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CHICAGO SPIRE

Chicago, Illinois

2011 2012
ASPIRE
Master of Engineering
Structural Design Project

Cornell University
Ithaca, NY
May 2012

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ASPIRE

ASPIRE PROJECT TEAM


Joseph Beaudette
Cornell University
Canton, New York

J. David Muench
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Medway, Massachusetts

Connor Bruns
Project Leader
Cornell University
Potomac, Maryland

Catherine T. Mulhern
Project Leader
Smith College
Winchester, Massachusetts

Joseph A. Caccio Jr
Cornell University
Monroe Township, New Jersey

Stephanie Richmond
Cornell University
Ellicott City, Maryland

Nicholas Chack
Columbia University
New York, New York

Kristy L. Scales
Syracuse University
Berkshire, New York

Katherine McEntee Coumes


Cornell University
Boston Heights, Ohio

Tom Shouler
Project Leader
Cornell University
Smithtown, New York

Jonathan Dobrin
Cornell University
Montreal, Quebec

Neelang Tiwari
MS Ramaiah Institute of Technology
Indore, M.P., India

Diana Foster
Cornell University
Wilmette, Illinois

Alex Vandenbergh
Cornell University
State College, Pennsylvania

Jeffrey Liu
Pennsylvania State University
Staten Island, New York

Chung Yu Wang
Cornell University
Taipei, Taiwan

Dan Lu
Cornell University
Potomac, Maryland

Muzi Zhu
Tianjin University
Tianjin, China

Shideh Shadravan, Ph.D.


Lecturer
Cornell University

ASPIRE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The 2011-2012 Master of Engineering project team, ASPIRE, would like to thank our professional
advisors from Thornton Tomasetti, Chicago: John Peronto (Associate), and Mary Williams (Senior
Engineer). Mr. Peronto and Ms. Williams volunteered significant time to provide guidance and
structure to our project. Their technical knowledge of structural engineering specific to tall
buildings played an instrumental role in our project.
ASPIRE would also like to thank our faculty advisor, Dr. Shideh Shadravan, for her daily support.
Dr. Shadravan provided both project team and individual guidance vital to our development as
Masters students.
The design team would also like to thank the support staff of MIDAS Information Technology Co.
for the assistance and troubleshooting with the MIDAS GEN 3D structural modeling software.
Finally, we would like to acknowledge the Cornell University Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering faculty and staff. In particular, we would like to thank Professor
Christopher Earls, Professor Ken Hover, Professor T.D. ORourke, Cameron Wilkens, Paul Charles,
and Karen Browning.

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ASPIRE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ASPIRE designed the gravity, lateral, and foundation systems, utilized finite element software for
structural optimization, designed steel and concrete connections, and studied the effects of creep
and shrinkage during a year-long analysis of the Chicago Spire.
Preliminary analysis included research of different lateral load resisting systems in order to select
the system that would best suit the needs of the structure. The lateral system chosen was a central
concrete core with outriggers and belt trusses connecting the core with the exterior steel columns.
The gravity design of the structure explored the use of non-composite and composite beams and
columns in the Spire. ASPIRE selected steel beams with a composite metal decking system. A
column load takedown based on tributary areas was used for the preliminary column design.
The Chicago Spire was modeled using MIDAS Gen, a structural finite element software, to accurately
understand the lateral behavior of the building. A sensitivity analysis was performed to resize the
concrete core, the outriggers, and the belt truss members from the initial hand calculation sizes.
Core wall thicknesses were optimized across the height of the building. Vertical columns and
transfer columns were redesigned as a series of steel built-up shapes through energy optimization
methods.
The foundation system featured the design of a seven level below-grade parking garage and a
retaining wall along the site perimeter. Rock-socketed caissons were designed to support the
tower, extending from the base of the building to the bedrock 119 feet below grade.
There are hundreds of connections in the Chicago Spire ranging from standard steel connections to
complex designs for the outriggers and the lobby level mega-columns. Several steel-to-steel and
composite connections were designed throughout the tower.
A study of concrete creep and shrinkage estimated differential settlement between the concrete
core and the exterior steel columns using the GL2000 model. Creep and shrinkage are dependent
on variables such as loading schedule, curing period, and material properties, making it difficult to
predict the actual amount of creep and shrinkage. However, failure to acknowledge these effects
leads to cracks in the concrete and uneven floors.
Through the course of the project, ASPIRE faced many challenges that required the design team to
seek guidance from outside sources, including weekly meetings with our faculty advisor and biweekly conference calls with our professional advisors from Thornton Tomasetti. The structural
design of the Chicago Spire was a collaborative effort of eighteen students and the advisors. The
project provided a realistic design experience incorporating team management, iterative design,
and professional reporting. For the final deliverable ASPIRE has prepared a cumulative design
narrative, calculation book, and final structural drawing set.

ASPIRE

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ASPIRE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ASPIRE PROJECT TEAM .......................................................................................................................................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................................................................ ii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................ iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................................................................. v
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................................... viii8
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................................................... xi
1.0

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1

Chicago Spire: Background and Location ................................................................................................. 2

1.2

Project Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

1.3

Design Process ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

2.0

Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1

Tall Building Design........................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2

Lateral System Determination ...................................................................................................................... 6

2.3

Typical Floors and Column Layouts ........................................................................................................... 8

2.4

Gravity Design Loads ........................................................................................................................................ 9

2.5

Lateral Design Loads ....................................................................................................................................... 10

2.6

Load Combinations .......................................................................................................................................... 13

2.7

Serviceability Requirements ........................................................................................................................ 14

3.0

Gravity Design ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

3.1

Geometry and Loading ................................................................................................................................... 17

3.2

Core Slab Design ............................................................................................................................................... 21

3.3

Link Beam Design ............................................................................................................................................. 22

3.4

Composite Beam Design ................................................................................................................................ 23

ASPIRE

3.5

Faade Beam Design........................................................................................................................................ 27

3.6

Column Design ................................................................................................................................................... 28

4.0
4.1

Structural System Overview ........................................................................................................................ 34

4.2

Preliminary Core Wall Design ..................................................................................................................... 36

4.3

Auxiliary Lateral Systems ............................................................................................................................. 41

4.4

Finite Element Model ...................................................................................................................................... 45

4.5

Core Wall Reinforcement Design ............................................................................................................... 52

4.6

Energy Optimization ....................................................................................................................................... 53

4.7

Eigenvalue Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 56

5.0

Steel and Concrete Detailing ............................................................................................................................. 59

5.1

Typical Connections ........................................................................................................................................ 60

5.2

Complex Connections ..................................................................................................................................... 65

6.0

Foundation Design and Detailing .................................................................................................................... 72

6.1

Soil Properties ................................................................................................................................................... 73

6.2

Retaining Wall Design..................................................................................................................................... 74

6.3

Parking Garage Slab Design.......................................................................................................................... 75

6.4

Bell Caisson Design .......................................................................................................................................... 76

6.5

Rock-Socketed Caisson................................................................................................................................... 77

7.0

Long-Term Deflection Effects ........................................................................................................................... 82

7.1

Conceptual Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 83

7.2

Creep and Shrinkage Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 84

7.3

Conclusion and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 90

8.0

vi

Lateral Load Resisting System Design .......................................................................................................... 33

References ................................................................................................................................................................ 92

ASPIRE

9.0

Appendix ................................................................................................................................................................... 94

9.1

Gravity Design Loads ...................................................................................................................................... 95

9.2

RWDI Recommended Wind Load .............................................................................................................. 96

9.3

Seismic Load Summary ............................................................................................................................... 101

9.4

Core Slab Design Summary ....................................................................................................................... 105

9.5

Link Beam Summary .................................................................................................................................... 106

9.6

Beam Spans and Tributary Areas ........................................................................................................... 109

9.7

Slab and Decking Summary ....................................................................................................................... 110

9.8

Composite Beam Summary ....................................................................................................................... 111

9.9

Initial Gravity Design Column Comparison ........................................................................................ 112

9.10

MIDAS Gen Gravity Loads .......................................................................................................................... 113

9.11

Column Validation Summary .................................................................................................................... 117

9.12

MIDAS Sensitivity Analyses ....................................................................................................................... 118

9.13

Core Wall Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 121

9.14

Creep and Shrinkage .................................................................................................................................... 122

10.0

Drawings ..................................................................................................................................... C-2.001 - S-4.004

11.0

Calculations ................................................................................................................................................. C1-C297

ASPIRE

vii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Chicago Spire ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
Figure 1.2: Chicago Spire Site Location .......................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 1.3: Bank Location .................................................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2.1: Outrigger and Belt Truss System Sketch (Taranath 1988, 279) ................................................... 6
Figure 2.2: RWDI Wind Tunnel versus ASCE7 Directional Procedure Forces ............................................. 11
Figure 3.1: Structural Beam Labeling System ............................................................................................................ 18
Figure 3.2: Tributary Area Breakdown for External Bays .................................................................................... 19
Figure 3.3: Tributary Area for Joist 1 ............................................................................................................................ 19
Figure 3.4: Gravity Load Paths for Design Process .................................................................................................. 20
Figure 3.5: Core Slab Detail ............................................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3.6: Core Slab Design Locations, Directions, and Numbering ............................................................... 21
Figure 3.7: Tributary Areas for Link Beam Design. ................................................................................................. 22
Figure 3.8:Typical Composite Beam and Decking System .................................................................................... 24
Figure 3.9: Tributary Areas for the HSS Beam .......................................................................................................... 27
Figure 3.10: Steel Column Load Paths .......................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 3.11: Bank 3 Steel Column Layout.................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 3.12: Bank 1 Steel Column Layout.................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.13: Typical Core Column Section, Banks 1-3............................................................................................ 31
Figure 3.14: Composite Column Section ...................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.15: Transfer Column Orientations................................................................................................................ 32
Figure 4.1: 3D model of Outrigger and Belt Truss Locations .............................................................................. 35
Figure 4.2: Typical Core Wall Stress Diagram ........................................................................................................... 37
Figure 4.3: Distributed Lateral Load for Core Wall ................................................................................................. 39

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ASPIRE

Figure 4.4: Outriggers Spanning Two Mechanical Floors ..................................................................................... 41


Figure 4.5: Compression Block and Steel Strain from Weak Axis Bending ................................................... 47
Figure 4.6: Initial Discontinuity Check under Gravity Loads .............................................................................. 48
Figure 4.7: a) BU1 and b) BU2 .......................................................................................................................................... 49
Figure 4.8: Discontinuity Test Comparison between Original and Final Design ........................................ 50
Figure 4.9: Deformed Shape for 50 year MRI Wind Loads (NTS) ...................................................................... 51
Figure 4.10: Optimization Material Use versus % Reduction of Drift ............................................................. 55
Figure 4.11: From Left to Right: a) Mode Shape 1; b) Mode Shape 2; c) Mode Shape 3 .......................... 58
Figure 5.1: a) Elevation and b) Plan of Typical Welded Column Splice .......................................................... 60
Figure 5.2: Elevation of Floor Joist to Girder Connection ..................................................................................... 61
Figure 5.3: Elevation of HSS Beam to Cantilever Connection.............................................................................. 61
Figure 5.4: Elevation of Built-up Column to Radial Girder and Cantilever Connection ........................... 62
Figure 5.5: Elevation of Circumferential Girder to Column Plate Connection ............................................. 63
Figure 5.6: a) Elevation and b) Section of Radial Girder to Core Wall Connection .................................... 64
Figure 5.7: 3D Rendering of Base of Mega-Column to Caisson Connection .................................................. 66
Figure 5.8: Bottom of Outrigger Connection .............................................................................................................. 67
Figure 5.9: Elevation of Outrigger and Radial Girder Connection to Concrete Core ................................. 68
Figure 5.10: a) Embedded Steel Frame and b) Cross Bracing and Point Loads .......................................... 69
Figure 5.11: 3D Rendering of Mega-Column Connection...................................................................................... 70
Figure 5.12: Singular Transfer Column Connection Front and Side Elevation ............................................ 71
Figure 5.13: Split Transfer Column Connection Front and Side Elevation .................................................... 71
Figure 6.1: Provided Soil Profile for Foundation Design....................................................................................... 73
Figure 6.2: Failure Modes for Retaining Wall Design ............................................................................................. 74
Figure 6.3: Elevation of Bell Caissons ........................................................................................................................... 76

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ix

Figure 6.4: Elevation of Rock-Socketed Caissons ..................................................................................................... 77


Figure 6.5: Detail of Caisson .............................................................................................................................................. 78
Figure 6.6: Limit states from Left to Right: a) Stress, b) Settlement and c) Uplift ...................................... 78
Figure 6.7: Elevation of Ring Beam ................................................................................................................................ 79
Figure 6.8: Plan View of Ring Beam Resistance to Soil Pressure ....................................................................... 79
Figure 6.9: a) Compression and b) Tension Stresses in Rock-Socketed Caisson ........................................ 80
Figure 7.1: Concrete Strength Gain with Time .......................................................................................................... 84
Figure 7.2: Concrete Elastic Modulus Gain with Time ........................................................................................... 84
Figure 7.3: Initial Strength Gain of Concrete for Various Cement Types........................................................ 87
Figure 7.4: Typical Strain Values for a Single Floor ................................................................................................ 88
Figure 7.5: Core Deformations per Floor ..................................................................................................................... 89
Figure 7.6: Total Core Displacement over Time ....................................................................................................... 91
Figure 9.1: Built Up Column Sensitivity Results to Dead Load ........................................................................ 119
Figure 9.2: Core Wall Thickness Sensitivity Results to Dead Load ................................................................ 120
Figure 9.3: Belt Truss and Outrigger Sensitivity ................................................................................................... 120

ASPIRE

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Floor Bank Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 4
Table 2.1: Summary of Exterior Columns per Bank .................................................................................................. 8
Table 2.2: Unfactored Design Loads per ASCE 7-05 (psf)....................................................................................... 9
Table 2.3: Seismic Lateral Forces.................................................................................................................................... 12
Table 3.1: Typical Values for Vibrational Analysis Calculations ........................................................................ 26
Table 3.2: Summary of Estimated Vibrations ............................................................................................................ 26
Table 3.3: HSS Beam Design Summary ......................................................................................................................... 27
Table 3.4: Factored Loads from Gravity at Ground Level ..................................................................................... 31
Table 4.1: Critical Core Wall Unfactored Design Loads ......................................................................................... 36
Table 4.2: Controlling Stresses for Core Wall Design ............................................................................................. 38
Table 4.3: Initial Core Wall Reinforcement Requirements .................................................................................. 40
Table 4.4: Initial Core Thickness by Bank ................................................................................................................... 40
Table 4.5: Summary of Column Properties for each Column Section .............................................................. 43
Table 4.6: Stress Reduction in each Bank from Outriggers .................................................................................. 43
Table 4.7: Summary of Core Wall Thicknesses with Outriggers and Columns ............................................ 43
Table 4.8: System Stiffness Summary ........................................................................................................................... 44
Table 4.9: Initial MIDAS Model Element Properties ............................................................................................... 45
Table 4.10: Final MIDAS Model Element Properties ............................................................................................... 48
Table 4.11: Initial and Final MIDAS Results ............................................................................................................... 50
Table 4.12: Optimization Results for = h/500 ...................................................................................................... 54
Table 4.13: Material Savings for = h/500 ............................................................................................................... 55
Table 4.14: Natural Frequency and Period of first 15 mode shapes ................................................................ 56
Table 4.15: Modal Mass Participation ........................................................................................................................... 57

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xi

Table 6.1: Critical Von Mises Stresses from ABAQUS Model ............................................................................... 81
Table 7.1: Cement Type Deformation Sensitivity Analysis .................................................................................. 86
Table 7.2: Core Total Deformations ............................................................................................................................... 88
Table 7.3: 20-Year Deformation Comparisons .......................................................................................................... 90
Table 9.1: RWDI Wind Load Combinations ................................................................................................................ 96
Table 9.2: RWDI Provided Wind Forces and Torsional Moments ..................................................................... 97
Table 9.3: Link Beam Dimensions ............................................................................................................................... 106
Table 9.4: Residential and Lobby Link Beam Summary ..................................................................................... 107
Table 9.5: Mechanical Floor Link Beam Summary ............................................................................................... 108
Table 9.6: Decking and Slab Thickness Summary for Composite Beam System ...................................... 110
Table 9.7: Unfactored Dead Load for Composite Beam System ...................................................................... 110
Table 9.8: Composite Beam Summary ....................................................................................................................... 111
Table 9.9: Initial Composite and Steel Column Comparison............................................................................. 112
Table 9.10: MIDAS Gen Unfactored Gravity Loads (kips / node) ................................................................... 113
Table 9.11: Composite and Steel Shapes for Lateral Design Column Validation...................................... 117
Table 9.12: Built-up Steel and Concrete Properties ............................................................................................. 118
Table 9.13: Sensitivity Analyses Element Properties .......................................................................................... 119
Table 9.14: Core Wall Reinforcement Details ......................................................................................................... 121
Table 9.15: Concrete Core Properties ........................................................................................................................ 126
Table 9.16: Steel Deflection Summary ....................................................................................................................... 126
Table 9.17: Humidity Data for Chicago ...................................................................................................................... 127
Table 9.18: Concrete Reinforcement Data ............................................................................................................... 127
Table 9.19: 20 Year Concrete Deflection................................................................................................................... 128

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xiii

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
The 2011-2012 Master of Engineering Structural Design Project was the structural design of the
Chicago Spire (Figure 1.1), located on the west side of Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, Illinois. The
project was provided by John Peronto, P.E. and Mary Williams, P.E. of Thornton Tomasettis Chicago
office. Cornell University Lecturer Dr. Shideh Shadravan was the project advisor. The project team
consisted of sixteen Master of Engineering students and two undergraduates. The team members
provided a unique assortment of design experience, academic specialty, and cultural background.
This resulted in a realistic, professional experience similarly found at a design firm.

Figure 1.1: Chicago Spire

ASPIRE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Chicago Spire: Background and Location


The Chicago Spire is 2,000 ft tall on a strip of land between the Ogden Slip and the mouth of the
Chicago River (Figure 1.2). The tower contains approximately 3 million square feet of upscale
condominiums and amenities. The basement has 7 below-grade parking levels on top of rock
socketed caissons. The structural engineer of record was Thornton Tomasetti. The project was put
on hold in 2008 with only its foundation completed. Upon completion, the Chicago Spire would be
the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.
Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava was the architect and engineer for the project. The design
highlights a spiraling exterior supported by an exterior column grid and a concrete core. Calatrava
compared the design to an imaginary smoke stack from a campfire lit by the indigenous Native
American tribes of Chicago.

Figure 1.2: Chicago Spire Site Location

ASPIRE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.2 Project Scope


The Master of Engineering team was charged with providing a complete structural design of the
gravity and lateral system as well as foundation design, connections and details, and an analysis of
the effects from creep and shrinkage. The project required the eighteen team members to
collaborate as sub-teams to complete assigned deliverables, utilizing full engineering knowledge
and experience. The design of the cylindrical superstructure entailed expanding design limits into
unfamiliar areas through self-learning and provided resources.
The design project was split into ten deliverables through the academic school year. Deliverables
include submittal of white-paper reports, annotated engineering calculations, structural drawings,
and finite element models. Local and professional advisors provided design support through biweekly teleconferences and daily correspondence.
Structural design was supplemented by academic field trips pertinent to tall building design.
ASPIRE traveled to New York City in November of 2011. This trip included a presentation by
Silverstein Properties and a site tour of Four World Trade Center, a 72-story skyscraper designed
by Leslie E. Robertson and Associates. In December 2011, team members visited the Rowan,
Williams, Davies, Inc. (RWDI) wind tunnel testing facility in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. RWDI is a
leader in the field of wind tunnel testing, and has performed dynamic analysis for some of the
worlds tallest structures, including the Chicago Spire.

ASPIRE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Bank 3

Initial design consisted of determining a lateral system and overall design


criteria including serviceability limits and load conditions. The structure is
split into four banks (Figure 1.3). The bottom of each bank consists of a
lobby level and the top of each bank consists of two mechanical levels.
Bank 1 is an exception where the ground floor lobby spans four floors for a
large open space atrium. Bank 4 was further split into two sub-banks for
design optimization as the structures tapering increases significantly at
floor 139. Table 1.1 summarizes the floor breakup per bank.

Bank 2

The structural design process began in August of 2011. Thornton


Tomasetti provided ASPIRE with architectural geometry and a structural
elevation. A geotechnical report from STS Consultants, LTD and wind
tunnel testing results from RWDI were also provided. Co-project managers
were elected to oversee and organize the design approach for each
deliverable.
They held weekly meetings, compiled deliverable
submissions, critiqued design tools, and served as the primary liaison to
the project advisors.

Bank 4

1.3 Design Process

Bank
1
2
3
4.1
4.2

Floors
1-39
40-73
74-110
111-129
130-147

Revit Structure was used to construct a preliminary three dimensional


model. Element shapes and sizes were updated throughout the design
process. Initially, Revit was utilized to produce structural drawings;
however, AutoCAD 2012 was ultimately used for the final drawings due to
inadequate computer graphic and RAM resources for Revit.

Bank 1

Table 1.1: Floor Bank Summary

Figure 1.3: Bank Location

All structural elements were initially designed for gravity forces, and ultimately optimized using
MIDAS Gen, a three dimensional structural software tool. The project highlighted team interaction
and collaboration, and iterative design. Sub-group communication was a necessity as sizes, loads,
and dimensions were continuously changing. Final element sizes and critical loads were used to
design typical connections.

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.0 Design Criteria


Preliminary analyses required ASPIRE to study relevant tall building design. In adjunction with
architectural constraints, this research was utilized to select specific structural systems for gravity
and lateral systems.

2.1 Tall Building Design


For years engineers have furthered the practice of structural engineering, designing increasingly
taller skyscrapers to meet the demanding vision of architects and owners. As buildings grow, more
efficient, specialized structural systems are needed to handle the loads. One of the first buildings to
clearly demonstrate the potential of the skyscraper was the Empire State Building, reaching 1250
feet in 1931 through the use of a standard riveted steel frame with simple portal bracing (Binder
2006, 42). Engineering has progressed onward from this simple system, reducing the amount of
material used while simultaneously increasing the height. One way of achieving this is through the
use of a high-density concrete core with outriggers and belt trusses at mechanical floors. This
strategy has allowed buildings like the Shanghai World Finance Center and the Burj Khalifa to soar
to heights over one and two thousand feet, respectively.
The Chicago Spires specifications are demanding, defining a building that is truly unique.
Outriggers and belt trusses for lateral restraint are limited to the mechanical floors, isolated
throughout the structures elevation. The residential floors contain spacious floor plans with evenly
spaced columns in a ring around the core. Cantilever beams extend from the radial frame to the
faade, allowing for unobstructed views in all directions.
For a building as slender as the Chicago Spire, the lateral system is often the limiting factor in
selecting a design. As buildings increase in height, the structural frames continue to decrease in
average weight per square foot. This is possible due to interaction between interior/exterior
components; high strength low-alloy steel; composite construction; wind tunnel tests; and concrete
improvements in reinforcement and strength.
A vital piece of the Chicago Spires design is a system to resist lateral loads. Lateral loads are more
variable than gravity loads and increase significantly with building height. Lateral systems are
designed with the towers strength, stability, and rigidity in mind. For tall buildings, serviceability
usually controls the design. Inter-story deflection, also called floor-to-floor drift, and dynamic
effects, such as vortex shedding and vibrations, are concerns for slender buildings.

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.2 Lateral System Determination


The Chicago Spires architecture plays a significant role in selecting a feasible lateral system.
Clearance requirements in residential and lobby floors limit regions where the exterior column grid
and concrete core can integrate to resist lateral forces. The two primary components of the chosen
lateral system are the high-strength concrete core and the exterior column system.

2.2.1 Outriggers and Belt Trusses


Mechanical floors will include outriggers and belt trusses to effectively stiffen the structure and
incorporate the exterior column grid with the core. The outriggers will span from each exterior
column to the core wall two floors above. Belt trusses will circle the structure at the same floors.
Belt trusses enable the column grid to systematically resist induced shear forces and moments. The
lack of architectural constraints in mechanical floors allows for large steel members to span in
regions normally occupied in residential floors. The outriggers and belt trusses are effective in
reducing both inter-story and global drift. Additionally, these transfer a 20-40% of the exterior
axial forces into the concrete core.
Outriggers and belt trusses are extremely difficult and timely to construct. However given the
architectural constraints of the project, they are a necessity to meet serviceability requirements.
Construction scheduling must consider the delay and dead time when outriggers floors are erected.
Figure 2.1 shows an outrigger and belt truss system sketch for a typical lateral restraint system.

Figure 2.1: Outrigger and Belt Truss System Sketch (Taranath 1988, 279)

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.2.2 Core and Shear Walls


The core of the Chicago Spire will consist of thick concrete shear walls integrated through link
beams and a reinforced concrete, two-way slab.
Concrete is a versatile building material with its own strengths and weaknesses. Concrete is
economic, fire-resistant, and long-lasting. Concrete walls can be almost any shape or size as long as
they harden uniformly to limit cracking. A disadvantage of concrete is the increased section
required to support a specified load. However, this larger section can increase structure stiffness,
decrease global deflection, and minimize floor vibrations.
Another weakness of concrete is the construction time involved with slip formwork erection,
pumping, pouring, and curing. The increased construction time results in increased labor costs,
which should be balanced by material savings.
One important consideration for a concrete core is the effect of creep and shrinkage. With steel or
composite columns, the vertical elements will ultimately experience differential settlement. This
must be pre-calculated and accounted for during construction.

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.3 Typical Floors and Column Layouts


Four typical floors can be used to fully represent the loading in the Chicago Spire. These typical
floors include the lobby and amenities, residential floors, mechanical floors, and the parking floors.
The number of columns per bank decreases to optimize column sizing and spacing (Table 2.1).
Load diagrams have been prepared for each of the typical floors selected and can be viewed in
S0.001.
Table 2.1: Summary of Exterior Columns per Bank
Bank
1
2
3
4.1
4.2

Columns
21
21
14
14
14

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.4 Gravity Design Loads


Gravity loads include element self-weight as well as superimposed dead loads and live loads as
defined by ASCE 7-05. Loading diagrams look specifically at loads acting on the floor slabs;
detailing which load is applied in a certain area. This information is used to design beams, columns,
and slabs for gravity loads. Loads from column self-weight, lateral forces, and faade line loads are
not included in loading diagrams.
Dead loads include self-weight of reinforced concrete slabs and composite decking when applicable.
Values were updated throughout the design process once all slab thicknesses, concrete densities,
and decking specifications were made. Table 2.2 summarizes the unfactored gravity forces used for
design. Appendix 9.1 displays the calculations for the specific loads in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: Unfactored Design Loads per ASCE 7-05 (psf)
Dead
Load

Superimposed
Dead Load

Live Load

Lobby
Residential
Mechanical
Parking
Mechanical Core

32
33
39
150
55

57
34
10
42
10

100
55
240
40
240

Residential and Lobby Core

55

57

100

ASPIRE

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.5 Lateral Design Loads


Lateral loads are extremely important in the design of tall buildings, and they are the controlling
factor the Chicago Spire design. Tall and slender structures such as the Spire are extremely
susceptible to wind and seismic forces. ASCE 7-10 was used to estimate wind and seismic forces.
Wind tunnel testing results were also provided and used in comparison to the code defined wind
loads.

2.5.1 ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads


Chapter 26 was utilized to calculate various factors, which include basic wind speed, wind
directionality factor, exposure category, topographic factor, gust effect factor, and enclosure
classification. Chapter 26 calculations can be found in Calculation 2.2.1. The following assumptions
were made throughout the calculation.
Basic wind speed, V = 120 mph

ASCE 7-10, 26.5-1B

Wind directionality factor, Kd = 0.85

ASCE 7-10, 26.2-1

Exposure Category D (Flat, unobstructed wind over water)

ASCE 7-10, 26.7

Building, Enclosed

ASCE 7-10, 26.2

Occupancy Category IV (Iconic structure)

ASCE 7-10, 1.5-1

These factors are then used in the Directional Procedure in Chapter 27 to calculate windward and
leeward pressures. The main wind force-resisting system from 27.4 is used to calculate the wind
pressures for windward and leeward walls. The code calculated wind pressures were multiplied by
respective lateral tributary areas to produce a net wind force at each floor.
Loads from ASCE 7-10 are very conservative and ambiguous for the Chicago Spire. The calculations
were performed to provide baseline values to compare against wind tunnel data. For code
calculations, the building is assumed to be prismatic and regular-shape, so that windward, leeward,
and side walls can be identified. Effects like vortex shedding are not addressed.
The ASCE 7-10 wind loads are calculated with basic wind speeds corresponding to a mean
recurrence interval of 1700 years. These results should be considered for design only. ASCE 7-10,
Figure CC-3 provides 50-year MRI basic wind speeds which can be used for serviceability criteria.

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2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.5.2 RWDI Wind Tunnel Forces


Thornton Tomasetti provided ASPIRE with a wind tunnel analysis of the Chicago Spire. The report,
prepared by RWDI, contained forces (Fx and Fy) and torsional moments (Mz) for each floor. The
report lists recommended wind load combinations which will be discussed in a later section. The
maximum resultant of the combinations for Fx and Fy were plotted against the ASCE 7-10
directional procedure forces. Figure 2.2 shows these results and a confirmation that wind tunnel
forces should be used for strength design and serviceability criteria. Appendix 9.2 shows all RWDI
Wind Tunnel Data and recommended wind load combinations.
The RWDI forces are for a 100-year MRI. For checking serviceability criteria, a reduction factor of
0.83 is used to estimate 50-year MRI forces.

Figure 2.2: RWDI Wind Tunnel versus ASCE7 Directional Procedure Forces

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2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.5.3 ASCE 7-10 Seismic Load Calculations


ASCE 7-10, Chapters 11 and 12 were used to estimate seismic loads for the Chicago Spire. The
complete seismic calculations are in Calculation 2.3.
The overall weight of the building was needed to perform seismic loading analysis. The building is
broken down into 8 Mechanical floors, 8 Lobby floors, and 131 Residential floors for a total of 147
floors. The effective seismic weight, W, was calculated using an initial estimate for core wall,
column, and cladding self-weight. Following the design of columns and core walls, the effective
weight and resulting seismic forces were updated. The effective seismic weight was found to be
650,000 kips. The base shear was calculated assuming a seismic response coefficient, Cs, of 0.10.
The following formulas were used to determine the seismic lateral loads at each floor.
ASCE 7-10, 12.8-11
(

ASCE 7-10, 12.8-12


ASCE 7-10, 12.8-13

where
Fx ,Fi = lateral seismic forces induced at any level i or x
Cvx = vertical distribution factor
V = total design lateral base shear
wi , wx = portion of the total effective seismic weight of the structure located to level
i or x
hi , hx are the height from the base to level i or x
k= exponent related to the structure period
Vx = design story shear at any story
Table 2.3 summarizes the results at the base and top floor of the structure. See Appendix 9.3 for all
lateral forces, story shears, and moments.

Table 2.3: Seismic Lateral Forces

12

Floor Level, x

Lateral Force Fx, kips

Story Shear Vx, kips

Moment Mx, ft-kips

0.01

6,563

8.82 x 106

147

213.4

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2.6 Load Combinations


The following load combinations from ASCE 7-05, 2.3.2 were used throughout the design process.
Load combinations were used in both engineering hand calculations and in the MIDAS Gen 3D
model. The RWDI wind tunnel recommended combinations from Appendix 9.2 were used as a sublevel of load combinations when wind applied.
1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L
1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L
1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L
.9D + 1.6W
.9D + 1.0E

The following load combinations from ASCE 7-05, CC.1.2 were used in for drift serviceability
criteria. The RWDI wind tunnel recommended combinations from Table 9.1 were used as a sublevel of load combinations with a reduction factor of 1.20.

1.0D + .5L + .7W

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2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.7 Serviceability Requirements


Serviceability limit states are the conditions in which the routine functions of a structure are
impaired because of local deformation of building components or because of occupant discomfort.
These limit states are affected by static loads from the occupants and their possessions, snow or
rain on roofs, temperature, dynamic loads from human activity, wind, or the operation of the
building service equipment. Serviceability criteria for the Chicago Spire should be selected from the
limits specified in design codes to ensure both functional as well as economical design when
constructing a building with desirable retail space.
Serviceability criteria for the Chicago Spire are controlled by:

Excessive deflection or rotation


Excessive vibrations
Total and local (floor-to-floor) building drift
Tower accelerations

The criteria used depend on the function of the building. General guidance on serviceability limits
is provided in sections CC1.1, CC1.2, and CC1.3 of ASCE 7-10.

2.7.1 Deflection
Vertical deflections arise primarily from:

Gravity loads (dead loads and live loads)


Effects of temperature, creep and differential settlement
Construction tolerances and errors

For the Chicago Spire, the deflection limit for horizontal members is as follows:
L/360

ASCE 7-10, CC1.1

These limits will prevent any visible deflection or impairment of window and door operation. Snow
loads are negligible in the Chicago Spire, thus only dead and live loads are considered when
meeting deflection criteria. The suggested load combination is:
D+L

ASCE 7-10, CC-1a

Member depths are often restricted due to architectural constraints. If these members are unable
to stay within the serviceability requirements, a predetermined camber will be specified to
counteract anticipated deflection. Camber will be a powerful tool when approaching the long
spanning cantilever beams extending from the radial column grid.

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2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA

2.7.2 Vibration Analysis


Intense floor or building vibrations can cause discomfort to the building occupants. Some ways to
mitigate the vibrations include using a dampening system or limiting the deflection to an absolute
value that is independent of span. The acceleration limit for continuous vibrations throughout the
building will be the following:
a 0.005*g

ASCE 7-10, CC1.3

where

a = continuous vibration acceleration


g = gravity

2.7.3 Total and Story Drift


Serviceability drift is a key component in the ultimate design of the Chicago Spire. At roughly 2,000
feet tall, the inter-story and total building drift can significantly affect occupant comfort, reducing
high-end real estate rates. The total and local drift limit is of the following order:
h / 400

ASCE 7-10, CC1.2

where

h = building or story height


Serviceability drift also depends on the mean recurrence interval (MRI) and the respective
importance factor applied to the lateral loads. The design considers a 50-year MRI (annual
probability of 0.01) because of the height and slenderness of the structure. A combination of
geographical conditions, surveying data, and client preference will determine an importance factor
for this 50-year MRI.

2.7.4 Other Considerations


The design considers time dependent serviceability criteria. Structural elements are expected to
show long term deformations due to creep and shrinkage, which occurs at a slow but persistent
rate over a long period of time. The thick concrete core will ultimately lead to significantly more
deflection than the exterior columns. This deformation can be limited and accounted for during
construction.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

3.0 Gravity Design


ASPIRE considered several alternatives for the Chicago Spire initial gravity design. Steel, concrete,
and composite systems were compared using both qualitative and quantitative methods to
determine an ultimate design. The final Chicago Spire gravity design includes composite steel floor
deck systems, reinforced concrete slabs within the core structure, steel built-up columns, and
reinforced concrete link beams.
For floor beam design, both non-composite and composite systems were considered. The column
design uses built-up steel columns. Built-up steel sizes vary as building height increases.
Reinforced concrete was used for the core slab and core link beams,
Initial gravity design does not consider the influence of lateral loads. The gravity system was
designed using conservative approaches to account for future changes and the contribution from
wind and seismic forces.

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3.1 Geometry and Loading


The Chicago Spire geometry is based on provided architectural drawings as well as team
assumptions based on design calculations and the elevation drawings. Assumptions for the Chicago
Spire geometry and loading are listed below.

Beam spans and associated tributary areas are calculated from the Revit model.
Two cantilever beam spans (short and long) are considered for each typical floor plan. The spans
are estimated from the provided structural elevation drawing.
Exterior face consists of curved, load bearing HSS beams.
Mechanical and lobby floor plans have three joists per internal bay. Residential floor plans have
two joists per internal bay.
Radial girders and cantilever beams are fixed-fixed to reduce net moment at the respective
connection.
All other beam connections are considered to be simply supported.

3.1.1 Tributary Areas


Joists, circumferential girders, angled girders, and HSS beams bear loads from the design loads
shown in Table 2.2 (pg 9). A floor beam denomination system is shown in Figure 3.1. Calculation
3.1 displays the calculation steps for gravity design tributary area. More specific assumptions for
the tributary area calculations are listed below.

Rectangular shapes are used to estimate all tributary areas.


Column-to-faade distance is assumed to be constant throughout the rise of the tower.
Typical floor plans are considered to have internal bays and external bays.
o Internal bays consist of floor joists and radial girders.
o External bays consist of cantilevers, HSS beams, and angled girders.
HSS 1 extends from the short cantilever to the end of the long cantilever and back down to
another short cantilever. HSS 2 spans between two short cantilevers. See Figure 3.2.
In external bays bounded by HSS 1, the HSS beam bears of the area, the angled girder bears
of the area, and the circumferential girders bears of the area. See Figure 3.2.
In external bays bounded by HSS 2, the HSS beam bears of the area, and the column girder
bears the area. See Figure 3.2.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

HSS 1

HSS 2

Figure 3.1: Structural Beam Labeling System

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

Figure 3.2: Tributary Area Breakdown for External Bays


Figure 3.3 shows the tributary area for a typical joist. The base length is the average adjacent joist
lengths, and the height is the beam spacing.

Figure 3.3: Tributary Area for Joist 1


Appendix 9.4 summarizes all design spans and tributary areas for the Chicago Spire.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

3.1.2 Loading and Load Paths


The following equations are used for the deflection serviceability requirements and the gravity
beam design.
Serviceability:

D+L

Strength Design: 1.2D + 1.6L


There are several load paths considered for the gravity design process. Figure 3.4 summarizes the
paths for the gravity loads summarized in Table 2.2 (pg 9). The faade load was assumed to be 10
psf and the floor-to-floor height of 13 ft, 2 in. This results in a line load of 132 plf.

DL, LL, SDL (psf)


Faade (plf)

HSS Beams

Angled Girders

Column Girders

Joists

Radial Girders

Cantilevers

Link Beams
Columns

Core Walls
Foundation

Figure 3.4: Gravity Load Paths for Design Process

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

3.2 Core Slab Design


The core slabs were designed as reinforced concrete floors. The core requires a large number of
voids for elevator shafts and mechanical openings. ASPIRE used reinforced concrete instead of
composite decks to account for these different span lengths and configurations. Slab thicknesses
and reinforcement was determined to provide appropriate moment capacity.
Loads for core slab design are shown in Table 2.2 (pg 9). For each bank, four typical slabs were
designed. These slabs are labeled in Figure 3.6. The numbering is identical for the same locations
on different banks. Slab design 4 is assumed to be typical for slab sections not included in the
numbering or not identical to other numbered slabs. Appendix 9.4 summarizes the core slab
reinforcement. Calculation 3.2.1 shows the design steps following ACI 318-08 for one-direction
slabs.

Figure 3.5: Core Slab Detail

Figure 3.6: Core Slab Design Locations, Directions, and Numbering

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

3.3 Link Beam Design


Link beam sizes were determined by the loading condition from Table 2.2, pg 9. Five different link
beams were selected from plan to be designed. These designs can then be extrapolated to size the
remaining link beams within the core. The tributary areas were estimated fairly conservatively
(Figure 3.7).

Figure 3.7: Tributary Areas for Link Beam Design.


There were several assumptions used to carry out the design of the link beams within the core
structure:

Length of curved beams equal to length of arc centerline.


Steel to concrete connections from radial girders fixed to curved beams act as point loads on the
centerline of the beam.
All beams are simply supported.
Sand-lightweight concrete is used throughout.

Appendix 9.5 summarizes the link beam geometry and results. The curved beams were the most
difficult to design given the amount of torsion induced by the radial shape. Calculation 3.2.2 shows
the link beam design steps following ACI 318.

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3.4 Composite Beam Design


Composite beam design was used for all above grade beam systems surrounding the concrete core.
The initial gravity design compared a non-composite beam system to a composite system. The
composite system required smaller W-shapes and less concrete for the slabs.

3.4.1 Slab and Decking


Specific deck sizes were selected from the Vulcraft Steel Roof & Floor Deck, 2008 manual with
respect to constructability as well as minimizing the material weight. Specific assumptions for the
slab and decking calculations are listed below.

Floor-to-ceiling heights must remain constant in all residential and lobby levels.
When calculating weight of the steel, steel beam systems were modeled as a group of W12x29
shapes.
Weight of steel is assumed to be 500 pcf.
Decking system is simply supported over steel framing as a continuous beam.

