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# Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

## Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 1
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

1-1.*
Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers from (16)10 to (31)10
Dec
Bin
Oct
Hex

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1 0000 1 0001 1 0010 1 0011 1 0100 1 0101 1 0110 1 0111 1 1000 1 1001 1 1010 1 1011 1 1100 1 1101 1 1110 1 1111
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F

1-4.*
( 1001101 ) 2 = 2 6 + 2 3 + 2 2 + 2 0 = 77
( 1010011.101 ) 2 = 2 6 + 2 4 + 2 1 + 2 0 + 2 1 + 2 3 = 83.625
( 10101110.1001 ) 2 = 2 7 + 2 5 + 2 3 + 2 2 + 2 1 + 2 1 + 2 4 = 174.5625

1-7.*
Decimal

Binary

Octal

369.3125

101110001.0101

561.24

171.5

189.625

10111101.101

275.5

BD.A

214.625

11010110.101

326.5

D6.A

62407.625

1111001111000111.101

171707.5

F3C7.A

1-8.*
a)

7562/8

945 + 2/8

=>

945/8

118 +1/8

=>

118/8

14 + 6/8

=>

14/8

1 + 6/8

=>

1/8

1/8

=>

0.45 8

3.6

=>

0.60 8

4.8

=>

0.80 8

6.4

=>

0.20x8

3.2

=>

(7562.45)10

(16612.3463)8

b)

(1938.257)10

(792.41CA)16

c)

(175.175)10

(10101111.001011)2

a)

(673.6)8

(1BB.C)16

(7174.54)8

1-9.*

b)

(E7C.B)16

## Problem Solutions Chapter 1

c)

(310.2)4

a)

(BEE)r = (2699)10

(11 01 00.10)2

1-13.*
11 r 2 + 14 r 1 + 14 r 0 = 2699
11 r 2 + 14 r 2685 = 0
By the quadratic equation: r = 15 or 16.27
b)

(365)r = (194)10
3 r 2 + 6 r 1 + 5 r 0 = 194
3 r 2 + 6 r 189 = 0

## By the quadratic equation: r = 9 or 7

Solutions are: r = 8, 2.618..., 0.381...
ANSWER: The chicken has 4 toes on each foot (half of 8).

1-15.*
(694)10

(835)10

## (1000 0011 0101)BCD

0001

0110

1001

0100

+1000

+0011

+0101

1111

1100

1001

+0110

+0110

+0000

0101

1 0010

1001

1-16.*
a) (0100 1000 0110 0111)BCD
b) (0011 0111 1000.0111 0101)BCD

(4867)10

(1001100000011)2

(378.75)10

(101111010.11)2

1-23.*
a)

(101101101)2

b)

c)

0011 0011

0011 0110

0011 0101ASCII

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2-1*
a)

XYZ = X + Y + Z

## Verification of DeMorgans Theorem

X

XYZ

XYZ

X+Y+Z

X + YZ = ( X + Y ) ( X + Z )

b)

## The Second Distributive Law

X

YZ

X+YZ

X+Y

X+Z

(X+Y)(X+Z)

XY + YZ + XZ = XY + YZ + XZ

c)
X

XY

YZ

XZ XY+YZ+XZ XY
0

YZ
0

XZ XY+YZ+XZ
0

2-2.*
a)

XY + XY + XY

X+Y

= ( XY + XY ) + ( XY + XY )
= X( Y + Y) + Y(X + X)
= X+Y

## Problem Solutions Chapter 2

b)

AB + BC + AB + BC

X+Y+Z

XY + XZ + YZ

= ( AB + AB ) + ( BC + BC )
= B(A + A) + B(C + C)
= B+B
=1
c)

Y + XZ + XY
= Y + XY + XZ
= ( Y + X ) ( Y + Y ) + XZ
= Y + X + XZ
= Y + (X + X )( X + Z)
= X+Y+Z

d)

XY + YZ + XZ + XY + YZ
= X Y + YZ ( X + X ) + XZ + XY + YZ
= XY + XYZ + XYZ + XZ + XY + YZ
= XY ( 1 + Z ) + XYZ + XZ + XY + YZ
= XY + XZ ( 1 + Y ) + XY + YZ
= XY + XZ + XY ( Z + Z ) + YZ
= XY + XZ + XYZ + YZ ( 1 + X )
= XY + XZ ( 1 + Y ) + YZ
= XY + XZ + YZ
= B C + ABC

2-7*.
a)

XY + XYZ + XY = X + XYZ = ( X + XY ) ( X + Z ) = ( X + X ) ( X + Y ) ( X + Z )
= ( X + Y ) ( X + Z ) = X + YZ

b)

X + Y ( Z + X + Z ) = X + Y ( Z + XZ ) = X + Y ( Z + X ) ( Z + Z ) = X + YZ + XY
= ( X + X ) ( X + Y ) + YZ = X + Y + YZ = X + Y

c)

## WX ( Z + YZ ) + X ( W + WYZ ) = WXZ + WXYZ + WX + WXYZ

= WXZ + WXZ + WX = WX + WX = X

d)

## ( AB + AB ) ( CD + CD ) + AC = ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + A + C

= ABCD + A + C = A + C + A ( BCD ) = A + C + C ( BD ) = A + C + BD

2-9*.
a)

F = ( A + B)(A + B)

b)

F = ( ( V + W )X + Y )Z

c)

F = [ W + X + ( Y + Z ) ( Y + Z ) ] [ W + X + YZ + YZ ]

d)

F = ABC + ( A + B )C + A ( B + C )

## Problem Solutions Chapter 2

2-10.*
Truth Tables a, b, c
X

a)

## XYZ + XYZ + XYZ + XYZ

Sum of Minterms:

Product of Maxterms: ( X + Y + Z ) ( X + Y + Z ) ( X + Y + Z ) ( X + Y + Z )
b)

## ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC

Sum of Minterms:

Product of Maxterms: ( A + B + C ) ( A + B + C ) ( A + B + C ) ( A + B + C )
c)

## WXYZ + WXYZ + WXYZ + WXYZ + WXYZ + WXYZ

Sum of Minterms:

+ W XYZ
Product of Maxterms: ( W + X + Y + Z ) ( W + X + Y + Z ) ( W + X + Y + Z )
( W + X + Y + Z)( W + X + Y + Z)( W + X + Y + Z )
( W + X + Y + Z)( W + X + Y + Z)( W + X + Y + Z )

