedthe
UnitedNationsinpeacekeepingactivities,withtheIndianArmyhavingparticipatedin37UNpeace
keepingoperations.[119]
Theimplementationofauniformcivilcodeforallcitizenshasnotbeenachievedowingtowidespread
oppositionfromvariousreligiousgroupsandpoliticalparties.TheShahBanocase(198586)provokeda
politicalfirestorminIndiawhentheSupremeCourtruledthatShahBano,aMuslimwomanwhohadbeen
divorcedbyherhusbandin1978wasentitledtoreceivealimonyfromherformerhusbandunderIndianlaw
applicableforallIndianwomen.ThisdecisionevokedoutrageintheMuslimcommunity,whichsoughtthe
applicationoftheMuslimpersonallawandinresponsetheParliamentpassedtheMuslimWomen
(ProtectionofRightsonDivorce)Act,1986overturningtheSupremeCourt'sverdict.[120]Thisactprovoked
furtheroutrage,asjurists,criticsandpoliticiansallegedthatthefundamentalrightofequalityforall
citizensirrespectiveofreligionorgenderwasbeingjettisonedtopreservetheinterestsofdistinctreligious
communities.Theverdictandthelegislationremainasourceofheateddebate,withmanycitingtheissueas
aprimeexampleofthepoorimplementationofFundamentalRights.[120]

RelationshipbetweentheFundamentalRights,DirectivePrinciples
andFundamentalDuties
TheDirectivePrincipleshavebeenusedtoupholdtheConstitutionalvalidityoflegislationsincaseofa
conflictwiththeFundamentalRights.Article31C,addedbythe25thAmendmentin1971,providedthat
anylawmadetogiveeffecttotheDirectivePrinciplesinArticle39(b)(c)wouldnotbeinvalidonthe
groundsthattheyderogatedfromtheFundamentalRightsconferredbyArticles14,19and31.The
applicationofthisarticlewassoughttobeextendedtoalltheDirectivePrinciplesbythe42ndAmendment
in1976,buttheSupremeCourtstruckdowntheextensionasvoidonthegroundthatitviolatedthebasic
structureoftheConstitution.[121]TheFundamentalRightsandDirectivePrincipleshavealsobeenused
togetherinformingthebasisoflegislationforsocialwelfare.[122]TheSupremeCourt,afterthejudgement
intheKesavanandaBharaticase,hasadoptedtheviewoftheFundamentalRightsandDirectivePrinciples
beingcomplementarytoeachother,eachsupplementingtheother'sroleinaimingatthesamegoalof
establishingawelfarestatebymeansofsocialrevolution.[123]Similarly,theSupremeCourthasusedthe
FundamentalDutiestoupholdtheConstitutionalvalidityofstatuteswhichseekstopromotetheobjectslaid
outintheFundamentalDuties.[124]TheseDutieshavealsobeenheldtobeobligatoryforallcitizens,
subjecttotheStateenforcingthesamebymeansofavalidlaw.[105]TheSupremeCourthasalsoissued
directionstotheStateinthisregard,withaviewtowardsmakingtheprovisionseffectiveandenablinga
citizenstoproperlyperformtheirduties.[124]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_Rights,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India

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