Decking runs perpendicular to all floor joists and circumferential girders. Decking comes in 30 in
or 36 in widths and can be either shop or field cut to meet the architectural requirements of the
slab edge.
Appendix 9.7 summarizes the decking and slab thickness used for composite beam design.
Calculation 3.3.1 summarizes the composite deck sizing calculations.

3.4.2 Composite Beam Sizing


The design procedure found in Bungale S. Taranaths Steel, Concrete, & Composite Design of Tall
Buildings was used in conjunction with Chapter I of the AISC Steel Construction Manual. Sample
composite beam calculations can be found in Calculation 3.3.2. Assumptions for composite design
are listed below.

Unshored construction will be used and all pre-composite loading conditions must be considered.
Area of corrugated steel decking and concrete between top of flange and top of decking will be
considered negligible.
All shear studs will be in. diameter and 3 in. long before welded to steel beam.
Lateral-torsional buckling is not a concern for the completed structure.
Angled girder design is assumed to be perpendicular to the decking direction.
Lightweight concrete, c = 110 pcf, is used for all floor slabs.
28-day compressive strength of concrete, fc = 4000 psi

A composite beam system integrates the steel W-shapes, metal decking, and concrete slab through
shear studs. The addition of the concrete slab raises the neutral axis and increases the available
system section modulus. Figure 3.8 shows a typical composite beam and decking system for
decking perpendicular to the beam.
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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN


The radial girders on mechanical floors were designed for weak axis bending. These girders are
rotated 90 degrees to increase the constructability and strength of the outrigger connections.
Appendix 9.5 summarizes the preliminary composite beam design

Figure 3.8:Typical Composite Beam and Decking System

3.4.3 Serviceability
3.4.3.1

Deflection

All beams were checked under pre-composite and post-composite load conditions against
deflection requirements set in Section 2.7.1. For uniformly distributed beams modeled as simply
supported, deflection was calculated using the following equation:

max

where

5wl 4
384 EI

I = Is for pre-composite
I = Ieff for post-composite

The following checks were made against the pre- and post-composite deflection.

24

If the pre-composite loading exceeded the allowable deflection, camber was specified for 75% of
max.
If the post-composite loading exceeded the allowable deflection, a stiffer steel shape was chosen.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN


Cantilever beams and radial girders received point loads from adjacent beam members. Beam
deflection was calculated using the principles of superposition from separate scenarios of single
point loads.

3.4.3.2

Vibration Analysis

Vibration from human movement and walking excitation must be considered as a serviceability
design requirement for the Chicago Spires gravity design. Serviceability loads and beam
deflections are used to calculate the floors natural frequency per AISC Design Guide 11, equation
3.3:

f n 0.18

g
total

AISC Design 11, 3.3

The following assumptions are made throughout the vibration analysis test.

Vertical column frequencies are not taken into account


Beam and decking are non-continuous over the bays. This assumes that each bay is independent from
the others.
Transformed moment of inertia must be used for deflection equations.

The natural frequency, fn, is used to calculate the ratio between the peak acceleration and gravity
(ap/g), which is compared to the acceleration limit (ao/g) based on the type of occupancy. For the
Chicago Spire, the occupancy condition is residential, and per AISC Design Guide 11, Table 4.1 the
acceleration limit is 0.5%. The peak acceleration is calculated from equation 4.1:

ap
g

Po e0.35 fn
W

AISC Design 11, 4.1

where
Po = excitation
= modal damping ratio
W = effective weight supported by the component.
Peak acceleration from Equation 4.1 is compared to the acceleration limits set in Section 2.7.2. The
typical values that were used in calculations are shown in Table 3.1.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN


Table 3.1: Typical Values for Vibrational Analysis Calculations
Residential

Mechanical

Lobby

1.5

1.5

1.78
0.253
60

3.29
0.292
65

1.78
0.253
60

0.2
65

0.2
65

0.2
65

Number of joists framing into


girders
Thickness of corrugation
Weight of decking
Theoretical volume of concrete
Total Load

Units

in
psf
ft3/ft2
psf

From AISC Design Guide 11, Table 4.1

Po

lbs

When a member or bay is subjected to excitation at its natural frequency, fn, the beam will reach its
maximum vibrational displacements. The natural frequencies of members depend on their stiffness
and mass. Members analyzed individually showed a natural frequency in the range of 3 Hz to 22 Hz;
however, when analyzed as a combined system yielded natural frequencies between 3 Hz and 10
Hz. The peak acceleration for the Chicago Spire was found to be between 0.040% and 0.246%. See
Table 3.2 for the full range of values.
Table 3.2: Summary of Estimated Vibrations
Type
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential -1
Residential -2

Bank

ap/g

ao/g

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4

0.332%
0.099%
0.199%
0.246%
0.040%
0.086%
0.194%
0.043%
0.073%
0.146%
0.130%

0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%

A vibration analysis for serviceability requirements can be found in Calculation 3.3.3.

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3.5 Faade Beam Design


The beams running along the slab edge support the faade and design loads from Table 2.2. These
beams were designed as hollow structural section (HSS) to account for large, curved spans. Section
geometry of HSS beams allows for increased constructability and resistance to torsion. Blodgetts
Design of Welded Structures was used to calculate end torsion of the curved beams. The following
assumptions were made throughout the HSS beam design process.

Tributary area was calculated from the Revit model (Figure 3.9)
Other than torsion at the beam ends and angular twist, all other calculations for bending moment
and shear capacity assume that the beam is straight.

Figure 3.9: Tributary Areas for the HSS Beam

A preliminary section was chosen for all perimeter faade beams. Table 3.3 summarizes this
design.
Table 3.3: HSS Beam Design Summary
Selected Section

HSS 20x12x1/2

Self-Weight

103.3 lb/ft

Span

78.7 ft

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3.6 Column Design


Vertical columns and slanted transfer columns were selected given the gravity design load
combination in Section 3.1.2. Axial loads for column design were calculated using a column load
takedown. The structure was split fourteen subsections for the column schedule. Initial composite
and steel shapes were chosen for these locations. These sizes serve as a baseline for structural
software modeling and energy optimization. The column sizes are expected to change multiple
times once lateral forces are analyzed for strength and serviceability.
All vertical concrete has a 28-day compressive strength of 14,000 psi. High density concrete,
c=160 pcf, is also used in all composite columns and the concrete core wall. Design tools for axial
forces, vertical columns sizing and transfer columns sizing can be found in Calculation 3.4.

3.6.1 Column Load Takedown


A column load takedown tool calculated axial forces given factored design loads and respective
tributary areas. Axial forces were calculated for the exterior columns and the core bearing walls.
Beam columns transfer eccentric loads at mechanical floors due to the chosen column grid
summarized in Table 2.1. Two gravity load paths, shown in Figure 3.10, allow for the design of four
types of columns. Column 1 extends the entire height of building while Column 2 of Banks 3 and 4
is transferred to two columns, 3a and 3b, for Banks 1 and 2. Figure 3.11 and Figure 3.12 display the
typical column grid for Bank 1 and Bank 3, respectively. For constructability purposes the column
details should be similar in each subsection.

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

Figure 3.10: Steel Column Load Paths

Column 1
Column 2

Figure 3.11: Bank 3 Steel Column Layout

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3.0 GRAVITY DESIGN

Column 1
Column 3a/3b

Figure 3.12: Bank 1 Steel Column Layout


Axial loads for the core were also found using the column load takedown. The core was not
originally designed for solely gravity forces. The core loads from the column load takedown were
utilized in the three dimensional finite element model as nodal forces.
The core is divided into four shear walls, an East-West pair, and a North-South pair. The shear
walls act as coupling units through the reinforced concrete link beams and slab. The column load
takedown calculated axial forces for individual shear walls. Elevator shaft openings throughout the
tower limit the core wall shapes. Generic core wall geometry was simplified to the cross section
shown in Figure 3.13. In Bank 4 the reduced shaft opening space and the tapering of exterior
columns leads to an exception to the typical core geometry.

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Figure 3.13: Typical Core Column Section, Banks 1-3


Calculations were performed at each level for each type of column. Tributary area was multiplied
by the distributed load to get the resultant axial column load. In cases where there is more than
one type of loading, the corresponding area is used. Cumulative axial loads at the ground level can
be used for foundation and mega-column design (Table 3.4).
Table 3.4: Factored Loads from Gravity at Ground Level

Column 1

DL
(kips)
5,600

SDL
(kips)
7,600

LL
(kips)
7,600

Column 3a

4,200

5,800

5,800

Column 3b

4,200

5,800

5,800

E-W Core

9,700

13,100

24,200

N-S Core

12,100

14,200

43,400

Does not include column and core self-weight

3.6.2 Initial Vertical Column Design: Composite and Steel Shapes


Axial forces from the column load takedown were used to optimize the column material and size for
each sub-section.
Steel columns were chosen for Bank 3 & 4 because of their ability to resist lateral loads. The
preliminary steel column design included steel built-up columns at the lower floors. Although large
composite columns were chosen in their stead, this possibility proved to be an effective means for
later column design.

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The initial column sections of the Chicago Spire were optimized for strength, economy, and
architectural constraints. Composite columns were designed following AISC Chapters I, G1 and G2.
Steel columns were designed using AISC Chapters H1. Column behavior from lateral load
combinations was not considered for this deliverable. Figure 3.14 shows a typical composite
column section with a W-shape and reinforcement encased in concrete.

Figure 3.14: Composite Column Section


Appendix 9.9 summarizes the initial column sizes for each subsection of the Spire.

3.6.3 Transfer Column Design


At mechanical floors, angled beam-columns transfer gravity loads from one bank to another. As the
height of the structure increases, the building tapers and radial column grids reduce in diameter.
Figure 3.15 shows the different transfer column configurations for each bank. The columns were
designed in accordance with AISC Chapter H1 because they are subject to both axial and flexural
forces.
Using the loads from the column load takedown, nominal moments and compressive strengths
were calculated. The columns were designed to satisfy flexural and axial limit states. Upon
preliminary analysis, it was discovered that typical W-shapes were not sufficient for the combined
loading criteria. Built up columns or W-shapes with cover plates are needed to fully satisfy the
design loads.

Figure 3.15: Transfer Column Orientations

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.0 Lateral Load Resisting System Design


ASPIRE conducted a three phase lateral system design for the Chicago Spire. First, a preliminary
lateral analysis modeled the building as a cantilever tube representing the reinforced concrete core.
Each bank was assigned an initial wall thickness and inner radius to optimize the critical tensile and
compressive stresses at the base of the bank. The preliminary core thicknesses were very large and
unfeasible for construction and design, so additional investigation was necessary.
This deliverable incorporates the columns into the lateral design and assesses the need for
additional lateral systems. Outriggers and belt trusses have been added to create an integrated
system. The core and the columns act together to resist lateral forces and torsional moments from
wind and seismic load combinations. A three-dimensional model was created with MIDAS Gen to
run load cases in static and dynamic analyses. Core walls, outriggers, and belt trusses were sized
using sensitivity analyses to meet serviceability requirements defined in Section 2.7.
Critical moments and axial forces, taken from the finite element model, showed the preliminary
sizing from the gravity design to be inadequate. Ultimately, column steel area was increased to
improve the structures stiffness. This was critical to lateral deflection and gravity load shedding at
outrigger levels.

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.1 Structural System Overview


The overall structural systems are critical to the lateral design of the Chicago Spire. The Chicago
Spire includes a reinforced concrete core surrounded by radial exterior columns. In three isolated
mechanical sections, two-story trusses span between the radial columns and the core, acting as
outriggers that tie the movements and rotations of the columns to the core. Outriggers are also
effective in shedding gravity loads from the columns to the concrete core. Belt trusses also
surround these levels to tie the columns together into a cohesive unit.
While the gravity system was designed for code defined loads and calculated tributary areas, lateral
forces are both unpredictable and significant. Statistical analyses are typically performed to
determine the critical wind and seismic lateral forces for both design and serviceability conditions.
Wind tunnel loads and torsional moments were provided by RWDI and provide an accurate
estimate of 100-year MRI forces on the Chicago Spire. ASCE 7 design procedures for wind loads
produce extremely conservative results for tall, slender buildings.
The core of the building is primarily designed to be a stiff lateral load-resisting system. Although
size and openings are constrained by architectural specifications, the core still needs to resist
critical wind and seismic forces. These forces develop an overturning moment in the core that
induces tensile stresses on the windward side of the core and compression stresses on the leeward
side. The moment induced in the core near the top of the building is fairly negligible, necessitating
a core of only a few feet thick. However, near the base, this moment can be significant enough to
control the overall core design. Concrete has a strong resistance to compressive stresses, yet is
weak in tension. The core is heavily reinforced with flexural reinforcement to resist the tension
stresses. Additionally, the outrigger and belt truss system helps reduce the overturning moment,
thereby reducing the tensile stresses. Figure 4.1 shows the locations of the belt truss and outrigger
system at mechanical floors.

34

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Belt Truss
Outrigger

Figure 4.1: 3D model of Outrigger and Belt Truss Locations

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35

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.2 Preliminary Core Wall Design


Hand calculations were completed to estimate initial core wall thicknesses and reinforcement limits
based on the compressive strength of concrete and the modulus of rupture. Wind tunnel testing
provided by RWDI proved to be more accurate than ASCE design loads. All exterior framing,
foundations, slabs, and columns are ignored in these calculations. The Chicago Spires core is
assumed to act as a cantilever resisting lateral forces from seismic activity or wind and axial forces
from self-weight, dead loads, and live loads. Calculations 4.2 and 4.3 summarize the engineering
calculations used to develop baseline core wall thicknesses when considering both a system with
and without outriggers.

4.2.1 Core Wall Design Loads


A combination of wind tunnel data, ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10 were used to find forces, stresses, and
moments at each floor.

ASCE 7-10 used for seismic load calculation


ASCE 7-05 2.3.2 basic load combinations used for wind strength design
ASCE 7-05 CC.1 basic load combinations used for wind serviceability verification
RWDI 100 year MRI Wind Tunnel Testing Information Used for wind serviceability load
calculation (Appendix 9.2).

The loads at the bottom floor of each bank were used to calculate controlling tensile and
compressive stresses. The loads used in the calculations are in Table 4.1 below. The floor at the
base of each bank was assessed for a conservative approach.
Table 4.1: Critical Core Wall Unfactored Design Loads
Core Gravity Loads

Bank
1
2
3
4a
4b

36

Floor
1
40
74
111
130

Total Dead
Load
(SDL + DL)
kips
81,958
56,024
33,366
15,356
6,810

Total
Live Load
kips
84,464
59,908
37,076
21,238
13,496

Core Self Weight


Above Floor
kips
594,387
282,275
141,506
38,397
15,825

ASPIRE

Lateral Moments
ASCE 7-10
Seismic
k-ft
8.82E6
5.49E6
2.86E6
8.02E5
2.25E5

RWDI Wind Tunnel


k-ft
9.41E6
5.16E6
2.42E6
5.70E5
1.20E5

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


The loads in Table 4.1 have been determined from various design tools:

Dead load, superimposed dead load, and live load are from a column load takedown created
for the gravity design deliverable. The column load takedown calculated loads for each core
wall section. These values were scaled to represent the total unfactored loading on the
assumed tube for each floor.

Seismic moments were calculated as the sum of all moment arms from lateral seismic
forces, Fx.

Wind moments were calculated as the sum of all moment from critical lateral wind forces.
Recommended wind load combinations were considered. A critical resultant force from the
effects of Fx and Fy at each floor was used for the preliminary design moments. Wind
moment calculations ignore torsional moments provided by RWDI testing.

4.2.2 Core Wall Design


The concrete cantilevered tube was designed to resist the previously calculated gravity and lateral
loads. The inner radius and core wall thickness were adjusted at each bank to account for the
varying loads throughout the building. The strength design load combinations from Section 2.6.
The compressive stress block due to the gravity load was combined with the lateral stress diagram
to calculate net compressive and tensile stresses at the extreme outer fiber of the core. Shear forces
and moments were calculated from the distributed seismic and wind forces. Figure 4.2 displays a
sample combination of gravity and lateral induced stresses.

Figure 4.2: Typical Core Wall Stress Diagram

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37

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

The following equations were used:

( comp ,tens )

Pgravity
A

M lateral c
I

where
c = distance from center to extreme outer fiber
I = second moment of area
A = section area of concrete tube
Pgravity = critical gravity load
Mlateral = critical moment from lateral forces
The controlling compressive and tensile stresses from the load combinations were compared to
allowable stresses found in ACI 318. Table 4.2 summarizes the design comparison between the
controlling stresses from the six load combinations to the allowable stress values. The
reinforcement is designed assuming the steel yields first, allowing = 0.90.
Table 4.2: Controlling Stresses for Core Wall Design

Net Compression =
Net Tension =

1
6.468
-3.610

Allowable Compression =

0.55* * f'c =

Allowable Tension =

2
4.647
-2.989

.5

7.5 * (f'c) =

3
3.552
-2.698

4a
2.066
-1.463

6.93 ksi
-0.887 ksi

4b
1.050
-0.465

ksi
ksi

ACI 318 (14.5.2)


= 0.90

The equations for net compression and tension are dependent on the cross sectional area of the
core and the moment of inertia. The core thickness and inner radii were adjusted to meet the
allowable compression constraint, as shown in the next section. The grey highlighted cells in Table
4.2 exceed the modulus of rupture; however, preliminary analysis ignores concrete reinforcement
against tension.

4.2.3 Drift Hand Calculation


The core wall was idealized as a series of stacked concrete tubes. Collectively the tubes acted as a
cantilevered beam experiencing deflection from a distributed lateral load. Figure 4.3 shows the
distributed load simplification as four sets of uniform loads acting on each bank.
38

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Figure 4.3: Distributed Lateral Load for Core Wall


Bernoullis equation was used to calculate the maximum tip deflection from the uniform loads
calculated from the RWDI forces.

w
24 E I

c1 3 c2 2
x
x c3 x c4
6
2

The maximum global tip deflection was calculated to be 10 ft (Calculation 4.1). This fails the global
serviceability requirement; however, this does not account for the contribution of outriggers or
exterior columns.

4.2.4 Reinforcement Requirements


Given a representative core section of unit length, the percentage of steel needed for each bank was
calculated using the maximum net tensile force at the extreme fiber. The yield stress of the steel
reinforcement was assumed to be 60 ksi.
The steel area for each bank was compared to the gross area of the representative section. Table
4.3 summarizes the core wall reinforcement requirements for preliminary calculations. The steel
was assumed to be tension controlled.

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


Table 4.3: Initial Core Wall Reinforcement Requirements
Bank

4a

4b

Ag (ft )

11.5

8.5

4.5

t (ksi)

-3.610

-2.989

-2.698

-1.463

-0.465

Ft (kip)

-5978

-3659

-2331

-948

-201

100

61

39

16

0.69

0.42

0.27

0.11

0.02

6.02%

4.98%

4.50%

2.44%

0.78%

As (in )
As (ft )
% Steel

Area of 1 ft concrete section


Net tension stress at extreme fiber
Ag*t
As = Ft / Fy

% Steel = As / Ag

4.2.5 Core Wall Lateral Resisting System


The preliminary lateral design for the Chicago Spire core determined an initial core thickness and
reinforcement requirements. The preliminary wall thicknesses were increased to account for core
wall openings. The stresses at the bottom floor for each bank were used to design the core
properties for the respective bank. Preliminary steel reinforcement was calculated assuming the
steel would yield in tension before the concrete opposite it fails in compression. The serviceability
requirements for wind and seismic loads were evaluated given the initial core stiffness.
Architectural floor plans indicated roughly 40% of the circumference of the core is open space. The
initial tube thickness was increased to maintain the core section properties. Table 4.4 summarizes
the calculated core thickness and inner radius. The drawings of the core slab and link beam
locations (Figure 3.6 and Figure 3.7) show the core wall openings.

Table 4.4: Initial Core Thickness by Bank

40

Bank

4a

4b

Inner Radius (ft)

34

34

32

25

25

Initial Thickness (ft)

Final Thickness (+40%)

11.5

8.5

4.5

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.3 Auxiliary Lateral Systems


Tall building design is typically controlled by seismic or wind forces. Reinforced concrete core
walls and columns cannot resist the overturning moment and base shear without an additional
lateral system. Additional lateral systems were employed to create a cohesive, stiff structure to
optimize design and meet serviceability requirements. Lateral systems require large beam
members or truss systems with architectural constraints often controlling their location and design.

4.3.1 Need for Auxiliary System in the Chicago Spire


The core thicknesses determined in the Section 4.2 calculations are excessive and unfeasible for
construction. In order to reduce core wall thicknesses, outriggers will be constructed as large
transfer girders on the mechanical floors of Banks 1-3. These will span two levels from the exterior
columns to the concrete core wall.

Figure 4.4: Outriggers Spanning Two Mechanical Floors


Preliminary calculations show that outriggers will increase the moment of inertia and stiffness of
the structure. This decreases the net stresses at each bank. The concrete core wall thicknesses are
reduced to optimize the compressive strength requirements. These final thicknesses are used as
base points for the MIDAS Gen structural model. To determine the stiffness of the perimeter
column system, it was necessary to first determine the effective moment of inertia of the circle of
columns. There are two types of column groups in the spire: 21 columns in Banks 1 and 2, and 14
columns in Banks 3 and 4.

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41

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


The effective moment of inertia was determined by drawing a centerline through the middle of the
building and calculating the distance of each individual column from that centerline. The moment
of inertia for an object not centered on the centroid is:
ICL = Iobject + Ad2
where
Iobject = moment of inertia of column
A = section area of column
d = distance from centroid to center of object
The moment of inertia of the columns, Iobject, is insignificant compared to Ad2 and can be neglected.
ICL Ad2
The following assumptions were made for the core wall calculations utilizing outriggers and
exterior columns.

Steel and composite column section properties are from initial gravity design.
Increase in concrete volume and area from columns considered negligible for stresses from
gravity loads.
Itotal = Icore + 0.7*Icolumns where 0.7 is an assumed factor provided that outriggers and belt trusses
are not infinitely stiff.
Calculations use smallest column size per section for a conservative approach.

Table 4.5 highlights the effective Modulus of Elasticity, moment of inertia and stiffness of each
column section throughout the structure.

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


Table 4.5: Summary of Column Properties for each Column Section
Bank
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

Level
145
134
123
113
100
87
75
64
52
41
29
17
5
Lobby

# Columns
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
21
21
21
21
21
21
7

Column Radius (ft)


53.5
53.5
53.5
53.5
61
61
61
68.5
68.5
68.5
75.5
75.5
75.5
75.5

Ieff (ft4)
4050
4050
7905
12721
22613
29306
35457
197001
197001
197001
373939
373939
538473
538473

Eeff (ksi)
29000
29000
29000
29000
29000
29000
29000
8873
10953
12481
10458
11700
9390
9390

EI (kip-in2)
2.44E+12
2.44E+12
4.75E+12
7.65E+12
1.36E+13
1.76E+13
2.13E+13
3.62E+13
4.47E+13
5.10E+13
8.11E+13
9.07E+13
1.05E+14
1.05E+14

The moment of inertias from Table 4.5 were combined with the core wall moment of inertia to
determine new compressive and tensile forces following a similar procedure described in Section
4.2.2. Table 4.6 summarizes the reduction in tensile and compressive forces at each bank. Despite
minimal effects to the top of the Spire, outriggers make a significant contribution in Banks 1 and 2.
Table 4.6: Stress Reduction in each Bank from Outriggers
% Reduction in Each Bank:
In Applied Compression
In Applied Tension

1
17%
30%

2
10%
16%

3
3%
6%

4a
2%
5%

4b
1%
3%

The same loads and procedure described in Section 4.2.5 were used to calculate new core wall
thicknesses that incorporate the outriggers. Table 4.7 summarizes the preliminary calculations for
core wall thicknesses incorporating auxiliary lateral systems.

Table 4.7: Summary of Core Wall Thicknesses with Outriggers and Columns
Bank

4.1

4.2

Inner Radius (ft)

34

34

32

25

25

Initial Thickness (ft)

Final Thickness (+40%)

8.5

4.5

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43

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


The need for belt trusses and outriggers was assessed qualitatively and these members were not
specifically designed. For the MIDAS Gen software model, the members will be W14x730 to
increase structural stiffness.

4.3.2 Relative Stiffness of Structural Systems


A basic analysis of the stiffness of the core and column systems was conducted to ensure uniform
performance under applied loads. In order to perform as a cohesive system, the stiffness of the
reinforced concrete core needs to be similar to that of the outrigger and column system. The stiffer
system will take a proportionately larger amount of the stresses than the other system. Therefore,
if the column and outrigger system is stiffer than the core, the full capacity of the core would not be
used and columns could potentially be overstressed to the point of failure.
The relative stiffness of the core and column system will be compared by using the product of the
elastic modulus and the moment of inertia.
Each bank has different section properties, so the core was analyzed in five different segments
corresponding to Banks 1, 2, 3, 4.1, and 4.2. The values for each bank are tabulated in Table 4.8
below.
Table 4.8: System Stiffness Summary

Bank
4.2
4.1
3
2
1

Core Stiffness,
EI (kip-in2)
3.48E+13
3.48E+13
1.14E+14
1.95E+14
2.65E+14

Column Stiffness,
EI (kip-in2)
2.44E+12
7.65E+12
2.13E+13
5.10E+13
1.05E+14

Sum
(kip-in2)
3.72E+13
4.24E+13
1.35E+14
2.46E+14
3.70E+14

Sum-to-Core
% Increase
7.00%
21.99%
18.73%
26.15%
39.58%

0.7-Reduced
Sum (kip-in2)
3.65E+13
4.01E+13
1.29E+14
2.31E+14
3.38E+14

0.7-Reduced
Sum-to-Core
% Increase
4.90%
15.40%
13.11%
18.30%
27.71%

The two systems, although separate, will be connected via outriggers spanning from the core to the
columns on the mechanical levels. To determine the effect of the combined systems, each system
can be idealized as a spring with a stiffness equivalent to that of the actual system. The two
springs will be connected in parallel by the outriggers, and by simple elastic behavior theory, the
system will have an effective stiffness of the sum of the two springs individual stiffness. However,
this value assumes a perfectly rigid connection by the outriggers between the core and the columns.
This is unrealistic in practice, and as such, a reduction factor of 0.7 is applied to the column
stiffness.

44

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.4 Finite Element Model


A detailed structural analysis of the Chicago Spire was conducted using MIDAS Gen. All material
properties and baseline element shapes were taken from initial lateral and gravity design. Vertical
members, outriggers and belt trusses, and core wall thicknesses were resized throughout the
iterative modeling process based on element forces and moments, and serviceability requirements.

4.4.1 Initial Modeling Process


A three-dimensional model of the Chicago Spire was created in MIDAS Gen to model the behavior of
the building in response to dynamic and static forces. The following modeling procedures and
assumptions were made for the initial model.

The model spans from the lobby at ground elevation to the top of level 144.
The tuned mass damper and hypothetical mechanical floors at the Spires peak are not
considered. All below-grade elements are not modeled.
The mega-columns and core wall at the ground elevation are fixed to the ground.
Table 4.9 summarizes the initial elements properties modeled in MIDAS.

Table 4.9: Initial MIDAS Model Element Properties


Structural Member

Element Type

Material Property

Core Wall

Plate, thick with drilling DOF

RC, C14000

Column B1 B2 B3

General Beam

SRC, C14000, A992

Column B4

General Beam

S, A992

Transferring Column

General Beam

S, A992

Radial Beam

General Beam

SRC, C4000, A992

Column Beam

General Beam

SRC, C4000, A992

Link Beam

General Beam

RC, C4000

Outrigger and Belt Truss

Truss

SRC, C4000, A992

(S)RC: (Steel) Reinforced Concrete


CXXXX: Concrete and fc (psi)

MIDAS Gen limits reinforced concrete materials to a fc = 10,000 psi, thus the modulus of
elasticity was calculated and inputted for a compressive strength of 14,000 psi for vertical
elements. The modulus of elasticity is
(
) based on ACI-318-08

Section 8.5.1.

The density ratio, Ds/Dc=3.059, and modulus of elasticity ratio, Es/Ec=3.829, are also selfdefined in the section properties for the vertical composite columns.

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45

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Core walls are modeled as thick plate element with drilling DOF, since out-of-plane shear is
not considered negligible.
Core walls contain openings as shown in structural and architectural drawings.
Composite beams were simplified to W-Shape Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) in cross
section properties. The widths chosen in these SRC beams are based on the effective widths
of the composite beam from the gravity design.
All structural elements have been applied fixed-fixed end-releases. Cantilevers and angled
floor girders outside of the exterior column grid were not considered.

4.4.2 Loading and Load Combinations


All design loads were applied as nodal point forces. The column load takedown from Section 3.6.1
and provided wind tunnel information were used to calculate gravity and lateral forces. The
following procedures summarize the applied loads for design and serviceability criteria.

The wind forces from the wind tunnel testing are used directly for strength design. The
wind forces and torsional moments from Appendix 9.2 were applied to each level along the
z-axis.
The wind tunnel recommended combinations from Appendix 9.2 were used as a sub level of
load combinations.
A reduction factor of 0.83 (1/1.2) was applied to the RWDI wind loads to reduce the 100
year MRI loads to a 50 year MRI loads for serviceability design.
Unfactored dead loads and live loads from the column load takedown were applied to nodes
at column ends. Superimposed dead load and dead load combined for total dead load.
Appendix 9.10 summarizes the nodal gravity forces used in MIDAS Gen.
The total unfactored dead load and live load for the core was split equally into nodal forces
to the nodes connecting the radial girders to the core walls or link beams. Appendix 9.10
summarizes the nodal gravity forces used in MIDAS Gen
MIDAS Gen calculates material self-weight in the analysis, thus no self-weight is considered
in applied dead loads.
The load combinations from Section 2.6 are used for both strength and serviceability.

4.4.3 Iteration and Element Redesign


Column Validation
Original MIDAS Gen sizes for vertical columns, transfer columns, and mega-columns were from the
initial gravity design. The MIDAS Gen model was analyzed for all the load combinations and the
force and moment combinations for each column were used in a composite column interaction
diagram to resize the columns for both gravity and lateral design. The interaction diagram checked
for both strong and weak axis bending. Figure 4.5 shows the strain diagram for a composite column
bending in the weak axis.

46

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Figure 4.5: Compression Block and Steel Strain from Weak Axis Bending
The forces and moments for all load combinations were plotted on the interaction diagram. Steel
shapes, concrete dimensions, and reinforcement specifications were adjusted to optimize the
column design. This process was repeated several times with new column sizes recycled into
MIDAS Gen model and new forces and moments plotted on the interaction diagrams. Appendix
9.11 shows the composite and steel column sizes after several iterations of column validation.

Exterior Steel Stiffness


The new column sizes showed severe discontinuity under gravity forces due to the core and
outriggers being significantly stiffer than the columns. The columns were showing tension forces as
seen in Figure 4.6.
Several sensitivity analyses were used to troubleshoot the model and reduce the load shedding
shown in Figure 4.6 and the excessive deflection. The analyses are summarized in Appendix 9.11.

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47

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Figure 4.6: Initial Discontinuity Check under Gravity Loads

Final Design
The final design of the MIDAS Gen model saw several improvements from the original model. The
improvements resulted in acceptable drift under serviceability loads and reasonable load shedding
under gravity loads. The following changes helped reach these goals. Table 4.10 shows the final
model element properties.

Increased steel area in exterior column grid.


Reduced thickness of core walls.
Reduced size of belt truss members.
Table 4.10: Final MIDAS Model Element Properties
Core Wall
Thickness by
Bank (ft)
1
2 3 4
7

Vertical Column Size by Bank


Belt
Truss

Outrigger

W14x53

W14x730

BU1

BU1

BU2

BU2

While it is not economic or practical to restrict the structure to two built-up column shapes, these
sizes were expected to change during energy optimization. Figure 4.7 shows the section views of
these prefabricated steel shapes.

48

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Figure 4.7: a) BU1 and b) BU2

The final MIDAS Gen model included the built-ups in Figure 4.7 encased in concrete. However, the
concrete was ultimately deemed unnecessary negligible in composite action given the high steel
area. The final design will consist of solely, steel exterior columns.

4.4.4 Results Comparison


The final design was a significant improvement from the original MIDAS Gen design based on
gravity design and preliminary lateral studies. Although Figure 4.8 shows an increase in ultimate
compressive forces, the load shedding at the mechanical floors follows the industry standard of
20%. Tension members no longer exist and the overall shape of the compression graph follows
the expected graph of a single column line extending up a building. Table 4.11 shows a sample
comparison of MIDAS results.

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49

4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

Figure 4.8: Discontinuity Test Comparison between Original and Final Design

Table 4.11: Initial and Final MIDAS Results


Allowable (

Initial

Final

27,500

49,000

N/A

Base Shear

kips

Global Deflection

ft

6.71

4.48

5.0

Maximum Inter-story Drift

in

0.88

0.56

0.40

h
)
400

The objective of the MIDAS Gen analysis was to meet the ultimate global deflection of h/400. It is
nearly impossible for inter-story drift to meet serviceability requirements if the criterion is the
same as the global deflection. The vertical columns can be resized using energy optimization for
more stringent deflection requirements, thus hopefully meeting the inter-story drift limit of 0.40 in.
The final deformed shape from the MIDAS Gen can be seen in Figure 4.9. The figure shows the
exaggerated deflection of 4.48 in.
50

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


The troubleshooting and iteration of the MIDAS model proved to be the most tedious and time
consuming aspect of the Chicago Spire structural design. Ultimately the model produced acceptable
global deflection and forces for connection, foundation, and core wall design.

Figure 4.9: Deformed Shape for 50 year MRI Wind Loads (NTS)

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.5 Core Wall Reinforcement Design


Core walls were designed using the final MIDAS Gen model thicknesses as reinforced concrete
shear walls. The shear and flexural reinforcement was designed using loads, shears and moments
pulled from the MIDAS Gen model. Reinforcement was designed separately for the North-South
and East-West core walls on Bank 1, Bank 2 and Bank 3, and for the sole coupled core wall of Bank
4. The horizontal shear capacity was calculated using MIDAS Gen section areas and loads, and
spacing and reinforcement were selected based on the required steel ratio. These values were
subsequently applied to the cores actual shape. Minimal vertical shear exists, thus the vertical
reinforcing was designed based on required steel ratio.
For the first three banks, the North-South (NS) and East-West (EW) cores worked together to resist
flexural moment, and the moment capacity of the coupled cores was calculated using the vertical
reinforcement. For Bank 4, the cores worked together to resist moment along their weak axis, but
resisted moment individually across their strong axis. For this latter moment, the moment-axial
force pairs were plotted on a column interaction diagram produced using vertical reinforcing steel.
For all banks, the vertical reinforcing was sufficient to resist moment.
The following assumptions were used to design of the core reinforcement.

MIDAS Gen core section areas were sufficiently similar in size and shear capacity to actual core
size and shear capacity.
Core walls were designed for critical loads at the base of each bank.
Reinforcement details could be designed based on a sub-area of a concrete gross area, and then
applied to a different area of concrete, as long as steel ratios are kept constant.
The link beams allow the core walls in a given bank to act as a single beam.
Ties will be sufficient for any given reinforcement configuration.
Core wall section areas are conservative to simplify design procedure. If there is sufficient area
outside of these approximations so as to exceed the spacing of the reinforcement, reinforcement
will be extended into that area.

Appendix 9.13 summarizes the reinforcement spacing and sizes for each bank. Calculation 4.5
shows the reinforcement design calculations.

52

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.6 Energy Optimization


The vertical system for the final MIDAS Gen model consisted of a column schedule of two steel builtups, BU1 and BU2. An energy optimization of the towers lateral load resistance system was
performed to resize vertical elements. This analysis was not performed using the displacement
optimal design feature of MIDAS Gen, but rather through an energy method design tool. MIDAS
results were needed for component forces, and grouping by element type and location. The energy
method used is outlined in Energy-Based Design of Lateral Systems (Baker, 1992), and was based
on establishing equal energy density on all members. Once complete, each member contributes to
the lateral resistance with equal efficiency, ultimately optimizing the design.
The scope of the energy method analysis included members in which large axial forces were
induced during lateral loading: namely all columns and outrigger trusses. Each bank of columns
was broken down into three sub-sections, for the purpose of reducing column sizes with building
height, as axial forces decrease. Belt trusses and induced moments were secondary concerns and
thus were not included in this analysis.
An optimization design tool details the procedure (Calculation 4.6). The tool requires both real
and virtual axial forces generated from lateral loads only. Real forces used in the analysis
corresponded to the 0.7 wind load combination at 50 year MRI, as prescribed by ASCE 7-10.
Virtual or notional axial forces were obtained by applying a unit dummy load to the tip of the
building, revealing the virtual work of each member. The following equation was used to calculate
the required areas.

( Ai )req

1
req E

150

(ni Fi )0.5 L j [n j Fj ]0.5


j 1

where
Areq = minimum required area
req = target drift
E = modulus of elasticity, 29,000 for steel
n = virtual axial force
F = real axial force
L = member length
With global lateral drift as the objective function, the energy method tool minimized cross-sectional
area, and ultimately the steel volume required for structural components.

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


Because of the towers symmetry and the fact that wind loads can occur in any direction, the critical
required area for each sub-section was applied to all members in that sub-section.
Initial MIDAS Gen modeling targeted a global drift requirement of h/400. The first objective for the
energy optimization was a target drift of 4 ft (h/500). Steel built-up columns were used at the
lower levels and W-sections were used at the higher levels where applicable. The new members
are summarized and compared to baseline values in Table 4.12.
Table 4.12: Optimization Results for = h/500

Type
Bank 1
Mega-columns
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Transfer
Outrigger
Bank 2
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Transfer
Outrigger
Bank 3
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Transfer
Outrigger
Bank 4
Slanted
Slanted
Slanted

Floors

Baseline
Area
in2

Optimized Area
Area
Provided
in2
in2

Proposed
Section

1-4
5-16
17-28
29-37
38-39
38-39

848
848
848
848
848
215

903
800
748
678
587
175

920
800
768
688
608
178

BU1
BU2
BU3
BU4
BU5
W14x605

40-52
56-63
64-71
72-73
72-73

848
848
848
848
215

571
509
500
602
151

576
512
512
608
162

BU6
BU7
BU7
BU8
W14x550

74-87
88-99
100-108
109-110
109-110

688
688
688
688
215

468
335
244
159
48

480
347
250
162
52

BU9
BU10
BU11
W14x550
W14x176

111-122
123-133
134-144

688
688
688

153
135
96

162
134
101

W14x550
W14x455
W14x342

Using the optimized cross sections, baseline sizes were significantly reduced and structural
material optimally distributed over the height of the tower. Only the mega-columns required larger
cross-sections. It is worth noting that any reduced cross-sections must be rechecked for adequacy
with respect to strength and inter-story drift requirements. Material savings for this optimization
analysis is shown in Table 4.13.

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Table 4.13: Material Savings for = h/500
Volume reduction in steel (ft3)
Weight reduction in steel (tons)
% reduction

66800
16700
36

This same optimization method was similarly used to create an understanding of what additional
materials would be required to increase the Chicago Spires performance. The steel, shown in tons,
needed for decreases in global drift (by 5%, 10%, 15%) are included in Figure 4.10.

Figure 4.10: Optimization Material Use versus % Reduction of Drift

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN

4.7 Eigenvalue Analysis


A subspace iteration eigenvalue analysis was performed using the final model in MIDAS Gen. The
first 15 mode shapes were found. Table 4.14 summarizes the natural frequency and period of the
first fifteen mode shapes. The expected period for mode one of a tall building is n/10, where n = the
number of floors. The eigenvalue analysis results show periods similar to the expected of 15 sec.
Table 4.14: Natural Frequency and Period of first 15 mode shapes
Mode No.

Frequency

Frequency

Period

(rad/sec)

(cycle/sec)

(sec)

0.4098

0.0652

15.33

0.4313

0.0686

14.57

0.6378

0.1015

9.85

1.3013

0.2071

4.83

1.4131

0.2249

4.45

1.7807

0.2834

3.53

2.4401

0.3884

2.57

2.9056

0.4624

2.16

3.1205

0.4966

2.01

10

3.4213

0.5445

1.84

11

3.9564

0.6297

1.59

12

4.2083

0.6698

1.49

13

5.9338

0.9444

1.06

14

6.4212

1.0220

0.98

15

7.0179

1.1169

0.90

The number of mode shapes to account for was based on the modal mass participation. According
to ASCE 7-10, 12.9.1, the sum of the effective modal masses included in an analysis should be
greater than 90% of the total mass (Table 4.15). This will ensure that the critical modes that affect
the Chicago Spire are included in the design.