2-12.*

( AB + C ) ( B + CD ) = AB + ABCD + BC = AB + BC s.o.p.

a)

= B ( A + C ) p.o.s.
X + X( X + Y)( Y + Z) = ( X + X )(X + (X + Y)( Y + Z) )

b)

= ( X + X + Y ) ( X + Y + Z ) p.o.s.
= ( 1 + Y ) ( X + Y + Z ) = X + Y + Z s.o.p.
( A + BC + CD ) ( B + EF ) = ( A + B + C ) ( A + B + D ) ( A + C + D ) ( B + EF )

c)

= ( A + B + C ) ( A + B + D ) ( A + C + D ) ( B + E ) ( B + F ) p.o.s.
( A + BC + CD ) ( B + EF ) = A ( B + EF ) + BC ( B + EF ) + CD ( B + EF )
= A B + AEF + BCEF + BCD + CDEF s.o.p.

2-15.*
a)
1
X

b)

Y
1
Z
XZ + XY

1
1

1
A

c)

B
1
1

C
A + CB

1 1
A 1 1

1
1

C
B+C

## Problem Solutions Chapter 2

2-18.*
a)

b)

1
1

C
1

Y
X

c)

1 1

A
1

Z
m ( 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15 )

m ( 3, 5, 6, 7 )

1
1
1

D
m ( 0, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15 )

2-19*
a) Prime = XZ, WX, XZ, WZ

## b) Prime = CD, AC, BD, ABD, BC

Essential = XZ, XZ

## Essential = AC, BC, BD

2-22.*
a) s.o.p. CD + AC + BD

## c) s.o.p. BD + ABD + ( A BC or ACD )

b) s.o.p. AC + BD + AD

p.o.s. ( C + D ) ( A + D ) ( A + B + C )

p.o.s. ( C + D ) ( A + D ) ( A + B + C )

p.o.s. ( A + B ) ( B + D ) ( B + C + D )

2-25.*
b)

a)

B
X
A

1
1 X 1

W
1

C
Primes = AB, AC, BC, ABC
Essential = AB, AC, BC
F = AB + AC + BC

c)

Y
1
1

C
X X
1

Z
Primes = XZ, XZ, WXY, WXY, WYZ, WYZ
Essential = XZ
F = XZ + WXY + WXY

X 1

1 X

X X

D
Primes = AB, C, AD, BD
F = C + AD + ( BD or AB )

2-30.*
X Y = XY + XY
Dual (X Y ) = Dual ( XY + XY )
= (X + Y)(X + Y)
= XY + XY
= XY + XY
= XY

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 3
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-4.*
The longest path is from input C or D.
0.078 ns + 0.078 ns + 0.052 ns + 0.078 ns = 0.286 ns

3-9.*
P-Logic
X

Y NAND

NOR

Y NAND

N-Logic
NOR

Y NAND

NOR

3-11.*
C

1 1
1

F = AB + AC

3-24.*(Errata: Replace equations with F = W and G = W Y + WZ. See Fig. 4-10 for decoder diagram/table.)
F = D 0U D 1U D 2U D 3U = D 0U + D 1U + D 2U + D 3U = W ( XY + XY + XY + XY ) = W
G = D 0U D 2U D 1L D 2L = D 0U + D 2U + D 1L + D 3L = W ( XY + XY ) + W ( XZ + XZ )
= WY + WZ

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

4-1.*
a)

b)
VDD
F7

F7

F6

F6

F5

F5

F4

F4

F3

F3

F2

F2

F1

F1

F0

F0

D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8

DECODER

A0
A1
A2

A0
A1
A2

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14

DECODER

A3
A4

A0
A1
A2

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

D15
D16
D17
D18
D19
D20
D21
D22
D23
D24
D25
D26
D27
D28
D29
D30
D31

55

## Problem Solutions Chapter 4

4-10.*
DECODER

A0
A1

A0
A1

0
1
2
3

D0
D1
D2

DECODER

A2

A0

D3

0
1

D4
D5

D3
0
X
X
X
1

D2
0
X
X
1
0

D1
0
X
1
0
0

D0
0
1
0
0
0

A1
X
0
0
1
1

A0
X
0
1
0
1

A1

V
0
1
1
1
1

A0

D1

X
1
D3

D1
1
1

D2

D3

V = D0 + D1 + D2 + D3

1
D0

D0

A0 = D0 ( D 1 + D2 )

1
1

A1 = D0 D 1

4-19.*
8x1 MUX
D(7:0)

D(7:0) Y
0

A(2:0)

S(2:0)
8x1 MUX

D(14:8)

D(6:0) Y
0
D(7)
S(2:0)

A(3)

3 OR gates

4-25.*
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

C
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

D
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

F
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1

C
D

F=D
B
A

F=C D

4 x 1 MUX
S0
S1
D0
D1
D2
D3

VDD

F=C D

F=1

56

D2

## Problem Solutions Chapter 4

4-28*
IN
00000
00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111

OUT
00 0000
00 0001
00 0010
00 0011
00 0100
00 0101
00 0110
00 0111

IN
01000
01001
01010
01011
01100
01101
01110
01111

OUT
00 1000
00 1001
01 0000
01 0001
01 0010
01 0011
01 0100
01 0101

IN
10000
10001
10010
10011
10100
10101
10110
10111

OUT
01 0110
01 0111
01 1000
01 1001
10 0000
10 0001
10 0010
10 0011

IN
11000
11001
11010
11011
11100
11101
11110
11111

4-32*
PTERMS
XY
X
YZ
XY
Z

1
2
3
4
5

INPUTS
X Y Z

1
0

1
1

1
0

OUTPUTS
C D E

1
1

4-34*
PTERM
ABD
ABC
ACD
BCD
CD
CD
D

Assume 3-input OR
gates.