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


Table 4.15: Modal Mass Participation

Mode No.

Translation in X

Translation in Y

Rotation about Z

MASS(%)

SUM(%)

MASS(%)

SUM(%)

63.05

63.05

62.35

62.35

63.05

62.35

63.06

60.87

60.88

62.35

17.52

80.58

60.88

18.37

80.72

80.58

60.88

80.72

80.58

18.45

79.33

80.72

5.67

86.24

79.33

6.58

87.30

86.24

79.33

87.30

86.24

4.27

83.59

10

87.30

3.50

89.74

83.59

11

87.30

89.74

6.01

89.60

12

2.49

89.79

89.74

89.60

13

89.79

1.98

91.72

89.60

14

89.79

91.72

1.70

91.31

15

2.24

92.02

91.72

91.31

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MASS(%) SUM(%)

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4.0 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEM DESIGN


The first two modes of the building are translation modes in orthogonal directions. The third mode
is a torsional mode which primarily acts on the Bank 4. Figure 4.11 shows all three modes from the
MIDAS Gen model. The periods for the first three mode shapes are: 15.33 seconds, 14.57 seconds,
and 9.85 seconds respectively. The corresponding modal participations are: 63.05%, 62.35%, and
60.87%. This indicates that the first three modes are low frequency and the majority of the mass
will be affected at those frequencies. The next three modes show the second mode shape for the
different directions of translation. The sum of the modal participation of the first 15 modes in xtranslation, y-translation, and torsion are all over 90%.

Figure 4.11: From Left to Right: a) Mode Shape 1; b) Mode Shape 2; c) Mode Shape 3

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.0 Steel and Concrete Detailing


Thousands of connections exist over the height of the building ranging from simple framing
connections to complicated mega-column terminations. ASPIRE identified typical connections that
are prevalent throughout the tower and several classifications of complex connections. A full
structural design would look at all the iterations of each connection to fully understand how each
area load and each bank changes the connection. One occurrence of each connection has been
identified for a full structural design. The same process and design tools can be applied to other,
similar instances.
Element geometry had a significant impact of the type of connections that could be used. All
columns have been finalized as steel members, minimizing the prevalence of composite
connections. The most common composite connection is between radial floor girders and the
concrete core. The use of W-shapes versus built-up sections also affected decisions between bolted
and welded connections.
Ultimately all of the columns were built-up from 4 in thick steel plates which limited column
connections to welds. Connections were standardized for the built-up columns to ensure that
despite column section changes, similar connections can be used. Various failures were checked
per AISC requirements depending on the type of connection.

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.1 Typical Connections


Five typical steel to steel connections and one typical composite connection will be used in the
Chicago Spire. Radial girders and cantilevers will be connected to the outer ring columns with
moment resisting connections; circumferential girders will be connected to the outer ring column
with single plate connections; the joists will be connected to girders using single angle shear
connections; the HSS beams running along the outside of the building will be connected to the
cantilevers with angles bolted to the cantilever and welded to the HSS section; and column splices
will connect each column with welded plates.
The following typical connection design calculations follow AISC Steel Design Guide and can be
found in Calculation 5.1.

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice


All typical exterior columns are built-up steel shapes and will be spliced using steel plates. The
column splices were designed by welding plates to connect each face of the connecting columns
(Figure 5.1). This was the most economical design because of the similar column sizes throughout
the structure. This type of splice minimizes the footprint of the columns, allowing them to meet
architectural constraints. Column splices were designed against all load combinations to resist
tension, moment, torsion and shear forces.

Figure 5.1: a) Elevation and b) Plan of Typical Welded Column Splice

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Girder


The floor joists are connected to the radial girders with single angle, shear connections. At each
connection, two joists connect to opposite sides of the radial girder web. The girder web is not
thick enough to weld at each side, therefore bolts were used (Figure 5.2). This greatly decreases
the amount of field welds required during construction. The initial trial bolt number was calculated
to withstand shear and bearing. Then all failure modes were checked, including bearing and tear
out, shear yielding and rupture, and block shear of the angles and both webs.
Weld

Figure 5.2: Elevation of Floor Joist to Girder Connection

5.1.3 Cantilever to HSS Section


The connection between the cantilever beams and HSS Sections is similar to the single angle shear
connection except the angle leg adjacent to the HSS section is welded instead of bolted (Figure 5.3).
Also, an additional weld connects the top flange to the HSS beam to add rigidity to the connection.
Weld

Figure 5.3: Elevation of HSS Beam to Cantilever Connection


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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.1.4 Cantilever and Radial Girder to Column


Moment connections to the columns are required for both the radial girders and cantilevers. For
the beam flanges, two angles will be welded along all edges to the column flange above and below
the incoming beam and then bolted to the flange of the beam.
For the beam, web, two rectangular plates will be welded perpendicularly to the column,
sandwiching the web of the incoming beam. Bolts will be connected through predrilled holes in
both the plates and the web. Figure 5.4 shows the elevation detail of the moment connections.
Initial plate dimensions and bolt configurations were chosen based on member geometry and
adjusted throughout the design process. Bolt sizes were determined from the required moment
capacity of the connection. All applicable failure modes were checked including plate yielding in
flexure, shear, and bearing; bolt yielding in tension and shear; and web yielding, crippling, and
buckling.

Figure 5.4: Elevation of Built-up Column to Radial Girder and Cantilever Connection

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.1.5 Circumferential Girder to Column


The circumferential girders were designed as pinned-pinned and thus could be designed with a
bolted connection. One plate is welded perpendicular to the built-up exterior column using a fillet
weld. The circumferential girder is then placed with its web adjacent to the plate with its flanges
above and below the plate. The plate and column girder are then bolted together. The size and
number of bolts used were determined based on the shear and bearing capacity of the bolts.
The weld of the plate to the column web was also checked. Column web yielding, crippling and
buckling were checked along with block shear, bearing and tear out, shear yielding and shear
rupture of the girder web and plate. Figure 5.5 shows the typical circumferential girder to column
connection.

Weld

Figure 5.5: Elevation of Circumferential Girder to Column Plate Connection

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.1.6 Radial Girder to Core


Radial girders are connected to the core by a single, shear single plate connection and headed
anchor bolts. Headed anchor bolts are welded to a steel anchor plate and cast into the exterior of
the concrete core. A single steel plate is welded perpendicular to the base plate using a fillet weld.
The radial girder is then bolted with its web adjacent to the plate, with its flanges above and below
the plate. Figure 5.6 details the composite connection between the radial girder and the core wall.
The single plate bolt details were determined based on the shear and bearing capacity of the bolts.
Plate geometries are based on bolt spacing and beam dimensions. Maximum plate thickness is
determined such that the plate moment strength does not exceed the moment strength of the bolt
group in shear. The capacity of the connection is calculated as the minimum capacity for the limit
states of shear yielding, shear rupture, block shear rupture, shear buckling, and flexural yielding of
the plate and girder weld as well as bearing strength at bolt holes, bolt group shear strength, and
weld capacity.
Weld

Figure 5.6: a) Elevation and b) Section of Radial Girder to Core Wall Connection
The headed anchor bolts details were determined based on the tensile and shear capacity of the
steel anchor bolts and the concrete. The capacity of the connection is determined by an interaction
of the design tension strength and design shear strength of the connection. Design tension strength
is calculated as the minimum capacity for the limit states of steel strength of anchors in tension,
concrete breakout strength of anchors in tension, and pullout strength for anchors in tension.
Design shear strength is calculated as the minimum capacity for the limit states of steel strength of
anchors in shear, concrete breakout strength of anchors in shear, and concrete pryout strength of
anchors in shear.

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.2 Complex Connections


Several configurations of complex connections are found throughout the Chicago Spire, particularly
at mechanical floors and at the towers base. These connections combined simple welds and bolts
with gusset plates, encased steel, and prefabricated nodes to resist forces and moments produced
by the MIDAS Gen model.

5.2.1 Mega-Column Base to Foundation


This connection is located at the bottom of the mega-columns and is responsible for transferring
the loads from the superstructure to the foundation. The foundation consists of two 10ft diameter
caissons embedded six inches from the bottom of a caisson cap, much like a pile cap.
The connection to the foundation presented a challenge due to the geometry of the mega-columns.
The mega-columns are three slanted columns connecting to a single point, creating a large shear
force at the base as well as a large concentrated compressive forced. A typical base plate design
was initially considered to transfer the load however, because of the high loads, the base plate
became infeasible and another option had to be considered. Aspire had thought of using an
embedded steel shape to be able to connect the three mega-columns coming down as well as the
embedded shape into the shaft of the caissons to properly transfer loads to the caissons. A built-up
steel beam was used to connect the three columns, while a shaft column was used to transfer the
tension to the caisson (Figure 5.7).
The three node column will resist the compressive force coming from the super structure through
bearing and will use shear studs to resist the shear. The three column beam was checked for
failures such as bearing, local web crippling, and local web yielding. Together this connection is
able to adequately transfer the load to the caissons while being the most economical solution.
While the steel shapes embedded into the caisson cap will resists the axial and shear loads, the
caisson cap will resist the bending moments by reinforcing steel bars. The caisson cap was
designed considering bending moments about the X and Y direction using principals of reinforced
concrete slab design. Calculation 5.2 summarizes the mega-column to foundation design.

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

Mega-column

Built-up
Steel Beam
Embedded Steel

Pile Cap

Caisson

Figure 5.7: 3D Rendering of Base of Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.2.2 Base of Outrigger


Across the height of the structure, the exterior columns angle inwards as the diameter of the building
decreases. The intersection of angled and vertical columns will be prefabricated, and the incoming and
outgoing columns will be spliced to the prefabricated section above and below the connection node.
Moment connections will be needed between the prefabricated column section and the bottom of the
outrigger, the radial girder, and the cantilever. The flanges of the outrigger and column are too thick to
punch through; thus welds will be used for the connection. Two plates will be used in the connection to
improve the constructability of the connection. The first plate will be welded to the face of the column,
and the second plate will be welded to the incoming outrigger and radial girder.
Both flanges and the web of the outrigger will be welded to the end plate. Next, two angles and two
rectangular plates will be welded to the plate and subsequently bolted to the radial girder (Figure 5.8).
For the incoming outrigger, in addition to checking the strength of the welds, several failure modes were
checked including plate yielding in shear and bearing; rupture of beam flange to plate welds; and
beam web shear yielding (Calculation 5.3.1).

Vertical
Columns

Outrigger

Girder

Figure 5.8: Bottom of Outrigger Connection

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.2.3 Outrigger to Core Connection


At each mechanical floor of the tower, outriggers primarily stiffen the connection between the steel
frame and concrete core. These outriggers mainly help reduce the overall structural systems
lateral deflection. Therefore, to ensure that the outriggers perform in such a way, the outrigger
connection with the concrete core was given major attention.
The outrigger connection consists of two gusset plates that sandwich the flanges of the outrigger
member and radial girder above the mechanical floor (Figure 5.9). Most girders in the building;
however, were oriented with vertical webs and horizontal flanges. The gusset plate connection
required rotating the floor girders by 90 degrees so that the gusset plates can be bolted to the
flanges of both outrigger and girder. Gusset plate bolts were sized and design according to AISC
Section J and accounted for failure modes such as block shear and plate yield (Calculation 5.3.2).

Embedded
Steel Frame
Concrete
Core

Rotated
Radial Girder

Outrigger

Figure 5.9: Elevation of Outrigger and Radial Girder Connection to Concrete Core
The exact connection between the gusset plate and concrete core went through a few design
iterations. Initially, the gusset plates were fillet welded to steel plates bolted to the concrete core,
similar to the typical radial girder connection (Section 5.1.6). However, the high outrigger loads
required around 500 bolts for such a connection. Eventually, an alternative design was developed
that fillet welded gusset plates to a four story steel frame embedded in the concrete core.
To design the embedded steel cage, MIDAS Gen was used to design a steel frame on the mechanical
floor between Bank 3 and 4. The frame extends two stories above and below the points where the
outrigger joins the steel frame (Figure 5.10).

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The following assumptions were made for the model.

All members were assumed to be fully braced, simulating the frames embedment in concrete.
All beams and columns are connected by moment connections. Connections details would be
designed as per Section 5.1.1.
The top and bottom nodes of the frame are assumed to be fixed in all directions and rotations.

Diagonal braces are added to the frame as compression only truss members (Figure 5.10). These
fictitious members simulate how the concrete struts when the steel frame reacts to load. The brace
sizes are relatively similar to the steel frame members, with steel frame having a greater stiffness to
ensure that a majority of the load is absorbed by steel instead of concrete.
For the final model, all loads from outriggers are applied axially to the nodes at which outrigger
members connect with the frame. Axial loads are based on from critical load combinations from the
final tower MIDAS model (Figure 5.10).

Figure 5.10: a) Model of Embedded Steel Frame and b) Model with Cross Bracing and Point Loads
Through iterative design of steel sections, W33x152 members were selected for columns and
W14x665 members for beams. The outriggers and radial girders at the mechanical floor between
Bank 3 and 4 were both W14x730. The W33x152 section when oriented along its weak axis, would
provide adequate space in the web for the outrigger spacing, gusset plates, and welds.
With final beams and columns sized, shear studs and spacing were specified to ensure that the
concrete could sufficiently brace the frame.

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.2.4 Top of Mega-Column


The top of the mega-column connection consists of two different connection configurations. Figure
5.11 shows the two scenarios: an interior column angled in one orientation and two exterior
columns angled in two orientations. All of the mega-columns are steel built-up columns.
In addition to the mega-columns, the connection also consists of a vertical built-up terminating at
the top of each mega-column. Although both columns identical steel sections, lower column will be
referred to as the mega-column, and the upper column as the vertical column.
The mega-column and vertical column connection is a prefabricated node. The node is constructed
with shop welded plates extending from the node faces to improve the constructability of the field
column splice. The column splice will ultimately consist of four plates welded onto the columns to
transfer tension, torsion, and shear. Half of the welds will be done in the shop, and half will be done
in the field. The prefabricated design improves constructability and connection strength. The node
also allows for standard splices that do not have to transfer massive forces and moments over an
angled connection. The radial and circumferential girders will be designed as per Sections 5.1.1
and 5.1.5.

Figure 5.11: 3D Rendering of Mega-Column Connection

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5.0 STEEL AND CONCRETE DETAILING

5.2.5 Transfer Column


Transfer columns exist at the mechanical levels where the exterior column radius decreases.
Between Banks 2 and 3 some transfer columns are also designed for the reduction in total exterior
columns. The transfer column connection consists of two different configurations, with typical top
and bottom welded column splices.
The mechanical space between Bank 2 and Bank 3 contains
both of the typical transfer column connections found in the
Chicago Spire. The column grid reduces from 21 columns in
Bank 2 to 14 columns in Bank 3. Seven of the columns in
Bank 2 are designed for the first configuration in Figure
5.12. Fourteen of the columns in Bank 2 are designed for the
second configuration in Figure 5.13.
In the first configuration, two field welded column splices
occur at the top of the Bank 2 column and at the bottom of
the Bank 3 column.
The connecting member is a
prefabricated connection node that is built to resist
compression, tension, shear, moment, and torsion.
In the second configuration, forces from the Bank 3 column
are transferred to two Bank 2 columns below. Figure 5.13
shows the required angled transfer column. With this
configuration there are three typical field welded column
splices that occur at the top of the Bank 2 column and at the
bottom of the Bank 3 column. The node between Bank 3 and
the angled transfer column split will be prefabricated, along
with the transfer column between the bottom of the node
and the welded column splice at the top of the Bank 2
column.

Figure 5.12: Singular Transfer


Column Connection Front and Side
Elevation

Figure 5.13: Split Transfer Column


Connection Front and Side Elevation

The welded column connections are comprised of four plates surrounding the members. For each
splice, two plates will be shop welded to the connection node, and two plates will be shop welded to
the columns. Welded column calculations are shown in Calculation 5.1.1.

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.0 Foundation Design and Detailing


The Chicago Spire foundation includes a deep foundation system to support the 150 floor tower
and the seven floor parking garage. Rock-socketed caissons, driven piles under a mat foundation,
concentric top of rock slurry wall rings, and a mat foundation on hardpan were all options to
support the tower. As stated in the provided Geotechnical Report, the latter two options were
considered costly, risky and time consuming. Therefore rock-socketed caisson will be used to
support the tower. The project received city permits to have an allowable net bearing pressure for
the rock of 300 tons per square foot.
The seven floor parking garage will have a retaining wall structure around the perimeter, which
will be internally braced by the floor slabs. The garage will be supported with belled caissons
bearing on hardpan.

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6.1 Soil Properties


Information on soil conditions came from eleven test borings and 34 borings to obtain bedrock
cores (Geotechnical Report). The soil profile is 100 to 115 feet of primarily clay overburden on
dolomite bedrock. The site grades range in elevation from +10 to +7 Chicago City Datum (CCD).
The water table is five feet above the CCD. A one foot hardpan layer exists at -71 CCD. A detailed
soil profile is shown in Figure 6.1.
Soil properties were used to calculate apparent earth pressures and pore water pressures for the
foundation design.

Figure 6.1: Provided Soil Profile for Foundation Design

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.2 Retaining Wall Design


The perimeter of the foundation is supported by a 30 in thick,
reinforced concrete retaining wall. The wall was designed to
withstand failure against the earth pressures and pore water
pressure. The thick wall has a high self-weight which helps to
resist the lateral forces from the soil profile. The self-weight
also reduces the chances of bearing failure by distributing the
vertical force to a larger area of soil.

A MASTAN analysis of the retaining wall was performed,


modeling the wall as a one way slab assuming the bottom six
floor slabs from the parking garage brace the retaining wall.
As a conservative approach, the top two slabs are not
considered as bracing for the retaining wall; which leaves a
cantilever span at the top end of the retaining wall. The
retaining wall was checked for overturning, lateral sliding and
bearing failure (Figure 6.2).

LATERAL SLIDING

The Geotechnical Report includes a soil profile which consists


of sand and clays. The soil stiffness increases with depth. The
critical soil density is assumed to be 70 pcf to obtain the
worst-case effective pressure producing maximum horizontal
loads on the retaining wall. The buoyant force on soil due to
the ground water table reduces the effective vertical pressure.

OVERTURNING

BRACING

HARD
CLAY

BEARING
FAILURE

The retaining wall is built through a top-down construction


Figure 6.2: Failure Modes for
process. The foundation soil is excavated with ring beams
Retaining Wall Design
constructed simultaneously at adequate unbraced lengths as
designed by the geotechnical engineer. Ring beams are then
removed from the bottom up as slabs and retaining walls are poured.
The soil layers become stiffer further below the ground surface. At a depth of 85 ft, there is a very
hard clay of undrained shear strength of 15 ksf. The retaining wall sits on this layer and the high
bearing capacity prevents bearing failure. Construction joints are provided at every 20 ft to reduce
the longitudinal settlement and tilt.
Calculation 6.1 shows the design for the retaining wall structure.

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6.3 Parking Garage Slab Design


The reinforced concrete slab for the parking garage was designed as a two-way slab using the
equivalent frame method, as per ACI 318-08. An expansion joint is built between the two slab
sections to reduce cracking. The following assumptions were made while designing the parking
garage slab.

All slab design assumes rectangular slab sections designed to the maximum span calculated from
column locations in provided floor plans.
Outside of the building footprint, columns are spaced in an orthogonal grid.
Inside the building footprint, columns offset from an assumed orthogonal gridline by 6 ft or less
are considered on that gridline.
Core and foundation caissons bear the slab load.
Slabs are designed as cantilevers to the retaining walls.
Deformed Welded Wire Reinforcement (WWR) is used for flexural reinforcing design, Fy = 80
ksi.
Light weight concrete is used with a density, c = 110 pcf and a 28-day compressive strength,
fc = 4000 psi.
Diameter of circular columns is 32 in.
The slab was designed without interior beams or edge beams.

The parking slab design utilized MASTAN to model the moment frame connections between the
caissons and parking slabs for all seven floors. Design loads Section 2.4 were used to find the
maximum positive and negative moments along the slab. Per ACI 318-08, 13.2.1 and 13.6.4.1, the
critical moments are proportionally distributed to the column and middle strips of the slab width.
Drop panels were designed at the top of each column to reduce negative moment reinforcement.
The ultimate slab design was 12 in thick. The design does not call for interior or edge beams
because of the high strength WWR used for flexural reinforcement. WWR can be costly; however,
for large projects the steel savings outweigh the material cost
The design process and calculations are summarized in Calculation 6.2.1.

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.4 Bell Caisson Design


Belled Caissons are used to support the parking garage slab. Caissons were designed following
Chapter I: Design of Composite Members in the AISC Steel Construction Manual. Circular reinforced
concrete columns were used in the parking garage, extending below the bottom slab into belled
caissons, which rest on the hardpan at an elevation of 92 ft below the top slab of the parking garage.
The bell shape was needed to lower the applied pressure on the soil. The bell design minimized the
bearing pressure to be within the allowable pressure of 45 ksf. The columns unbraced lengths were
based on support from the parking garage slabs. The columns were designed as reinforced
concrete columns with steel reinforcing or W-shapes depending on the column load.
Calculation 6.2.3 follows the AISC procedure for bell caisson design. Figure 6.3 shows an elevation
of the foundation and belled caissons.

Figure 6.3: Elevation of Bell Caissons

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.5 Rock-Socketed Caisson


6.5.1 Column Design
Caissons of 10 ft diameter using 14 ksi concrete were designed to carry the load from the core and
mega-columns to the bed rock. Each mega-column is supported by two caissons, whereas the core
is supported by 20 caissons. The caissons are socketed into the bed rock; limiting the settlement of
the caissons. Figure 6.4 shows an elevation view of the core and mega-column caissons.

Mega-Column
Caisson

Mega-Column
Caisson

Core
Caissons

Bedrock
Figure 6.4: Elevation of Rock-Socketed Caissons
Each caisson is a steel cylinder filled with concrete (Figure 6.5). The steel cylinder prevents any
soil-concrete interaction and provides a higher strength to the caisson due to composite action.
There is no uplift friction on the caisson by soil, as the steel provides a smooth surface with
negligible vertical friction. Stresses induced in the caisson due to the loads from super structure
are well within the allowable limits.

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

Figure 6.5: Detail of Caisson


Settlement is the controlling criteria in the design of caissons, as a higher differential settlement
may lead to severe structural damages. A stiffer base material provides greater resistance to the
settlement in the caisson. The loads carried by the caissons are obtained from the MIDAS-GEN
model and the Geotechnical Report. Three limit states, shown in Figure 6.6 were checked for the
caisson design (Calculation 6.3).

Figure 6.6: Limit states for Caisson Design from Left to Right: a) Stress, b) Settlement and c) Uplift

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.5.2 Ring Beam


A reinforced concrete ring beam was designed to connect the core walls to the rock-socketed
caissons. This will ensure a uniform distribution of the axial load to the 20 caissons. The ring beam
will also dissipate the shear force. The shear force is resisted by the passive earth pressure of the
ring pushing against the soil, by the friction between the soil and the slab, and by the bottom of the
ring beam. Figure 6.7 shows an elevation of the ring beam and its relation to the slab, core wall, and
rock-socketed caisson. Figure 6.8 shows the ring beams resistance to the horizontal soil pressure.

Figure 6.7: Elevation of Ring Beam

Soil Pressure

Figure 6.8: Plan View of Ring Beam Resistance to Soil Pressure

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING

6.5.3 Finite Element Model


An ABAQUS model was developed to perform a finite element analysis and monitor the stresses in
the rock-socketed caisson. Each mega-column is supported by two circular caissons. These megacolumns are inclined, which exerts a compressive pressure and a horizontal shear on the caissons
below it. The loads carried by the caissons were obtained from the MIDAS Gen model. Since the
caissons are encased in a steel cylinder, the vertical soil friction is negligible, and is not considered.
The following material properties are used in the ABAQUS model.

Young`s modulus of bedrock, Er = 3500 ksi


Poisson`s ratio of the bedrock, = 0.28
Friction coefficient for bed rock and caisson interaction = 0.3
Directionality of the friction is isotopic.

For the caisson and bedrock socket, interaction property is modeled as contact, and the contact
property is modeled as tangential. The bedrock and caisson are constrained as ties, where the
caisson is the master surface and the bedrock is the slave surface. After performing iterations to
obtain an optimum mesh configuration, the caisson and bedrock were meshed as triangular
elements.
The following stresses are obtained from the finite element analysis.

Caisson

Bedrock

Figure 6.9: a) Compression and b) Tension Stresses in Rock-Socketed Caisson under Mega-Columns

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6.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND DETAILING


It can be seen in Figure 6.9 that the maximum stresses occur at the top surface of the caisson. The
stresses decrease as we move down towards the middle portion of the caisson and at the
interaction of caisson and bedrock, higher stresses are encountered.
Table 6.1: Critical Von Mises Stresses from ABAQUS Model
Von Mises Stress

Top Face

Bottom Face

Maximum Compression stress (ksi)

6.3

3.7

Maximum Tension stress (ksi)

4.9

1.9

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

7.0 Long-Term Deflection Effects


The aim of the creep and shrinkage calculations for the core and the columns is to determine the
deflection in each and the differential between the two. It can be predicted that the steel columns
will have minimal shrinkage as compared to the core, so this should be accounted for during
construction. Things to consider in this calculation will include the construction schedule, curing
conditions, loads, geometry, and strength of the concrete and steel.
When a load is applied on the structure, there is an initial elastic strain, which occurs when the load
is placed on the column. In addition to this, there is a creep strain, which starts when a load is
applied, and a shrinkage strain, which begins as the concrete begins to dry. Both of these increase
over time and approach the ultimate strain value. The ultimate creep coefficient and shrinkage
strain are both determined by the curing conditions, the concrete mixture, and the construction
schedule. All of the calculated values for deflection will need to be considered in the final
construction to meet serviceability requirements, particularly the difference between the
deformation in the core and the columns.

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7.1 Conceptual Summary


The aim of this chapter is to determine the creep and shrinkage of concrete in the core, as well as
elastic deformations in both the core and columns. It is very important to evaluate the differential
deformation between the core and columns to alleviate unexpected stresses and deformations. It
can be predicted that the steel columns will have minimal deformation as compared to the core, so
this will need to be accounted for during construction. Variables to consider in the deformation
calculations will include the construction schedule, curing conditions, loads, geometry, and strength
of the concrete and steel.
When a load is applied on a steel column or the concrete core, there is an initial elastic strain, which
occurs when the load is added. In addition to the immediate elastic strain, in the concrete core
there is a long-term creep strain, which starts when a load is applied, and a long-term shrinkage
strain, which begins as the concrete begins to dry. Both of these long-term strains increase over
time and approach the ultimate strain value. The ultimate creep coefficient and shrinkage strain
are both affected by the curing conditions, the concrete mixture, and the construction schedule. All
of the calculated values will need to be considered in the final construction to meet serviceability
requirements, particularly the differential deformation between the core and the columns.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

7.2 Creep and Shrinkage Analysis


Several simplifying assumptions about the core composition and geometry were made in the
analysis. The 28-day strength of the concrete is 14,000 psi as specified earlier in the project. Per
ACI 209R, the GL2000 method assumes the concretes elastic modulus is a function of the strength,
and specifies a time-dependent function to calculate the actual strength at any given point in time,
as indicated in Figure 7.1 and Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.1: Concrete Strength Gain with Time

Figure 7.2: Concrete Elastic Modulus Gain with Time


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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS


The core was assumed to be a cylindrical tube of concrete, with constant radius and thickness
throughout each bank. The amount of steel reinforcement within the core was calculated
previously, so the values from that calculation were used in this analysis. Appendix 9.14, Table 9.15
outlines core properties and dimensions used in the analysis. In addition, per the recommendation
of a professional engineer, the core will be analyzed using the same model and methods as a typical
column.
The construction schedule of the spire was extremely important to the creep and shrinkage
calculations. Aspire assumed a 4-day cycle for floor construction, meaning a new floor would be
added every 4 days. Although this seemed like a very fast-paced schedule, it is important to note
that the Burj Khalifa was constructed successfully using a 3-day cycle (Abdelrazaq, 2008). In
addition, three simplifying assumptions for analysis were made:

Curing time: 4 days


Loading age: 4 days
Construction loads occupy the top 4 floors at any given point during construction.

It is important to note that these assumptions may not be entirely realistic, but will give
conservative values for strain. The construction loads are assumed to be mainly composed of heavy
machinery and lifting equipment, which will move up the spire as new floors are constructed. Once
the construction period has ended these loads will no longer exist.
The exact sequence of construction was not considered. After consulting professional engineers,
ASPIRE concluded that the main focus of this analysis should be the long-term deformations of the
Spire, which will not be significantly affected by the order of construction.
Due to the increased loading near the base of the tower compared to the top, the Spire was split up
into 13 vertical segments. The middle floor of each of these segments was considered to be
representative of the average deformation of the floors in the segment, and was analyzed. The floor
deformation for that middle floor was then multiplied by the number of floors in the segment,
giving a total deformation for the segment. The sum of the segment deformations results in the
total building deformation.
During the analysis, it was observed that the long-term creep and shrinkage rates had tapered off
around 20 years, so the analysis was completed for a 20 year span from the start of construction.
This is consistent with ultimate creep values being calculated after 20 years of loading.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

7.2.1 Columns
All the vertical columns in the spire were designed as built-up steel members, so they will not be
affected by any noticeable creep or shrinkage. As such, they were only analyzed for the elastic
deformation due to loading. The elastic deformation was calculated by:

The elastic strain analysis resulted in an overall deflection of 6.77 inches expected in the steel
columns over the 150-story building. See Appendix 9.14, Table 9.16 for the tabulated results for
each floor segment and Appendix 9.14.1 for a representative calculation of the strains. Calculation
7.1 summarizes the steel column deformation.

7.2.2 Core
The core analysis required that creep and shrinkage were considered, though they were negligible
or nonexistent in the steel columns. The effects of creep and shrinkage were calculated using the
GL2000 model. See Appendix 9.14.3 for a step-by-step qualitative approach to using the GL2000
model, and Appendix 9.14.1 for an example calculation. Calculation 7.2 summarizes the concrete
core deformation.
In the GL2000 model, several variables need to be chosen by the designer. The only variable
related to the concrete mix design is the cement type. The GL2000 can be used with Type I, II, or III
cements, which the designer must choose between. A sensitivity analysis revealed that Type III
cement will result in the lowest creep and shrinkage values, most likely due to its rapid initial
strength gain.

Table 7.1: Cement Type Deformation Sensitivity Analysis


Cement Type
Type I
Type II
Type III

Ultimate
Deformation
24.79
24.91
23.95

However, as seen in Figure 7.3, there are also problems associated with Type III cement because
the rapid strength gain results in lower final strength due to weaker bonds formed in the hydration
process. The rapid strength gain also results in large amounts of heat of hydration during the
chemical reaction, which can be problematic especially for our core due to its enormous mass.
Type I cement was used for the Chicago Spire because of its higher eventual strength, which will be
very necessary to attain the specified compressive strength of 14,000 psi.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

Figure 7.3: Initial Strength Gain of Concrete for Various Cement Types
The GL2000 model also requires input data on the humidity that is expected for the concretes
environment. Using data from the National Climactic Data Center, the average humidity for Chicago
was determined to be 71.4%. The average over a full year is used because the core is expected to be
somewhat exposed to the environment for at least the first two years of construction, which is also
the period of the greatest creep and shrinkage strains. See Appendix 9.14, Table 9.17 for a
summary of the humidity data.
The steel reinforcement in concrete has a restraining effect on the creep strains. Since steel does
not experience the long-term deflections as significantly as concrete, more steel in a given amount
of concrete will result in less overall deformation in that section of the core. The banks have steel
percentages ranging from 0.2% in Bank 4 to 5.4% in Bank 2, as seen in Appendix 9.14, Table 9.18.
In the analysis, both the amount of deformation in an unreinforced concrete column and our
reinforced column were calculated. The ratio of the reinforced to unreinforced strains was used
to modify the elastic, creep, and shrinkage results. It was observed that the reinforced concrete
would strain only about 10-15% of the unreinforced concrete.
The results of the analysis indicated that the creep strain would dominate the deformation,
followed by elastic strain and only a minimal effect from shrinkage strain due to the large volumeto-surface ratios of the massive concrete core. Figure 7.4 shows the breakdown of strains for a
typical floor in the spire. The end of construction, and thus of further loading, is clearly indicated by
the elbow in both the elastic and creep strain curves. The shrinkage strain constantly increases, but
at a very low rate.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

Figure 7.4: Typical Strain Values for a Single Floor

The analysis of the creep and shrinkage for concrete resulted in an overall expected deformation of
24.8 inches in the core. As can be seen in Table 7.2, approximately 75% of the ultimate deflection
occurs in the first two years, but there is still substantial movement out to 20 years, resulting in the
ultimate deformation of 24.8 in.

Table 7.2: Core Total Deformations


Time
(yr)
0
2
3
10
20

Deformation
(in)
0
18.8
20.0
23.0
24.8

Percentage of
Deformation
0%
76%
81%
93%
100%

Figure 7.5 breaks down the core deformations by floor. It is clearly seen that a majority of the
strains occur in Bank 4, with barely any strain evident in Bank 2. This large differential is due to the
difference in amounts of steel in each bank, as can be seen in Appendix 9.14, Table 9.18. When
altering the floor-to-floor heights to account for differential deformations between the core and
columns, the small amount of deformation in Bank 2, along with the large amount of deformation in
Bank 4, will need to be taken into account.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

Figure 7.5: Core Deformations per Floor

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

7.3 Conclusion and Recommendations


The creep and shrinkage strain analysis resulted in very different deformations between the core
and the surrounding steel columns. As displayed in Table 7.3, the 24.8-inch deformation in the core
is greater than the 6.77-inch deformation in the steel by 18.0 inches. This differential deformation
can be very dangerous in tall buildings. Not only could aesthetically displeasing cracks form, but
serious structural issues could result as well. If this deformation is not designed for, as the core
deforms more than the columns, the floors will become slanted and connections will become
overstressed.
Table 7.3: 20-Year Deformation Comparisons
Core Deformation:
Steel Deformation:
Core-Column Difference:
Compensation / floor required:

24.8 in
6.77 in
18.0 in
0.12 in

To compensate for the differential settlement, the core should be built approximately 18 in higher
than the original design calls for. Since the creep and shrinkage model is inherently inaccurate up
to 20 -30%, additional height should be added in addition to the 18 in. For comparison, the Burj
Khalifa designers estimated a 12 in deformation in their core, but increased the design height of the
core by 22 in (Baker et al., 2007). Aspire recommends approximately a 30 in increase in the core
height based on this preliminary analysis to account for uncertainties.
As can be seen in Figure 7.6, the majority of the strains in the core will take place during the
construction period. This fact means that by the time the building needs to be serviceable, most of
its deformation will have occurred and need not be designed for. Also, the additional height that
was added for each floor-to-floor height will not be as noticeable throughout the life of the
structure. Rather, the floors will appear level and as designed for the tenants.

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7.0 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION EFFECTS

Figure 7.6: Total Core Displacement over Time


ASPIRE recommends further creep and shrinkage analysis in order to better understand the
behavior of the building. Creep and shrinkage laboratory tests are highly recommended as soon as
the concrete mix is decided upon. The data obtained from those tests can further improve the
accuracy of the GL2000 model. For instance, the ultimate shrinkage value in the GL2000 model is
approximated from a formula proportional to the square root of the mean compressive strength of
the concrete. Alternatively, this value can be determined from the laboratory test and inputted
directly into the analysis. In addition, the creep coefficient can be determined from the tests and
used instead of a very complicated formula approximation. Especially considering the unique
nature of a 14,000 psi concrete, it is highly advisable to further examine the creep and shrinkage
behaviors.

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91

8.0 REFERENCES

8.0 References
Abdelrazaq, A., Kim, K. J. & Kim, J. H. (2008). Brief on the Construction Planning of the Burj Dubai
Project, Dubai, UAE. Proceedings of the CTBUH 8th World Congress, 3rd-5th March 2008.
Dubai, UAE. Published by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Chicago. pp.
386-394.
American Concrete Institute. Guide for Modeling and Calculating Shrinkage and Creep in Hardened
Concrete (ACI 209.2R-08). ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 1, 2010.
American Concrete Institute. ACI 318-08 Building Code and Commentary. 2008.
American Institute of Steel Construction. Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity. American
Institute of Steel Construction, Steel Design Guide Series 11. 2003.
American Institute of Steel Construction. Steel Construction Manuel Thirteenth Edition, 2008.
American Institute of Steel Construction. Engineering for Steel Construction: A Source Book on
Connections, 1984.
American Society of Civil Engineers. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.
2006. Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2006.
American Society of Civil Engineers. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.
2010. Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2010.
Baker, William F. Energy-Based Design of Lateral Systems. Structural Engineering International.
Vol 2. No 2. 1 May 1992. p 99-102.
Baker et al. Creep and Shrinkage and the Design of Supertall Buildings A Case Study: The Burj
Dubai Tower. American Concrete Institute. Special Publication, volume 246, pp. 133-148.
1 Sept 2007.
Binder, Georges. One Hundred and One of the World's Tallest Buildings. Australia: The Images
Publishing Group Pty Ltd, 2006. Google Books.
Blodgett, Omer W. Design of Welded Structures. Cleveland, OH: Lincoln, 1972. 8.2-2. Print.
"Chicago Spire." SkyScraperPage. Skyscraper Source Media, 2011. Web. 14 Sep 2011.
<http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=39392>.
International Code Council, International Building Code, 2009.
Salmon, Charles G. and John E. Johnson. Steel Structures: Design and Behavior. Fourth Edition.
Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1996

92

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8.0 REFERENCES
Smith, S.E. What Is a Mechanical Floor? 29 July 2011. wiseGEEK.com. 15 Sep. 2011
<http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-mechanical-floor.htm>.
Taranath, Bungale S. Steel, Concrete, & Composite Design of Tall Buildings. New York City: McGrawHill Book Company, 1998.
Taranath, Bungale S. Structural Analysis & Design of Tall Buildings. New York City: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1988. Print.
Wight, J. and James MacGregor. Reinforced Concrete Mechanics & Design, Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 2009
Vulcraft. VULCRAFT Steel Roof & Floor Deck, 2008.

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9.0 APPENDIX

9.0 Appendix
Appendix consists of supplementary information and summary tables. Following the appendix are
sample calculation and the complete structural drawing set.
Note that a -- indicates that the size, length, dimension, percentage, etc. is not applicable for the
given cell.

94

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9.0 APPENDIX

9.1 Gravity Design Loads


Dead
Load
(psf)

Typical Floor
Lobby
Decking and Slab1
Assembly Areas (lobbies)
Acoustical fiber board
MEP Duct Allowance
Ceramic or quarry tile (1 1/2 in) on 1 in. mortar bed2
Total
Residential
Decking and Slab1
Private rooms and corridors serving them
Partition Walls
Acoustical fiber board
Ceramic or quarry tile (3/4 in) on 1 in. mortar bed
MEP Duct Allowance
Total
Mechanical
Decking and Slab1
Catwalks
Machine Space
MEP Duct Allowance

Superimposed
Dead Load
(psf)

Live
Load
(psf)

32
100

32

1
10
46
57

100

33
40
15

33

1
23
10
34

55

39
40
200
Total

Parking
Slab (150 pcf @ 12 in.)3
Garages (passenger vehicles only)
MEP Duct Allowance
Cement finish (1-in.) on stone-concrete fill

39

10
10

240

150
40

Total

150

Total

55
55

Core
Slab (110 pcf @ 6 in.) 3

10
32
42

40

Decking and Slab DL from Appendix 9.7


Ceramic floor twice as thick in lobby floors
3
Slab thickness determined by gravity design
2

ASPIRE

95

9.0 APPENDIX

9.2 RWDI Recommended Wind Load


Table 9.1: RWDI Wind Load Combinations

96

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9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.2: RWDI Provided Wind Forces and Torsional Moments
Floor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Fx
(kips)
27
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
55
55
55
55
55
56
56
56
56
57
57
57

Fy
(kips)
20
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
46
46
46
47
47
48
48
48
49
49
49

Torsional Moment, Mz
(kip-ft)
44
96
102
109
144
195
212
233
239
240
252
264
275
287
298
306
314
324
335
345
354
364
372
381
392
399
411
418
427
433
443
451
458
467
474
484
491
479

ASPIRE

Critical Overturning
Moment (kip-ft x 106)
9.41
9.28
9.16
9.04
8.92
8.80
8.68
8.56
8.45
8.33
8.21
8.10
7.98
7.87
7.76
7.64
7.53
7.42
7.31
7.20
7.09
6.98
6.88
6.77
6.66
6.56
6.45
6.35
6.25
6.14
6.04
5.94
5.84
5.74
5.64
5.55
5.45
5.35

Critical Force
(kips)
27.4
54.6
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.4
54.3
54.4
54.3
54.2
54.1
54.2
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.7
54.7
54.9
54.9
55.1
55.2
55.4
55.6
55.8
56.0
56.1
56.3
56.5
56.7
56.9
57.2
57.4
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.5
58.7
58.7

97

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
98

Fx
(kips)
57
57
56
56
56
57
57
57
57
58
58
58
58
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
61
61
61
62
62
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
61
61
61

Fy
(kips)
49
49
49
49
49
50
50
51
51
51
52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
56
56
57
57
58
58
59
60
60
60
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
59
59
59

Torsional Moment, Mz
(kip-ft)
470
470
437
442
447
453
457
465
467
473
477
480
484
487
490
492
498
502
503
506
509
514
513
515
518
539
544
546
529
534
535
538
538
520
520
520
399
402
400
ASPIRE

Critical Overturning
Moment (kip-ft x 106)
5.26
5.16
5.07
4.98
4.88
4.79
4.70
4.61
4.52
4.43
4.35
4.26
4.17
4.09
4.00
3.92
3.84
3.75
3.67
3.59
3.51
3.43
3.36
3.28
3.20
3.13
3.05
2.98
2.91
2.83
2.76
2.69
2.62
2.56
2.49
2.42
2.35
2.29
2.23

Critical Force
(kips)
58.7
58.7
57.7
58.0
58.1
58.4
58.5
58.9
59.2
59.5
59.9
60.1
60.4
60.7
61.0
61.2
61.6
62.0
62.3
62.6
63.0
63.3
63.5
63.9
64.1
65.2
65.5
65.9
65.5
66.1
66.4
66.7
66.8
66.8
66.8
66.8
63.4
63.6
63.7

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

Fx
(kips)
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
65
66
66
66
66
67
67
68
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
72
72
70
70
70
69
70
70
69
69

Fy
(kips)
60
60
60
60
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
65
66
66
66
67
67
68
68
68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
67
67
68
67
67

Torsional Moment, Mz
(kip-ft)
403
406
400
399
399
399
402
398
401
403
400
401
396
398
401
399
394
389
388
368
387
385
384
386
382
384
383
382
383
382
380
381
381
381
337
333
330
322
317

ASPIRE

Critical Overturning
Moment (kip-ft x 106)
2.16
2.10
1.99
1.98
1.92
1.86
1.80
1.74
1.69
1.63
1.58
1.52
1.47
1.42
1.36
1.31
1.27
1.22
1.17
1.12
1.08
1.03
0.99
0.95
0.90
0.86
0.82
0.78
0.74
0.71
0.67
0.64
0.60
0.57
0.54
0.51
0.47
0.45
0.42

Critical Force
(kips)
64.0
64.6
64.6
64.7
65.1
65.4
65.9
66.0
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.6
67.6
68.2
68.6
68.9
69.0
69.3
69.6
69.9
70.4
70.6
71.2
71.8
72.0
72.8
73.2
73.7
74.1
74.6
74.9
73.0
73.0
73.0
72.1
72.4
72.7
72.0
72.1

99

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146

100

Fx
(kips)
70
71
71
71
72
78
70
66
67
67
66
67
67
68
69
69
68
68
68
67
67
66
65
62
59
76
71
55
59
59

Fy
(kips)
68
68
69
69
69
76
68
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
65
65
64
64
64
63
62
62
60
58
55
71
67
51
55
55

Torsional Moment, Mz
(kip-ft)
315
312
310
307
304
314
260
266
264
258
251
248
242
237
233
225
217
211
202
193
185
176
165
148
129
115
104
92
92
92

ASPIRE

Critical Overturning
Moment (kip-ft x 106)
0.39
0.36
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Critical Force
(kips)
72.9
73.4
73.9
74.0
74.6
80.9
73.0
68.4
69.2
69.2
68.8
69.2
69.7
70.6
71.2
71.2
70.9
70.8
70.2
69.6
69.2
68.3
67.1
64.5
61.7
78.8
73.8
56.6
60.8
60.8

9.0 APPENDIX

9.3 Seismic Load Summary


Floor Level
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Floor
Type1
L
L
L
L
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M

Lateral Force, Fx

Story Shear , Vx

Moment (Mx)

(kips)
0.01
0.05
0.11
0.19
0.3
0.43
0.58
0.76
0.96
1.18
1.43
1.7
2
2.32
2.66
3.03
3.42
3.83
4.27
4.73
5.22
5.73
6.26
6.81
7.39
8
8.62
9.28
9.95
10.65
11.37
12.11
12.88
13.68
14.49
15.33
16.2
25.17

(kips)
6,563
6,563
6,563
6,563
6,563
6,562
6,562
6,561
6,560
6,560
6,558
6,557
6,555
6,553
6,551
6,548
6,545
6,542
6,538
6,534
6,529
6,524
6,518
6,512
6,505
6,498
6,490
6,481
6,472
6,462
6,451
6,440
6,428
6,415
6,401
6,387
6,371
6,355

(kip-ft x 106)
8.82
8.74
8.65
8.56
8.48
8.39
8.30
8.22
8.13
8.04
7.96
7.87
7.79
7.70
7.61
7.53
7.44
7.35
7.27
7.18
7.10
7.01
6.92
6.84
6.75
6.67
6.58
6.50
6.41
6.33
6.24
6.16
6.07
5.99
5.90
5.82
5.74
5.65

ASPIRE

101

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor Level
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
102

Floor
Type1
M
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M
L
R
R
R
R

Lateral Force, Fx

Story Shear , Vx

Moment (Mx)

(kips)
26.51
15.46
15.69
16.46
17.26
18.07
18.9
19.75
20.62
21.5
22.41
23.33
24.27
25.24
26.22
27.21
28.23
29.27
30.32
31.4
32.49
33.6
34.73
35.88
37.04
38.23
39.43
40.65
41.89
43.15
44.43
45.73
47.05
77.4
79.57
39.19
38.42
39.45
40.49
41.55

(kips)
6,330
6,303
6,288
6,272
6,256
6,238
6,220
6,201
6,182
6,161
6,140
6,117
6,094
6,070
6,044
6,018
5,991
5,963
5,933
5,903
5,872
5,839
5,806
5,771
5,735
5,698
5,660
5,620
5,580
5,538
5,495
5,450
5,404
5,357
5,280
5,200
5,161
5,123
5,083
5,043

(kip-ft x 106)
5.57
5.49
5.40
5.32
5.24
5.16
5.07
4.99
4.91
4.83
4.75
4.67
4.59
4.51
4.43
4.35
4.27
4.19
4.11
4.04
3.96
3.88
3.80
3.73
3.65
3.58
3.50
3.43
3.36
3.28
3.21
3.14
3.07
3.00
2.93
2.86
2.79
2.72
2.66
2.59

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor Level
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118

Floor
Type1
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Lateral Force, Fx

Story Shear , Vx

Moment (Mx)

(kips)
42.62
43.71
44.81
45.92
47.05
48.19
49.34
50.51
51.69
52.89
54.1
55.32
56.55
57.8
59.07
60.34
61.64
62.94
64.26
65.59
66.94
68.29
69.67
71.05
72.45
73.87
75.29
76.74
78.19
79.66
147.66
150.38
56.76
53.67
54.63
55.6
56.58
57.57
58.57
59.58

(kips)
5,001
4,959
4,915
4,870
4,824
4,777
4,729
4,680
4,629
4,577
4,525
4,471
4,415
4,359
4,301
4,242
4,181
4,120
4,057
3,993
3,927
3,860
3,792
3,722
3,651
3,579
3,505
3,429
3,353
3,275
3,195
3,047
2,897
2,840
2,786
2,732
2,676
2,620
2,562
2,503

(kip-ft x 106)
2.53
2.46
2.40
2.33
2.27
2.20
2.14
2.08
2.02
1.96
1.90
1.84
1.78
1.73
1.67
1.61
1.56
1.50
1.45
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.06
1.01
0.97
0.92
0.88
0.84
0.80
0.76
0.73
0.69
0.66
0.62
0.59
0.56

ASPIRE

103

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor Level

Floor
Type1

Lateral Force, Fx

(kips)
119
R
60.59
120
R
61.61
121
R
62.64
122
R
63.68
123
R
64.73
124
R
65.79
125
R
66.85
126
R
67.93
127
R
69.01
128
R
70.1
129
R
71.2
130
R
72.31
131
R
73.42
132
R
74.55
133
R
75.68
134
R
76.83
135
R
77.98
136
R
79.14
137
R
80.3
138
R
81.48
139
R
82.67
140
R
83.86
141
R
85.06
142
R
86.27
143
R
87.49
144
R
88.72
145
R
89.96
146
M
210.54
147
M
213.43
1
L: Lobby; R: Residential; M: Mechanical

104

ASPIRE

Story Shear , Vx

Moment (Mx)

(kips)
2,444
2,383
2,322
2,259
2,195
2,131
2,065
1,998
1,930
1,861
1,791
1,720
1,647
1,574
1,499
1,424
1,347
1,269
1,190
1,109
1,028
945
861
776
690
603
514
424
213

(kip-ft x 106)
0.52
0.49
0.46
0.43
0.40
0.37
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

9.0 APPENDIX

9.4 Core Slab Design Summary


All core slabs are 6 in. thick, 110 pcf lightweight concrete.

Bank 1

Span
(ft)
Residential / Lobby:
1
10.16
2
8.25
3
14.70
4
8.40
Mechanical:
1
10.2
2
8.3
3
14.7
4
8.4
Bank 3
Residential / Lobby:
1
10.16
2
6.06
3
6.06
4
7.8
Mechanical:
1
10.16
2
6.06
3
6.06
4
7.8

Rebar in
Both
Rebar
Directions Dist.
#
(in, o.c.)
4
4
4
4

14
18
6
18

5
5
5
5

12
18
6
18

Span
(ft)
Residential / Lobby:
1
10.16
2
8.25
3
14.7
4
8.4
Mechanical:
1
10.16
2
8.25
3
14.7
4
8.4

4
4
4
4

14
18
18
18

Bank 4.1 / 4.2


Residential / Lobby:
1
10.16
2
6.06
3
6.06
4
10.18

4
4
4
4

8
18
18
16

ASPIRE

Bank 2

Rebar in
Both
Directions Rebar Dist.
#
(in, o.c.)
4
4
4
4

14
18
6
18

5
5
5
5

12
18
6
18

4
4
4
4

14
18
18
14

105

9.0 APPENDIX

9.5 Link Beam Summary


Table 9.3: Link Beam Dimensions
Length

Tributary Area

Bank 1
(ft)
(ft2)
1
31.0
120
2
9.34
84.0
3
32.2
484
4
18.3
110
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 2
1
31.0
120
2
9.34
84.0
3
32.2
484
4
18.3
110
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 3
1
11.2
75.6
2
9.34
70.9
3
13.2
122
4
14.0
65.2
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 4.1
1
9.65
65.2
2
9.65
120
3
12.9
92.3
4
9.68
40.3
5
40.6
97.9
1
Bank 4.2
2
9.65
97.9
4
9.68
27.9
5
40.6
97.9
1
Bank 4.2 does not contain Link Beam Type 1 and 3

106

ASPIRE

Curvature,

Radius, r

(deg)
--42.0
---

(ft)
--40.0
---

--42.0
---

--40.0
---

--43.0
---

--15.4
---

------

------

----

----

9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.4: Residential and Lobby Link Beam Summary
b

1
2
3
4
5

(in)
16
6
48
10
20

(in)
16
10
16
16
16

1
2
3
4
5

16
6
48
10
20

16
10
16
16
16

sstirrup

nbar

stirrup
#

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

(in)
7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

1
6
12
9
2
6
10
9
3
28
16
9
4
10
10
9
5
20
16
9
Bank 4.1
1
8
8
9
2
8
10
9
3
30
16
9
4
8
6
9
5
20
16
9
1
Bank 4.2
2
8
10
9
4
8
6
9
5
20
16
9
1
Bank 4.2 does not contain Link Beam Type 1 and 3

2
2
11
2
6

3
3
3
3
4

5.2
4.2
7.2
4.2
7.1

2
2
10
2
6

3
3
4
3
3

3.2
4.2
7.1
2.2
7.2

2
2
6

3
3
3

4.2
2.2
7.2

Bank 1

bar #

Bank 2

Bank 3

ASPIRE

107

9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.5: Mechanical Floor Link Beam Summary
b

1
2
3
4
5

(in)
22
8
72
12
24

(in)
16
10
16
16
16

1
2
3
4
5

22
8
72
12
24

16
10
16
16
16

sstirrup

nbar

stirrup #

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

(in)
7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

1
10
10
9
2
2
8
10
9
2
3
48
16
9
11
4
10
10
9
2
5
24
16
9
6
Bank 4.1
1
10
8
9
2
2
10
10
9
2
3
12
10
9
10
4
8
8
9
2
5
24
16
9
6
1
Bank 4.2
2
8
10
9
2
4
6
8
9
2
5
24
16
9
6
1
Bank 4.2 does not contain Link Beam Type 1 and 3

3
3
3
3
4

4.2
4.2
7.2
4.2
7.1

3
3
3
3
3

3.2
4.2
4.2
3.2
7.2

3
3
3

4.2
3.2
7.2

Bank 1

bar #

Bank 2

Bank 3

108

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

9.6 Beam Spans and Tributary Areas


Bank 1
Lobby and Mechanical
Length
ft

Joist 1
15.3

Joist 2
17.7

Joist 3
20.1

Circumferential
Girder
22.5

Angled
Girder
27.9

Radial
Girder
37.0

Long
Cantilever
21.2

Short
Cantilever
9.1

Tributary Area
Residential
Length

ft2

122.9

150.3

174.9

223.4

285.9

--

--

--

ft

15.7

19.1

--

22.5

27.9

37.0

21.2

9.1

Tributary Area

173.3

236.5

--

258.6

285.9

--

--

--

Angled
Girder
25.3

Radial
Girder
31.2

Long
Cantilever
19.2

Short
Cantilever
8.7

ft

Bank 2
Lobby and Mechanical
Length
ft

Joist 1
14.3

Joist 2
16.3

Joist 3
18.3

Circumferential
Girder
20.4

Tributary Area
Residential
Length

ft2

100.5

117.6

131.7

185.7

259.4

--

--

--

ft

14.9

17.7

--

20.4

25.3

31.2

19.2

8.7

Tributary Area

144.1

172.6

--

210.5

259.3

--

--

--

Joist 1
18.9

Joist 2
21.7

Joist 3
24.4

Circumferential
Girder
27.2

Angled
Girder
33.7

Radial
Girder
27.6

Long
Cantilever
19.3

Short
Cantilever
5.0

ft

Bank 3
Lobby and Mechanical
Length
ft
Tributary Area
Residential
Length

ft2

113.1

137.4

154.7

237.5

344.9

--

--

--

ft

18.9

23.1

--

27.2

33.7

27.6

19.3

5.0

Tributary Area

158.5

225.0

--

281.2

344.9

--

--

--

ft

Joist 1
18.9

Joist 2
21.7

Joist 3
24.4

Circumferential
Girder
27.2

Angled
Girder
33.7

Radial
Girder
27.6

Long
Cantilever
19.3

Short
Cantilever
5.0

Tributary Area
Residential
Length

ft2

113.1

137.4

154.7

237.5

344.9

--

--

--

ft

19.6

23.1

--

26.7

33.0

27.6

16.5

5.0

Tributary Area

152.5

193.0

--

258.9

338.6

--

--

ft

Bank 4
Lobby
Length

ft

ASPIRE

109

9.0 APPENDIX

9.7 Slab and Decking Summary


Table 9.6: Decking and Slab Thickness Summary for Composite Beam System
Lobby
Properties
Type
t
Rib Height
Rib Spacing

1.5VL22
2.5
1.5
6

Residential
1-3
4
1.5VL22
1.5VL19
2.5
2.5
1.5
1.5
6
6

1
2VLI16
2.5
2
12

Mechanical
2
3
2VLI19
2VLI20
2.5
2.5
2
2
12
12

All decking uses 6x6 - W1.4xW1.4 shrinkage mesh

Table 9.7: Unfactored Dead Load for Composite Beam System


Floor Type
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical

DL
32
33
39

Includes weight of concrete and decking

110

ASPIRE

psf
psf
psf

4
2VLI16
2.5
2
12

9.0 APPENDIX

9.8 Composite Beam Summary


Table 9.8: Composite Beam Summary
Bank 1
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical

Joist 1

Joist 2

Joist 3

W12x14
(30)
W12x14
(16)
W14x22
(15)

W12x26
(70)
W12x22
(19)
W14x30
(17)

W12x35
(80)

W12x19
(56)
W12x16
(29)
W12x19
(14)

W12x14
(32)
W12x16
(35)
W12x22
(32)

W12x19
(36)

W12X16
(37)
W12X22
(74)
W14x22
(36)

W12X35
(86)
W12X35
(92)
W14x30
(42)

W12X40
(96)

W12X16
(37)
W12 x 22
(39)

W12X35
(86)
W12 x 30
(92)

W12X40
(96)

W12x22
(39)

W12x30
(92)

-W16x36
(20)

Angled
Girder
W14x82
(110)
W14x53
(110)
W18x76
(81)

Circumferential
Girder
W16x31
(45)
W14x34
(90)
W16x50
(44)

W14x61
(50)
W14x43
(50)
W16x67
(75)

W12x45
(80)
W14x26
(80)
W12x45
(40)

W14X120
(134)
W14x82
(134)
W21x111
(66)

W12X65
(108)
W14x43
(108)
W21x55
(81)

W14X120
(134)
W14 x 74
(132)

W12X65
(108)
W14 x38
(106)

W18x60
(66)

W14 x38
(106)

Radial
Girder
W21x73
(75)
W14x61
(80)

Long
Cantilever
W24x306
(32)
W21x182
(32)
W27x539
(32)

Short
Cantilever
W14x193
(19)
W21x101
(14)
W24x176
(14)

W24x250
(29)
W21x166
(29)
W27x539
(29)

W18x175
(14)
W21x101
(14)
W24x250
(14)

W24x192
(29)
W21x201
(29)
W36x442
(29)

W18x106
(8)
W18x46
(8)
W21x166
(8)

W18x55
(67)
W16x36
(24)

W24x370
(29)
W24x176
(25)

W18x106
(8)
W18x50
(8)

W16x36
(24)

W24x176
(25)

W18x50
(8)

W14x730

Bank 2
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical

-W12x26
(36)

W21x50
(63)
W16x36
(27)
W14x730

Bank 3
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical

-W14x38
(48)

W18x55
(83)
W16x40
(24)
W14x730

Bank 4.1
Lobby
Residential

--

Bank 4.2
Residential
1

--

W14x730 are rotated girders at the mechanical floors

ASPIRE

111

9.0 APPENDIX

9.9 Initial Gravity Design Column Comparison


Table 9.9: Initial Composite and Steel Column Comparison

Steel

Steel

Column 3a/3b1
Composite2
Concrete
Shape
(in)
---------------

Shape
W4X13
W8X35
W14X90
W14X193
W14X342
W14X500
W14X550

Concrete2(in)
10X12
14X22
22X26
24X28
24X28
24X28
30X32

Shape
--------

W14X730

30X32

W14x455

W14x132

30X30

52
41

W14X730
W14X730

38X40
48X48

W14x500
W14x730

30X30
30X30

29

Sq. Pl. 28x6

W14X730

56X58

W14x730

40X40

17

Sq. Pl. 32x6

W14X730

64X64

W14x730

50X50

1
1

5
Lobby

Sq. Pl. 36x6


--

W27X539
W14X730

68X70
72X74

W14x605
W14x730
Sq. Pl.
24x5
Sq. Pl.
26x6
Sq. Pl.
28x6
--

W14x665
W14x665

60X60
60X62

Level
145
134
123
113
100
87
75

64

2
2

Column 1 / 21
Composite2

Shape
W14x99
W14x99
W14x193
W14x311
W14x426
W14x550
W14x665
Sq. Pl.
24x4.25
Sq. Pl.
24x5.25
Sq. Pl. 26x6

Bank
4
4
4
4
3
3
3

Column 2 only applies to Bank 3 & 4. Column 3a/3b only applies to Bank 1 & 2.
Columns were sized for both steel and composite configurations and then the optimal design was chosen.
The grey text shows the shapes and dimensions not chosen.

112

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

9.10 MIDAS Gen Gravity Loads


Table 9.10: MIDAS Gen Unfactored Gravity Loads (kips / node)

Floor

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Type1

L
L
L
L
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Column 1
SDL + DL
0.0
5.4
5.4
5.4
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
96.2

LL
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3
35.3

Column 2
SDL +
DL
LL

ASPIRE

Column 3a/b
SDL
+ DL
LL
0.0
0.0
5.4
0.0
5.4
0.0
5.4
0.0
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3

Core (Total Load for


all core walls divided
by # radial girders)
SDL +
DL

LL

36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4
36.4

32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
32.1
113

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
114

Type1

R
R
M
M
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M

Column 1
SDL + DL
96.2
96.2
56.3
5.4
75.8
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.6
43.8
4.6

LL
35.3
35.3
249.0
0.0
80.0
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
27.2
192.0
0.0

Column 2
SDL +
DL
LL

ASPIRE

Column 3a/b
SDL
+ DL
LL
96.2
35.3
96.2
35.3
56.3
249.0
5.4
0.0
75.8
80.0
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
74.6
27.2
43.8
192.0
4.6
0.0

Core (Total Load for


all core walls divided
by # radial girders)
SDL +
DL
36.4
36.4
25.1
9.7
33.1
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
22.4
9.3

LL
32.1
32.1
92.3
16.6
47.8
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
30.1
85.2
21.0

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111

Type1

L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M
L

Column 1
SDL + DL
57.9
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
33.3
3.2
64.7

LL
61.5
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
20.9
147.6
0.0
66.9

Column 2
SDL +
DL
LL
2.2
0.0
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
57.0
20.9
33.3
147.6
3.2
0.0
64.7
66.9

ASPIRE

Column 3a/b
SDL
+ DL
LL
57.9
61.5

Core (Total Load for


all core walls divided
by # radial girders)
SDL +
DL
24.3
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
14.3
3.6
24.0

LL
33.2
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
66.6
14.4
36.6

115

9.0 APPENDIX

Floor

Type1

Column 1

SDL + DL
LL
112
63.7
22.8
113
63.7
22.8
114
63.7
22.8
115
63.7
22.8
116
63.7
22.8
117
63.7
22.8
118
63.7
22.8
119
63.7
22.8
120
63.7
22.8
121
63.7
22.8
122
63.7
22.8
123
63.7
22.8
124
54.6
19.4
125
54.6
19.4
126
54.6
19.4
127
54.6
19.4
128
54.6
19.4
129
54.6
19.4
130
54.6
19.4
131
54.6
19.4
132
54.6
19.4
133
54.6
19.4
134
54.6
19.4
135
54.6
19.4
136
54.6
19.4
137
54.6
19.4
138
54.6
19.4
139
54.6
19.4
140
54.6
19.4
141
54.6
19.4
142
54.6
19.4
143
54.6
19.4
144
54.6
19.4
145
32.6
136.9
1
L: Lobby; R: Residential; M: Mechanical
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

116

Column 2
SDL +
DL
LL
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
63.7
22.8
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
54.6
19.4
32.6
136.9

ASPIRE

Column 3a/b
SDL
+ DL
LL

Core (Total Load for


all core walls divided
by # radial girders)
SDL +
DL
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
23.7
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
25.3
17.8

LL
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
34.4
74.7

9.0 APPENDIX

9.11 Column Validation Summary


Table 9.11: Composite and Steel Shapes for Lateral Design Column Validation

Bank

Level

4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

134
123
113
100
87
75
64
52
41
29
17
5
Lobby

Column 1 / 21
Concrete
Steel Shape
(in.)
W14x233
-W14x370
-W14x550
-W18x35
22x20
W18x50
22x22
W21x111
26x24
W24x146
30x26
W24x131
30x26
W24x162
30x28
W36x361
42x38
W36x330
42x34
W36x330
42x34
W40x324
46x38

Steel %
---2.3%
3.0%
5.2%
5.5%
4.9%
5.7%
6.6%
6.8%
6.8%
5.5%

Column 3a/3b
Concrete
Shape
(in.)
Steel %
------------------W24x162
30x26
6.1%
W24x146
30x26
5.5%
W24x162
30x28
5.7%
W36x330
42x34
6.8%
W36x330
42x34
6.8%
W36x330
42x34
6.8%
W40x324
46x38
5.5%

Column 2 only applies to Bank 3 & 4. Column 3a/3b only applies to Bank 1 & 2

ASPIRE

117

9.0 APPENDIX

9.12 MIDAS Sensitivity Analyses


Steel built-ups shown in Table 9.12 were used in the MIDAS model for several sensitivity analyses to test
the axial discontinuity and lateral deflection of the model.
Table 9.12: Built-up Steel and Concrete Properties
Column Nomenclature

As (in2)

Ag (in2)

Gross dimension (in)

BU1
BU2
BU3
BU4

768
640
476
364

1600
1296
1024
784

40x40
36x36
32x32
28x28

Three different sensitivity analyses were performed and are summarized in Table 9.13. The builtups in Banks 1-3 were changed and the larger built-up test resulted in less deflection. The
discontinuity results for the test are shown in Figure 9.1. Core wall thickness in Bank 3 was also
tested (Figure 9.2).
The sensitivity analysis for the effects of belt trusses and outriggers kept the core wall sizes to a
uniform one foot. While the results are relative to this unrealistic design, they show patterns in belt
truss and outrigger functionality given sizing and general existence.
Ultimately, the sensitivity analysis showed that the large belt truss and outrigger members were
causing large load shedding from the exterior columns to the core. Additionally, the large, built-up
steel shapes encased in concrete reduced drift and eliminated the tension forces from the original
column design.

118

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.13: Sensitivity Analyses Element Properties
Core Wall
Thickness by
Bank (ft)

Vertical Column Size by Bank

111-122

4
123-133

134-145

max

1
2 3
Built Up
10 8 4
10 8 4

Belt
Truss

3.3
3.3

W14x730
W14x730

W14x730 BU1 /BU2 BU3 BU4


W14x730
BU1
BU2 BU2

W14x550
W14x550

W14x370
W14x370

W14x233
W14x233

5.34
5.09

Core Size
10 8 6
10 8 4
10 8 2

2
2
2

W14x730
W14x730
W14x730

W14x730
W14x730
W14x730

BU1
BU1
BU1

BU2 BU2
BU2 BU2
BU2 BU2

W14x550
W14x550
W14x550

W14x370
W14x370
W14x370

W14x233
W14x233
W14x233

5.06
5.16
5.37

W14x730
None
None

BU1
BU1
BU1

BU2 BU2
BU2 BU2
BU2 BU2

W14x550
W14x550
W14x550

W14x370
W14x370
W14x370

W14x233
W14x233
W14x233

8.1
8.34
9.0

Belt Truss and Outrigger


1
1 1 1 W14x730
1
1 1 1 W14x730
1
1 1 1
None

Outrigger

Figure 9.1: Built Up Column Sensitivity Results to Dead Load

ASPIRE

119

9.0 APPENDIX

Figure 9.2: Core Wall Thickness Sensitivity Results to Dead Load

Figure 9.3: Belt Truss and Outrigger Sensitivity

120

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

9.13 Core Wall Reinforcement


Table 9.14: Core Wall Reinforcement Details
Thickness
(ft)
Bank 1
NS
EW
Bank 2
NS
EW
Bank 3
NS
EW
Bank 4
4.1
4.2

Horizontal Shear
Bar Size
Spacing
(in)

Vertical Shear
Bar Size
Spacing
(in)

Flexural
Bar Size
Spacing
(in)

7
7

18
18

6
6

10
10

12
12

10
10

12
12

4
4

18
18

8
9

18
18

9
10

18
18

9
10

3
3

14
14

10
9

8
7

16
12

8
7

16
12

2
2

18
8

7
17

6
6

14
14

6
6

14
14

ASPIRE

121

9.0 APPENDIX

9.14 Creep and Shrinkage


9.14.1 Hand Calculations

122

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

ASPIRE

123

9.0 APPENDIX

124

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX

ASPIRE

125

9.0 APPENDIX

9.14.2 Supplementary Materials


Table 9.15: Concrete Core Properties

Bank
Radius

Ro

40

38

36

26

ft

3.33

ft

Vc

23886

17417 11280

6721

ft3

Wc

3822

2787

1805

1075

kips

At

1810
21

1319
21

855
14

509
14

ft2

As

2873

10187

715

123

in2

86
182

63
133

61
129

36
77

ft2

Thickness
Total Volume / Floor
Total Weight/Floor
Total Area/Floor
# of Columns
Steel Area
Area per core "column"
Self-Weight per core "column"

Table 9.16: Steel Deflection Summary


Floors

Lobby
5-16
17-28
29-39
40-51
52-63
64-73
74-86
87-99
100-110
111-122
123-133
134-145

126

Deflection
per Floor

Deformation per
Floor Segment

Sum of Floor Segment


Deformations

(in)
0.979
0.077
0.067
0.057
0.049
0.041
0.034
0.054
0.042
0.031
0.021
0.012
0.004

(in)
0.979
0.921
0.805
0.631
0.590
0.492
0.335
0.702
0.546
0.340
0.251
0.131
0.045

(in)
0.98
1.90
2.71
3.34
3.93
4.42
4.75
5.46
6.00
6.34
6.59
6.72
6.77

ASPIRE

kips

9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.17: Humidity Data for Chicago
National Climatic Data for Humidity in Chicago, IL
(All Values in %)
Morning
Afternoon
January

78

70

February

78

67

March

79

63

April

77

58

May

77

57

June

79

58

July

82

60

August

86

61

September

85

61

October

81

59

November

80

66

December

80

71

80.17

62.58

Average

Average Humidity Between Morning and Afternoon


71.4%

Table 9.18: Concrete Reinforcement Data

Bank

Core Radius

Ro

40

38

36

26

ft

Core Thickness

tc

3.33

ft

251
12
1
10

239
9
0.75
18

226
12
1
8

nb

251

318

226

140

Stee Area per Bar

Asb

1.27

0.79

0.44

in2

Steel Area per Row

Asr

319

1273

179

62

in2

Number of Rows of Bars

nr

Total Steel Area

As

2873

10187

715

123

Percent Steel

0.011

0.054

0.006

0.002

Core Circumference
Rebar Spacing (in)
Rebar Spacing (ft)
Bar Size
Number of Bars per Row

ASPIRE

163
ft
14
in
1.1667 ft
6

in2

127

9.0 APPENDIX
Table 9.19: 20 Year Concrete Deflection
Deformation
per Floor
(in)
0.371
0.088
0.078
0.068
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.220
0.175
0.133
0.715
0.419
0.145

Deformation per
Floor Segment
(in)
0.371
1.054
0.937
0.752
0.057
0.049
0.035
2.857
2.274
1.468
8.585
4.611
1.737

Sum of Floor Segment


Deformations
(in)
0.37
1.43
2.36
3.11
3.17
3.22
3.26
6.11
8.39
9.86
18.44
23.05
24.79

9.14.3 Analysis Procedure for Creep and Shrinkage


Quantifying the amount of displacement in both the columns and core is essential for constructing a
serviceable building. If there is a large difference between the displacement of the columns and the
core that is not accounted for, floors will begin to slant over time and cause uncomfortable
situations for occupants.
The quantification of displacements depends on a multitude of factors, requiring an in-depth
analysis.
Step 1: Determine the expected loads on the concrete in question. The necessary loads are the DL,
SDL, the sustained portion of LL on the building. These loads will need to be broken up by floor
because the amount of creep is highly dependent on the amount of load and the sequence in which
it is applied.
Step 2: Create a construction schedule to determine when the concrete will be loaded with which
amount of load. For our skyscraper, as each of the 150 floors is added vertically, an additional load
will be placed on the floors below. The timing of when these additional loads are applied will
greatly affect the amount of creep experienced by concrete below.
Step 3: Determine the composition properties of the concrete mixture that will be used and its
curing process. Factors such as cement type, temperature and humidity during curing, and length
of time moist curing all affect the amount of ultimate creep and shrinkage that the concrete will
experience.
128

ASPIRE

9.0 APPENDIX
Step 4: Conduct laboratory tests to determine ultimate creep and shrinkage strains for the concrete
mixture specified in Step 3. The data from these tests will be used as initial values for creep and
shrinkage strains that will then be modified by calculated correction factors.
Step 5: Evaluate the geometries of structural elements. Correction factors based on the geometries
of the elements will be applied to the creep and shrinkage values calculated in order to obtain an
accurate estimate. Important geometric considerations are the height of the element as well as its
surface-to-volume ratio.
Step 6: Calculate the expected creep and shrinkage coefficients for loading, construction timing,
mixture composition properties, and geometries per GL2000 Method from ACI 209.2R-27. These
coefficients are then used to factor the ultimate creep and shrinkage strain values obtained from
laboratory tests to calculate the final expected displacements.
Step 7: Compare the newly calculated strain values for the column and core concrete to determine
the anticipated differential displacement. The differences will be used to modify the column and
core heights to account for the eventual differential displacement in the concrete.
Assumptions from GL2000 Method:
The method is defined for concretes with mean compressive strengths less than 11,890 psi. The
core compressive strength is 14,000 psi, but it is assumed that since mix details are not provided
this method still provides the best estimate for creep and shrinkage strains.
Type III cement was used to provide the highest initial strength gain, which led to the smallest
ultimate deformation of the core. Per this type of cement, values for the s and k parameters were
0.13 and 1.15, respectively.
In order to determine the correction term for humidity average data was taken from the National
Climatic Data Center for Chicago, IL. The average relative humidity over the year was found to be
0.71.
The time when curing stops and the time when subsequent loading is added were both taken to be
four days. Because of this, the correction term for drying occurring before loading does not affect
the creep coefficient.

ASPIRE

129

11.0 Calculation Book

2011 2012
ASPIRE
Master of Engineering
Structural Design Project

Cornell University
Ithaca, NY
May 2012

Table of Contents
1.0

General Notes ................................................................................................................ 1

1.1

List of Variables .......................................................................................................... 2

1.2

Color Key Explanation ................................................................................................ 7

2.0

Preliminary Load Analysis .............................................................................................. 8

2.1

Gravity Design Loads .................................................................................................. 9

2.2

Wind Load Calculations ............................................................................................ 10

2.2.1

ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations......................................................................... 11

2.2.2

Wind Tunnel Data ............................................................................................. 19

2.3

Seismic Calculations ................................................................................................. 23

2.3.1

Seismic Weight Calculation ............................................................................... 24

2.3.2

Seismic Load Calculations ................................................................................. 29

3.0

Gravity Design .............................................................................................................. 32

3.1

Tributary Areas ......................................................................................................... 33

3.2

Core Area

3.2.1

Concrete Slab Design ........................................................................................ 39

3.2.2

Link Beam Design .............................................................................................. 45

3.3

Floor Area ................................................................................................................. 51

3.3.1

Composite Decking ........................................................................................... 52

3.3.2

Composite Beam Design ................................................................................... 64

3.3.3

Vibration Analysis ............................................................................................. 93

3.4

Columns .................................................................................................................... 99

3.4.1

Column Load Takedown ................................................................................. 100

3.4.2

Composite Column Design .............................................................................. 114

3.4.3

Steel Column Design ....................................................................................... 118

4.0

Lateral Design............................................................................................................. 120

4.1

Preliminary Deflection Calculations ....................................................................... 121

4.2

MIDAS Gen FEA Summary ...................................................................................... 124

4.3

Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation No Outriggers .............................. 125

4.4

Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation Outriggers ............................................... 128

4.5

Core Rebar Design .................................................................................................. 131

4.5.1

Design of Core Rebar for Vertical and Horizontal Shear ................................ 132

4.5.2

Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity .................................................... 134

4.5.3

Bank 4 Strong Axis Bending ............................................................................ 138

4.6

Energy Method Optimization ................................................................................. 156

4.6.1

Optimization Calculations ............................................................................... 158

4.6.2

Resizing of Built-up Members ......................................................................... 161

5.0

Connection Design ..................................................................................................... 162

5.1

Typical Connections

5.1.1

Welded Column Splice .................................................................................... 163

5.1.2

Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection .......................................................... 168

5.1.3

Girder to Column Connections ....................................................................... 171

5.1.4

HSS to Cantilever Connection ......................................................................... 177

5.1.5

Radial Girder to Concrete Core ....................................................................... 180

5.2

Base of Mega-Column Connection......................................................................... 189

5.2.1

Mega-Column to Caisson Connection ............................................................ 190

5.2.2

Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement ............................................................. 194

5.3

Outrigger Connections ........................................................................................... 196

5.3.1

Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection .................................................. 197

5.3.2

Top of Outrigger to Core ................................................................................. 199

6.0

Foundation Design ..................................................................................................... 219

6.1

Retaining Wall ........................................................................................................ 220

6.1.1

Soil Profile ....................................................................................................... 221

6.1.2

Effective Pressure ........................................................................................... 222

6.1.3

Retaining Wall Design ..................................................................................... 224

6.1.4

Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis ...................................................................... 228

6.2

Parking Garage ....................................................................................................... 230

6.2.1

Two-Way Slab Using WWR ............................................................................ 231

6.2.2

Parking Garage Columns ................................................................................. 247

6.2.3

Belled Caisson Design .................................................................................... 248

6.3

Tower Foundation .................................................................................................. 250

6.3.1

Abaqus Analysis of Caissons ........................................................................... 251

6.3.2

Mega-Column Caisson Design......................................................................... 253

6.3.3

Ring Beam Design ........................................................................................... 255

6.3.4

Core Caisson Design ........................................................................................ 257

6.3.5

Caisson Rebar .................................................................................................. 259

7.0

Creep and Shrinkage .................................................................................................. 260

7.1

Steel Column Deformation..................................................................................... 261

7.1.1

Steel Column Properties and Loads ................................................................ 262

7.1.2

Steel Column Deformation Calculations ......................................................... 263

7.2

Concrete Core Deformation ................................................................................... 265

7.2.1

Concrete Core Properties and Loads .............................................................. 266

7.2.2

Concrete Core Deformation Calculations ....................................................... 267

8.0

References ................................................................................................................. 269

8.1

Energy-Based Design of Lateral Systems by William F. Baker ............................... 270

8.2

Geotechnical Report for the Chicago Spire ............................................................ 274

1.0 General Notes


1.1 List of Variables

1.2 Color Key Explanation

The calculation book is a compilation of all the calculations performed for the design of The
Chicago Spire. The calculations shown are the final design calculations performed for each
deliverable. Hand calculations and spreadsheets are included in the calculation book. The
spreadsheets included are demonstrative of the many calculations performed (Ex:
Spreadsheet containing the design of a single column is attached. However, the
spreadsheet was used to design columns on multiple floors.)