1
2
3
4
5
7
8

A
0
0
0

INPUTS
B C
0
0 1
- 0
0 1
0 1
0

PTERM
A
BC
BD
BC
BD
BC D
CD
CD
D
-

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

A
1

57

OUTPUTS
D W X Y Z
1 1 1
1 1
0 1
- 1
1 1
1 1
0 1
1

INPUTS
B C
1 1
1- 0 1
0 1 0
1
0

1
0
1
0

OUT
10 0100
10 0101
10 0110
10 0111
10 1000
10 1001
11 0000
11 0001

## Problem Solutions Chapter 4

4-39*
X1

N1

N2

X2

N6

N3

N4
X3
N5
X4

4-43.*
begin
F <= (X and Z) or ((not Y) and Z);
end;

4-46.*

4-49.*
X1

N1

N2

X2

N6

N3
N4

9 is the highest
priority.

X3
N5
X4

4-53.*
module circuit_4_53(X, Y, Z, F);
input X, Y, Z;
output F;
assign F = (X & Z) | (Z & ~Y);
endmodule

58

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 5
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

5-2.*
C 1 = T 3 + T 2 = T 1 C 0 + T 2 = A 0 B 0 C 0 + A 0 + B 0 = ( A 0 + B 0 )C 0 + A 0 B 0 = ( A 0 B 0 + C 0 ) ( A 0 + B 0 )
C1 = A0 B0 + A0 C0 + B0 C0
S0 = C0 T4 = C0 T1 T2 = C0 A0 B0 ( A0 + B0 ) = C0 ( A0 + B0 ) ( A0 + B0 ) = C0 A0 B0 + A0 B0
S0 = A0 B0 C0

T3

T1

T4

T2

5-3.*
Unsigned
1001 1100 1001 1101 1010 1000 0000 0000 1000 0000
1s Complement 0110 0011 0110 0010 0101 0111 1111 1111 0111 1111
2s Complement 0110 0100 0110 0011 0101 1000 0000 0000 1000 0000

5-6.*
+36

0100100

36

- 24

1101000

+(24)

- 35

1011101

0100100
+

1101000
10001100

= 12

35

0001100
1011101

- (24)

0011000

= 11

1110101

5-17*
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

S
0
1
1
0
1

A
0111
0100
1101
0111
0001

B
0111
0111
1010
1010
1000

C4
0
0
1
1
0

S3 S2 S1 S0
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1

5-18.*
A0
A1

B3
B3

B2

B1

B2

B1

B0

B0
0
Augend

Sum
Cout

A2
B3

B2

B1

B0

Augend

Sum
Cout

A3
B3

B2

B1

B0

Augend

Sum
Cout

S7

S6 S5 S4 S3

S2

5-22.*

5-26.*

S1

S0

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 6
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

6-6.*
a) There are no setup time violations. There is a hold time violation at 28 ns. There is an input
combination violation just before 24 ns.

b) There are no setup time violations. There is a hold time violation just before 24 ns. There is an input
combination violation just before 24 ns.

## c) There is a setup time violation at 28ns.

d) There is a hold time violation at 16ns and a setup time violation at 24ns.
Present state

Input

X=0

Next state

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

000

100

001

110

010

011

111

101

X=1
001

100

010

101
000

111

011

110

6-9.*
00/1

01/0

00/0

11/0 1

0
10/1
11/1

x0/0, 01/1

01/1, 10/0

11/1
3

2
x0/1, 01/0

Format: XY/Z

11/0

## Problem Solutions Chapter 6

6-10.*
SA = B

SB = X A

RA = B

RB = X A

Present state

Input

1/1

Next state

0/0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1

0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

Output

1/0

0/1

0/1
1/0

3
0/0

1/1

Format: X/Y

6-14.*
Present state
A

B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Input
X
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

DA

Next state
A

B
1

A 1

0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1

0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0

DB

B
1

X
DA = AB + AX + BX

DB = AX + BX

## Logic diagram not given.

6-15.*
Format: XY/Z (x = unspecified)
Present state

Inputs

Next state

Output

Q(t)

Q(t+1)

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

0
X
1
X
1
X
0
X

x1/x

00/0
x1/x

10/1

00/1
10/0
1

Present state

Inputs

Next state

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

Output

Present state

Inputs

Next state

0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

6-23.*
A

D
C

Y
B

C
Clock

6-24.*
a)

S
0
0
1
1

R
0
1
0
1

Q
Q
0
1
1

b)

Format: SR

No Change
Reset
Set
Set

10,11
00, 10, 11

00,01
1

0
01

c)
Present state

A=S
B = SR

Input

Next state

Q(t+1)

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
0
1
1
x
0
x
x

x
x
0
0
0
1
0
0

A
S

R
Clock

S
R

Output

## Problem Solutions Chapter 6

6-29.*
2 8

1
00/0

RESET
7 11
x0/0, 01/1

01/0

Reset, 00, 01, 00, 01, 11, x0, x0, 01, 10,
01, 01, 11, 11, 11, 10.

00/1

11/0 1

14

10/1

12 11/1

4
15

01/1, 10/0

11/1
3

13

x0/1, 01/0

6 10

11/0

Format: XY/Z

6-31.*
Clock
J
K
Y
Q
0 ps

50 ns

100 ns

150 ns

This simulation was performed without initializing the state of the latches of the flip-flop beforehand.
Each gate in the flip-flop implementation has a delay of 1 ns. The interaction of these delays with the
input change times produced a narrow pulse in Y at about 55 ns. In this case, the pulse is not harmful
since it dies out well before the positive clock edge occurs. Nevertheless, a thorough examination of such
a pulse to be sure that it does not represent a design error or important timing problem is critical.

6-32.*
library IEEE;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;

## architecture mux_4to1_arch of mux_4to1 is

begin

entity mux_4to1 is
port (
S: in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 downto 0);
D: in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 downto 0);
Y: out STD_LOGIC
);
end mux_4to1;

process (S, D)
begin
case S is
when "00" => Y <= D(0);
when "01" => Y <= D(1);
when "10" => Y <= D(2);
when "11" => Y <= D(3);
when others => null;
end case;

## -- (continued in the next column)

end process;
end mux_4to1_arch;

## Problem Solutions Chapter 6

6-37.*
library IEEE;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
entity jkff is
port (
J,K,CLK: in STD_LOGIC;
Q: out STD_LOGIC
);
end jkff;

case J is
when '0' =>
if K = '1' then
q_out <= '0';
end if;
when '1' =>
if K = '0' then
q_out <= '1';
else
q_out <= not q_out;
end if;
when others => null;
end case;
end if;
end process;