1.0 General Notes


C-1

1.1 List of Variables


a
a
A
ao/g
ap/g
Ase,V
Av/s
Ax
b
b
B
beff
bf
Bj
bo
C
c
c
C'
C1
Call
Capp
Cb
Cc
Ccol
cgb
cgN
Cj
Cw
d
d
D
deff
distx
Dj
DL
dm
Ds
Du
dx
e
Ec
EIeff
Es
F
fc
fa
fb

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Whitney Stress Block Theory depth of compression zone


distance from support face to 1st bolts, in
torque coefficient
acceleration limit for vibrational analysis
peak acceleration for vibrational analysis
effective cross sectional area of single bolt, in 2
steel area/spacing ratio in 2/in
area of ____________ (concrete, rebar, net area, etc), in 2
beam/column width, in
eccentricity of curvature, in
angular twist coefficient
effective width of slab section, in
flange width of a steel section, in
effective panel width, in
punching shear perimeter, in
concrete compressive force, lbs
concrete cover, in
turbulence intensity factor
instantaneous center of rotation at the centroid of the bolt group
effective rigidity
allowable compression, ksi
applied compression, ksi
beam bending coefficient
centerline circumfrence, ft
distance from concrete compression face to neutral axis
vertical centroid of bolt group, in
location of factored tensile force, in
effective width factor
warping constant, in 6
structural depth, in (Note: for steel sections, this is the member depth)
depth below grade (ft)
weld size, in
effective concrete depth, in
distance, in
transformed joist moment of inertia, in 4/ft
dead load
moment arm, in
transformed slab moment of inertia, in 4/ft
pretension multiplier
diameter of _____ (bolt, column, rebar, shear stud, etc), in
eccentricity
modulus of elasticity of concrete
effective stiffness of composite section, kip-in2
modulus of elasticity of steel
bolt head size, in
specified compressive strength of concrete, ksi
axial compression stress, ksi
lateral compression stress, ksi

1.1 List of Variables

C-2

f'c,avg

= average compressive strength of concrete, ksi

f'c-comp = compressive stress in concrete, ksi


fcomp
Fcr
FDL
Fe
FEXX
Flim
FLL
FMs
FMW
fn
fr
fs
Fs
FS
ft
Fu
Fw
Fy
Fyr
g
G
h
h
heff
hf
Ic
Ic
Icomp
Ieff
Io
Is
Isr
It
Ix
Iy

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

J
K
K
K1
Ka
kc
kcp
kh
kp
L
L
L'
C-3

allowable compressive stress, ksi


flexural buckling stress, ksi
factored dead load
elastic critical buckling stress, ksi
electrode strength, ksi
elastic buckling limit
factored live load
factored seismic moment
factored wind moment
natural frequency of the floor, Hz
allowable tension stress, ksi
stress in concrete reinforcing steel
force in concrete reinforcing steel, kip
factor of safety
lateral tensile stress, ksi
specified ultimate strength of steel, ksi
nominal strength of weld, ksi
specified minimum yield strength of steel section, ksi
specified minimum yield stress of reinforcing bars, ksi
acceleration due to gravity, in/sec 2
shear modulus, ksi
beam/slab depth, in
floor to floor height, ft
effective embedment depth of anchor, in
factor for fillers
moment of inertia of core, in 4
moment of inertia of the concrete section, in 4
moment of inertia of the composite section, in 4
moment of inertia for post-composite deflection, in 4
moment of inertia of column, in 4
moment of inertia of steel shape, in 4
moment of inertia of reinforcing bars, in 4
transformed moment of inertia, in 4
moment of inertia of strong axis, in 4
moment of inertia of weak axis, in 4
polar moment of inertia, in 4
distance from flange to web weld, in
effective length factor
effective length factor in plane of bending
earth pressure coefficient
coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength in tension
coefficient for pryout strength
horizontal subgrade modulus
Rankine's coefficient for passive earth pressure
laterally unbraced length of the member, ft
length of member, ft
uncurved length of beam, in

1.1 List of Variables

lc
l c edge
l c int
lcbtm
ld
Leh
Lev
Lex
Ley
Lgird
LL
Lo
Log
Lout
Lp
Lw
lw
Mg
Mn
Mpost
Mpre
Ms
Mu
Mw
N
n
n
n
N
Nn
Nx
P
P
Pcp
Pe
Pg
Ph
Pn
Po
Po
Pp
Ps
Pu
Qn
r
R
Rflex
Ri
Rn
Ro

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

clear distance btwn edge of hole and edge of adjacent hole, in


clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of hole and edge of material, in
clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of hole and edge adjacent hole, in
clear distance btwn edge of hole and edge of material for bottom bolts, in
embedment length, in
horizontal edge distance, in
vertical edge distance, in
effective length on strong axis, ft
effective length on weak axis, ft
width at girder, in
live load
total open length in core, ft
opening length in core, ft
width at outrigger, in
length of plate, in
length of weld, in
Whitmore Section width, in
applied moment
allowable moment
post-composite moment, kip-ft
pre-composite moment, kip-ft
seismic moment, kip-ft
maximum applied moment
wind moment, kip-ft
bearing length, in
number of ______ (number of bolts, shear studs, etc)
ratio between steel and concrete modulus of elasticity
dynamic modular ratio
tension force (from ACI318-08), kips
nominal tension strength, kips
nominal tension strength of a group of anchors/hooked bolt, lbs
perimeter of column, in
total load, kips
outer perimeter of cross section, in
Euler buckling load, kips
applied axial load
perimeter of torsion reinforcing, in
allowable column axial load
excitation for vibrational analysis, lbs
nominal axial compressive strength without consideration of length effects, kips
Rankine's passive earth pressure, kips
percentage of solid wall
compression load, kips
nominal strength of one stud shear connector
radius of curvature, in
reaction, kips
flexural resistance, psi
inner radius, ft
load capacity at connection, kips
outer radius, ft

1.1 List of Variables

C-4

Ru
rx
rx
ry
s
Sc
Smin
Ss
Stens
Sx
Sy
T
T
Tapp
Tb
tf
Tn
Tth
Tu
Tu
tw
tx
U
Ubs
Ubs
V
V
Vh
Vh
Vc
Vc
Vcpg
Vn
Vsa
Vth
Vu
w
W
wa
Wc
wc
wd
wj
wp
wslf
wt
yb
yt

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
C-5

load at connection, kips


radius of _____ (column, bolt, etc), in
radius of gyration (strong), in
radius of gyration (weak), in
spacing, in
section modulus for compression, in 3
minimum required section modulus, in 3
section modulus of steel shape, in 3
section modulus for tension, in 3
section modulus (strong), in 3
section modulus (weak), in 3
clear space, in
distance between weld centers, in
applied tension, ksi
min. fastener tension, kips
thickness of flange of steel section, in
nominal tensile capacity, kips
threshold torsional moment, kip-ft
maximum tension force, kips
maximum applied torsional moment, kip-ft
thickness of web of steel section, in
thickness of _______ (concrete, plate, wall, etc), in
shear lag factor
block shear rupture reduction coefficient
reduction coefficient
shear force, kips
basic wind speed, mph
adjusted horizontal shear, kips
partial composite action horizontal shear, kips
allowable shear in concrete, kips
concrete volume, ft3
Nominal pryout strength (group), kips
total shear capacity, kips
Nominal strength in shear, kips
theoretical concrete volume, ft 3/ft2
maximum applied shear, kips
distributed load, plf
weight supported, lbf
angle width, in
core wall self-weight, kip
weight of concrete per unit volume, pcf
decking weight, psf
effective panel weight, lbs
plate width, in
self-weight of an element
weld throat thickness, in
distance from neutral axis to the bottom of the section, in
distance from neutral axis to the top of the section, in
location of neutral axis, in
reinforcing steel strain multiplier

1.1 List of Variables

cu
s
ys

actual
bal

c
clay
g
s
sr
sw
act
all
c
c
r
t

x
x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

angle of curvature, radians


angle of backfill above wall, radians
modal damping ratio for vibrational analysis
concrete stress block coefficient
deflection, in
concrete ultimate compressive strain
strain in concrete reinforcing steel
steel yield strain
angle of twist, radians
modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete
mean slip coefficient
density of the steel in slab
density of steel at which a balanced failure between concrete crushing and steel yielding in tension
3.141592654
density of concrete, pcf
density of clay, psf
steel ratio
spiral reinforcement ratio
reinforcement ration for continuous longitudinal reinforcing, A sr/Ag
beam self weight density, lb/ft
actual stress per caisson, ksi
allowable stress, ksi
net compression stress, ksi
allowable stress in concrete, ksi
allowable stress in rock, ksi
net tensile stress, ksi
strength reduction factor
factored allowable strength (moment, axial, shear, bearing, etc.)
modification factor for anchor bolts
angle of friction for soil, radians

1.1 List of Variables

C-6

1.2 Color Key Explanation


Color Key:

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

The yellow cell indicates a user input. The user should input values for the spreadsheet to
calculate the results.
The gray cell indicates a constant or a previous calculation. When it is a previous
calculation, it is directly referencing the cell where the calculation was performed. Both
constants and previous calculations are considered inactive cells.
The white cell indicates a calculation or a value that is obtained via lookup. An example of a
lookup would be the various section properties of a W-shape for a specific shape.

The green cell indicates that a check is being performed and the conditions are satisfied.

The red cell indicates that a check is being performed and the conditions are not satisfied.

C-7

1.2 Color Key Explanation

2.0 Preliminary Load Analysis


2.1 Gravity Design Loads

2.2 Wind Load Calculations

10

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

11

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

19

2.3 Seismic Calculations


2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

24

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculations

29

2.0 Preliminary Load Analysis


C-8

2.1 Gravity Design Loads


Loads taken from ASCE 7

Dead Load

Typical Floor

(psf)

Core

Parking

Mechanical

Residential

Lobby

Decking and Slab

C-9

Superimposed
Dead Load
(psf)

Live Load
(psf)

32

Assembly Areas (lobbies)


Acoustical fiber board
MEP Duct Allowance
Ceramic or quarry tile (1 1/2 in) on 1 in. mortar bed
Total
Decking and Slab
Private rooms and corridors serving them
Partition Walls
Acoustical fiber board
Ceramic or quarry tile (3/4 in) on 1 in. mortar bed
MEP Duct Allowance
Total
Decking and Slab
Catwalks
Machine Space
MEP Duct Allowance
Total
Slab (150 pcf @ 12 in.)
Garages (passenger vehicles only)
MEP Duct Allowance
Cement finish (1-in.) on stone-concrete fill
Total
Slab (110 pcf @ 6 in.)
Total

2.1 Gravity Design Loads

100

32
33

1
10
46
57

100
40
15

33
39

1
23
10
34

55
40
200

39
150

10
10

240
40

150
55
55

10
32
42

40

2.2 Wind Load Calculations


2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

11

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

19

2.2 Wind Load Calculations


C-10

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

Created by: JLB,CJB,JAC,DBL

3/10/2012

Reference tool that calculates wind loads for strength according to ASCE 7-10 and then compares these values
to wind tunnel data from RWDI tests. See associated macthcad file and RWDI file for input values.

Definition of Variables from ASCE 7 Chapter 26


Basic Wind Speed
Wind Directionality Factor
Exposure Category
3-Second Gust Speed Exponent
Mean Hourly Wind Speed Power Law Exponent
Mean Hourly Wind Speed Factor
Turbulence Intensity Factor
Integral Length Scale Factor
Integral Length Scale Power Law Exponent
Nominal Height of Atmosphere Boundary Layer

V
Kd

Topographic Factor
Rigidity
Peak Factor for Background Response

Kzt

b
c
l

zg

120
0.85
D
11.5
0.11
0.80
0.15
650
0.13
700

mph (26.5)
(26.6)
(26.7)
(26.9-1)
(26.9-1)
(26.9-1)
(26.9-1)

ft

(26.9-1)
(26.9-1)

ft

(26.9-1)
(26.8.2)

gQ

1.00
Flexible
3.40

Peak Factor for Resonant Response

gV

3.40

(26.9.5)

Peak Factor for Wind Response


Number of Stories
Period
Building Natural Frequency
Building Width
Building Length
Mean Roof Height
Equivalent Height
Damping Ratio
Mean Hourly Wind Speed
Integral Length Scale of Turbulence
Reduced Frequency

gR

3.49
150
15.0
0.07
150
150
2,000
1,200
0.02
210
1,019
0.32

(26.9-11)

C-11

N
T
n1
B
L
h

Vz
Lz
N1

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

(26.9.5)

sec
Hz
ft
ft
ft
ft

(26.9.4)

mph (26.9-16)
ft
(26.9-9)
Hz
(26.9-14)

Definition of Variables from ASCE 7 Chapter 26 (cont)


R Calculation Intermediate Values

Resonant Response Factor


Intensity of Turbulence
Background Response Factor
Gust Effect Factor
Enclosure classification
Product of Internal Pressure Coefficient and Gust-Effect
Factor

Rn

0.21

(26.9-13)

2.92

(26.9.5)

Rh

0.28

(26.9-15a)

0.22

(26.9.5)

RB

0.87

(26.9-15a)

0.73

(26.9.5)

RL

0.65
1.47
0.08
0.71
1.12
Enclosed
0.18
-0.18

R
Iz
Q
Gf
GCpi

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

(26.9-15a)
(26.9-12)
(26.9-7)
(26.9-8)
(26.9.5)

(26.11-1)

C-12

Calculated Values from ASCE 7 Chapter 26


Basic Wind Speed
Wind Directionality Factor
Exposure Category
Topographic Factor

V
Kd
Kzt

Gust Effect Factor


Enclosure Classification
Product of Internal Pressure Coefficient and GustEffect Factor
3-Second Gust Speed Exponent
Nominal Height of Atmosphere Boundary Layer

120
0.85
D
1.00

mph (26.5)
(26.6)
(26.7)
(26.8.2)

Gf

1.12
Enclosed
0.18
GCpi
-0.18

11.5
zg
700

(26.9.5)

Fig (26.11-1)
Fig (26.9-1)
Fig (26.9-1)

Calculated Values from ASCE 7 Chapter 27


Wall Pressure Coefficients
Plan Length to Width Ratio
Windward Wall Pressure Coefficient

L/B
Cp

1.00
0.80

Fig (27.4-1)

Leeward Wall Pressure Coefficient

Cp

-0.50

Fig (27.4-1)

Side Wall Pressure Coefficient

Cp
qh

-0.70

Fig (27.4-1)

63.0

psf

Horizontal Dimension - Bank 1

Bx

189

ft

Horizontal Dimension - Bank 2

Bx

174

ft

Horizontal Dimension - Bank 3

Bx

153

ft

Horizontal Dimension - Bank 4

Bx

133

ft

Horizontal Dimension - Bank 4.2


Story Height

Bx
h

120
13.2

ft
ft

eR

0.0

ft

Iz

0.08

(26.9-7)

Peak Factor for Background Response

gQ

3.40

(26.9.5)

Peak Factor for Wind Response


Background Response Factor
Resonant Response Factor

gR

3.49
0.71
1.47

(26.9-11)

Leeward Velocity Pressure 1

Fig (27.4-1)

(27.4.1)

Building Dimensions

Eccentricity Calculation Values


Shear Center and Center of Mass Eccentridity
Intensity of Turbulence

C-13

Q
R

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

(27.4.6)

(26.9-8)
(26.9-12)

Eccentricity Calculation per Bank


Bank 1
eQ

Eccentricity for Rigid Structures

ex, ey

Flexible Building Eccentricity

28.3
21.1
-21.1

ft
ft
ft

(27.4-8)

26.1
19.5
-19.5

ft
ft
ft

(27.4-8)

23.0
17.1
-17.1

ft
ft
ft

(27.4-8)

(27.4.6)

Bank 2
eQ

Eccentricity for Rigid Structures

ex, ey

Flexible Building Eccentricity

(27.4.6)

Bank 3
eQ

Eccentricity for Rigid Structures

ex, ey

Flexible Building Eccentricity

(27.4.6)

Bank 4
eQ

Eccentricity for Rigid Structures

ex, ey

Flexible Building Eccentricity

20.0
14.9
-14.9

(27.4-8)

18.0
13.4
-13.4

(27.4-8)

(27.4.6)

Bank 4.2
Eccentricity for Rigid Structures
Flexible Building Eccentricity

eQ
ex, ey

(27.4.6)

Notes
1 Both qh and qi are taken conservatively to be the maximum qz value from windward pressure calculations. This
maximum occurs at the 150th level
2 In all calculations, the negative value of GCpi is used to get larger values of wind pressure. See Section 27.4-2

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

C-14

ASCE Ch 27 Wind Load Cases


Floor
(relative
to
ground)

Velocity
Height
Pressure
(relative Width of
Velocity
Exposure
to
Buidling
Pressure
Coefficien
ground)
t

Windward Leeward Side Wall Windward Leeward


Pressure Pressure Pressure
Force
Force

Side
Wall
Force

Design Wind Load


Case 1

PWX PWY PLX PLY

Kz

qz

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145

ft
0
13
26
40
53
66
79
92
105
119
132

1,791
1,804
1,817
1,830
1,843
1,857
1,870
1,883
1,896
1,909

ft
189
188
188
188
187
187
186
186
186
185
185

100
97
93
90
87
83
80
77
73
70

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

psf
32
32
36
38
40
42
43
44
45
46
47

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

psf
35
35
38
41
43
45
46
48
49
50
51

68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68

psf
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

psf
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38

-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38
-38

lb
86,397
86,234
94,919
101,663
106,677
110,685
114,034
116,910
119,426
121,665
123,677

89,377
86,398
83,420
80,441
77,462
74,483
71,504
68,525
65,546
62,563

lb
-59,628
-59,515
-59,403
-59,290
-59,177
-59,065
-58,952
-58,840
-58,727
-58,615
-58,502

-31,617
-30,563
-29,509
-28,455
-27,402
-26,348
-25,294
-24,240
-23,187
-22,131

lb
-47,367
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734
-94,734

-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276
-60,276

C-15

psf
35
35
38
41
43
45
46
48
49
50
51

68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68

psf
35
35
38
41
43
45
46
48
49
50
51

68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

psf
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

psf
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24
-24

Design Wind Load Case 1

FWX

FWY

FLX

FLY

FX

FY

lb
86,397
86,234
94,919
101,663
106,677
110,685
114,034
116,910
119,426
121,665
123,677

89,377
86,398
83,420
80,441
77,462
74,483
71,504
68,525
65,546
62,563

lb
86,397
86,234
94,919
101,663
106,677
110,685
114,034
116,910
119,426
121,665
123,677

89,377
86,398
83,420
80,441
77,462
74,483
71,504
68,525
65,546
62,563

lb
-59,628
-59,515
-59,403
-59,290
-59,177
-59,065
-58,952
-58,840
-58,727
-58,615
-58,502

-31,617
-30,563
-29,509
-28,455
-27,402
-26,348
-25,294
-24,240
-23,187
-22,131

lb
-59,628
-59,515
-59,403
-59,290
-59,177
-59,065
-58,952
-58,840
-58,727
-58,615
-58,502

-31,617
-30,563
-29,509
-28,455
-27,402
-26,348
-25,294
-24,240
-23,187
-22,131

lb
146,025
145,749
154,321
160,953
165,854
169,750
172,986
175,749
178,153
180,279
182,179

120,994
116,961
112,929
108,896
104,863
100,831
96,798
92,765
88,733
84,694

lb
146,025
145,749
154,321
160,953
165,854
169,750
172,986
175,749
178,153
180,279
182,179

120,994
116,961
112,929
108,896
104,863
100,831
96,798
92,765
88,733
84,694

Line
Load,
X/Y
kips/ft
11
11
12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
14

9
9
9
8
8
8
7
7
7
6

ASCE Ch 27 Wind Load Cases


Floor
(relative
to
ground)

Design Wind Load Case 2

Design Wind Load Case 2

.75PWX

.75PWY

.75PLX

.75PLY

MT

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145

psf
26
26
29
31
32
34
35
36
37
37
38

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

psf
26
26
29
31
32
34
35
36
37
37
38

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

psf
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

psf
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

k-ft/ft
32
32
43
51
58
63
67
71
74
77
80

92
92
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
131

Design Wind Load Case 3

.75FWX .75FWY .75FLX

.75FLY

MT

.75FX

.75FY

lb
64,798
64,675
71,189
76,247
80,008
83,014
85,526
87,682
89,569
91,248
92,758

67,033
64,799
62,565
60,331
58,096
55,862
53,628
51,394
49,160
46,922

lb
-44,721
-44,636
-44,552
-44,468
-44,383
-44,299
-44,214
-44,130
-44,045
-43,961
-43,876

-23,712
-22,922
-22,132
-21,342
-20,551
-19,761
-18,971
-18,180
-17,390
-16,598

k-ft
79,859
79,709
105,954
126,410
141,704
153,997
164,324
173,238
181,081
188,095
194,434

121,516
117,466
102,330
98,676
95,022
91,368
87,714
84,059
80,405
120,618

lb
109,519
109,312
115,741
120,715
124,391
127,312
129,740
131,812
133,615
135,209
136,634

90,745
87,721
84,697
81,672
78,648
75,623
72,599
69,574
66,550
63,521

lb
109,519
109,312
115,741
120,715
124,391
127,312
129,740
131,812
133,615
135,209
136,634

90,745
87,721
84,697
81,672
78,648
75,623
72,599
69,574
66,550
63,521

lb
64,798
64,675
71,189
76,247
80,008
83,014
85,526
87,682
89,569
91,248
92,758

67,033
64,799
62,565
60,331
58,096
55,862
53,628
51,394
49,160
46,922

lb
-44,721
-44,636
-44,552
-44,468
-44,383
-44,299
-44,214
-44,130
-44,045
-43,961
-43,876

-23,712
-22,922
-22,132
-21,342
-20,551
-19,761
-18,971
-18,180
-17,390
-16,598

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

Design Wind Load Case 3

.75PWX .75PWY .75PLX .75PLY


psf
26
26
29
31
32
34
35
36
37
37
38

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

psf
26
26
29
31
32
34
35
36
37
37
38

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

psf
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

psf
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18
-18

.75FWX .75FWY .75FLX

.75FLY

.75FX

.75FY

lb
64,798
64,675
71,189
76,247
80,008
83,014
85,526
87,682
89,569
91,248
92,758

67,033
64,799
62,565
60,331
58,096
55,862
53,628
51,394
49,160
46,922

lb
-44,721
-44,636
-44,552
-44,468
-44,383
-44,299
-44,214
-44,130
-44,045
-43,961
-43,876

-23,712
-22,922
-22,132
-21,342
-20,551
-19,761
-18,971
-18,180
-17,390
-16,598

lb
109,519
109,312
115,741
120,715
124,391
127,312
129,740
131,812
133,615
135,209
136,634

90,745
87,721
84,697
81,672
78,648
75,623
72,599
69,574
66,550
63,521

lb
109,519
109,312
115,741
120,715
124,391
127,312
129,740
131,812
133,615
135,209
136,634

90,745
87,721
84,697
81,672
78,648
75,623
72,599
69,574
66,550
63,521

lb
64,798
64,675
71,189
76,247
80,008
83,014
85,526
87,682
89,569
91,248
92,758

67,033
64,799
62,565
60,331
58,096
55,862
53,628
51,394
49,160
46,922

lb
-44,721
-44,636
-44,552
-44,468
-44,383
-44,299
-44,214
-44,130
-44,045
-43,961
-43,876

-23,712
-22,922
-22,132
-21,342
-20,551
-19,761
-18,971
-18,180
-17,390
-16,598

C-16

ASCE Ch 27 Wind Load Cases


Floor
(relative
to
ground)
#

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145

C-17

Design Wind Load Case 4

.563PWX .563PWY .563PLX .563PLY


psf
20
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
28
29

38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38

psf
20
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
28
29

38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38

psf
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14

-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14

psf
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14

-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14

Design Wind Load Case 4

MT
k-ft/ft
48
48
64
77
86
94
101
106
111
116
120

139
139
139
125
125
125
125
125
125
125

.563FWX .563FWY .563FLX .563FLY


lb
48,641
48,550
53,439
57,236
60,059
62,316
64,201
65,820
67,237
68,497
69,630

50,319
48,642
46,965
45,288
43,611
41,934
40,257
38,580
36,903
35,223

lb
48,641
48,550
53,439
57,236
60,059
62,316
64,201
65,820
67,237
68,497
69,630

50,319
48,642
46,965
45,288
43,611
41,934
40,257
38,580
36,903
35,223

lb
-33,570
-33,507
-33,444
-33,380
-33,317
-33,254
-33,190
-33,127
-33,063
-33,000
-32,937

-17,800
-17,207
-16,614
-16,020
-15,427
-14,834
-14,241
-13,647
-13,054
-12,460

lb
-33,570
-33,507
-33,444
-33,380
-33,317
-33,254
-33,190
-33,127
-33,063
-33,000
-32,937

-17,800
-17,207
-16,614
-16,020
-15,427
-14,834
-14,241
-13,647
-13,054
-12,460

MT

FX

FY

lb
119,896
119,669
159,073
189,783
212,744
231,200
246,705
260,088
271,863
282,393
291,911

182,436
176,356
170,275
148,146
142,660
137,173
131,687
126,201
120,715
115,221

lb
82,212
82,057
86,883
90,617
93,376
95,569
97,391
98,947
100,300
101,497
102,567

68,120
65,849
63,579
61,308
59,038
56,768
54,497
52,227
49,957
47,683

lb
82,212
82,057
86,883
90,617
93,376
95,569
97,391
98,947
100,300
101,497
102,567

68,120
65,849
63,579
61,308
59,038
56,768
54,497
52,227
49,957
47,683

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

Wind Pressure vs. Height

2000

2000

1800

1800

1600

1600

1400

1400
Wind Pressure p [psf]

Velocity Pressure qz [psf]

Velocity Pressure vs. Height

1200
1000
800

1200
1000
800

600

600

400

400

200

200

0
0

35

70

55

Hieght z [ft]

110

Height z [ft]

Case 1 Loads (lb)

Case 2 Loads (lb)

352,449
70,490
77,736
83,418
87,698
91,167
94,104
96,662
98,932
100,980
102,848
104,566
106,161
107,649
109,045
55,181

352,449
70,490
77,736
83,418
87,698
91,167
94,104
96,662
98,932
100,980
102,848
104,566
106,161
107,649
109,045
55,181

-243,246
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-24,325

-243,246
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-48,649
-24,325

1,739,084

1,739,084

-948,660

-948,660

1,739
Kips

1,739
Kips

-949
Kips

-949
Kips

264,336
52,867
58,302
62,563
65,774
68,375
70,578
72,497
74,199
75,735
77,136
78,424
79,620
80,737
81,784
41,386

Case 3 Loads (lb)


264,336
52,867
58,302
62,563
65,774
68,375
70,578
72,497
74,199
75,735
77,136
78,424
79,620
80,737
81,784
41,386

-182,435
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-18,243

-182,435
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-18,243

325,780
65,156
86,774
103,723
116,493
126,841
135,605
143,235
150,006
156,116
161,688
166,814
171,572
176,012
180,176
92,052

1,304,313
1,304,313
-711,495
-711,495
2,358,042
1,304
1,304
-711
-711
2,358
Kips
Kips
Kips
Kips
Kips

2.2.1 ASCE 7 Wind Load Calculations

264,336
52,867
58,302
62,563
65,774
68,375
70,578
72,497
74,199
75,735
77,136
78,424
79,620
80,737
81,784
41,386

264,336
52,867
58,302
62,563
65,774
68,375
70,578
72,497
74,199
75,735
77,136
78,424
79,620
80,737
81,784
41,386

-182,435
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-18,243

-182,435
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-36,487
-18,243

1,304,313
1,304,313
-711,495
-711,495
1,304
1,304
-711
-711
Kips
Kips
Kips
Kips

C-18

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

Created by:

JLB,CJB,JAC,DBL

3/10/2012

Values obtined from RWDI wind tunnel test data file. Values represent 100 year return period.

Key
Raw Data from RWDI Wind Tunnel Test
Calculated Critical Moment and Critical Force from RWDI Load Combinations
Adjusted values to remove spikes in Wind Tunnel Data
E = 970,560 ksf

Load Combinations
#
X Forces Fx
Y Forces Fy

1
90%

3
90%

5
-100%

7
-100%

9
30%

11
30%

13
-40%

15
-30%

17
30%

19
30%

20
30%

21
-70%

23
-70%

24
-70%

30%

-30%

30%

-30%

95%

-100%

95%

-100%

50%

-75%

-70%

50%

-75%

-70%

Wind Tunnel Forces


Floor Level
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Base
LV2
LV3
LV4
LV5
LV6
LV7
LV8
LV9
LV10
LV11
LV12
LV13
LV14
LV15
LV16
LV17
LV18
LV19
LV20
LV21
LV22
LV23
LV24

C-19

Moment of
4
Inertia (ft )
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255

Height Above
Level LV1 (ft)
0
13
26
40
53
66
79
92
105
119
132
145
158
171
184
198
211
224
237
250
263
277
290
303

Force Fx (lb)
26,700
53,300
53,100
53,100
53,200
53,100
52,900
53,000
52,900
52,800
52,700
52,800
53,000
53,000
53,000
53,200
53,200
53,400
53,400
53,600
53,600
53,800
54,000
54,200

Force Fy (lb)
19,800
39,700
39,600
39,700
40,100
40,000
40,200
40,600
40,500
40,500
40,700
40,800
41,200
41,300
41,700
41,900
42,200
42,300
42,700
43,100
43,400
43,600
43,900
44,300

Critical
Torsion Mz
Moment (kip(lb-ft)
ft E+6)
44,000
96,000
102,000
109,000
144,000
195,000
212,000
233,000
239,000
240,000
252,000
264,000
275,000
287,000
298,000
306,000
314,000
324,000
335,000
345,000
354,000
364,000
372,000
381,000

9.41
9.28
9.16
9.04
8.92
8.80
8.68
8.56
8.45
8.33
8.21
8.10
7.98
7.87
7.76
7.64
7.53
7.42
7.31
7.20
7.09
6.98
6.88
6.77

2
2
F Resultant = (Fx + Fy ) (kips)
for each load case

Inter-Story Total Drift Critical Force


Drift (in)
(in)
(kips)
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.16
0.17
0.17

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.08
0.13
0.18
0.25
0.32
0.40
0.49
0.59
0.69
0.80
0.92
1.05
1.18
1.32
1.47
1.62
1.78
1.94
2.11
2.28

27.4
54.6
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.4
54.3
54.4
54.3
54.2
54.1
54.2
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.7
54.7
54.9
54.9
55.1
55.2
55.4
55.6
55.8

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

1
24.8
49.4
49.2
49.3
49.4
49.3
49.1
49.2
49.1
49.0
49.0
49.1
49.3
49.3
49.3
49.5
49.5
49.7
49.7
49.9
50.0
50.2
50.4
50.6

3
24.8
49.4
49.2
49.3
49.4
49.3
49.1
49.2
49.1
49.0
49.0
49.1
49.3
49.3
49.3
49.5
49.5
49.7
49.7
49.9
50.0
50.2
50.4
50.6

5
27.4
54.6
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.4
54.3
54.4
54.3
54.2
54.1
54.2
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.7
54.7
54.9
54.9
55.1
55.2
55.4
55.6
55.8

7
27.4
54.6
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.4
54.3
54.4
54.3
54.2
54.1
54.2
54.4
54.4
54.5
54.7
54.7
54.9
54.9
55.1
55.2
55.4
55.6
55.8

9
20.4
41.0
40.9
40.9
41.3
41.2
41.4
41.7
41.6
41.6
41.8
41.9
42.2
42.3
42.7
42.9
43.2
43.3
43.6
44.0
44.3
44.5
44.7
45.1

11
21.4
42.8
42.7
42.8
43.2
43.1
43.2
43.6
43.5
43.5
43.7
43.8
44.2
44.3
44.6
44.8
45.1
45.2
45.6
46.0
46.3
46.5
46.8
47.2

13
21.6
43.3
43.2
43.3
43.6
43.5
43.7
44.0
43.9
43.9
44.0
44.1
44.5
44.6
44.9
45.1
45.4
45.5
45.8
46.2
46.5
46.7
47.0
47.3

15
21.4
42.8
42.7
42.8
43.2
43.1
43.2
43.6
43.5
43.5
43.7
43.8
44.2
44.3
44.6
44.8
45.1
45.2
45.6
46.0
46.3
46.5
46.8
47.2

17
12.7
25.5
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.6
25.6
25.8
25.7
25.7
25.8
25.8
26.0
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.5
26.5
26.7
26.9
27.0
27.1
27.3
27.5

19
16.9
33.8
33.7
33.8
34.0
34.0
34.1
34.4
34.3
34.3
34.4
34.5
34.8
34.8
35.1
35.2
35.4
35.5
35.8
36.1
36.3
36.5
36.7
37.0

20
16.0
32.1
32.0
32.0
32.3
32.2
32.3
32.6
32.5
32.5
32.6
32.7
32.9
33.0
33.2
33.4
33.6
33.7
33.9
34.2
34.4
34.5
34.7
35.0

21
21.2
42.3
42.1
42.1
42.3
42.2
42.1
42.3
42.2
42.1
42.1
42.2
42.4
42.5
42.6
42.7
42.8
42.9
43.0
43.3
43.3
43.5
43.7
43.9

23
23.9
47.7
47.6
47.6
47.9
47.8
47.8
48.0
47.9
47.8
47.9
48.0
48.3
48.3
48.5
48.7
48.9
49.0
49.2
49.5
49.7
49.9
50.1
50.4

24
23.3
46.5
46.4
46.4
46.6
46.5
46.5
46.7
46.6
46.6
46.6
46.7
47.0
47.0
47.2
47.4
47.5
47.7
47.9
48.1
48.3
48.5
48.7
49.0

Floor Level
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

LV25
LV26
LV27
LV28
LV29
LV30
LV31
LV32
LV33
LV34
LV35
LV36
LV37
LV38
LV39
LV40
LV41
LV42
LV43
LV44
LV45
LV46
LV47
LV48
LV49
LV50
LV51
LV52
LV53
LV54
LV55
LV56
LV57
LV58
LV59
LV60
LV61
LV62
LV63
LV64
LV65
LV66

Moment of
4
Inertia (ft )
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,895,255
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711

Height Above
Level LV1 (ft)
316
329
342
356
369
382
395
408
421
435
448
461
474
487
500
514
527
540
553
566
579
593
606
619
632
645
658
672
685
698
711
724
737
751
764
777
790
803
816
830
843
856

Force Fx (lb)
54,400
54,400
54,600
54,800
55,000
55,200
55,400
55,600
55,800
56,000
56,300
56,600
56,800
56,800
56,800
56,800
55,800
56,100
56,200
56,500
56,600
56,900
57,200
57,500
57,800
58,000
58,300
58,600
58,800
59,000
59,400
59,800
60,000
60,300
60,700
61,000
61,100
61,500
61,700
62,700
63,000
63,400

Force Fy (lb)
44,700
45,000
45,400
45,700
46,100
46,400
46,800
47,100
47,700
48,000
48,300
48,700
49,000
49,000
49,000
49,000
48,600
49,100
49,300
49,700
49,900
50,500
50,800
51,300
51,800
52,200
52,600
53,100
53,600
54,000
54,500
54,900
55,500
55,900
56,300
56,900
57,200
57,800
58,100
59,400
59,800
60,400

Critical
Torsion Mz
Moment (kip(lb-ft)
ft E+6)
392,000
399,000
411,000
418,000
427,000
433,000
443,000
451,000
458,000
467,000
474,000
484,000
491,000
479,000
470,000
470,000
437,000
442,000
447,000
453,000
457,000
465,000
467,000
473,000
477,000
480,000
484,000
487,000
490,000
492,000
498,000
502,000
503,000
506,000
509,000
514,000
513,000
515,000
518,000
539,000
544,000
546,000

6.66
6.56
6.45
6.35
6.25
6.14
6.04
5.94
5.84
5.74
5.64
5.55
5.45
5.35
5.26
5.16
5.07
4.98
4.88
4.79
4.70
4.61
4.52
4.43
4.35
4.26
4.17
4.09
4.00
3.92
3.84
3.75
3.67
3.59
3.51
3.43
3.36
3.28
3.20
3.13
3.05
2.98

2
2
F Resultant = (Fx + Fy ) (kips)
for each load case

Inter-Story Total Drift Critical Force


Drift (in)
(in)
(kips)
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.30
0.30
0.30

2.46
2.64
2.83
3.02
3.22
3.42
3.62
3.83
4.04
4.25
4.47
4.68
4.91
5.13
5.35
5.58
5.89
6.20
6.52
6.84
7.15
7.47
7.79
8.11
8.43
8.75
9.07
9.39
9.71
10.03
10.35
10.67
10.99
11.30
11.62
11.93
12.24
12.55
12.86
13.16
13.46
13.76

56.0
56.1
56.3
56.5
56.7
56.9
57.2
57.4
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.5
58.7
58.7
58.7
58.7
57.7
58.0
58.1
58.4
58.5
58.9
59.2
59.5
59.9
60.1
60.4
60.7
61.0
61.2
61.6
62.0
62.3
62.6
63.0
63.3
63.5
63.9
64.1
65.2
65.5
65.9

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

1
50.8
50.8
51.0
51.2
51.4
51.6
51.8
52.0
52.2
52.4
52.7
53.0
53.2
53.2
53.2
53.2
52.3
52.6
52.7
53.0
53.1
53.4
53.7
54.0
54.3
54.5
54.8
55.1
55.3
55.5
55.9
56.3
56.5
56.8
57.2
57.5
57.6
58.0
58.2
59.2
59.5
59.9

3
50.8
50.8
51.0
51.2
51.4
51.6
51.8
52.0
52.2
52.4
52.7
53.0
53.2
53.2
53.2
53.2
52.3
52.6
52.7
53.0
53.1
53.4
53.7
54.0
54.3
54.5
54.8
55.1
55.3
55.5
55.9
56.3
56.5
56.8
57.2
57.5
57.6
58.0
58.2
59.2
59.5
59.9

5
56.0
56.1
56.3
56.5
56.7
56.9
57.2
57.4
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.5
58.7
58.7
58.7
58.7
57.7
58.0
58.1
58.4
58.5
58.9
59.2
59.5
59.9
60.1
60.4
60.7
61.0
61.2
61.6
62.0
62.3
62.6
63.0
63.3
63.5
63.9
64.1
65.2
65.5
65.9

7
56.0
56.1
56.3
56.5
56.7
56.9
57.2
57.4
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.5
58.7
58.7
58.7
58.7
57.7
58.0
58.1
58.4
58.5
58.9
59.2
59.5
59.9
60.1
60.4
60.7
61.0
61.2
61.6
62.0
62.3
62.6
63.0
63.3
63.5
63.9
64.1
65.2
65.5
65.9

9
45.5
45.8
46.1
46.4
46.8
47.1
47.5
47.8
48.3
48.6
48.9
49.3
49.6
49.6
49.6
49.6
49.1
49.6
49.8
50.2
50.4
50.9
51.2
51.7
52.2
52.6
52.9
53.4
53.9
54.3
54.8
55.2
55.7
56.1
56.5
57.1
57.3
57.9
58.2
59.5
59.9
60.5

11
47.6
47.9
48.3
48.6
49.0
49.3
49.7
50.0
50.6
50.9
51.2
51.6
51.9
51.9
51.9
51.9
51.4
51.9
52.1
52.5
52.7
53.3
53.6
54.1
54.6
55.0
55.4
55.9
56.4
56.8
57.3
57.8
58.3
58.8
59.2
59.8
60.1
60.7
61.0
62.3
62.7
63.3

13
47.7
48.0
48.3
48.6
49.0
49.3
49.7
50.0
50.5
50.8
51.1
51.5
51.8
51.8
51.8
51.8
51.3
51.8
52.0
52.3
52.5
53.1
53.4
53.9
54.4
54.7
55.1
55.6
56.1
56.5
57.0
57.4
57.9
58.3
58.7
59.3
59.6
60.2
60.5
61.8
62.1
62.7

15
47.6
47.9
48.3
48.6
49.0
49.3
49.7
50.0
50.6
50.9
51.2
51.6
51.9
51.9
51.9
51.9
51.4
51.9
52.1
52.5
52.7
53.3
53.6
54.1
54.6
55.0
55.4
55.9
56.4
56.8
57.3
57.8
58.3
58.8
59.2
59.8
60.1
60.7
61.0
62.3
62.7
63.3

17
27.7
27.8
28.0
28.1
28.3
28.5
28.7
28.9
29.1
29.3
29.5
29.7
29.8
29.8
29.8
29.8
29.5
29.8
29.9
30.1
30.2
30.5
30.7
30.9
31.2
31.4
31.6
31.8
32.1
32.3
32.6
32.8
33.1
33.3
33.5
33.8
34.0
34.3
34.4
35.2
35.4
35.7

19
37.3
37.5
37.8
38.0
38.3
38.5
38.8
39.1
39.5
39.7
40.0
40.3
40.5
40.5
40.5
40.5
40.1
40.5
40.6
40.9
41.1
41.5
41.8
42.2
42.5
42.8
43.2
43.5
43.9
44.2
44.6
44.9
45.4
45.7
46.0
46.4
46.7
47.1
47.3
48.4
48.7
49.1

20
35.3
35.5
35.8
36.0
36.2
36.5
36.7
36.9
37.4
37.6
37.8
38.1
38.3
38.3
38.3
38.3
37.9
38.3
38.4
38.7
38.8
39.3
39.5
39.8
40.2
40.5
40.8
41.1
41.5
41.7
42.1
42.4
42.8
43.1
43.4
43.8
44.0
44.5
44.7
45.6
45.9
46.4

21
44.2
44.2
44.5
44.6
44.9
45.1
45.3
45.5
45.8
46.0
46.2
46.5
46.7
46.7
46.7
46.7
46.0
46.3
46.4
46.7
46.8
47.2
47.4
47.7
48.0
48.3
48.6
48.9
49.1
49.3
49.7
50.1
50.3
50.6
51.0
51.3
51.5
51.9
52.1
53.0
53.3
53.7

23
50.7
50.9
51.2
51.4
51.7
52.0
52.3
52.6
53.0
53.2
53.5
53.9
54.1
54.1
54.1
54.1
53.4
53.8
54.0
54.3
54.5
55.0
55.3
55.7
56.1
56.4
56.8
57.2
57.5
57.8
58.3
58.7
59.1
59.5
59.9
60.4
60.6
61.1
61.4
62.5
62.9
63.4

24
49.3
49.4
49.7
49.9
50.2
50.5
50.8
51.0
51.4
51.6
51.9
52.3
52.5
52.5
52.5
52.5
51.8
52.2
52.3
52.7
52.8
53.3
53.6
53.9
54.3
54.6
55.0
55.4
55.7
56.0
56.4
56.8
57.2
57.6
58.0
58.4
58.6
59.1
59.3
60.5
60.8
61.3

C-20

Floor Level
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107

LV67
LV68
LV69
LV70
LV71
LV72
LV73
LV74
LV75
LV76
LV77
LV78
LV79
LV80
LV81
LV82
LV83
LV84
LV85
LV86
LV87
LV88
LV89
LV90
LV91
LV92
LV93
LV94
LV95
LV96
LV97
LV98
LV99
LV100
LV101
LV102
LV103
LV104
LV105
LV106
LV107

108 LV108

C-21

Moment of
4
Inertia (ft )

Height Above
Level LV1 (ft)

Force Fx (lb)

Force Fy (lb)

Critical
Torsion Mz
Moment (kip(lb-ft)
ft E+6)

2
2
F Resultant = (Fx + Fy ) (kips)
for each load case

Inter-Story Total Drift Critical Force


Drift (in)
(in)
(kips)

1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
1,393,711
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008

869
882
895
909
922
935
948
961
974
988
1,001
1,014
1,027
1,050
1,053
1,067
1,080
1,093
1,106
1,119
1,132
1,146
1,159
1,172
1,185
1,198
1,211
1,225
1,238
1,251
1,264
1,277
1,290
1,304
1,317
1,330
1,343
1,356
1,369
1,383
1,396

63,000
63,500
63,800
64,100
64,200
64,200
64,200
64,200
60,900
61,100
61,200
61,500
62,000
62,000
62,100
62,500
62,800
63,200
63,300
63,800
64,200
64,400
64,800
64,800
65,400
65,800
66,100
66,200
66,400
66,700
67,000
67,500
67,700
68,200
68,800
69,000
69,800
70,200
70,700
71,200
71,600

60,100
60,700
61,200
61,600
61,900
62,000
62,000
62,000
58,600
58,900
59,200
59,600
60,200
60,200
60,400
60,900
61,200
61,700
61,800
62,400
62,900
63,200
63,600
63,600
64,200
64,700
65,100
65,300
65,600
66,000
66,400
66,900
67,300
67,600
68,000
68,100
68,500
68,600
68,800
69,000
69,300

529,000
534,000
535,000
538,000
538,000
520,000
520,000
520,000
399,000
402,000
400,000
403,000
406,000
400,000
399,000
399,000
399,000
402,000
398,000
401,000
403,000
400,000
401,000
396,000
398,000
401,000
399,000
394,000
389,000
388,000
368,000
387,000
385,000
384,000
386,000
382,000
384,000
383,000
382,000
383,000
382,000

2.91
2.83
2.76
2.69
2.62
2.56
2.49
2.42
2.35
2.29
2.23
2.16
2.10
1.99
1.98
1.92
1.86
1.80
1.74
1.69
1.63
1.58
1.52
1.47
1.42
1.36
1.31
1.27
1.22
1.17
1.12
1.08
1.03
0.99
0.95
0.90
0.86
0.82
0.78
0.74
0.71

0.30
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.46
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.43
0.75
0.10
0.41
0.40
0.40
0.39
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.32
0.31
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.27
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20

14.06
14.35
14.64
14.93
15.22
15.50
15.77
16.05
16.51
16.96
17.41
17.85
18.29
19.03
19.13
19.55
19.95
20.35
20.74
21.12
21.49
21.85
22.21
22.56
22.90
23.23
23.55
23.87
24.17
24.47
24.75
25.03
25.30
25.57
25.82
26.06
26.30
26.53
26.74
26.95
27.16

65.5
66.1
66.4
66.7
66.8
66.8
66.8
66.8
63.4
63.6
63.7
64.0
64.6
64.6
64.7
65.1
65.4
65.9
66.0
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.6
67.6
68.2
68.6
68.9
69.0
69.3
69.6
69.9
70.4
70.6
71.2
71.8
72.0
72.8
73.2
73.7
74.1
74.6

1
59.5
60.0
60.3
60.6
60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7
57.6
57.8
57.9
58.2
58.6
58.6
58.8
59.1
59.4
59.8
59.9
60.4
60.8
61.0
61.4
61.4
61.9
62.3
62.6
62.7
62.9
63.2
63.5
64.0
64.2
64.6
65.2
65.4
66.1
66.4
66.9
67.3
67.7

815,008

1,409

71,900

69,400

380,000

0.67

0.19

27.35

74.9

68.0

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

3
59.5
60.0
60.3
60.6
60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7
57.6
57.8
57.9
58.2
58.6
58.6
58.8
59.1
59.4
59.8
59.9
60.4
60.8
61.0
61.4
61.4
61.9
62.3
62.6
62.7
62.9
63.2
63.5
64.0
64.2
64.6
65.2
65.4
66.1
66.4
66.9
67.3
67.7

5
65.5
66.1
66.4
66.7
66.8
66.8
66.8
66.8
63.4
63.6
63.7
64.0
64.6
64.6
64.7
65.1
65.4
65.9
66.0
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.6
67.6
68.2
68.6
68.9
69.0
69.3
69.6
69.9
70.4
70.6
71.2
71.8
72.0
72.8
73.2
73.7
74.1
74.6

7
65.5
66.1
66.4
66.7
66.8
66.8
66.8
66.8
63.4
63.6
63.7
64.0
64.6
64.6
64.7
65.1
65.4
65.9
66.0
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.6
67.6
68.2
68.6
68.9
69.0
69.3
69.6
69.9
70.4
70.6
71.2
71.8
72.0
72.8
73.2
73.7
74.1
74.6

9
60.1
60.7
61.2
61.6
61.9
62.0
62.0
62.0
58.6
58.9
59.2
59.6
60.1
60.1
60.3
60.8
61.1
61.6
61.7
62.3
62.8
63.1
63.5
63.5
64.1
64.6
64.9
65.1
65.4
65.8
66.2
66.7
67.1
67.4
67.8
67.9
68.4
68.5
68.7
68.9
69.3

11
63.0
63.6
64.1
64.5
64.8
64.9
64.9
64.9
61.4
61.7
62.0
62.4
63.0
63.0
63.2
63.7
64.0
64.5
64.7
65.3
65.8
66.1
66.5
66.5
67.1
67.6
68.1
68.3
68.6
69.0
69.4
69.9
70.3
70.6
71.1
71.2
71.6
71.8
72.0
72.2
72.6

13
62.4
63.0
63.5
63.9
64.2
64.3
64.3
64.3
60.8
61.1
61.3
61.7
62.3
62.3
62.5
63.0
63.3
63.8
63.9
64.5
65.0
65.3
65.7
65.7
66.4
66.9
67.3
67.5
67.7
68.1
68.5
69.1
69.4
69.8
70.2
70.3
70.8
71.0
71.2
71.5
71.8

15
63.0
63.6
64.1
64.5
64.8
64.9
64.9
64.9
61.4
61.7
62.0
62.4
63.0
63.0
63.2
63.7
64.0
64.5
64.7
65.3
65.8
66.1
66.5
66.5
67.1
67.6
68.1
68.3
68.6
69.0
69.4
69.9
70.3
70.6
71.1
71.2
71.6
71.8
72.0
72.2
72.6

17
35.5
35.8
36.1
36.3
36.5
36.5
36.5
36.5
34.5
34.7
34.8
35.0
35.4
35.4
35.5
35.8
35.9
36.2
36.3
36.6
36.9
37.0
37.3
37.3
37.6
37.9
38.1
38.2
38.4
38.6
38.8
39.1
39.3
39.5
39.8
39.8
40.1
40.2
40.4
40.6
40.8

19
48.9
49.4
49.7
50.0
50.3
50.3
50.3
50.3
47.6
47.8
48.0
48.4
48.8
48.8
49.0
49.4
49.6
50.0
50.1
50.6
51.0
51.2
51.5
51.5
52.0
52.4
52.7
52.8
53.1
53.4
53.7
54.1
54.4
54.7
55.0
55.1
55.5
55.6
55.8
56.0
56.2

20
46.1
46.6
46.9
47.2
47.4
47.5
47.5
47.5
44.9
45.1
45.3
45.6
46.1
46.1
46.2
46.6
46.8
47.2
47.2
47.7
48.1
48.3
48.6
48.6
49.0
49.4
49.7
49.8
50.1
50.3
50.6
51.0
51.3
51.6
51.9
52.0
52.3
52.4
52.6
52.8
53.1

21
53.4
53.8
54.1
54.4
54.6
54.6
54.6
54.6
51.7
51.9
52.1
52.4
52.8
52.8
52.9
53.3
53.6
53.9
54.0
54.5
54.9
55.1
55.4
55.4
55.9
56.3
56.6
56.7
56.9
57.2
57.5
57.9
58.1
58.5
59.0
59.1
59.7
59.9
60.3
60.6
60.9

23
63.1
63.6
64.0
64.4
64.6
64.7
64.7
64.7
61.2
61.5
61.7
62.1
62.6
62.6
62.8
63.2
63.6
64.0
64.1
64.7
65.2
65.4
65.8
65.8
66.4
66.9
67.3
67.4
67.7
68.0
68.4
68.9
69.2
69.6
70.1
70.3
70.9
71.1
71.5
71.8
72.2

24
60.9
61.5
61.9
62.2
62.4
62.5
62.5
62.5
59.2
59.4
59.6
59.9
60.5
60.5
60.6
61.1
61.4
61.8
61.9
62.5
62.9
63.2
63.6
63.6
64.2
64.6
64.9
65.1
65.3
65.7
66.0
66.5
66.8
67.2
67.7
67.9
68.5
68.7
69.1
69.4
69.8

68.0

74.9

74.9

69.4

72.7

71.9

72.7

40.9

56.3

53.2

61.1

72.4

70.0

Floor Level
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146

LV109
LV110
LV111
LV112
LV113
LV114
LV115
LV116
LV117
LV118
LV119
LV120
LV121
LV122
LV123
LV124
LV125
LV126
LV127
LV128
LV129
LV130
LV131
LV132
LV133
LV134
LV135
LV136
LV137
LV138
LV139
LV140
LV141
LV142
LV143
LV144
LV145
LV146
Total

Moment of
4
Inertia (ft )
815,008
815,008
815,008
815,008
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843
248,843

Height Above
Level LV1 (ft)
1,422
1,435
1,448
1,462
1,475
1,488
1,501
1,514
1,527
1,541
1,554
1,567
1,580
1,593
1,606
1,620
1,633
1,646
1,659
1,672
1,685
1,699
1,712
1,725
1,738
1,751
1,764
1,778
1,791
1,804
1,817
1,830
1,843
1,857
1,870
1,883
1,896
1,909

Force Fx (lb)
70,000
70,000
70,000
69,300
69,500
69,800
69,100
69,200
70,000
70,500
71,000
71,100
71,600
77,700
70,100
65,700
66,500
66,500
66,100
66,500
67,000
67,900
68,500
68,500
68,200
68,100
67,600
67,000
66,600
65,800
64,600
62,100
59,400
75,800
71,000
54,500
58,500
58,500
8,996,000

Force Fy (lb)
69,000
69,000
69,000
66,900
67,200
67,600
67,000
67,000
67,800
68,300
68,700
68,800
69,300
75,500
67,700
63,100
63,900
63,900
63,500
63,900
64,000
64,400
64,800
64,600
64,300
64,100
63,500
62,900
62,400
61,600
60,400
58,000
55,400
71,400
66,600
50,700
54,700
54,700
8,267,200

Critical
Torsion Mz
Moment (kip(lb-ft)
ft E+6)
381,000
381,000
381,000
337,000
333,000
330,000
322,000
317,000
315,000
312,000
310,000
307,000
304,000
314,000
260,000
266,000
264,000
258,000
251,000
248,000
242,000
237,000
233,000
225,000
217,000
211,000
202,000
193,000
185,000
176,000
165,000
148,000
129,000
115,000
104,000
92,000
92,000
92,000
52,856,000

0.64
0.60
0.57
0.54
0.51
0.47
0.45
0.42
0.39
0.36
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

F Resultant = (Fx2 + Fy2) (kips)


for each load case

Inter-Story Total Drift Critical Force


Drift (in)
(in)
(kips)
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.50
0.47
0.45
0.43
0.40
0.38
0.35
0.33
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00

27.53
27.71
27.88
28.04
28.54
29.02
29.47
29.89
30.29
30.67
31.02
31.35
31.66
31.95
32.22
32.47
32.69
32.90
33.09
33.26
33.42
33.56
33.68
33.79
33.89
33.97
34.05
34.11
34.16
34.20
34.23
34.25
34.27
34.28
34.29
34.29
34.30
34.30

73.0
73.0
73.0
72.1
72.4
72.7
72.0
72.1
72.9
73.4
73.9
74.0
74.6
80.9
73.0
68.4
69.2
69.2
68.8
69.2
69.7
70.6
71.2
71.2
70.9
70.8
70.2
69.6
69.2
68.3
67.1
64.5
61.7
78.8
73.8
56.6
60.8
60.8

2.2.2 Wind Tunnel Data

1
66.3
66.3
66.3
65.5
65.7
66.0
65.4
65.4
66.2
66.7
67.1
67.2
67.7
73.5
66.3
62.1
62.8
62.8
62.5
62.8
63.3
64.1
64.6
64.6
64.3
64.2
63.8
63.2
62.8
62.0
60.9
58.5
56.0
71.5
67.0
51.4
55.1
55.1

3
66.3
66.3
66.3
65.5
65.7
66.0
65.4
65.4
66.2
66.7
67.1
67.2
67.7
73.5
66.3
62.1
62.8
62.8
62.5
62.8
63.3
64.1
64.6
64.6
64.3
64.2
63.8
63.2
62.8
62.0
60.9
58.5
56.0
71.5
67.0
51.4
55.1
55.1

5
73.0
73.0
73.0
72.1
72.4
72.7
72.0
72.1
72.9
73.4
73.9
74.0
74.6
80.9
73.0
68.4
69.2
69.2
68.8
69.2
69.7
70.6
71.2
71.2
70.9
70.8
70.2
69.6
69.2
68.3
67.1
64.5
61.7
78.8
73.8
56.6
60.8
60.8

7
73.0
73.0
73.0
72.1
72.4
72.7
72.0
72.1
72.9
73.4
73.9
74.0
74.6
80.9
73.0
68.4
69.2
69.2
68.8
69.2
69.7
70.6
71.2
71.2
70.9
70.8
70.2
69.6
69.2
68.3
67.1
64.5
61.7
78.8
73.8
56.6
60.8
60.8

9
68.8
68.8
68.8
66.9
67.2
67.5
66.9
66.9
67.7
68.2
68.7
68.8
69.3
75.4
67.7
63.1
63.9
63.9
63.5
63.9
64.0
64.5
64.9
64.7
64.4
64.2
63.6
63.0
62.6
61.8
60.6
58.2
55.6
71.5
66.8
50.9
54.8
54.8

11
72.1
72.1
72.1
70.1
70.4
70.8
70.1
70.1
71.0
71.5
71.9
72.0
72.6
79.0
70.9
66.1
66.9
66.9
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.5
68.0
67.8
67.5
67.3
66.7
66.0
65.5
64.7
63.4
60.9
58.2
74.9
69.9
53.3
57.4
57.4

13
71.3
71.3
71.3
69.3
69.6
70.0
69.4
69.4
70.2
70.7
71.2
71.3
71.8
78.2
70.2
65.5
66.3
66.3
65.9
66.3
66.4
66.9
67.4
67.2
66.9
66.7
66.1
65.5
65.0
64.2
62.9
60.4
57.7
74.3
69.4
52.9
57.0
57.0

15
72.1
72.1
72.1
70.1
70.4
70.8
70.1
70.1
71.0
71.5
71.9
72.0
72.6
79.0
70.9
66.1
66.9
66.9
66.5
66.9
67.1
67.5
68.0
67.8
67.5
67.3
66.7
66.0
65.5
64.7
63.4
60.9
58.2
74.9
69.9
53.3
57.4
57.4

17
40.4
40.4
40.4
39.4
39.5
39.8
39.4
39.4
39.9
40.2
40.4
40.5
40.8
44.4
39.9
37.2
37.7
37.7
37.4
37.7
37.8
38.1
38.4
38.3
38.1
38.0
37.7
37.3
37.0
36.6
35.9
34.5
32.9
42.3
39.5
30.2
32.5
32.5

19
55.8
55.8
55.8
54.3
54.5
54.9
54.4
54.4
55.0
55.4
55.8
55.8
56.2
61.2
55.0
51.3
51.9
51.9
51.6
51.9
52.0
52.4
52.8
52.6
52.4
52.2
51.8
51.3
50.9
50.2
49.3
47.3
45.2
58.2
54.3
41.4
44.6
44.6

20
52.7
52.7
52.7
51.2
51.5
51.7
51.3
51.3
51.9
52.3
52.6
52.7
53.1
57.8
51.8
48.4
49.0
49.0
48.7
49.0
49.1
49.5
49.8
49.7
49.4
49.3
48.9
48.4
48.0
47.4
46.5
44.7
42.7
54.9
51.3
39.1
42.1
42.1

21
59.9
59.9
59.9
58.9
59.1
59.4
58.8
58.9
59.6
60.0
60.4
60.5
60.9
66.2
59.6
55.8
56.5
56.5
56.1
56.5
56.8
57.4
57.9
57.8
57.6
57.4
57.0
56.5
56.1
55.4
54.4
52.3
50.0
64.0
59.8
45.8
49.2
49.2

23
71.3
71.3
71.3
69.8
70.0
70.4
69.7
69.8
70.6
71.1
71.6
71.7
72.2
78.5
70.6
66.0
66.8
66.8
66.4
66.8
67.1
67.8
68.3
68.2
67.9
67.7
67.1
66.5
66.1
65.2
64.0
61.5
58.8
75.4
70.5
53.9
58.0
58.0

24
68.8
68.8
68.8
67.4
67.7
68.0
67.4
67.4
68.2
68.7
69.2
69.3
69.8
75.8
68.2
63.8
64.6
64.6
64.2
64.6
64.9
65.5
66.0
65.9
65.6
65.5
64.9
64.3
63.9
63.1
61.9
59.5
56.9
72.9
68.1
52.1
56.1
56.1

C-22

2.3 Seismic Calculations


2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

24

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculation

29

Story Shear, Vx
7,000

Story Shear (kips)

6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

140

160

Floor Number

Seismic Force vs. Floor Number


Seismic Force (kips) acting on each floor

250.00

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00
0

20

40

60

80

100

Floor Number

2.3 Seismic Load Calculations


C-23

120

C-24

fc := 14ksi

0
34

r := 34 ft
32

25

I ( b) :=

( Rb) ( rb)

A ( b) := ( Rb) ( rb)

Let "b" be equal to the bank number

0
43

R := 41 ft
37

28

fc psi = 9.712 10 psf

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

Econc := 57000

Core Inner and Outer Dimensions:

c := 160pcf

Concrete Proper es

Es mates the seismic weight of the building using preliminary core sizes.

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calcula on

C-25

DL R := 32.5psf

LLR := 55psf

SDLR := 34psf

SDLL := 57psf

SDLM := 10psf

WL := DL L + SDLL Afloor = 1.236 10 kip

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

3
(
)
3
WR := ( LLpartition + DL R + SDLR) Afloor = 1.063 10 kip

WM := LLM + DL M + SDLM Afloor = 4.015 10 kip

WM (mechanical), WL (lobby), and WR (residen al) are the weights of individual


oors, not including column, cladding, or core weights.

Total Weights per oor:

Afloor :=
= 1.389 10 ft
4

d := 133ft

hfloor := 13.17ft

Floor Dimensions:

4 2

DL L := 32psf

LLL := 100psf

LLpartition := 10psf

DL M := 39psf

LLM := 240psf

Floor Loads:

C-26

nRB2 := 31

nL := 8

nRB4 := 33

nRB3 := 34

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

C 3 := 82plf hfloor 14 + 30in 30in hfloor c 14 = 199.499 kip

(
)
C 4 := 99plf hfloor 14 + ( 18in 18in hfloor c) 14 = 84.63 kip

C 2 := 426plf hfloor 21 + [ ( 30in 30in ) 7 + ( 24in 24in ) 14] hfloor c = 328.012 kip

C 1 := 311plf hfloor 21 + [ ( 42in 42in ) 7 + ( 36in 36in ) 14] hfloor c = 532.213 kip

Column Weights per oor by bank (see Table 5 in Gravity System Report):

CW4 := c hfloor A ( 4) = 1.053 10 kip

CW3 := c hfloor A ( 3) = 2.284 10 kip

CW2 := c hfloor A ( 2) = 3.475 10 kip

CW1 := c hfloor A ( 1) = 4.588 10 kip

Core Wall Weights per oor by bank:

nfloors := nR + nL + nM = 147

nR := nRB1 + nRB2 + nRB3 + nRB4 = 131

nRB1 := 33

nM := 8

Floor numbers:

C-27

)
4

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

WRTot := nR WR + WClad + nRB1 CW1 + C 1 + nRB2 CW2 + C 2 + nRB3 CW3 + C 3 + nRB4 CW4 + C 4 = 5.553 10 kip

WLTot := 4 WL + nL WClad + 5 CW1 + C 1 + 1 CW2 + CW3 + CW4 + C 2 + C 3 + C 4 = 3.841 10 kip

WMTot := nM WM + WClad + 2 CW1 + CW2 + CW3 + CW4 + C 1 + C 2 + C 3 + C 4 = 5.765 10 kip

Total Weights by oor type:

WClad := 10psf hfloor d = 55.028 kip

Cladding Weights per oor:

C-28

)(

)(

)(

)(

0
W1

W := W2
W
3
W4

2.3.1 Seismic Weight Calculation

(nRB4 WR + 2 WM + 1 WL) = 6.006 104 kip

(nRB3 WR + 2 WM + 1 WL) = 1.072 105 kip

WTOTcore := W1 + W2 + W3 + W4 = 5.147 10 kip

1
W3 := 1 + nRB3 + 2 CW3 +
2
1
W4 := 1 + nRB4 + 2 CW4 +
2

1
5
W1 := 5 + nRB1 + 2 CW1 + nRB1 WR + 2 WM + 5 WL = 2.081 10 kip
2
1
5
W2 := 1 + nRB2 + 2 CW2 + nRB2 WR + 2 WM + 1 WL = 1.393 10 kip
2

Weight per bank ac ng on core.


*assume columns and cladding do not load core
*assume half of oor weight is carried by core.

WTOT := WMTot + WLTot + WRTot = 6.513 10 kip

Total Weight of Building:

C-29

Created by:

CJB

6.563E+05 kips

4588
3475
2284
1053

532
328
199
85

0.01
6563

55.03
55.03
55.03
55.03

(kips / floor)

Cladding
Weight
6238
4921
3601
2256

(kips / floor)

Wresidential
9190
7873
6553
5208

(kips / floor)

Wmechanical

Yes
No

kips

W floor type is weight of slab system, beams,


and vertical elements per floor

6411
5094
3774
2429

(kips / floor)

Wlobby

Color Key:

5
1
1
1

nLobby

33
31
34
33

2
2
2
2
Total:

nResidential nMechanical

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculations

Eqauations from ASCE 7-10 Chapters 11 and 12 used in Seismic Force Calculations

Total Design Base Shear

Cs

1
2
3
4

Column
Weight

(kips / floor) (kips / floor)

Core Wall
Bank Weight

Weights by floor type


Mechanical
4015 kips / floor
Lobby
1236 kips / floor
Residential
1063 kips / floor

NOTE: SEISMIC WEIGHT IS DIFFERENT THAN ACTUAL WEIGHT

Total Building Weight, Wtot

Spreadsheet calculates the effective weight and base shear of the Chicago Spire. The weights by floor type are
calculated using a Mathcad file combining the previously defined dead and live loads for each typical floor type.

Base Shear Calculations and Effective Seismic Weight

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculations

2.563E+05
1.734E+05
1.393E+05
8.729E+04
6.563E+05

(kips / bank)

Total Bank
Weight

4/27/2012

[nfloor type * Wfloor type]

Seismic Load Calculations

Created by:

CJB

4/27/2012

Calculation based on ASCE 7-10 Chapters 11 and 12 for seismic loads.

Floor Level
x
147
146
145
144
143
142
141
140
139
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109

Floor Type
Mechanical
Mechanical
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby
Mechanical
Mechanical

Weight

V = 6563, T = 5.68, k = 2
k
wxhx
Cvx
Height

wx, kips
5.21E+03
5.21E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.26E+03
2.43E+03
6.55E+03
6.55E+03

hx, ft
1935.50
1922.33
1909.17
1896.00
1882.83
1869.67
1856.50
1843.33
1830.17
1817.00
1803.83
1790.67
1777.50
1764.33
1751.17
1738.00
1724.83
1711.67
1698.50
1685.33
1672.17
1659.00
1645.83
1632.67
1619.50
1606.33
1593.17
1580.00
1566.83
1553.67
1540.50
1527.33
1514.17
1501.00
1487.83
1474.67
1461.50
1448.33
1435.17

ft-kips
1.95E+10
1.92E+10
8.22E+09
8.11E+09
8.00E+09
7.89E+09
7.78E+09
7.67E+09
7.56E+09
7.45E+09
7.34E+09
7.23E+09
7.13E+09
7.02E+09
6.92E+09
6.81E+09
6.71E+09
6.61E+09
6.51E+09
6.41E+09
6.31E+09
6.21E+09
6.11E+09
6.01E+09
5.92E+09
5.82E+09
5.73E+09
5.63E+09
5.54E+09
5.45E+09
5.35E+09
5.26E+09
5.17E+09
5.08E+09
4.99E+09
4.91E+09
5.19E+09
1.37E+10
1.35E+10

0.03252
0.03208
0.01371
0.01352
0.01333
0.01315
0.01296
0.01278
0.01260
0.01242
0.01224
0.01206
0.01188
0.01171
0.01153
0.01136
0.01119
0.01102
0.01085
0.01068
0.01052
0.01035
0.01019
0.01002
0.00986
0.00970
0.00954
0.00939
0.00923
0.00908
0.00892
0.00877
0.00862
0.00847
0.00832
0.00818
0.00865
0.02291
0.02250

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculations

Lateral Force Story Shear


Fx, kips
213.43
210.54
89.96
88.72
87.49
86.27
85.06
83.86
82.67
81.48
80.30
79.14
77.98
76.83
75.68
74.55
73.42
72.31
71.20
70.10
69.01
67.93
66.85
65.79
64.73
63.68
62.64
61.61
60.59
59.58
58.57
57.57
56.58
55.60
54.63
53.67
56.76
150.38
147.66

Vx, kips
213
424
514
603
690
776
861
945
1,028
1,109
1,190
1,269
1,347
1,424
1,499
1,574
1,647
1,720
1,791
1,861
1,930
1,998
2,065
2,131
2,195
2,259
2,322
2,383
2,444
2,503
2,562
2,620
2,676
2,732
2,786
2,840
2,897
3,047
3,195

Moment
k-ft
0
2,810
8,393
15,159
23,094
32,181
42,404
53,747
66,194
79,729
94,338
110,003
126,711
144,445
163,191
182,934
203,658
225,348
247,991
271,571
296,075
321,486
347,793
374,979
403,032
431,937
461,680
492,248
523,628
555,805
588,767
622,500
656,990
692,226
728,194
764,882
802,276
840,417
880,538
C-30

Floor Level
x
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66

Floor Type
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby
Mechanical
Mechanical
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential

C-31

Weight

V = 6563, T = 5.68, k = 2
k
wxhx
Cvx
Height

wx, kips
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.60E+03
3.77E+03
7.87E+03
7.87E+03
4.92E+03
4.92E+03
4.92E+03
4.92E+03
4.92E+03
4.92E+03

hx, ft
1422.00
1408.83
1395.67
1382.50
1369.33
1356.17
1343.00
1329.83
1316.67
1303.50
1290.33
1277.17
1264.00
1250.83
1237.67
1224.50
1211.33
1198.17
1185.00
1171.83
1158.67
1145.50
1132.33
1119.17
1106.00
1092.83
1079.67
1066.50
1053.33
1040.17
1027.00
1013.83
1000.67
987.50
974.33
961.17
948.00
934.83
921.67
908.50
895.33
882.17
869.00

ft-kips
7.28E+09
7.15E+09
7.01E+09
6.88E+09
6.75E+09
6.62E+09
6.49E+09
6.37E+09
6.24E+09
6.12E+09
6.00E+09
5.87E+09
5.75E+09
5.63E+09
5.52E+09
5.40E+09
5.28E+09
5.17E+09
5.06E+09
4.94E+09
4.83E+09
4.73E+09
4.62E+09
4.51E+09
4.40E+09
4.30E+09
4.20E+09
4.10E+09
4.00E+09
3.90E+09
3.80E+09
3.70E+09
3.61E+09
3.51E+09
3.58E+09
7.27E+09
7.08E+09
4.30E+09
4.18E+09
4.06E+09
3.94E+09
3.83E+09
3.72E+09

0.01214
0.01191
0.01169
0.01147
0.01126
0.01104
0.01083
0.01062
0.01041
0.01020
0.00999
0.00979
0.00959
0.00939
0.00919
0.00900
0.00881
0.00862
0.00843
0.00824
0.00806
0.00788
0.00770
0.00752
0.00734
0.00717
0.00700
0.00683
0.00666
0.00649
0.00633
0.00617
0.00601
0.00585
0.00597
0.01212
0.01179
0.00717
0.00697
0.00677
0.00658
0.00638
0.00619

2.3.2 Seismic Load Calculations

Lateral Force Story Shear


Fx, kips
79.66
78.19
76.74
75.29
73.87
72.45
71.05
69.67
68.29
66.94
65.59
64.26
62.94
61.64
60.34
59.07
57.80
56.55
55.32
54.10
52.89
51.69
50.51
49.34
48.19
47.05
45.92
44.81
43.71
42.62
41.55
40.49
39.45
38.42
39.19
79.57
77.40
47.05
45.73
44.43
43.15
41.89
40.65

Vx, kips
3,275
3,353
3,429
3,505
3,579
3,651
3,722
3,792
3,860
3,927
3,993
4,057
4,120
4,181
4,242
4,301
4,359
4,415
4,471
4,525
4,577
4,629
4,680
4,729
4,777
4,824
4,870
4,915
4,959
5,001
5,043
5,083
5,123
5,161
5,200
5,280
5,357
5,404
5,450
5,495
5,538
5,580
5,620

Moment
k-ft
922,604
965,718
1,009,862
1,055,016
1,101,161
1,148,279
1,196,351
1,245,359
1,295,284
1,346,108
1,397,813
1,450,382
1,503,797
1,558,041
1,613,096
1,668,946
1,725,574
1,782,962
1,841,096
1,899,957
1,959,531
2,019,801
2,080,752
2,142,368
2,204,634
2,267,534
2,331,053
2,395,177
2,459,891
2,525,181
2,591,032
2,657,430
2,724,361
2,791,811
2,859,767
2,928,239
2,997,759
3,068,298
3,139,457
3,211,217
3,283,563
3,356,477
3,429,943

3.0 Gravity Design


3.1 Tributary Areas

33

3.2 Core Area


3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

39

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

45

3.3 Floor Area

51

3.3.1 Composite Decking


3.3.1.1

Composite Decking Design

52

3.3.1.2

Composite Decking Hand-Calc. and Mastan Analysis

56

3.3.2 Composite Beam Design


3.3.2.1

Joist Design Tool

64

3.3.2.2

Radial Girders

67

3.3.2.3

Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

77

3.3.2.4

Circumferential Girder Design

80

3.3.2.5

Cantilevers

3.3.2.6

HSS Edge Beam Design

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

3.4 Columns

83
88

93

99

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

100

3.4.2 Composite Column Design 114


3.4.3 Steel Column Design

118

3.0 Gravity Design


C-32

Tributary Areas Calculations

Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

Title: Tributary Area and Sizing of Flexural Elements under Uniformly Distributed Load for Bank 1,
Residential (5th floor).

Figure 1: Typical Tributary Areas

Assumptions:
1) Except for elements in Bank 4, all elements in same bank have the same tributary area and
geometry if they are located at the same location of each floor.
2) The tributary areas of the joists are technically trapezoidal in shape, but we assume the tributary
area to be rectangular in shape with the width of the rectangle to be the base length of the
trapezoid.
3) HSS are load bearing members.
4) Angled Girder takes of the tributary area and load from the following area, and HSS 1 takes
of the tributary and load from the same area.

C-33

Tributary Areas Calculations

Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

Figure 2: HSS-AG Tributary Area

5) To estimate the area of the HSS-AG tributary area, we use Revit and rotate the slab so point B
meets point A. The corner of the slab is at the end of the cantilevering girder. Use straight
sketch lines to draw a boundary that encloses the area and take length measurements to find
the approximate, larger than actual, area.
6) The distances from columns to faade and from girder to faade are held constant throughout
the building.

J1L 188in

pCJ1 103in

J2L 229in

pJ1J2 136in

b
w

pCJ1 pJ1J2
2
J1L J2L
2

119.5in

208.5in

Area b w 173.026ft

GL 270in

J2L 229in

pJ2G 137in
b
w

pJ1J2 136in

pJ1J2 pJ2G
2
J2L GL
2

136.5in

249.5in

Area b w 236.505ft

C-34

Tributary Areas Calculations


Girder, G of Floor G (Floor Plan Given)
GL 245in
SF 282in
pJ2G 109in
pCG 813in
pGSF

pCG

GL

Area

C-35

SF pCG 122.78in

SF GL
2

pJ2G pGSF 212.062ft 2


Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

Tributary Areas Calculations

Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

Girder, G of Floor 5 (Bank 1)


GL 270in
pGSF 122in
pCG 896in
pJ2G 137in
SF

GL

(pCG pGSF) 306.763in

pCG

Assume pGSF, distance from girder to exterior is


held constant throughout the building

Area

SF GL pJ2G pGSF
2
259.343ft

2
2

C-36

Tributary Areas Calculations

Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

Angled Girder, AG of Floor 60 (Bank 2)


A 295in
B 144in
C 291in
D 142in
E 212in
AGL 303in
4 2

A1 B C 4.19 10 in
A2

D C

4 2

(A B) 3.269 10 in

Assume AG takes 1/2 of this total area


A1 A2

Area AG

259.012ft

Angled Girder, AG of Floor 5 (Bank 1)


GL 270in
GL60 245in

Factor

GL
GL60

1.102

Area AG60 37346in

Area AG Factor Area AG60 285.811ft


AGL60 303in
AGL5 Factor AGL60 in

C-37

Tributary Areas Calculations

Chung Yu Wang
11/6/2011

HSS1 of Floor 5
HSS1Area

Area AG
2

142.906ft

HSS 1 is the perimeter element that is taking part


of the tributary area. We assume that HSS1 has
of the area or that of the angled girder on the
same floor.

HSS2 of Floor 5
pGSF 122in
SF 307in
Area

pGSF
2

SF 130.049ft

C-38

C-39

Created by: ADV

11/30/2011

Mechanical

Residential / Lobby

Slab #

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

10.2
8.3
14.7
8.4

10.16
8.25
14.70
8.40

Span
(ft)

Formulas Used
Rxn = wl/2
Mmax = wl2/8

6
6
6
6

6
6
6
6

Slab Depth
(in)

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

DL
(psf)

10
10
10
10

57
57
57
57

SDL
(psf)

5.65
3.63
12.20
3.78

3.62
2.33
7.82
2.42

Max Moment
(kip-ft)

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

240
240
240
240

100
100
100
100

LL
(psf)

Bank 1

2.34
1.88
3.44
1.91

1.50
1.20
2.20
1.20

End Reaction
(kips/ft * width)

5
5
5
5

4
4
4
4

Rebar
#

12
18
6
18

14
18
6
18

Rebar Dist.
(in, o.c.)

This sheet displays the results from using the slab tool. All slabs were designed using the tool and the information from those results is
tabulated below. The loads shown are unfactored. The moments and ends reactions are calculated using factored loads.

Designed Slab Information

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

C-40

Mechanical

Residential / Lobby

Slab #

Mechanical

Residential / Lobby

Slab #

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

10.16
6.06
6.06
7.80

10.16
6.06
6.06
7.80

Span
(ft)

10.2
8.3
14.7
8.4

10.16
8.25
14.70
8.40

Span
(ft)

6
6
6
6

6
6
6
6

Slab Depth
(in)

6
6
6
6

6
6
6
6

Slab Depth
(in)

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

DL
(psf)

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

DL
(psf)

10
10
10
10

57
57
57
57

SDL
(psf)

10
10
10
10

57
57
57
57

SDL
(psf)

5.65
1.87
1.87
3.22

3.62
1.20
1.20
2.07

Max Moment
(kip-ft)

5.65
3.63
12.20
3.78

3.62
2.33
7.82
2.42

Max Moment
(kip-ft)

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

240
240
240
240

100
100
100
100

LL
(psf)

Bank 3

240
240
240
240

100
100
100
100

LL
(psf)

Bank 2

2.34
1.35
1.35
1.77

1.50
0.86
0.86
1.13

End Reaction
(kips/ft width)

2.34
1.88
3.44
1.91

1.50
1.20
2.20
1.23

End Reaction
(kips/ft width)

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

Rebar
#

5
5
5
5

4
4
4
4

Rebar
#

8
18
18
16

14
18
18
18

Rebar Dist.
(in, o.c.)

12
18
6
18

14
18
6
18

Rebar Dist.
(in, o.c.)

C-41

Residential / Lobby

Slab #

Residential / Lobby

Slab #

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

10.16
--10.18

Span
(ft)

10.16
6.06
6.06
10.18

Span
(ft)

6
6
6
6

Slab Depth
(in)

6
6
6
6

Slab Depth
(in)

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

DL
(psf)

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

DL
(psf)
57
57
57
57

57
57
57
57

3.62
--3.64

Max Moment
(kip-ft)

3.62
1.20
1.20
3.64

Max Moment
(kip-ft)

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

100
100
100
100

Bank 4.2
LL
SDL
(psf)
(psf)

100
100
100
100

Bank 4.1
LL
SDL
(psf)
(psf)

1.50
--1.50

End Reaction
(kips/ft width)

1.50
0.86
0.86
1.50

End Reaction
(kips/ft width)

4
--4

Rebar
#

4
4
4
4

Rebar
#

14
--14

Rebar Dist.
(in, o.c.)

14
18
18
14

Rebar Dist.
(in, o.c.)

C-42

DL
LL
SDL

Loads

Bank
Location
Slab #

55.0 plf
100 plf
57 plf

3.7

Max Allowable Moment

Unfactored Loading

OK
3.43

Overall Slab Check


Max Moment in Slab

1
1
1

3.43

Mmax (kip-ft)

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

Factored Loading (1.2DL + 1.6LL)


DL
66
plf
LL
160
plf
SDL
68.4
plf

kip-ft

kip-ft

Color Key:

Yes
No

14

Rebar o.c. (in)

Resultant End reaction (factored)


Single end
1,422 lbs
1.4
kips

1.4

11/30/2011

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Created by: ADV

Important Information
End Rxn (kips) Rebar #

This sheet is a tool to design a simply supported reinforced concrete slab, given the necessary information.

Reinforced Concrete Slab Design

C-43

9.66
6
1
4,000
psi

ft
in

0.17
0.130
YES

As
As-min

Area of steel (per foot width)

Minimum required steel area


Area of steel acceptable?

Allowable internal moment


Load factor
Factored Allowable Moment

Concrete cover
Structural depth
Ultimate tensile force
Ultimate compression force
Compression zone
1/2 of Compression zone
Internal moment arm
Allowable internal moment
4.10
0.9
3.69

Mn

Mn

C
a
a/2
d-a/2
Mn

0.75
5.00
10,098
10,098
0.25
0.12
4.88
49,240

c
d
Tu

ACI 318, 9.3.2.1


per foot-width of slab

= Tu(d-a/2)

= C/(0.85*f'c*b) ; Whitney stress block

= Tu

= fy*As

= h-c-d/2

As > As-min?