## architecture jkff_arch of jkff is

signal q_out: std_logic;
begin
state_register: process (CLK)
begin
if CLK'event and CLK='0' then --CLK falling edge

Q <= q_out;
end jkff_arch;

## -- (continued in the next column)

6-39.*
always @(S or D)
begin
if (S == 2'b00) Y <= D;
else if (S == 2'b01) Y <= D;
else if (S == 2'b10) Y <= D;
else Y <= D;

input [1:0] S ;
input [3:0] D ;
output Y;
reg Y ;

end
endmodule

## // (continued in the next column)

6-43.*
module JK_FF (J, K, CLK, Q) ;

## always @(negedge CLK)

case (J)
0'b0: Q <= K ? 0: Q;
1'b1: Q <= K ? ~Q: 1;
endcase
endmodule

input J, K, CLK ;
output Q;
reg Q;
// (continued in the next column)

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 7
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

7-4.*
Clock
Reset
C
D

0000

0000

1010

0101
1010

0 ps

40 ns

0000
0101

80 ns

1001 1001
1100 0011
1000 0001

AND

1101 1011

OR

0101 1010

XOR

7-6.*
sl 1010 0110

sr 0010 1001

7-7.*
Connections to MUX data input 0 and data input 3 remain the same. Qi-1 is connected to MUX data input 2 instead of MUX
Data input 1. Finally, 0 is connected to MUX data input 1.

7-8.*
a) 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001, 1000
b) # States = n

+7-16.

*
The equations given on page 337 can be manipulated into SOP form as follows: D1 =
Q1, D2 = Q2 Q1Q8 = Q1Q2Q8 + Q1Q2 + Q2Q8, D4 = Q4 Q1Q2 = Q1Q2Q4 + Q1Q4
+ Q2Q4, D8 = Q8 (Q1Q8 + Q1Q2Q4) = Q8(Q1Q8+Q1Q2Q4) + Q8(Q1 + Q8)(Q1 + Q2
+ Q4) = Q1Q2Q4Q8 + Q1 Q8. These equations are mapped onto the K-maps for Table
7-9 below and meet the specifications given by the maps and the table.

Q2

D1

1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
Q8 X X X X
1 0 X X
Q1

D2
0 1
0 1

Q4

0 0

0 1
0 1

Q8 X X X X
0 0 X X
Q1
D8
Q2

Q2

D4

Q2

1 0
0 1

Q4

change D1 to:

enable,

D1 = Q1 EN.

0
1 0

## For the other three funcQ4 tions, AND EN with the

expression XORed with
Q8 X X X X
the state variable. The
1 0 X X
circuit below results.
Q1

1 1
Q4
X X
Q8 X X
0 0 X X
Q1

Q1

C
Q2

EN

C
Q4

D
C

Q8

D
C

Clock

7-17.*
Present state

Next state

0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
1

0
1
0

0
0
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
0

0
1
0

1
0
0

0
1
1
0
0
0

1
0
1
0
1
0

a) DB = C
DC = B C

b) DA = BC + AC
DB = A BC + BC
DC = C

## Problem Solutions Chapter 7

7-21.*

C3
Clock

R1

R2

7-23.*
R1
C

C2C1C0

Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3

D0
D1
D2
D3

R2
C
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3

D0
D1
D2
D3

Clock

7-28.*
a)

CLK

CTR 4

R2
0

REG 4
D(0-3) Q(0-3)

CI

C1
C1
C2

A(0-3) C(0-3)
B(0-3)
CO

Count

R1

D(0-3) Q(0-3)
CO

R1

b)

REG 4
D(0-3) L Q(0-3)

C1
C2

CI

R2

A(0-3) C(0-3)
B(0-3)
CO

REG 4
D(0-3) Q(0-3)
L

Clock

7-31.*
Replace multiplexer with:
R1

K1
4

R0
4

R2

## Problem Solutions Chapter 7

a) Destination <- Source Registers
R0 <- R1, R2
R1 <- R4
R2 <- R3, R4
R3 <- R1
R4 <- R0, R2

R0 -> R4
R1 -> R0, R3
R2 -> R0, R4
R3 -> R2
R4 -> R1, R2

## c) The minimum number of buses needed for operation of the transfers

is three since transfer Cb requires three different sources.
d)

R0

R1

R2

R3

MUX

R4

MUX

MUX

7-34.*
a) Using two clock cycles, the minimum # of buses is 2 .
b)

R0

R1

R2

R3

MUX

R4

R5

R6

R7

R8

MUX

## 1000, 0100, 1010, 1101 0110, 0011, 0001, 1000

7-35.*
Shifts:
A
B
C

0
0111
0101
0

1
0011
0010
1

2
0001
0001
1

3
1000
0000
1

4
1100
0000
0

7-36.*
library IEEE;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
entity reg_4_bit is
port (
CLEAR, CLK: in STD_LOGIC;
D: in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 downto 0);
Q: out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 downto 0)
);
end reg_4_bit;
architecture reg_4_bit_arch of reg_4_bit is
begin
process (CLK, CLEAR)
begin
if CLEAR ='0' then
Q <= "0000";
elsif (CLK'event and CLK='1') then
Q <= D;
end if;
end process;

## --asynchronous RESET active Low

--CLK rising edge

end reg_4_bit_arch;

R9

R10

R11

## Problem Solutions Chapter 7

clk
clear
d 0000

1010

q 0000

0101
1010

1111
0101

0000

40

7-39.*
module register_4_bit (D, CLK, CLR, Q) ;
input [3:0] D ;
input CLK, CLR ;
output [3:0] Q ;
reg [3:0] Q ;
always @(posedge CLK or negedge CLR)
begin
if (~CLR)
//asynchronous RESET active low
Q = 4'b0000;
else
//use CLK rising edge
Q = D;
end
endmodule

CLK
CLR
D 0000
Q 0000
0

1010

0101
1010

1111
0101

20

40

0000
60

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

8-1.*
S0

Inputs: X1X2
Outputs: Z1Z2

Z1 = 0
Z2 = 0
0

X1

1
S1

Z1 = 0
Z2 = 1
00
10

X1X2

01
11

S2

Z1 = 1
Z2 = 0
00
11

X1X2

01
10

8-2.*
A: 0
B: 1
C: 0
State: ST1
Z: 0

1
1
1
ST1
0

1
0
0
ST2
0

0
1
1
ST3
1

1
0
0
ST1
0

1
1
1
ST2
1

0
0
0
ST3
1

1
1
1
ST1
0

ST2

8-5.*
STA

Reset

STB

STD

X
1

STC

STE

Z
0

X
Z
1

8-8.*
ST1(t + 1) = ST1A + ST2BC + ST3, ST2(t + 1) = ST1A, ST3(t + 1)= ST2(B + C), Z = ST2B + ST3
For the D flip-flops, DSTi = STi(t + 1) and STi = QSTi. Reset initializes the flip-flops: ST1 = 1, ST2 = ST3 = 0.