= 0.0018*bh; ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1

= 12*Ab/s

ACI 318-08 7.6

Assumed Sand-Lightweight Concrete

= *wc1.5*33*f'c1/2; ACI 318-08 8.5, 8.6

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

kip-ft

kip-ft

in
in
lbs
lbs
in
in
in
lb-in

Calculations for a Representative 1-ft Width of the Slab:

in

psi
in2

60,000

fy

Steel Strength

14
in
OK
Es 29,000,000 psi

Ec 2,046,689 psi
#
4
dbar
0.5
in
2
in
Abar
0.20

f'c

L
h

Area of bar
Rebar spacing o.c.
Rebar Spacing Check
Steel Elastic Modulous

Concrete Modulus of Elasticity


Rebar size
Nominal bar diameter

Span length
Slab depth
Concrete type
Concrete strength

Basic Slab Properties

C-44

Max Moment in slab


Mu < Mn?

3.43
YES

0.28%

actual

Mu

2.85%

bal

Percent steel for balanced failure


YES

0.00207

ys

Strain limit for steel

actual <= 0.625*bal?

0.003

cu

Crushing strain limit for concrete

Actual percent steel

0.85

Concrete Compressive Area Factor

If Yes, = 0.9

= Asteel/(b*d)

= 0.85*1*f'c/fy*(cu/(steel+cu))

Assume steel tension controls

Assume steel tension controls

ACI 10.2.7.3

3.2.1 Concrete Slab Design

kip-ft

Check for Yielding of Steel and Sufficiently Ductile Failure

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

Created by: CJB, ADV

5/10/2012

This sheet summarizes the core link beams. The dimensions for beams in each bank are presented in
Table 9.6. Table 9.7 summarizes the reinforcing steel details for each residential and lobby beam. Note
that the residential and lobby beams have the same design within each bank. Table 9.8 summarizes the
mechanical floor link beams.

Table 9.6: Link Beam Dimensions


Length Tributary Area
Beam #
(ft)
(ft2)
Bank 1
1
31
120
2
9.34
84
3
32.2
484
4
18.3
110
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 2
1
31
120
2
9.34
84
3
32.2
484
4
18.3
110
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 3
1
11.2
75.6
2
9.34
70.9
3
13.2
122
4
14
65.2
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 4.1
1
9.65
65.2
2
9.65
120
3
12.9
92.3
4
9.68
40.3
5
40.6
97.9
Bank 4.2
1
--2
9.65
97.9
3
--4
9.68
27.9
5
40.6
97.9

C-45

Curvature, Radius, r
(deg)

(ft)

--42
---

--40
---

--42
---

--40
---

--43
---

--15.4
---

------

------

------

------

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

Table 9.7: Residential and Lobby Link Beam Summary


b
h
Beam #
bar #
(in)
(in)
Bank 1
1
16
16
9
2
6
10
9
3
48
16
9
4
10
16
9
5
20
16
9
Bank 2
1
16
16
9
2
6
10
9
3
48
16
9
4
10
16
9
5
20
16
9
Bank 3
1
6
12
9
2
6
10
9
3
28
16
9
4
10
10
9
5
20
16
9
Bank 4.1
1
8
8
9
2
8
10
9
3
30
16
9
4
8
6
9
5
20
16
9
Bank 4.2
1
---2
8
10
9
3
---4
8
6
9
5
20
16
9

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

nbar

stirrup #

sstirrup
(in)

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

2
2
11
2
6

3
3
3
3
4

5.2
4.2
7.2
4.2
7.1

2
2
10
2
6

3
3
4
3
3

3.2
4.2
7.1
2.2
7.2

-2
-2
6

-3
-3
3

-4.2
-2.2
7.2

C-46

Table 9.8: Mechanical Link Beam Summary


b
h
Beam #
(in)
(in)
Bank 1
1
22
16
2
8
10
3
72
16
4
12
16
5
24
16
Bank 2
1
22
16
2
8
10
3
72
16
4
12
16
5
24
16
Bank 3
1
10
10
2
8
10
3
48
16
4
10
10
5
24
16
Bank 4.1
1
10
8
2
10
10
3
12
10
4
8
8
5
24
16
Bank 4.2
1
--2
8
10
3
--4
6
8
5
24
16

C-47

bar #

nbar

stirrup #

sstirrup
(in)

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

9
9
9
9
9

6
2
20
3
6

3
3
4
4
4

7.2
4.2
7.1
7.1
7.1

9
9
9
9
9

2
2
11
2
6

3
3
3
3
4

4.2
4.2
7.2
4.2
7.1

9
9
9
9
9

2
2
10
2
6

3
3
3
3
3

3.2
4.2
4.2
3.2
7.2

-9
-9
9

-2
-2
6

-3
-3
3

-4.2
-3.2
7.2

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

C-48

Created by:

DL
LL
SDL

38.2
53.3

Max Moment in Slab:


Max Allowable Moment:

Unfactored Loading
55 plf
100 plf
57 plf

OK

1
1
3

Overall Check:

Bank:
Location:
Beam #

DL
LL
SDL
w

kip-ft
kip-ft

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

Factored Loading (1.2D + 1.6L)


66.0
plf
160
plf
68.4
plf
294
plf

Mu (kip-ft)
38.2

Color Key:

4,740
4.74

Bar #
5

Bar Spacing (in)


8.42

End reaction (factored)


lbs
kips

End Rxn (kips)


4.7

11/30/2011

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

TS

Important Information

Yes
No

This sheet is used to design reinforced concrete beams, and includes the effects of torsion for curved beams.

Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Properties and Dimensions


Beam Length
Beam Width
Beam Depth
Concrete Type
Concrete Strength

f'c

32.2
30
12
1
4,000

Lightweight Concrete Factor

0.85

Concrete Elastic Modulus


Rebar Size
Nominal Dar Diameter
Area of Bar
Number of Bars
Stirrup size
Nominal Stirrup Diameter
Cover
Rebar Spacing O.C.
Rebar Spacing Check
Steel Elastic Modulus

L
b
h

psi
ACI 318-08 8.5

Ec 2,046,689 psi
5
#
dbar
0.625
in
2
in
Abar
0.31
4
3
dstirrup
0.375
c
0.75
s
8.42
OK
Es 29,000,000

Steel Strength

fy

60,000

Steel Area

As

1.23

As-min

0.648
YES

Minimum Required Steel


Minimum required steel?

ft
in
in

1.5

1/2

= c*wc *33*f'c ; ACI 318-08 8.5, 8.6

#
in
in
in
ACI 318-08 7.6

psi
psi
in2
in2

= 0.0018*bh ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1


If As > As-min

Calculations for a representative 1-ft width of the slab:


Structural Depth
Ultimate Tensile Force
Ultimate Compression Force
Compression Zone
Half of Compression Zone
Internal Moment Arm
Allowable Internal Moment

d
Tu
C
a
a/2
Mn
Mn

Load factor
Factored Allowable Moment

Mn

10.56
73,631
73,631
1.80
0.90
9.66
711,288
59.3
0.9
53.3

in
= fy*As
lbs
lbs
= Tu
in
= C/(0.85*f'c*b); Whitney stress block
in
in
= d-a/2
lb-in = Tu(d-A/2)
kip-ft
per ACI 318, 9.3.2.1

kip-ft per foot-width of slab

Check for yielding of steel and sufficiently ductile failure


1

0.85

Crushing strain limit for concrete

cu

0.003

Assume steel tension controls

Strain limit for steel,

ys

0.00207

Assume steel tension controls

Steel % for Balanced Failure

bal

2.85%

= 0.85*1*f'c/fy*(cu/(ys+cu))

Actual Steel %
Check if = 0.90 acceptable
Max Moment in slab

actual

0.97%
YES
38.2

= As/(b*d)

Moment OK?

C-49

Mu

YES

actual <= 0.625*bal?

kip-ft
If Mn > Mu

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

SHEAR

ACI 318-08 Section 11.2

Structural Depth
Shear at face of support
Maximum Design Shear

Vu,max

10.56
4.74
4.48

Shear Reduction Factor

0.75

Vc
vVc

Allowable Shear
Reduced Allowable Shear

d
V

in
kips
kips

= V - w*d

40.08

kips

= 2(f'c)*b*d; ACI 318 11-3

30.06

kips

TORSION

ACI 318-08 Section 11.5

radius of curvature
angle of curvature
factored distributed load
Factored Torsion at ends

w
Tu

40.00
0.73
294
59.1

Reduction Factor

0.9

Rflex

152

psi

= Mu / (bbwd2)

8.72
396

rad
in2

= r2w / (EcRflex); see below

Area of Perimeter Concrete

Acp

Outer Perimeter of Cross-section

pcp

96

in

= 2*(b + 2h - 6); ACI 318 11.5

Threshold Torsion
Must Check Torsion?

Tth

6.59
YES

Flexural Resistance
Angle of Twist

ft
rad
plf
2
kip-ft = r w*(*sin(/4) - /2 + sin(/2); see below

= b*h + (h - 6)*6; ACI 318 11.5

2
kip-ft = (f'c)*(A cp/pcp); ACI 318 11.5.1(a)

If Tu > Tth
2

Area Enclosed by Torsion Reinf.

Aoh

285

in

Perimeter of Torsion Reinf.

pch

78

in

= 2*(h - 2c + b - 2c); ACI 318 11.5

= (h - 2c - dstirrup)*(b - 2c - dstirrup); ACI 318 11.5

Applied Torsional Stress

Tapplied

0.40

ksi

((Vu/bd)2 + (Tuph/1.7A2oh)2); ACI 318 11.5.3(a)

Torsional Strength
Is the section large enough?

Tstrength

0.569
YES

ksi

= (Vc/bd + 8(f'c)); ACI 318 (11-18)


If Tstrength > Tapplied

Reference:
Blodgett, Omer W. Design of Welded Structures

3.2.2 Link Beam Design

C-50

3.3 Floor Area

51

3.3.1 Composite Decking


3.3.1.1

Composite Decking Design

52

3.3.1.2

Composite Decking Hand-Calc. and Mastan Analysis

3.3.2 Composite Beam Design


3.3.2.1

Joist Design Tool

64

3.3.2.2

Radial Girders

67

3.3.2.3

Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

77

3.3.2.4

Circumferential Girder Design

80

3.3.2.5

Cantilevers

3.3.2.6

HSS Edge Beam Design

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

83

93

3.3 Floor Area


C-51

88

56

3.3.1.1 Composite Decking Design


Summary of Composite Decking Selections
This table presents a summary of decking thicknesses and deck type based on the type of floor and bank type.

Slab Depth
(in)
Load Case
LL (psf)
SDL (psf)
Load (psf)
Rise
Average
Framing
Length (ft)
Radial
Length (ft)
Spans
Weight of
Framing (lbs)
Span Dist (ft)
DECK TYPE
Deck+Slab
Weight (PSF)

4.0

Low

Residential Exterior
55
42
97
MidMidHigh
Low
High

4.5

Low

Amenities
100
57
157
MidMidLow
High

High

Low

Mechanical
240
10
250
Mid- MidLow
High

High

19.25

17

22.5

22.4

18.75

16.6

22

22.25

18.75

16.6

22

22.25

31.36

26.75

24.03

31.80

31.36

26.75

24.03

31.80

31.36

26.75

24.03

31.80

1155

1020

1350

1344

1500

1328

1760

1780

1500

1328

1760

1780

10.5
9
8.5
11
8
7
6.5
8
8
7
6.5
8
1.5VL22 1.5VL22 1.5VL22 1.5VL19 1.5VL22 1.5VL22 1.5VL22 1.5VL22 2VLI16 2VLI19 2VLI20 2VLI16

29.6

29.6

29.6

29.6

29.6

29.6

29.6

3.3.1.1 Composite Decking Design

29.6

35.6

34.6

34.3

35.6

C-52

Low Rise Amenities


This is a sample calculation to check the decking and concrete thickness for the low rise amenities. Calculations
for all other floor types was performed in the same manner.
DATA
concrete density
f'c of concrete
Ec of concrete
slab thickness
Number of spans
Span length
L/H interior spans
Value OK?
L/H exterior spans
Value OK?
Self wt of concrete slab
sip DL
unfactored DL
factored DL(Unf*1,2)
sip LL
factored LL (Unf*1,6)
dummy DL
dummy LL

110
4
2408
4.5
4
8.0
21.3
YES
21.3
YES
41.25
57
98.25
117.9
100
160
100
100

lb/ft
ksi
ksi
in

ft

plf
plf
plf
plf
plf
plf
plf
plf

1) MOMENT CALCULATIONS

100 psf DL on All Spans


100 psf LL on Span 1 only
100 psf LL on Span 2 only
100 psf LL on Span 3 only
100 psf LL on Span 4 only

Adjust Dummy values for actual loads


Actual DL on All Spans
Peak skipped LL combination for above sketch
Sum of LL moments from critical spans
DL Moment x 1.2
LL Moment x 1.6
Total Design Moment
Magnitude of Simple Span Factored Moment (1.2D + 1.6L)L2/8
(same for all locations)
Total Design Moment / Simple Span M
Factor Cm where Total Design Moment = Cm(wuI2)

A
0
0
0
0
0

Dummy Moments [Kipsft/ft]


AB
B
BC
0.7086
-1.063
0.3543
0.8371
-0.8057
-0.03143
0.09429
-0.6914
0.5971
0.2943
-0.2914
-0.002857
0.02371
-0.4057
0.1686

C
-0.7086
-0.1371
-0.5943
-0.5943
-0.1371

A
0
0
0
0
0
-0.74

AB
0.70
1,3
1.13
0.84
1.81
2.65

Moments [Kipsft/ft]
B
-1.04
1,2,4
-1.90
-1.25
-3.04
-4.3

BC
0.35
2,4
0.77
0.42
1.23
1.64

C
-0.70
2,3
-1.19
-0.84
-1.90
-2.7

2.2

-2.2

2.2

-2.2

0
0

1.19
0.15

1.93
0.24

0.74
0.09

1.23
0.15

C-53

3.3.1.1 Composite Decking Design

2) REINFORCEMENT BAR CALCULATIONS


A
#3
0.11
0.375
0.75
3.56
13
13.5
YES

AB
#4
0.2
0.5
0.75
3.50
13
13.5
YES

Reinforcement Bars
B
#6
0.44
0.75
0.75
3.38
13
13.5
YES

BC
#4
0.2
0.5
0.75
3.50
13
13.5
YES

C
#4
0.2
0.5
0.75
3.50
13
13.5
YES

A
1.5VL22
0.354
0.01475
0
4.49

0.10

0.18

0.41

0.18

0.18

0.35

0.35

0.35

Steel Area in 1-ft strip (in2)

Minimum steel area(in /ft)

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Minimum steel area(in 2/ft)

Maximum steel area(in 2/ft)


Area between the limits?
fy of steel(ksi)
Es of steel(ksi)

1.22
YES
60

1.20
YES
60

1.15
YES
60

1.20
YES
60

1.20
YES
60

1.54
YES
60

1.54
YES
60

1.54
YES
60

29,000

29,000

29,000

29,000

29,000

29,000

29,000

29,000

Maximum steel area(in 2/ft)


Area between the limits?
fy of steel(ksi)
Es of steel(ksi)

A
21.2
21.2
0.26
4.36
7.7
0.9
-6.9

B
21.2
21.2
0.26
4.36
7.7
0.9
-6.9

C
21.2
21.2
0.26
4.36
7.7
0.9
-6.9

Reinforcing Bars size


2
Area of one bar (As/bar)(in )
Bar Diameter(in)
Bar Cover(in)
Structural Depth "d" (in)
Spacing between bars (in)
Maximum Spacing of bars (in)
Spacing Requirement OK?
Steel Area in 1-ft strip (in2)
2

Tension force (assuming Steel has yielded)(kips)


Compression force=Tension force
Centroid of comp.force (a/2)("Whitney Model")(in)
Moment Arm between T &C force (in)
Nominal Moment Capacity (Mn) (kips-ft)
Strength Reduction factor ()
Usable Moment Capacity (*Mn)(kips-ft)
Moment based on skip loads and factored loads ,M u( kips-ft)
Is *Mn>Mu?

Force & Moment Calculations


BC
C
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
0.14
0.14
3.43
3.43
3.2
3.2
0.9
0.9
2.9
-2.9

C
1.5VL22
0.354
0.01475
0
4.49

AB
11.1
11.1
0.14
3.43
3.2
0.9
2.9

B
24.4
24.4
0.30
3.23
6.6
0.9
-5.9

-0.74

2.65

-4.3

1.64

-2.7

-0.74

-4.3

-2.7

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

Veryfing assumptions for calculations made


AB
B
BC

Mesh Type
2
Mesh Area per foot (in )
.5*Thickness
Cover(in)
Structural Depth "d" (in)

YES

A
6.1
6.1
0.07
3.53
1.8
0.9
-1.6

*Assume section qualifies for =0.9

Strain of the steel at yielding ( y)

0.00207

0.00207

0.00207

0.00207

0.00207

Strain of the concrete( cu)


1
bal

0.003
0.85
0.0285

0.003
0.85
0.0285

0.003
0.85
0.0285

0.003
0.85
0.0285

0.003
0.85
0.0285

actual

0.00238

0.00440

0.01003

0.00440

0.00440

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

Is bal > actual?


Is actual<0.625*bal?

Bars to Mesh
B
1.5VL22
0.354
0.01475
0
4.49

C-54

3.3.1.1 Composite Decking Design

3) SHRINKAGE STEEL BARS


Reinforcing Bars size
Area of one bar (As/bar)(in2)
Bar Diameter(in)
Spacing between bars (in)
Maximum Spacing of bars (in)
Spacing Requirement OK?
Steel Area in 1-ft strip (in2)
Minimum Area for Shrinkage Bars (in2/ft)
Area greater than min.requirement?

#4
0.2
0.5
18
18
YES
0.13
0.10
YES

C-55

3.3.1.1 Composite Decking Design

C-56

C-57

C-58

C-59

C-60

C-61

C-62

C-63

C-64

Created by:

CJB / ADV

0.20
3.97
14.9
88.6
14

d
tf
tw
bf
Sx
Ix

Overall Depth
Flange Thickness

Web Thickness

Flange Width

Steel Section Modulus

Moment of Inertia
Weight

3.74
319
26.2
85

Icomp
Str
Sc

Section Modulus for Tension

Section Modulus for Comp.

N.A. to top of beam

Composite Moment of Inertia

12.16

yb

N.A. to bottom of beam


yt

46
97
46

(a)
(b)
beff

Span/4
Beam Spacing
Effective Flange Width

Composite Beam Properties

11.9
0.225

As

Yes
No

= Ic / yb
= Ic / yt

in3
in3

in
in4

in

in
in
in

plf

in

in
in3

in

in
in

Postcomposite

Precomposite

Joist End Reactions

Postcomposite

LL
Total

SDL

DL
LL
Total

SDL
LL

Construction LL

Beam Self Weight

Precomposite
Slab and Decking

Factored Loading Conditions

Precomposite
Slab and Decking
Beam Self Weight
Construction LL
Postcomposite
SDL
LL

68.4
160

32

16.8

psf
psf

psf

plf

psf

psf
psf

57
100

38.4

psf
plf
psf

ft
ft2
ft

32
14
20

15.3
123
8.1

9.83
14.04

4.20

kips
kips

kips

Factored
2.49
kips
1.97
kips
4.45
kips

Unfactored Loading Conditions

Beam Span
Beam Tributary Area
Beam Spacing

Inputs from Bank Information

3.3.2.1 Joist Design Tool

User Input
Constant/Prev. Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

= MIN(a,b)

Fails in: None

W 12 x 14
in2
4.16

(30)
6
1
50%

1
Lobby
Joist 1
Bank 1
12 x 14
YES

Section Type
Area of Steel

Steel Shape Properties

Shear Stud
Shear Stud Spacing
Studs Per Rib
% Composite Action

W-Shape
Overall Check, Acceptable?

Bank:
Type:
Beam:

11/1/2011

from Load Summary

from Slab & Deck Info

from Tower Geometry

Design tool to calculate the W-Shape and Shear stud configuration for joists in all banks and floor types with a predetermined decking type running perpendicular to the
joists. The design method follows that found in Taranath's Steel, Concrete, & Composite Design of Tall Buildings . Joist End reactions are used for radial girder design.

3.3.2.1 Joist Design Tool

C-65
22.9

Smin

Min. Req. Section Modulus

17.0

32.3
33.0
YES
54
0.684

fb,2

0.66*Fy
fb,1 < 0.66*Fy?

Mcomp

f'c-comp

Composite Moment

Concrete compressive stress


YES

1.8

YES

0.45*f'c-comp
f'c < 0.45*f'c-comp ?

45.0

0.9*Fy

fb,1 < 0.9*Fy?

Condition 2:

38.2

fb,1

Allowable Stress
Condition 1:

Post-Composite Moment

53.5

26.2

Str

Mpre
Mpost

Section Modulus for Tension

Pre-Comosite Moment

14.9

Ss

Steel Section Modulus

Stress Check

63

Mu

Max. Moment (at center)

= w*l2/8

Modeled as pin-pin

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

= Mcomp/(n*St)

= (Mpre+ Mpost)/Str

= Mpre / Ss + Mpost/Str

Modeled as pin-pin

3.3.2.1 Joist Design Tool

Total Composite Depth

Vulcraft Decking Type


Slab thickness
Rib Height

Slab and Decking Properties

Modular Ratio

kip-ft

Elastic Modulus

in3

Density of concrete

Concrete Strength

Concrete Type

Concrete Properties

Elastic Modulus

in3

kip-ft
3
in

plf

= Mmax/(0.66*Fy)

2,167

Total Load (w/o construction LL)

Ultimate Strength

1,841

Factored Postcomposite load

plf

Steel Properties
Yield Strength

plf

584

Moment Calculation

Factored Precomposite load


65

td

15.9

1.75

3.5

36

1.5VL22
2.5
1.5

11

2,574

115

c
Ec

4,000

f'c

Lightweight

29,000

50

Fy

in

in

in

in

in

in
in

ksi

pcf

psi

ksi

ksi

ksi

CJB / ADV

Fu
Es

Created by:

= td+ts+d

= Es/Ec

= 33*c*f'c0.5

11/1/2011

C-66

Vn
V < Vn ?

nribs

YES

258

104.1
30
kips

ft

kips

in
kips

0.00

camber

Postcomposite loads
Final Deflection
Allowable Deflection
OK?

L/360

0.363
0.508
YES

0.205

pre

Precomposite loads
Precomposite Deflection

post

88.6

Ix

Steel Moment of Inertia

Camber

146.3

Ieff

Effective Moment of Inertia

Deflection & Camber

in
in

in

in

in4

in4

* total capacity = sum of nominal shear strengths between the point of


maximum positive moment and the point of zero moment

Total Capacity*

Distance from M0 to Mmax

104.1
50%
YES

V'h

Adjusted Horizontal Shear


% Composite Action
% Composite Action > 25% ?

Total Shear Load


Number of Ribs

22.91

in

26.22

Smin

in

22.91

Min. Req. Section Modulus

Shear connectors, partial composite action


Ss
Steel Section Modulus
Stens
Section Modulus for Tension
# of Studs

# of Ribs
studs / rib
Stud capacity

Concrete Cover 1/2"

= 5*W*L4/(384*E*I)

= 5*W*L4/(384*E*I)

= Ix + (Ic - Ix )*(V'h/Vh)2

3.3.2.1 Joist Design Tool

Post Composite

Pre Composite

Service Loads (Unfactored)

Shear Stud Spacing 18"

= Qn = (studs/rib)*Vstud*nribs*m/l ; AISC I3-1c


Slab Thickness 2"

= V'h

Stud Checks from AISC I3.2c.1:


Nominal Rib height 3"
Shear Stud Diamater 3/4"
Shear Stud Length 1 1/2"

= Vh*(Smin - Ss / Savail - Ss)2 = N/A if 100% composite action

= MIN(i, ii)

= 0.85*f'c* Ac
= As*Fy

Shear Stud Properties


kips
kips
kips

Diameter
Length
Spacing

389
208
208

Option 1
Option 2
Horizontal Shear

(i)
(ii)
Vh

Horizontal Shear Vh

1265

433

Vstud

nribs

Created by:

plf
plf

YES

YES

YES

YES
YES
YES

30

30
1
17.2

0.75
3.00
6

I3.2c.1.d

I3.2c.1.c

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.a
I3.2c.1.b

in
in
in

CJB / ADV

= Qn per rib ; AISC Table 3-21

11/1/2011

C-67

Created by: CJB / ADV

0.39

7.53

98.3

890
55

tw

bf

Ss

Ix

Web Thickness

Flange Width

Steel Section Modulus

Moment of Inertia
Weight

2111.25

137.21

314.52

Str

Sc

Section Modulus for Tension

Section Modulus for Comp.

6.71

yt

N.A. to top of beam

Icomp

15.39

yb

N.A. to bottom of beam

Composite Moment of Inertia

82.70
N/A
82.70

(a)
(b)
beff

Span/4
Beam Spacing
Effective Flange Width

Composite Beam Properties

18.1
0.63

d
tf

Overall Depth
Flange Thickness

16.2

As

W 18 x 55

(67)
5
38%

Area of Steel

Section Type

Selected Shape's Properties

Shear Stud
Shear Stud Spacing
% Composite Action

3
Lobby
Radial Girder
Bank 3
W-Shape
18 x 55
Overall Check, Acceptable?
YES

Bank:
Type:
Beam:

in

in3

in
in4

in

in
in
in

plf

in4

in
in3

in

in
in

in2

= Ic / yt

= Ic / yb

= MIN(a,b)

Angled girder applies a point load at


the midspan of the cantilever. The
faade applies an additional point load
at the end.

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

SDL
LL

DL
LL

B
Total Composite Depth

Decking Type
Slab thickness
Rib Height
C
P

Slab and Decking Properties

Postcomposite

Text from Summary


Precomposite

Joist Reaction Loads for 1 Joist

Precomposite
Postcomposite
Total w/o Construction

Radial Girder Column Moments

Radial Girder Beam Span:

Input from Bank Information

3.87
9.05

Joist 1
2.35
1.81

27.57

in
in
in
in
1.75 in
22.1 in

3.5 in

1.5VL22
2.5
1.5
36
6

4.70
10.9

Joist 2
3.09
2.20

98.1 kip-ft
277.3 kip-ft
336.4 kip-ft

ft

5.29
12.3

Joist 3
3.56
2.47

kips
kips

kips
kips

from Tower Geometry

Design tool to calculate the W-Shape and Shear stud configuration for radial girders in the lobby and mechanical floors. The predetermined decking material runs parallel to the girders. Loads are applied as point loads from the joists. A separate
spreadsheet calculates pre- and post-composite deflection

Radial Girder Design Tool for Lobby and Mechanical Floors

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design


11/1/2011

C-68

3.09
2.20

3.09
2.20

21.3
15.2

21.3
15.2
Joist 2

4.70
10.90

4.70
10.90

32.4
75.1

32.4
75.1

0.73
0.57

3.97
3.05

6.1
4.7

18.2
14.0
Joist 1

1.21
2.83

6.53
15.27

10.0
23.4

30.0
70.2

4.18

98.1
88.5
277.3
253.1
336.4
122

Distance from Load to Core


Distance from Load to Column
Precomposite
Column Reaction
DL
LL
Core Reaction
DL
LL
Column Moment
DL
LL
Core Moment
DL
LL
Postcomposite
Column Reaction
SDL
LL
Core Reaction
SDL
LL
Column Moment
SDL
LL
Core Moment
SDL
LL

Self Weight Moment (Core and Column)

Precomposite Column Moment


Precomposite Core Moment
Postcomposite Column Moment
Postcomposite Core Moment
Total Max Moment w/o Construction
Smin

kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
in3

kip-ft

Joist 2
13.78
13.78
Joist 2

Joist 1
6.89
20.67
Joist 1

Factored Moment Calculation

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

M / (0.66*Fy)

13.7
31.8

41.0
95.4

1.65
3.84

8.93
20.76

9.2
6.4
Joist 3

27.6
19.1

1.11
0.77

6.01
4.17

Joist 3
20.67
6.89
Joist 3

kip-ft
kip-ft

kip-ft
kip-ft

kips
kips

kips
kips

kip-ft
kip-ft

kip-ft
kip-ft

kips
kips

kips
kips

ft
ft

Fy:
Fu:
Es:

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

Type
f'c
Density
Concrete Modulus of Elascticity
Ec
Modular ratio

Concrete Properties

Steel Properties

2574 ksi
11

Lightweight
4000 psi
115 pcf

50 ksi
65 ksi
29000 ksi

Created by: CJB / ADV

11/1/2011

C-69

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

YES

Total Capacity*

V < Vn ?

m
Vn

Distance from M0 to Mmax

306.525
YES

268

Total Shear Load

V'h

Adjusted Horizontal Shear

YES

268.15

Smin

Min. Req. Section Modulus

38%

122.33

Stens

Section Modulus for Tension

% Composite Action > 25% ?

137.21

Ss

Shear connectors, partial composite action


Steel Section Modulus

% Composite Action

98

(i)
(ii)
Vh

703
810
703

277.3
0.962
1.8
YES

ksi

33.0

0.66*Fy

fb,1 < 0.66*Fy?

Mcomp
f'c-comp
0.45*f'c-comp
f'c < 0.45*f'c-comp ?

ksi

YES

32.8

fb,2

Option 1
Option 2
Horizontal Shear

Horizontal Shear Vh

Composite Moment
Concrete compressive stress

Condition 2:

ft

kips

kips

in3

in

in3

kips
kips
kips

kip-ft
ksi
ksi

ksi

45.0

ksi

kip-ft

kip-ft

36.2

Post-Composite Moment

= Qn = (studs/rib)*Vstud*nribs*m/l ; AISC I3-1c

= V'h

wr
wr/h
# of Studs
Stud capacity

Spacing

Length

Diameter

Postcomposite Defleciton

Camber

Precomposite Deflection

Effective Moment of Inertia

Unfactored Joist 3 Load

Unfactored Joist 2 Load

Pre Composite
Unfactored Joist 1 Load
Unfactored Joist 2 Load
Unfactored Joist 3 Load
Post Composite
Unfactored Joist 1 Load

Deflection and Camber

Concrete Cover 1/2"


Slab Thickness 2"
Shear Stud Spacing 18"

Shear Stud Diamater 3/4"


Shear Stud Length 1 1/2"

Nominal Rib height 3"

Stud Checks from AISC I3.2c.1:

Shear Stud Properties

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

= Vh*(Smin - Ss / Savail - Ss)2 = N/A if 100% composite action

= MIN(i, ii)

= 0.85*f'c* Ac
= As*Fy

= Mcomp/(n*St)

= (Mpre+ Mpost)/Str

= Mpre / Ss + Mpost/Str

Modulus for Tension

in3

0.9*Fy
fb,1 < 0.9*Fy?

98.1

277.3

Mpre

Mpost

Pre-Comosite Moment

Steel Section

in3

fb,1

137.2

Str

Section Modulus for Tension

Allowable Stress
Condition 1:

98.3

Ss

Steel Section Modulus

Stress Check

YES
YES
YES
YES

YES

YES

0.00
0.129

post
OK?

YES

0.919

0.062

pre
camber

L/360

1068

Ieff

12.10

10.73

8.88

3.09
3.95
4.51

I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.c
I3.2c.1.d

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.a

in

in

in

in

in4

kips

kips

kips
kips
kips

2.125 in
1.417
67
18.3 AISC Table 3-21

5 in

3 in

0.75 in

Created by: CJB / ADV

References 3 Point Deflection Spreadsheet

References 3 Point Deflection Spreadsheet

= Ix + (Ic - Ix )*(V'h/Vh)2

11/1/2011

C-70

Created by:

CJB / ADV

11/1/2011

Selected Shape's Properties

0.295

6.99

56.5

448
36

tw

bf

Ss

Ix

Web Thickness

Flange Width

Steel Section Modulus

Moment of Inertia
Weight

1234.15

83.42

241.75

Str

Sc

Section Modulus for Tension

Section Modulus for Comp.

5.11

yt

N.A. to top of beam

Icomp

14.79

yb

N.A. to bottom of beam

Composite Moment of Inertia

82.81
N/A
82.81

(a)
(b)
beff

Span/4
Beam Spacing
Effective Flange Width

Composite Beam Properties

15.9
0.43

d
tf

Overall Depth
Flange Thickness

10.6

As

W 16 x 36

(24)
14
25%

Area of Steel

Section Type

Shear Stud
Shear Stud Spacing
% Composite Action

4.1
Residential
Radial Girder
Bank 4.1
W-Shape
16 x 36
Overall Check, Acceptable?
YES

Bank:
Type:
Beam:

in

in3

in
in4

in

in
in
in

plf

in

in
in3

in

in
in

in2

= Ic / y t

= Ic / y b

= MIN(a,b)

SDL
LL

DL
LL

B
Total Composite Depth

Decking Type
Slab thickness
Rib Height
C
P

Slab and Decking Properties

Postcomposite

Text from Summary


Precomposite

Joist Reaction Loads for 1 Joist

Precomposite
Postcomposite
Total w/o Construction

Radial Girder Column Moments

Radial Girder Beam Span:

Input from Bank Information

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

Angled girder applies a point load at


the midspan of the cantilever. The
faade applies an additional point
load at the end.

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

3.11
6.71

Joist 1
3.28
2.44

86.0
141.8
192.6

27.60

in
in
in
in
1.75 in
19.9 in

3.5 in

1.5VL22
2.5
1.5
36
6

3.94
8.49

4.23
3.09

Shear Capacity

Joist 2

kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

ft

kips
kips

kips
kips

18.3

1.5

from Tower
Geometry

Design tool to calculate the W-Shape and Shear stud configuration for radial girders in the residential floors. The predetermined decking material runs parallel to the girders. Loads are applied as point loads from the joists. A separate
spreadsheet calculates pre- and post-composite deflection

Radial Girder Design Tool for Residential Floors

C-71

2.19
1.60

34.6
25.3

17.3
12.6
Joist 2

5.84
12.58

2.04
4.40

32.2
69.4

16.1
34.7

4.86
3.61

13.4
10.0

26.8
20.0
Joist 1

1.61
3.48

4.61
9.94

12.7
27.4

25.4
54.9

2.74

86.0
79.5
141.8
131.2
192.6
70

Self Weight Moment (Core and Column)

Precomposite Column Moment


Precomposite Core Moment
Postcomposite Column Moment
Postcomposite Core Moment
Total Max Moment w/o Construction

Smin

6.27
4.58

1.70
1.27

kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
in3

kip-ft

Joist 2
18.40
9.20
Joist 2

Joist 1
9.20
18.40
Joist 1

Distance from Load to Core


Distance from Load to Column
Precomposite
Column Reaction
DL
LL
Core Reaction
DL
LL
Column Moment
DL
LL
Core Moment
DL
LL
Postcomposite
Column Reaction
SDL
LL
Core Reaction
SDL
LL
Column Moment
SDL
LL
Core Moment
SDL
LL

Factored Moment Calculation

M / (0.66*Fy)

kip-ft
kip-ft

kip-ft
kip-ft

kips
kips

kips
kips

kip-ft
kip-ft

kip-ft
kip-ft

kips
kips

kips
kips

ft
ft

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

Concrete Properties

Steel Properties

Type
f'c
Density
Ec
Modular ratio

Fy:
Fu:
Es:

ksi
ksi
ksi

Lightweight
4000
psi
115
pcf
2574
ksi
11

50
65
29000

C-72

33.0

YES

0.66*Fy

fb,1 < 0.66*Fy?

83.42

70.03

133.88
25%
YES

134
9

146.4
YES

Ss

Stens

Smin

V'h

V
m

Vn
V < Vn ?

Shear connectors, partial composite action


Steel Section Modulus

Section Modulus for Tension

Min. Req. Section Modulus

Adjusted Horizontal Shear


% Composite Action
% Composite Action > 25% ?

Total Shear Load


Distance from M 0 to Mmax

Total Capacity*

57

(i)
(ii)
Vh

704
530
530

141.8
0.640
1.8
YES

32.8

fb,2

Mcomp
f'c-comp
0.45*f'c-comp
f'c < 0.45*f'c-comp ?

YES

Option 1
Option 2
Horizontal Shear

Horizontal Shear Vh

Composite Moment
Concrete compressive stress

Condition 2:

45.0

Post-Composite Moment

0.9*Fy
fb,1 < 0.9*Fy?

141.8

Mpost

38.7

86.0

Mpre

Pre-Comosite Moment

fb,1

83.4

Str

Section Modulus for Tension

Allowable Stress
Condition 1:

56.5

Ss

Steel Section Modulus

Stress Check

kips
ft

kips

in

in3

in

kips
kips
kips

kip-ft
ksi
ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

kip-ft

in

in

Concrete Cover 1/2"


Slab Thickness 2"
Shear Stud Spacing 18"

Shear Stud Diamater 3/4"


Shear Stud Length 1 1/2"

Nominal Rib height 3"

Precomposite Deflection

Effective Moment of Inertia

Pre Composite
Unfactored Joist 1 Load
Unfactored Joist 2 Load
Post Composite
Unfactored Joist 1 Load
Unfactored Joist 2 Load

Deflection and Camber

Postcomposite Defleciton

3.3.2.2a Radial Girder Design

= Qn = (studs/rib)*V stud*nribs*m/l ; AISC I3-1c

= V'h

wr
wr/h
# of Studs
Stud capacity

Spacing

Length

Diameter

Stud Checks from AISC I3.2c.1:

= Vh*(Smin - Ss / Savail - Ss) = N/A if 100% composite action


Camber

= MIN(i, ii)

= 0.85*f'c* Ac
= As*Fy

= Mcomp/(n*St)

= (Mpre+ Mpost)/Str

= Mpre / Ss + Mpost/Str

Modulus for Tension

Steel Section

Shear Stud Properties

YES
YES
YES
YES

YES

YES

0.00
0.149
0.920
YES

post
L/360
OK?