## Problem Solutions Chapter 8

8-9.*
DY0

State Assignment

ST2
ST3

0 0
0 1
1 0

DY1

ST1
0
ST2
1
ST3
2

2
21

DY0

C
R

Reset

8-11.*
100110 (38)
110101 ( 53)
100110
000000
100110
000000
100110
100110
11111011110 (2014)

100110
110101
000000
100110
100110
0100110
00100110
100110
10111110
010111110
0010111110
100110
1100011110
01100011110
100110
11111011110
011111011110

Init PP
After Shift
After Shift
After Shift
After Shift
After Shift
After Shift

8-16.*
IN
CLK
LA

A(15:0)

LB

Bit 15

B(14:0)||0

A(14:0)||0

CLK
AR

DY1

Y1

DECODER

C
R

Y1 Y0
ST1

Y0

S 1 MUX 0

BR

CLK
LC

B(15:0)

L
R

CR

Zero
R is a synchronous reset that overides any
simultaneous synchronous transfer.
A
Reset

LA
B
LB
C
LC

## Problem Solutions Chapter 8

G
D

C
R

C
R
LA

C
R
LB

Reset

8-19.*
library IEEE;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
entity asm_819 is
port (
A, B, C, CLK, RESET: in STD_LOGIC;
Z: out STD_LOGIC
);
end asm_819;
architecture asm_819_arch of asm_819 is
type state_type is (ST1, ST2, ST3);
signal state, next_state : state_type;
begin
state_register: process (CLK, RESET)
begin
if RESET='1' then--asynchronous RESET active High
state <= ST1;
elsif (CLK'event and CLK='1') then --CLK rising edge
state <= next_state;
end if;
end process;
next_state_func: process (A, B, C, state)
begin
case (state) is
when ST1 =>
if A = '0' then
next_state <= ST1;
else
next_state <= ST2;
end if;
when ST2 =>
if ((B = '1') and (C = '0')) then
next_state <= ST1;
else
next_state <= ST3;
end if;
when ST3 =>
next_state <= ST1;
end case;
end process;
output_func: process (B, state)
begin
case (state) is
when ST1 =>
Z <= '0';
when ST2 =>
if (B = '1') then
Z <= '1';
else
Z <= '0';
end if;
when ST3 =>
Z <= '1';
end case;
end process;
end asm_819_arch;

LC

## Problem Solutions Chapter 8

clk
reset
a
b
c
state st1

st2

st3

st1

st2

st1

st2

st3

st1

z
0

50

100

150

8-20.*
module asm_820 (CLK, RESET, A, B, C, Z) ;
input CLK, RESET, A, B, C ;
output Z ;
reg [1:0] state, next_state;
parameter ST1=2'b00, ST2=2'b01, ST3=2'b10;
reg Z;
//State register
always @(posedge CLK or posedge RESET)
begin
if (RESET) //asynchronous RESET active High
state <= ST1;
else
//use CLK rising edge
state <= next_state;
end
//Next state function
always @(A or B or C or state)
begin
case (state)
ST1: next_state <= A ? ST2: ST1;
ST2: next_state <= (B && ! C) ? ST1: ST3;
ST3: next_state <= ST1;
default: next_state <= ST1;
endcase
end
//Output function
always @(B or state)
begin
case (state)
ST1: Z <= 1'b0;
ST2: Z <= B ? 1'b1: 1'b0;
ST3: Z <= 1'b1;
default: Z <= 0'b0;
endcase
end
endmodule
CLK
RESET
A
B
C
Z
state 00
0

01

10

00

01

50

100

00

01

10
150

00

CHAPTER 9
9-1.*
a) A = 14, D = 8

b) A = 18, D = 16

c) A = 26, D = 32

d) A = 31, D = 8

9-2.
a) 214

b) 219

c) 228

d) 231

9-3.*
(835)10 = (11 0100 0011)2, (15,103)10 = (0011 1010 1111 1111)2

9-4.
Number of bits in array = 216 * 24 = 220 = 210 * 210
Row Decoder size = 210
a) Row Decoder = 10 to 1024, AND gates = 210 = 1024
Column Decoder = 6 to 64, AND gates = 26 = 64
Total AND gates required = 1024 + 64 =1088
b) (32000)10 = (0111110100 000000)2, Row = 500, Column = 0

9-5.
512M = 229,

b)

## A26 A27 A28

S0

S1

S2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Each line is connected to the respective array decoder enable

9-6.
14 row pins + 13 column pins = 227= 128M addresses

9-7.
With 4-bit data, the RAM cell array contains 64M = 226 words.
The number of address pins is 26/2 = 13.

9-8.
Interval between refreshes = 128ms/4096 = 31.25 s
Minimum number of pins = 12

9-9.*
a) 4

b) 19,17

c) 2, 2to4

## Problem Solutions Chapter 9

9-10.
Lines
18 17 16

Lines 0 - 15

Data 0 - 7

Data 8 - 15

3-to-8-Line

Decoder
7

64K x 8 RAM

64K x 8 RAM
8
16

From Decoder

Data
CS
R/W

8
16

64K x 8 RAM
8
16

Data
CS
R/W

Data
CS
R/W

Data
CS
R/W

64K x 8 RAM
8
16

Out Data 0 - 7

64K x 8 RAM
8
16

64K x 8 RAM
8
16

Data
CS
R/W

Data
CS
R/W

Out Data 8 - 15

9-11.
An SDRAM simultaneously reads the desired row and stores all of the information in the I/O
logic. Next the desired column is read from the I/O logic and the data appears on the output.
During burst transfers, the subsequent data words are read from the I/O logic and placed on
the output. This occurs for the predetermined number of words known as the burst length.
For burst transfers, this is faster since the row has already been pre-read.

9-12.
A DDR SDRAM uses both the positive and negative edges of the clock to transfer data. This
allows the DRAM to transfer twice as much data while keeping the same clock frequency.

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2.*
C = C8
V = C8 C7
Z = F7 + F6 + F5 + F4 + F3 + F2 + F1 + F0
N = F7

10-3.*
Cin

X = S0A + S0A
Y = S1 Cin B + S1S0 B + S1S0B + S1S0Cin

A0

D0

A0

D1

B0

C0

D0

D1
S

D3
S1 S0

C1
X

S1
A1

D0

A1

D1

Y
S1 S0

B1

C2

D0
D1

S0

D2

D3

10-4.*
Ci

S1

X = A S1 + A S0
Y = B S1 S0 + B S1

S0

Ai
S1 S0

Bi

D0

D1

Bi

D2

Bi

D3

X
FA
Y
CI + 1

10-6.*
a) XOR = 00, NAND = 01,

NOR = 10

XNOR = 11

Out = S1 A B + S0 B + S1AB + S1 S0 B
b) The above is a simplest result.

10-8.*
(a) 0101

(b) 0110

(c)1010

10-10.*

G0

D2

(d) 0110

Gi

G1

## Problem Solutions Chapter 10

(a)

(b)
(c)

R5 R4 R5
R6 R2 + R4 + 1
R5 R0

R5 = 0000 0100
R6 = 1111 1110

(d)
(e)

R5 = 0000 0000

(f)

R5 R0
R4 srConstant
R3 Data in

R5 = 0000 0000
R4 = 0000 0011
R3 = 0001 1011

10-14.*
a) Opcode = 7 bits

b) 20 bits

c) 1,048,576

d) 524288 to +524287

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 11
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

11-2.*
a) LD
LD

R1, E

b) MOV T1, A

R2, F

c) LD

MUL F

MUL T1, C

ST

LD

R2, D

MOV T2, E

LD

SUB

R1, R2, R1

MUL T2, F

SUB

T1

LD

R2, C

MOV T3, D

ST

T1

DIV

R1, R2, R1

SUB

T3, T2

LD

LD

R2, A

DIV

T1, T3

LD

R3, B

MOV Y, T1

T1

MUL C

DIV

T1

## MUL R1, R1, R2

ST

ST

Y, R1

11-3.*
a) (A - B) x (A + C) x (B - D) = A B - A C +x B D -x
b, c)

PUSH A
A

PUSH B
B
A

SUB
A-B

PUSH A
A
A-B

PUSH C
C
A
A-B

MUL
(A-B)x(A+C)

PUSH B
B
(A-B)x(A+C)

PUSH D
D
B
(A-B)x(A+C)

SUB
B-D
(A-B)x(A+C)

MUL
(A-B)x(A+C)x(B-D)

A+C
A-B

11-6.*
a) X = 195 208 1 = 14

## The number is negative because the branch is backwards. The 1

assumes that the PC has been incremented to point to the address
after that of the address word of the instruction.

11-10.*
a) 3 Register Fields x 4 bits/Field = 12 bits.

## 32 bits - 12 bits = 20 bits. 220 = 1048576

b) 64 < 100 < 128 => 7 bits. 2 Register Fields x 4 bits/Field => 8 bits. 32 bits - 7 bits - 8 bits => 17 Address Bits

## Problem Solutions Chapter 11

11-14.*
b) R0 7B + 4B ,

R0 = C6,

C=0

R1, R5

R1 24 + ED + 0 ,

R1 = 11,

C=1

R2, R6

R2 C6 + 57 + 1 ,

R2 = 1E,

C=1

R3, R7

R3 1F + 00 + 1 ,

R3 = 20,

C=0

11-17.*
Result
Register
0110 1001
0011 0100
0110 1000
0011 0100
0110 1000
0011 0100
0110 1000
1011 0100
01101000

OP
SHR
SHL
SHRA
SHLA
ROR
ROL
RORC
ROLC

C
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

11-19.*
Smallest Number =

0.5

2255

Largest Number

(1 226)

2+255

11-20.*
E

(e)2

+8
+7
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1111
1110
1101
1100
1011
1010
1001
1000
0111
0110
0101
0100
0011
0010
0001
0000

11-23.*
TEST (0001)16, R

## (AND Immediate 1 with Register R)

(Branch to ADRS if Z = 0)

## Problem Solutions Chapter 11

11-25.*
a)

A=

0101 1101

93

B=

0101 1100

- 92

0000 0001

AB =

b) C (borrow) = 0,

Z=0

## c) BH, BHE, BNE

11-27.*
PC

SP

TOS

a) Initially

2000

2000

3000

b) After Call

0301

1999

2002

c) After Return

2002

2000

3000

11-30.*
External Interrupts:
1) Hard Disk
2) Mouse
3) Keyboard
4) Modem
5) Printer

Internal Interrupts:
1) Overflow
2) Divide by zero
3) Invalid opcode
4) Memory stack overflow
5) Protection violation

A software interrupt provides a way to call the interrupt routines normally associated with
external or internal interrupts by inserting an instruction into the code. Privileged system
calls for example must be executed through interrupts in order to switch from user to
system mode. Procedure calls do not allow this change.

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 12
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

12-2.*
a) The latency time = 1.25ns x 6 = 7.5ns.
b) The maximum throughput is 1 instruction per cycle or 800 million instructions per second.
c) The time required to execute is 12 instruction + 6 pipe stages -1 = 17 cycles *1.25ns = 21.25ns

12-6.*
Cycle 1:

PC = 10F

Cycle 2:

PC-1 = 110,

IR = 4418 2F0116

Cycle 3:

PC-2 = 110,

RW = 1, DA = 01, MD = 0, BS = 0, PS = X, MW = 0, FS = 2, SH = 01, MA = 0, MB = 1

Cycle 4:

Cycle 5:

R1 = 0000 2F20

12-10.*
MOVA R7, R6

IF

DOF
IF

EX

4
WB

6
Data Hazard

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

WB

12-12.*
a)
MOV R7,R6

IF

SUB R8,R8,R6

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

IF

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

NOP
AND R8,R8,R7
b)
SUB R7,R7,R6
NOP
BNZ R7,000F
NOP

IF

WB

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

IF

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

IF

DOF

EX

WB

IF

DOF

EX

NOP
AND R8,R7,R6
NOP
OR R5,R8,R5

WB

WB
WB
WB

## Problem Solutions Chapter 12

12-15.*
Time Cycle 1
IF PC: 0000 0001
DOF PC-1: XXXX XXXX IR: XXXX XXXX
EX PC-2: XXXX XXXX BA: XXXX XXXX BB: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X BS: X PS: X MW: X FS: X
WB D0: XXXX XXXX D1: XXXX XXXX D2: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X RX:

Time Cycle 2
IF PC: 0000 0002
DOF PC-1: 0000 0002
IR: 0A73 9800
EX PC-2: XXXX XXXX BA: XXXX XXXX BB: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X BS: X PS: X MW: X FS: X
WB D0: :XXXX XXXX D1: XXXX XXXX D2: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X RX:

SH: XX

SH: XX

Time Cycle 3
IF PC: 0000 0003
DOF PC-1: 0000 0003
IR:A003800F
EX PC-2: 0000 0002
BA: 0000 00020
BB: 0000 0010
RW: 1 DA: 07 MD: 00 BS: 00 PS: X MW: 0 FS: 5 SH: 0F
WB D0: XXXX XXXX D1: XXXX XXXX D2: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X RX:

IF
DOF
EX
WB

Time Cycle 4
PC: 0000 0004
PC-1: 0000 0004 IR: 1083 9800
PC-2: 0000 0003 BA:0000 0010
BB: XXXXXXXX RW: 0 DA: XX MD: XX BS: 01 PS:1 MW: 0 FS: 0
D0: 0000 0010 D1: XXXX XXXX D2: 0000 0000
RW: 1 DA: 07 MD: 00

IF
DOF
EX
WB

## PC: 0000 0012

PC-1: 0000 0005
PC-2: 0000 0004
D0: 0000 0010

IF
DOF
EX
WB

Time Cycle 6
PC: 0000 0013
PC-1: 0000 0013 IR: XXXX XXXX
PC-2: 0000 0005 BA:0000 0010
BB: 0000 0000
RW: 1 DA: 05 MD: 00 BS: 00 PS: X MW: 0 FS: 9
D0: 0000 0010 D1: XXXX XXXX D2: 0000 0000
RW: 1 DA: 08 MD: 00
0000 0010

IF
DOF
EX
WB

Time Cycle 7
PC: 0000 0014
PC-1: 0000 0014 IR: XXXX XXXX
PC-2: 0000 0013 BA:XXXX XXXX BB: XXXX XXXX RW: X DA: X MD: X BS: X PS: X MW: X FS: X SH: X
D0: 0000 0010 D1: XXXX XXXX D2: 0000 0000
RW: 1 DA: 05 MD: 00 R8: 0000 0010

SH: 00

Time Cycle 5
IR: 1254 1400
BA:0000 0010
D1: XXXX XXXX

D2: 0000 0000

## RW: 1 DA: 08 MD: 00 BS: 00 PS: X MW: 0 FS: 8

RW: 0 DA: 00 MD: 00 R7:
0000 0010

SH: 00

SH: 00

Time Cycle 8
R5:

0000 0010

Based on the register contents, the branch is taken. The data hazards are avoided, but due to the control hazard, the last two
instructions are executed.

## Problem Solutions Chapter 12

12-18.*
AA3:0

D0

AX3:0

D1

FAA3:0
FAA4

S0

AX4

DA3:0

D0

BA3:0

D1

BX3:0
BX3:0

BA3:0

D0

DA3:0

D1

D2

DX3:0

D2

D3
S1 S0

DX3:0

D3
S1 S0

FBA3:0
FBA4

BX4

FDA3:0
FDA4

DX4

DX0
DX1
DX2
DX3
DX4

12-22.*
Action
R 31 CC 00010
R 16 R [ SA ] + R [ SB ]
if (R31=0) MC AWC5
else MC MC + 1
MC MC + 1 (NOP)
R [ DR ] R 16 + 1
MC IDLE

AWC0
AWC1

01
01

AWC2
AWC3
AWC4
AWC5

CA
02
00

R
M
P M
L
M
W DX D BS S W FS C MA B AX BX CS
1 1F 0 00 0
1 10 0 00 0

0
0

8 0 10 1 00 00 11
2 0 00 0 00 00 00

11 AWC5

0 00 0 00 0

0 0 00 0 1F 00 00

01
01
00

0 00 0 00 0
1 01 0 00 0
0 00 0 00 0

0
0
0

0 0 00 0 00 00 00
2 0 00 1 10 00 11
0 0 00 0 00 00 00

00
01
IDLE

## (a) Subtract with borrow

Action
R 31 CC 00010
R 16 R [ SA ] R [ SB ]
if (R310) MC SWB5
else MC MC + 1
MC MC + 1 (NOP)
R [ DR ] R 16 1
MC IDLE

SWB0
SWB1

01
01

SWB2
SWB3
SWB4
SWB5

CA
02
00

R
M
P M
L
M
W DX D BS S W FS C MA B AX BX CS
1 1F 0 00 0
1 10 0 00 0

0
0

8 0 10 1 00 00 11
5 0 00 0 00 00 00

11 SWB5

0 00 0 00 1

0 0 00 0 1F 00 00

01
01
00

0 00 0 00 0
1 01 0 00 0
0 00 0 00 0

0
0
0

0 0 00 0 00 00 00
5 0 00 1 10 00 11
0 0 00 0 00 00 00

00
01
IDLE

## Problem Solutions Chapter 12

12-24.*
Memory Scalar Add (Assume R[SB] > 0 to simplify coding)
Action
R 16 R [ SB ]
R 18 R 0
R 16 R 16 1
MC MC + 1 (NOP)
R 17 R [ SA ] + R 16
MC MC + 1 (NOP)
if (R160) MC MSA2
else MC MC + 1
R 18 M [ R 17 ] + R 18
R [ DR ] R 17
MC IDLE

MSA0
MSA1
MSA2
MSA3
MSA4
MSA5

01
01
01
01
01
01

MSA6
MSA7
MSA8
MSA9

CA

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
5
0
2
0

11 MSA2

0 00 0 00 0

0 0 00 0 10 00 00

01
01
00

1 12 1 00 0
1 01 0 00 0
0 00 0 00 0

0
0
0

0 0 00 0 11 12 00
0 0 00 0 11 00 00
0 0 00 0 00 00 00

00
00
01
00
00
00

R
M
P M
L
M
W DX D BS S W FS C MA B AX BX CS

00
00
IDLE

1
1
1
0
1
0

10
12
10
00
11
00

0
0
0
0
0
0

00
00
00
00
00
00

0
0
0
0
0
0

00
00
00
00
00
00

0
0
1
0
0
0

00
00
10
00
00
00

00
00
00
00
10
00

00
00
11
00
00
00

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 13
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

13-1.*
a) 1 x 1023 x 63 x 512

## 32,224.5 Kbytes (K = 1024)

b) 4 x 8191 x 63 x 512

1,032,066 Kbytes

c) 16 x 16383 x 63 x 512 =

8,257,032 Kbytes

13-4.*
a)

If each address line is used for a different CS input, there will be no way to address
the four registers so 2 bits are needed to address the registers. Only 14 lines can be used
for CS inputs permitting at most 14 I/O Interface Units to be supported.

b)

Since two bits must be used to address the four registers, there are 14 bits remaining and
214 or 16,384 distinct I/O Interface Units can be supported.

13-6.*
A given address can be shared by two registers if one is written and one is read. If a register is both
read and written, then it needs its own address. Each RW operation requires its own address. Since
with read addresses. Since there are twice as many read only registers as there are RW registers, the
number of RW registers is 16/3 = 5. The number of read only registers is 2 5 = 10, and the number
of write only registers is 5. This gives a total of 20 registers. (Due to integer numbers of registers
with the % distributions, there is one address left over.)

13-8.*
(a)

(b)

Data Bus
CPU

RD Strobe

Data bus

From I/O

I/O
Device

WR Strobe

Strobe

Write

Strobe
Data bus

13-10.*
a) 57,600 Baud/ 11 Bits = 5236 Characters/sec
b) 57,600 Baud/ 10 Bits = 5760 Characters/sec
c) 115,200 Baud/ 11 Bits = 10,472 Characters/sec
115,200 Baud/ 10 Bits = 11,520 Characters/sec

Strobe

Write

Strobe

Write Operation
From CPU

## Problem Solutions Chapter 13

13-13.*

There are 7 edges in the NRZI waveform for the SYNC pattern that can be used for synchronization.

13-15.*
SYNC
8 bits

Type
4 bits
1001

Endpoint
0010

Device
0100111

Check
4 bits
0110

CRC

EOP

CRC

EOP

## (a) Output packet

SYNC
8 bits

Type
4 bits
1100

Check
4 bits
0011

Data
010000101001111010100110

SYNC
8 bits

Type
4 bits
0111

Check
4 bits
1000

EOP

## (c) Handshake packet (Stall type)

13-18.*
Description
PI
Initially
0
Before CPU acknowledges Device 2 0
After CPU sends acknowledge
1

Device 0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

Device 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Device 2
0
1
0
1
0
1
-

13-20.*
Replace the six leading 0s with 000110.

13-22.*
This is Figure 13-17 with the Interrupt and Mask Registers increased to
6 bits each, and the 4x2 Priority Encoder replaced by a 8x3 Priority
Encoder.

13-24.*
When the CPU communicates with the DMA, the read and write lines are used as DMA
inputs. When the DMA communicates with the Memory, these lines are used as
outputs from the DMA.

## Solutions to Problems Marked with a * in

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition

Chapter 14
2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

14-1.*
Binary
54 0010 1 01 00
58 0010 1 10 00
104 1000 0 01 00
5C 0010 1 11 00
108 1000 0 10 00
60 0011 0 00 00
F0 0111 1 00 00
64 0011 0 01 00
54 0010 1 01 00
58 0010 1 10 00
10C 1000 0 11 00
5C 0010 1 11 00
110 1000 1 00 00
60 0011 0 00 00
F0 0111 1 00 00
64 0011 0 01 00

a
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
H
H
M
H
M
H
M
H

b
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
H
H
M
H
M
H
H
H

c
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
H
M
H
M
M
M
H

14-4.*
Since the lines are 32 bytes, 5 bits are used to address bytes in the lines.
Since there are 1K bytes, there are 1024/32 = 25 cache lines.
a) Index =

5 Bits,

b) Tag

32 5 5 = 22 Bits

## c) 32 (32 8 + 22 + 1) = 8928 bits

14-6.*
a) See Instruction and Data Caches section on page 635 of the text.
b) See Write Methods section on page 631 of the text.

14-8. *
000000 00 00 (i0)

000001 00 00 (i4)

000001 10 00 (i6)

000010 10 00 (i10)

000000 01 00 (i1)

000011 00 00 (d)

00001 11 00 (i7)

000011 10 00 (d)

000000 10 00 (i2)

000001 01 00 (i5)

000010 00 00 (i8)

000010 11 00 (i11)

000000 11 00 (i3)

000011 01 00 (d)

000010 01 00 (i9)

000011 11 00 (d)

Addresses of instructions (i) and Data (d) in sequence down and then to the right with the instructions in a loop with
instruction i0 following i11. For the split cache, the hit - miss pattern for instructions is (assuming the cache initially
empty and LRU replacement) M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, ... since there are only eight locations
available for instructions. For the unified cache, the hit-miss pattern for instructions with the same assumptions is M,
M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, M, H, H, H, ... since there are 12 locations indexed appropriately for instructions
and four indexed appropriately for data.

## Problem Solutions Chapter 14

14-11.*
a) Effective Access Time

## 0.96 * 4ns + 0.04 * 40 ns = 5.44 ns

14-14.*
a) Each page table handles 512 pages assuming 64-bit words. There
are 4263 pages which requires 4263/512 8.33 page tables. So 9 page
tables are needed.
b) 9 directory entries are needed, requiring 1 directory page.
c) 4263 - 8*512 = 167 entries in the last page table.

14-18.*
In section 14-3, it is mentioned that write-through in caches can slow down processing, but this can be
avoided by using write buffering. When virtual memory does a write to the secondary device, the amount of
data being written is typically very large and the device very slow. These two factors generally make it
impossible to do write-through with virtual memory. Either the slow down is prohibitively large, or the buffering cost is just too high.