0.112

498
camber

pre

Ieff

6.79
8.59

4.26
5.46

I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.c
I3.2c.1.d

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.a

2.125 in
1.417
24
18.3 AISC Table 3-21

14 in

3 in

0.75 in

in
in

in

in

kips
kips
in4

kips
kips

References 3 Point
Deflection Spredsheet

References 3 Point
Deflection Spredsheet

= Ix + (Ic - Ix )*(V'h/Vh)2

3.3.2.2b 2-Point Deflection Calculations

Created by:

ADV/CJB

11/1/2011

Calculates deflection under precomposite loads and under superimposed dead and live loads using principles of superposition. Gives deflection at 100 locations
along the beam when it is subjected to two point loads.
Input from Cantilever Worksheet

Maximum Deflection

Es
Ieff

29000
498

ksi
4
in

Precomposite
Postcomposite

Is
Self Weight
Length
Spacing

448
0.0030
331
110

in
kip/in
in
in

0.1121667 in
0.14934099 in

Unfactored Loads from Cantilever Worksheet


Precomposite Post Composite
4.26
6.79 kips
5.46
8.59 kips

Joist 1
Joist 2

a
221
110

b
110
221

in
in

a and b from AISC Manual

Precomposite Deflection from:


(in)
0.0
3.3
6.6
9.9
13.3
16.6
19.9
23.2
26.5
29.8
33.1
36.4
39.8
43.1
46.4
49.7
53.0
56.3
59.6
62.9
66.3
69.6
72.9
76.2
79.5
82.8
86.1
89.4
92.8
96.1
99.4
102.7
106.0
109.3
112.6
115.9
119.3
122.6
125.9
129.2
132.5
135.8
139.1
142.4
145.8
149.1
152.4
155.7
159.0
162.3
165.6
168.9

C-73

Joist 1
(in)
0
4.36085E-05
0.000172375
0.00038321
0.000673027
0.001038735
0.001477247
0.001985473
0.002560325
0.003198715
0.003897554
0.004653753
0.005464224
0.006325877
0.007235625
0.008190379
0.00918705
0.010222549
0.011293788
0.012397679
0.013531131
0.014691058
0.01587437
0.017077979
0.018298796
0.019533732
0.0207797
0.022033609
0.023292372
0.0245529
0.025812104
0.027066896
0.028314187
0.029550888
0.030773911
0.031980167
0.033166568
0.034330025
0.035467449
0.036575751
0.037651844
0.038692638
0.039695045
0.040655976
0.041572342
0.042441055
0.043259027
0.044023168
0.044730391
0.045377605
0.045961724
0.046479657

Post Composite Deflection from:


Joist 2
(in)
0
0.000111187
0.000437209
0.000966759
0.00168853
0.002591216
0.003663508
0.0048941
0.006271685
0.007784955
0.009422603
0.011173323
0.013025806
0.014968747
0.016990838
0.019080771
0.02122724
0.023418938
0.025644556
0.02789279
0.03015233
0.03241187
0.034660103
0.036885722
0.039077419
0.041223888
0.043313822
0.045335912
0.047278853
0.049131337
0.050882056
0.052519705
0.054032975
0.055410559
0.056641905
0.057725222
0.058664373
0.059463315
0.060126007
0.060656405
0.061058468
0.061336152
0.061493415
0.061534215
0.061462509
0.061282255
0.060997409
0.060611931
0.060129776
0.059554903
0.058891269
0.058142832

Self Weight
(in)

Total

Joist 1
(in)

0
1.13535E-05
4.4501E-05
9.80942E-05
0.000170813
0.000261363
0.000368482
0.00049093
0.000627499
0.000777008
0.000938302
0.001110255
0.001291771
0.001481777
0.001679231
0.00188312
0.002092455
0.002306278
0.002523657
0.002743688
0.002965497
0.003188235
0.003411082
0.003633245
0.00385396
0.004072491
0.004288127
0.004500189
0.004708023
0.004911003
0.005108532
0.00530004
0.005484984
0.00566285
0.005833151
0.00599543
0.006149255
0.006294223
0.006429958
0.006556113
0.006672369
0.006778433
0.006874041
0.006958957
0.007032973
0.007095908
0.007147608
0.007187949
0.007216834
0.007234193
0.007239983
0.007234193

0
0.000166149
0.000654085
0.001448064
0.00253237
0.003891314
0.005509236
0.007370503
0.009459509
0.011760678
0.014258459
0.016937331
0.019781801
0.022776401
0.025905695
0.02915427
0.032506745
0.035947764
0.039462001
0.043034156
0.046648958
0.050291163
0.053945555
0.057596946
0.061230176
0.064830111
0.068381649
0.071869711
0.075279248
0.07859524
0.081802693
0.08488664
0.087832145
0.090624297
0.093248968
0.095700819
0.097980196
0.100087562
0.102023413
0.10378827
0.10538268
0.106807222
0.108062501
0.109149148
0.110067824
0.110819218
0.111404044
0.111823048
0.112077
0.112166701
0.112092976
0.111856681

(in)
0.0
3.3
6.6
9.9
13.3
16.6
19.9
23.2
26.5
29.8
33.1
36.4
39.8
43.1
46.4
49.7
53.0
56.3
59.6
62.9
66.3
69.6
72.9
76.2
79.5
82.8
86.1
89.4
92.8
96.1
99.4
102.7
106.0
109.3
112.6
115.9
119.3
122.6
125.9
129.2
132.5
135.8
139.1
142.4
145.8
149.1
152.4
155.7
159.0
162.3
165.6
168.9

3.3.2.2b 2-Point Deflection Calculations

(in)
0
6.24909E-05
0.000247013
0.00054914
0.000964447
0.001488506
0.002116893
0.002845181
0.003668944
0.004583757
0.005585192
0.006668825
0.007830228
0.009064977
0.010368645
0.011736807
0.013165035
0.014648905
0.01618399
0.017765863
0.0193901
0.021052275
0.02274796
0.024472731
0.02622216
0.027991823
0.029777293
0.031574144
0.03337795
0.035184286
0.036988724
0.03878684
0.040574207
0.042346399
0.04409899
0.045827554
0.047527665
0.049194898
0.050824826
0.052413022
0.053955062
0.055446519
0.056882967
0.058259981
0.059573133
0.060817999
0.061990151
0.063085165
0.064098614
0.065026072
0.065863113
0.066605311

Joist 2
(in)
0
0.00015741
0.00061898
0.00136869
0.00239054
0.00366852
0.00518662
0.00692883
0.00887914
0.01102156
0.01334006
0.01581864
0.0184413
0.02119202
0.0240548
0.02701362
0.03005249
0.03315539
0.03630631
0.03948925
0.04268819
0.04588714
0.04907008
0.052221
0.0553239
0.05836277
0.06132159
0.06418437
0.06693509
0.06955775
0.07203633
0.07435483
0.07649725
0.07844756
0.08019084
0.08172455
0.08305415
0.08418526
0.08512346
0.08587437
0.08644359
0.08683673
0.08705937
0.08711713
0.08701562
0.08676042
0.08635715
0.08581141
0.0851288
0.08431492
0.08337538
0.08231578

Total
(in)
0
0.000219904
0.000865992
0.001917831
0.003354986
0.005157023
0.007303509
0.009774009
0.012548089
0.015605315
0.018925253
0.022487469
0.026271529
0.030256998
0.034423443
0.03875043
0.043217524
0.047804292
0.052490299
0.057255112
0.062078295
0.066939416
0.07181804
0.076693733
0.081546061
0.08635459
0.091098885
0.095758513
0.10031304
0.104742031
0.109025053
0.113141672
0.117071452
0.120793961
0.124289831
0.127552102
0.130581818
0.133380154
0.135948288
0.138287397
0.140398657
0.142283246
0.143942339
0.145377115
0.14658875
0.14757842
0.148347303
0.148896574
0.149227412
0.149340993
0.149238494
0.148921091

172.3
175.6
178.9
182.2
185.5
188.8
192.1
195.4
198.8
202.1
205.4
208.7
212.0
215.3
218.6
221.9
225.3
228.6
231.9
235.2
238.5
241.8
245.1
248.4
251.8
255.1
258.4
261.7
265.0
268.3
271.6
274.9
278.3
281.6
284.9
288.2
291.5
294.8
298.1
301.4
304.8
308.1
311.4
314.7
318.0
321.3
324.6
327.9
331.3

0.046928317
0.047304615
0.047605462
0.047827769
0.047968449
0.048024412
0.04799257
0.047869834
0.047653115
0.047339325
0.046925375
0.046408177
0.045784642
0.045051681
0.044206206
0.043245202
0.042170065
0.040989033
0.039710929
0.038344579
0.036898807
0.035382438
0.033804296
0.032173206
0.030497994
0.028787482
0.027050497
0.025295862
0.023532402
0.021768943
0.020014308
0.018277323
0.016566811
0.014891598
0.013260509
0.011682367
0.010165998
0.008720226
0.007353876
0.006075772
0.00489474
0.003819603
0.002859187
0.002022316
0.001317815
0.000754508
0.00034122
8.67757E-05
0

0.057313548
0.056407377
0.055428274
0.054380198
0.053267106
0.052092955
0.050861704
0.049577309
0.048243728
0.046864918
0.045444838
0.043987444
0.042496694
0.040976545
0.039430955
0.037863882
0.036279283
0.034681115
0.033073337
0.031459904
0.029844776
0.028231909
0.026625261
0.025028789
0.023446452
0.021882205
0.020340008
0.018823817
0.01733759
0.015885284
0.014470857
0.013098266
0.01177147
0.010494424
0.009271088
0.008105417
0.007001371
0.005962906
0.00499398
0.00409855
0.003280573
0.002544009
0.001892812
0.001330943
0.000862357
0.000491012
0.000220866
5.5876E-05
0

0.007216834
0.007187949
0.007147608
0.007095908
0.007032973
0.006958957
0.006874041
0.006778433
0.006672369
0.006556113
0.006429958
0.006294223
0.006149255
0.00599543
0.005833151
0.00566285
0.005484984
0.00530004
0.005108532
0.004911003
0.004708023
0.004500189
0.004288127
0.004072491
0.00385396
0.003633245
0.003411082
0.003188235
0.002965497
0.002743688
0.002523657
0.002306278
0.002092455
0.00188312
0.001679231
0.001481777
0.001291771
0.001110255
0.000938302
0.000777008
0.000627499
0.00049093
0.000368482
0.000261363
0.000170813
9.80942E-05
4.4501E-05
1.13535E-05
0

0.111458699
0.110899941
0.110181344
0.109303875
0.108268528
0.107076325
0.105728314
0.104225575
0.102569211
0.100760356
0.098800171
0.096689843
0.094430591
0.092023657
0.089470313
0.086771934
0.083934332
0.080970188
0.077892798
0.074715487
0.071451606
0.068114536
0.064717685
0.061274486
0.057798405
0.054302932
0.050801586
0.047307914
0.043835489
0.040397915
0.037008822
0.033681867
0.030430736
0.027269142
0.024210828
0.021269561
0.018459139
0.015793387
0.013286157
0.01095133
0.008802812
0.006854542
0.005120481
0.003614622
0.002350984
0.001343614
0.000606587
0.000154005
0

172.3
175.6
178.9
182.2
185.5
188.8
192.1
195.4
198.8
202.1
205.4
208.7
212.0
215.3
218.6
221.9
225.3
228.6
231.9
235.2
238.5
241.8
245.1
248.4
251.8
255.1
258.4
261.7
265.0
268.3
271.6
274.9
278.3
281.6
284.9
288.2
291.5
294.8
298.1
301.4
304.8
308.1
311.4
314.7
318.0
321.3
324.6
327.9
331.3

3.3.2.2b 2-Point Deflection Calculations

0.067248241
0.067787475
0.068218589
0.068537155
0.068738749
0.068818944
0.068773314
0.068597433
0.068286876
0.067837215
0.067244025
0.066502881
0.065609356
0.064559023
0.063347458
0.06197034
0.06042967
0.058737251
0.05690573
0.054947751
0.052875961
0.050703005
0.048441529
0.046104179
0.0437036
0.041252439
0.03876334
0.03624895
0.033721914
0.031194878
0.028680488
0.026191389
0.023740227
0.021339649
0.019002298
0.016740823
0.014567867
0.012496077
0.010538098
0.008706577
0.007014158
0.005473488
0.004097213
0.002897977
0.001888427
0.001081209
0.000488968
0.00012435
0

0.08114172
0.07985881
0.07847264
0.07698883
0.07541297
0.07375066
0.07200751
0.07018913
0.06830111
0.06634906
0.06433858
0.06227527
0.06016474
0.05801259
0.05582442
0.05360583
0.05136244
0.04909983
0.04682361
0.0445394
0.04225278
0.03996936
0.03769474
0.03543454
0.03319434
0.03097976
0.02879639
0.02664984
0.02454571
0.02248961
0.02048713
0.01854389
0.01666547
0.01485749
0.01312555
0.01147525
0.0099122
0.00844199
0.00707023
0.00580253
0.00464448
0.00360168
0.00267975
0.00188428
0.00122088
0.00069515
0.00031269
7.9107E-05
0

0.148389962
0.147646283
0.14669123
0.145525982
0.144151715
0.142569604
0.140780829
0.138786564
0.136587988
0.134186276
0.131582606
0.128778154
0.125774098
0.122571613
0.119171878
0.115576174
0.111792106
0.10783708
0.103729344
0.099487146
0.095128736
0.090672362
0.086136273
0.081538716
0.076897941
0.072232196
0.067559729
0.06289879
0.058267626
0.053684486
0.04916762
0.044735274
0.040405699
0.036197142
0.032127851
0.028216076
0.024480066
0.020938067
0.01760833
0.014509103
0.011658634
0.009075171
0.006776964
0.004782261
0.00310931
0.001776359
0.000801659
0.000203456
0

C-74

3.3.2.2c 3-Point Deflection Calculations

Created by:

ADV/CJB

11/1/2011

Calculates deflection under precomposite loads and under superimposed dead and live loads using principles of superposition. Gives deflection at 100 points along the beam
when subjected to three point loads.
Input from Cantilever Worksheet

Maximum Deflection

Es
Ieff

29000
1068

ksi
in4

Is
Self Weight
Length
Spacing

890
0.0046
331
83

in4
kip/in
in
in

Precomposite
Postcomposite

0.06 in
0.13 in

Unfactored Loads from Cantilever Worksheet


Precomposite
3.09
3.95
4.51

Joist 1
Joist 2
Joist 3

Post Composite
8.88
10.73
12.10

kips
kips
kips

a
248
165
83

b
83
165
248

Precomposite Deflection from:


(in)
0.0
3.3
6.6
9.9
13.2
16.5
19.8
23.2
26.5
29.8
33.1
36.4
39.7
43.0
46.3
49.6
52.9
56.2
59.5
62.8
66.2
69.5
72.8
76.1
79.4
82.7
86.0
89.3
92.6
95.9
99.2
102.5
105.9
109.2
112.5
115.8
119.1
122.4
125.7
129.0
132.3
135.6
138.9
142.2
145.5
148.9
152.2
155.5
158.8
162.1
165.4
168.7
172.0
175.3
178.6
181.9
185.2
188.5
191.9

C-75

in
in
in

a and b from AISC Manual

Post Composite Deflection from:

Joist 1
Joist 2
Joist 3
Self Weight
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1.00E-05
3.42E-05
4.36E-05
8.68E-06
9.65E-05
3.97E-05
1.35E-04
1.71E-04
3.40E-05
3.79E-04
8.83E-05
2.99E-04
3.76E-04
7.50E-05
8.39E-04
1.55E-04
5.24E-04
6.55E-04
1.31E-04
1.46E-03
2.40E-04
8.08E-04
1.00E-03
2.00E-04
2.25E-03
3.41E-04
1.15E-03
1.41E-03
2.82E-04
3.18E-03
4.59E-04
1.54E-03
1.87E-03
3.75E-04
4.25E-03
5.92E-04
1.98E-03
2.39E-03
4.80E-04
5.44E-03
7.40E-04
2.47E-03
2.95E-03
5.94E-04
6.76E-03
9.03E-04
3.00E-03
3.56E-03
7.18E-04
8.18E-03
1.08E-03
3.57E-03
4.20E-03
8.49E-04
9.70E-03
1.27E-03
4.19E-03
4.87E-03
9.88E-04
1.13E-02
1.47E-03
4.84E-03
5.56E-03
1.13E-03
1.30E-02
1.68E-03
5.52E-03
6.28E-03
1.28E-03
1.48E-02
1.90E-03
6.23E-03
7.00E-03
1.44E-03
1.66E-02
2.14E-03
6.97E-03
7.74E-03
1.60E-03
1.85E-02
2.38E-03
7.74E-03
8.48E-03
1.76E-03
2.04E-02
2.63E-03
8.52E-03
9.22E-03
1.93E-03
2.23E-02
2.89E-03
9.33E-03
9.95E-03
2.10E-03
2.43E-02
3.16E-03
1.02E-02
1.07E-02
2.27E-03
2.63E-02
3.43E-03
1.10E-02
1.14E-02
2.44E-03
2.82E-02
3.71E-03
1.18E-02
1.21E-02
2.61E-03
3.02E-02
4.00E-03
1.27E-02
1.27E-02
2.78E-03
3.22E-02
4.29E-03
1.36E-02
1.33E-02
2.95E-03
3.41E-02
4.58E-03
1.44E-02
1.39E-02
3.11E-03
3.60E-02
4.88E-03
1.53E-02
1.44E-02
3.28E-03
3.79E-02
5.18E-03
1.62E-02
1.49E-02
3.44E-03
3.97E-02
5.48E-03
1.70E-02
1.54E-02
3.60E-03
4.15E-02
5.79E-03
1.79E-02
1.58E-02
3.76E-03
4.32E-02
6.09E-03
1.87E-02
1.61E-02
3.91E-03
4.48E-02
6.40E-03
1.95E-02
1.65E-02
4.05E-03
4.64E-02
6.70E-03
2.03E-02
1.68E-02
4.19E-03
4.80E-02
7.00E-03
2.11E-02
1.70E-02
4.33E-03
4.95E-02
7.30E-03
2.19E-02
1.72E-02
4.46E-03
5.09E-02
7.60E-03
2.26E-02
1.74E-02
4.58E-03
5.22E-02
7.90E-03
2.33E-02
1.75E-02
4.70E-03
5.35E-02
8.19E-03
2.40E-02
1.77E-02
4.81E-03
5.47E-02
8.47E-03
2.47E-02
1.77E-02
4.92E-03
5.58E-02
8.75E-03
2.53E-02
1.78E-02
5.01E-03
5.68E-02
9.03E-03
2.58E-02
1.78E-02
5.10E-03
5.78E-02
9.29E-03
2.64E-02
1.78E-02
5.18E-03
5.86E-02
9.55E-03
2.69E-02
1.77E-02
5.26E-03
5.94E-02
9.80E-03
2.73E-02
1.77E-02
5.32E-03
6.01E-02
1.00E-02
2.77E-02
1.76E-02
5.38E-03
6.07E-02
1.03E-02
2.80E-02
1.74E-02
5.43E-03
6.12E-02
1.05E-02
2.83E-02
1.73E-02
5.47E-03
6.16E-02
1.07E-02
2.85E-02
1.71E-02
5.50E-03
6.19E-02
1.09E-02
2.87E-02
1.69E-02
5.52E-03
6.21E-02
1.11E-02
2.88E-02
1.67E-02
5.53E-03
6.22E-02
1.13E-02
2.88E-02
1.65E-02
5.54E-03
6.21E-02
1.14E-02
2.88E-02
1.62E-02
5.53E-03
6.20E-02
1.16E-02
2.87E-02
1.59E-02
5.52E-03
6.18E-02
1.17E-02
2.85E-02
1.56E-02
5.50E-03
6.14E-02
1.18E-02
2.83E-02
1.53E-02
5.47E-03
6.10E-02
1.19E-02
2.80E-02
1.50E-02
5.43E-03
6.04E-02
1.20E-02
2.77E-02
1.47E-02
5.38E-03
5.98E-02
1.21E-02
2.73E-02
1.43E-02
5.32E-03
5.90E-02
1.21E-02
2.69E-02
1.39E-02
5.26E-03
5.82E-02

(in)
0.0
3.3
6.6
9.9
13.2
16.5
19.8
23.2
26.5
29.8
33.1
36.4
39.7
43.0
46.3
49.6
52.9
56.2
59.5
62.8
66.2
69.5
72.8
76.1
79.4
82.7
86.0
89.3
92.6
95.9
99.2
102.5
105.9
109.2
112.5
115.8
119.1
122.4
125.7
129.0
132.3
135.6
138.9
142.2
145.5
148.9
152.2
155.5
158.8
162.1
165.4
168.7
172.0
175.3
178.6
181.9
185.2
188.5
191.9

3.3.2.2c 3-Point Deflection Calculations

Joist 1
Joist 2
Joist 3
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2.41E-05
7.73E-05
9.74E-05
1.99E-04
9.52E-05
3.05E-04
3.82E-04
7.82E-04
2.12E-04
6.77E-04
8.41E-04
1.73E-03
3.72E-04
1.19E-03
1.46E-03
3.02E-03
5.74E-04
1.83E-03
2.24E-03
4.64E-03
8.18E-04
2.60E-03
3.15E-03
6.56E-03
1.10E-03
3.48E-03
4.19E-03
8.77E-03
1.42E-03
4.48E-03
5.34E-03
1.12E-02
1.77E-03
5.59E-03
6.60E-03
1.40E-02
2.16E-03
6.79E-03
7.95E-03
1.69E-02
2.58E-03
8.09E-03
9.38E-03
2.01E-02
3.04E-03
9.48E-03
1.09E-02
2.34E-02
3.52E-03
1.10E-02
1.24E-02
2.69E-02
4.03E-03
1.25E-02
1.40E-02
3.06E-02
4.56E-03
1.41E-02
1.57E-02
3.43E-02
5.12E-03
1.58E-02
1.73E-02
3.82E-02
5.70E-03
1.75E-02
1.90E-02
4.22E-02
6.31E-03
1.93E-02
2.06E-02
4.62E-02
6.93E-03
2.11E-02
2.23E-02
5.03E-02
7.57E-03
2.30E-02
2.39E-02
5.44E-02
8.23E-03
2.49E-02
2.54E-02
5.85E-02
8.90E-03
2.68E-02
2.69E-02
6.27E-02
9.58E-03
2.87E-02
2.84E-02
6.67E-02
1.03E-02
3.07E-02
2.98E-02
7.08E-02
1.10E-02
3.27E-02
3.11E-02
7.47E-02
1.17E-02
3.46E-02
3.23E-02
7.86E-02
1.24E-02
3.66E-02
3.34E-02
8.23E-02
1.31E-02
3.85E-02
3.44E-02
8.60E-02
1.39E-02
4.04E-02
3.53E-02
8.96E-02
1.46E-02
4.23E-02
3.61E-02
9.30E-02
1.53E-02
4.42E-02
3.68E-02
9.63E-02
1.61E-02
4.60E-02
3.75E-02
9.95E-02
1.68E-02
4.78E-02
3.80E-02
1.03E-01
1.75E-02
4.95E-02
3.85E-02
1.06E-01
1.82E-02
5.12E-02
3.89E-02
1.08E-01
1.89E-02
5.28E-02
3.92E-02
1.11E-01
1.96E-02
5.44E-02
3.95E-02
1.13E-01
2.03E-02
5.58E-02
3.96E-02
1.16E-01
2.10E-02
5.72E-02
3.97E-02
1.18E-01
2.16E-02
5.85E-02
3.98E-02
1.20E-01
2.23E-02
5.97E-02
3.97E-02
1.22E-01
2.29E-02
6.08E-02
3.96E-02
1.23E-01
2.35E-02
6.18E-02
3.95E-02
1.25E-01
2.41E-02
6.27E-02
3.93E-02
1.26E-01
2.46E-02
6.35E-02
3.90E-02
1.27E-01
2.52E-02
6.41E-02
3.87E-02
1.28E-01
2.57E-02
6.46E-02
3.83E-02
1.29E-01
2.62E-02
6.50E-02
3.78E-02
1.29E-01
2.66E-02
6.52E-02
3.73E-02
1.29E-01
2.70E-02
6.53E-02
3.68E-02
1.29E-01
2.74E-02
6.52E-02
3.62E-02
1.29E-01
2.78E-02
6.50E-02
3.56E-02
1.28E-01
2.81E-02
6.46E-02
3.50E-02
1.28E-01
2.84E-02
6.41E-02
3.43E-02
1.27E-01
2.86E-02
6.35E-02
3.36E-02
1.26E-01
2.88E-02
6.27E-02
3.28E-02
1.24E-01
2.90E-02
6.18E-02
3.20E-02
1.23E-01
2.91E-02
6.08E-02
3.12E-02
1.21E-01

Precomposite Deflection from:


(in)
195.2
198.5
201.8
205.1
208.4
211.7
215.0
218.3
221.6
224.9
228.2
231.5
234.9
238.2
241.5
244.8
248.1
251.4
254.7
258.0
261.3
264.6
267.9
271.2
274.5
277.9
281.2
284.5
287.8
291.1
294.4
297.7
301.0
304.3
307.6
310.9
314.2
317.6
320.9
324.2
327.5
330.8

Post Composite Deflection from:

Joist 1
Joist 2
Joist 3
Self Weight
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
1.22E-02
2.64E-02
1.36E-02
5.18E-03
5.73E-02
1.22E-02
2.58E-02
1.32E-02
5.10E-03
5.63E-02
1.22E-02
2.53E-02
1.28E-02
5.01E-03
5.52E-02
1.21E-02
2.47E-02
1.24E-02
4.92E-03
5.41E-02
1.21E-02
2.40E-02
1.20E-02
4.81E-03
5.29E-02
1.20E-02
2.33E-02
1.15E-02
4.70E-03
5.16E-02
1.19E-02
2.26E-02
1.11E-02
4.58E-03
5.02E-02
1.18E-02
2.19E-02
1.07E-02
4.46E-03
4.88E-02
1.16E-02
2.11E-02
1.02E-02
4.33E-03
4.73E-02
1.15E-02
2.03E-02
9.78E-03
4.19E-03
4.58E-02
1.13E-02
1.95E-02
9.34E-03
4.05E-03
4.42E-02
1.11E-02
1.87E-02
8.89E-03
3.91E-03
4.26E-02
1.08E-02
1.79E-02
8.45E-03
3.76E-03
4.09E-02
1.05E-02
1.70E-02
8.01E-03
3.60E-03
3.91E-02
1.02E-02
1.62E-02
7.56E-03
3.44E-03
3.74E-02
9.89E-03
1.53E-02
7.13E-03
3.28E-03
3.56E-02
9.52E-03
1.44E-02
6.69E-03
3.11E-03
3.37E-02
9.12E-03
1.36E-02
6.26E-03
2.95E-03
3.19E-02
8.70E-03
1.27E-02
5.84E-03
2.78E-03
3.00E-02
8.26E-03
1.18E-02
5.42E-03
2.61E-03
2.81E-02
7.79E-03
1.10E-02
5.01E-03
2.44E-03
2.62E-02
7.31E-03
1.02E-02
4.61E-03
2.27E-03
2.43E-02
6.82E-03
9.33E-03
4.22E-03
2.10E-03
2.25E-02
6.32E-03
8.52E-03
3.84E-03
1.93E-03
2.06E-02
5.81E-03
7.74E-03
3.47E-03
1.76E-03
1.88E-02
5.30E-03
6.97E-03
3.12E-03
1.60E-03
1.70E-02
4.80E-03
6.23E-03
2.78E-03
1.44E-03
1.52E-02
4.30E-03
5.52E-03
2.45E-03
1.28E-03
1.36E-02
3.81E-03
4.84E-03
2.14E-03
1.13E-03
1.19E-02
3.33E-03
4.19E-03
1.85E-03
9.88E-04
1.04E-02
2.88E-03
3.57E-03
1.57E-03
8.49E-04
8.87E-03
2.44E-03
3.00E-03
1.32E-03
7.18E-04
7.47E-03
2.02E-03
2.47E-03
1.08E-03
5.94E-04
6.17E-03
1.64E-03
1.98E-03
8.64E-04
4.80E-04
4.96E-03
1.28E-03
1.54E-03
6.70E-04
3.75E-04
3.87E-03
9.65E-04
1.15E-03
4.98E-04
2.82E-04
2.89E-03
6.85E-04
8.08E-04
3.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.04E-03
4.48E-04
5.24E-04
2.27E-04
1.31E-04
1.33E-03
2.58E-04
2.99E-04
1.29E-04
7.50E-05
7.61E-04
1.17E-04
1.35E-04
5.80E-05
3.40E-05
3.44E-04
2.99E-05
3.42E-05
1.47E-05
8.68E-06
8.74E-05
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

(in)
195.2
198.5
201.8
205.1
208.4
211.7
215.0
218.3
221.6
224.9
228.2
231.5
234.9
238.2
241.5
244.8
248.1
251.4
254.7
258.0
261.3
264.6
267.9
271.2
274.5
277.9
281.2
284.5
287.8
291.1
294.4
297.7
301.0
304.3
307.6
310.9
314.2
317.6
320.9
324.2
327.5
330.8

3.3.2.2c 3-Point Deflection Calculations

Joist 1
Joist 2
Joist 3
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
2.92E-02
5.97E-02
3.03E-02
1.19E-01
2.92E-02
5.85E-02
2.95E-02
1.17E-01
2.92E-02
5.72E-02
2.86E-02
1.15E-01
2.91E-02
5.58E-02
2.76E-02
1.13E-01
2.90E-02
5.44E-02
2.67E-02
1.10E-01
2.88E-02
5.28E-02
2.58E-02
1.07E-01
2.86E-02
5.12E-02
2.48E-02
1.05E-01
2.83E-02
4.95E-02
2.38E-02
1.02E-01
2.79E-02
4.78E-02
2.29E-02
9.86E-02
2.75E-02
4.60E-02
2.19E-02
9.54E-02
2.70E-02
4.42E-02
2.09E-02
9.21E-02
2.65E-02
4.23E-02
1.99E-02
8.87E-02
2.59E-02
4.04E-02
1.89E-02
8.52E-02
2.52E-02
3.85E-02
1.79E-02
8.16E-02
2.45E-02
3.66E-02
1.69E-02
7.80E-02
2.37E-02
3.46E-02
1.59E-02
7.42E-02
2.28E-02
3.27E-02
1.50E-02
7.04E-02
2.19E-02
3.07E-02
1.40E-02
6.66E-02
2.09E-02
2.87E-02
1.30E-02
6.26E-02
1.98E-02
2.68E-02
1.21E-02
5.87E-02
1.87E-02
2.49E-02
1.12E-02
5.48E-02
1.75E-02
2.30E-02
1.03E-02
5.08E-02
1.63E-02
2.11E-02
9.44E-03
4.69E-02
1.51E-02
1.93E-02
8.59E-03
4.30E-02
1.39E-02
1.75E-02
7.77E-03
3.92E-02
1.27E-02
1.58E-02
6.97E-03
3.55E-02
1.15E-02
1.41E-02
6.21E-03
3.18E-02
1.03E-02
1.25E-02
5.48E-03
2.83E-02
9.13E-03
1.10E-02
4.79E-03
2.49E-02
7.99E-03
9.48E-03
4.14E-03
2.16E-02
6.89E-03
8.09E-03
3.52E-03
1.85E-02
5.84E-03
6.79E-03
2.95E-03
1.56E-02
4.85E-03
5.59E-03
2.42E-03
1.29E-02
3.92E-03
4.48E-03
1.93E-03
1.03E-02
3.08E-03
3.48E-03
1.50E-03
8.06E-03
2.31E-03
2.60E-03
1.11E-03
6.02E-03
1.64E-03
1.83E-03
7.82E-04
4.25E-03
1.07E-03
1.19E-03
5.07E-04
2.77E-03
6.18E-04
6.77E-04
2.88E-04
1.58E-03
2.80E-04
3.05E-04
1.30E-04
7.15E-04
7.15E-05
7.73E-05
3.28E-05
1.82E-04
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

C-76

3.3.2.3 Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

Created by:

DBL

4/30/2012

Calculation shown for Bank 3-4 Mechanical Floor - Top Girders


Design of the radial girders at mechanical floor,
which must bend about their weak axis. Girders
oriented about their weak axis enable the
gusset plate connections for outriggers.

Geometry and Applied Loads


L1

Length of Shorter Joist

234

in

From Drawing

L2
L
l
TA1
TA2

276
300
100
21,963
27,792

in
in
in
in2
in2

From Drawing

DL
DL
LL
LL
DL

170
0.00118
100
0.00069
1.2

psf
ksi
psf
ksi

LL
DLLTotal

1.6
0.00253

ksi

= DL*DL + LL*LL

P1
P2

28.0

kips

= (TA1*DLLTotal+DL*Dsw1*L1)/2

35.4

kips

= (TA2*DLLTotal+DL*Dsw2*L2)/2

Reaction at Support 1

R1

30.5

kips

= (P1 *(l-a)+P2*b)/l

Reaction at Support 2

R2

33.0

kips

= (P1 *a+P2*(l-b))/l

Shear Force in Section A

VA

39.6

kips

= (P1 *(l-a)+P2*b)/l

Shear Force in Section B

VB

2.5

kips

= R1-P1

Shear Force in Section C

VC

23.8

kips

= (P1 *a+P2*(l-b))/l

Moment at x=l

M1

3,657

kip-in

= R1*l

Moment at x=2l

M2

3,904

kip-in

= R1*l - P1(2*l-a)

Mmaxf

3,904

kip-in

= MAX(M1, M2)

Length of Longer Joist


Length of Girder
Unbraced Length of Girder
Tributary Area of Shorter Joist
Tributary Area of Longer Joist
Applied Dead Load
Applied Dead Load
Applied Live Load
Applied Live Load
Dead Load Factor
Live Load Factor

Total Factored Load


Total Factored Load

From Drawing
= L/3
From Drawing
From Drawing

Reactions, Internal Forces, Moments

Maximum Bending Moment

C-77

3.3.2.3 Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

Steel Strength
Fy

Fy

Nominal Steel Strength


Steel Reduction Factor
Factored Steel Strength

50
0.9
45

ksi
ksi

Selected Section and Checks


Chosen Section for Joist 1

Wsection

Beam Self Weight Density

sw1

0.022

Sx

25.4

Section Modulus

W12 x 22

Chosen Section for Joist 2

Wsection

Beam Self Weight Density

sw2

0.022

Sy

25.4

Section Modulus
Chosen Section for Girder
Section Modulus
Allowable Deflection

W12 x 22
kip/ft
in3

Wsection W14 x 730

Beam Self Weight Density


Max Deflection

kip/ft
in3

sw

0.730

Sy

527

kip/ft
in3

max

0.229

in

MASTAN Analysis, attached

allowable

0.975

in

= L/240

= bf*tf ; AISC2005 G7 (for weak axis)

max < allowable?


Checks from moment, shear, and deflection

Yes
Yes

Section Properties
Area of Web
Beam depth
Web width

Adw
d
tw

87.89
22.4
3.07

in2

Web Height

h0

17.5

in

Flange Width

bf

17.9

in

Flange Thickness

tf

4.91

Moment of Inertia (Strong)

Ix

14,300

in
in4

Moment of Inertia (Weak)

Iy

4,720

in4

Section Modulus (Strong)

Sx

1,280

in

Section Modulus (Weak)

Sy

527

in3

Radius of Gyration (Strong)

rx

8.17

in

Radius of Gyration (Weak)

ry

4.69

Plastic Section Modulus (Strong)

Zx

1,660

in
in3

Plastic Section Modulus (Weak)

Zy

816

in3

Radius of Gyration (Torsion)

rts

5.68

1,450

in
in4

Polar Moment of Inertia

in
in

= ((I yh0)/(2Sx))

3.3.2.3 Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

1/2

C-78

C-79

Created by:

DBL

4/30/2012

Disp y =

0.2991

in

3.3.2.3 Rotated Radial Girder Beam Design

The radial grder was modeled in MASTAN as a fixed-fixed beam with two point loads in order to find the maximum deflection at the center of the
beam.

Mastan Analysis for Rotated Radial Girder

C-80

Created by:

CJB / ADV

0.26
5.03
35.3
245
26

d
tf
tw
bf
Sx
Ix

Overall Depth
Flange Thickness

Web Thickness

Flange Width

Steel Section Modulus

Moment of Inertia
Weight

718
54.4

Icomp
Str

Composite Moment of Inertia

Section Modulus for Tension


153

4.70

yt

Sc

13.20

yb

N.A. to bottom of beam

N.A. to top of beam

Section Modulus for Comp.

61
124
61

(a)
(b)
beff

Span/4
Beam Spacing
Effective Flange Width

Composite Beam Properties

13.9
0.42

As

W 14 x 26
7.69

(80)
6
2
100%

2
Residential
Circumferential
Girder
Bank 2
14 x 26
#N/A

Section Type
Area of Steel

Steel Shape Properties

Shear Stud
Shear Stud Spacing
Studs Per Rib
% Composite Action

W-Shape
Overall Check, Acceptable?

Beam:

Bank:
Type:

= Ic / yb
= Ic / yt

in3

= MIN(a,b)

#N/A

in3

in
in4

in

in
in
in

plf

in4

in
in3

in

in
in

in2

Fails in:

Yes
No

211
10.3

20.4

SDL
LL

Postcomposite

Precomposite

LL
Total

SDL

DL
LL
Total

Joist End Reactions

Postcomposite

Construction LL

Beam Self Weight

Precomposite
Slab and Decking

psf
psf

psf

plf

9.26
13.56

4.30

kips
kips

kips

Factored
4.49
kips
3.37
kips
7.86
kips

40.8
88

32

31.2

39.6

psf

psf
psf

34
55

psf
plf
psf

ft
ft

ft

33
26
20

Factored Loading Conditions

Precomposite
Slab and Decking
Beam Self Weight
Construction LL
Postcomposite
SDL
LL

Unfactored Loading Conditions

Beam Tributary Area


Beam Spacing

Beam Span

Inputs from Bank Information

3.3.2.4 Circumferential Girder Design

Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

User Input
Constant/Prev Calc.

11/1/2011

from Load Summary

from Slab & Deck Info

from Tower Geometry

Design tool to calculate the W-Shape and Shear stud configuration for circumferential girders in all banks and floor types with a predetermined decking type running
perpendicular to the girder. The design method follows that found in Taranath's Steel, Concrete, & Composite Design of Tall Buildings .

3.3.2.4 Circumferential Girder Design

C-81

Moment Calculation

33.5

Smin

Min. Req. Section Modulus

54.4
40.1
69.2

Mpre

Mpost

Section Modulus for Tension

Pre-Comosite Moment

Post-Composite Moment

YES
24.1
33.0
YES
69
0.494

fb,2

0.66*Fy

fb,1 < 0.66*Fy?

Mcomp

f'c-comp

Composite Moment

Concrete compressive stress

Condition 2:

YES

1.8

45.0

0.45*f'c-comp
f'c < 0.45*f'c-comp ?

28.9

fb,1

Condition 1:

0.9*Fy
fb,1 < 0.9*Fy?

Allowable Stress

35.3

Ss
Str

Steel Section Modulus

Stress Check

92

Mu

770
1,328
1,768

Max. Moment (at center)

Factored Precomposite load


Factored Postcomposite load
Total Load (w/o construction LL)

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

kip-ft

in

in

kip-ft
3
in

plf
plf
plf

= Mcomp/(n*St)

Concrete Properties

Slab and Decking Properties

Total Composite Depth

Rib Height

Slab thickness

Vulcraft Decking Type

C
P

td

17.9

1.75

3.5

1.5
36
6

2.5

1.5VL22

11

2,574

Ec

Elastic Modulus
Modular Ratio

115

4,000

Concrete Strength
Density of concrete

Lightweight
f'c

Concrete Type

29,000

65

Fu
Es

Ultimate Strength
Elastic Modulus

50

Fy

in

in

in

in
in
in

in

ksi

pcf

psi

ksi

ksi

ksi

CJB / ADV

Yield Strength

Steel Properties

3.3.2.4 Circumferential Girder Design

= (Mpre+ Mpost)/Str

= Mpre / Ss + Mpost/Str

= Mmax/(0.66*Fy)

= w*l /8

Created by:

= td+ts+d

= Es/Ec

0.5

= 33*c*f'c

11/1/2011

C-82

m
Vn
V < Vn ?

nribs

#N/A

#N/A

10

384.5
40

0.00

camber

Precomposite loads
Precomposite Deflection

Postcomposite loads
Final Deflection
Allowable Deflection
OK?

L/360

0.172
0.681
YES

0.315

pre

Steel Moment of Inertia

post

245.0

Ix

Camber

718.3

Ieff

Deflection & Camber

Effective Moment of Inertia

kips

ft

kips

in
kips

in
in

in

in

in4

in4

* total capacity = sum of nominal shear strengths between the point of


maximum positive moment and the point of zero moment

Total Capacity*

Total Shear Load


Number of Ribs
Distance from M0 to Mmax

N/A
100%
YES

V'h

Adjusted Horizontal Shear


% Composite Action
% Composite Action > 25% ?

54.43
33.49

in

Smin

in

33.49

Min. Req. Section Modulus

Shear connectors, partial composite action


Ss
Steel Section Modulus
Stens
Section Modulus for Tension

kips
kips
kips

# of Studs

# of Ribs
studs / rib
Stud capacity

Concrete Cover 1/2"

Post Composite

nribs
Vstud

918

573

Service Loads (Unfactored)


Pre Composite

3.3.2.4 Circumferential Girder Design

= 5*W*L4/(384*E*I)

= 5*W*L4/(384*E*I)

= Ix + (Ic - Ix )*(V'h/Vh)2

Shear Stud Spacing 18"

= Qn = (studs/rib)*Vstud*nribs*m/l ; AISC
I3-1c
Slab
Thickness 2"

= V'h

Stud Checks from AISC I3.2c.1:


Nominal Rib height 3"
Shear Stud Diamater 3/4"
Shear Stud Length 1 1/2"

= Vh*(Smin - Ss / Savail - Ss) = N/A if 100% composite action

= MIN(i, ii)

= 0.85*f'c* Ac
= As*Fy

Shear Stud Properties


521
384.5
385

Diameter
Length
Spacing

(i)
(ii)
Vh

Horizontal Shear Vh

Option 1
Option 2
Horizontal Shear

Created by:

plf

plf

YES

YES

YES

YES
YES
YES

80

40
2
#N/A

0.75
3.00
6

I3.2c.1.d

I3.2c.1.c

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.b

I3.2c.1.a
I3.2c.1.b

in
in
in

CJB / ADV

=Qn per rib; AISC Table 3-21

11/1/2011

C-83

Created by:

CJB / ADV

in

has one angled


girder at
midpoint, long

Precomposite
Postcomposite
Total

Radial Girder Moments

0.81
13
491
6260
192

tw
bf
Sx
Ix

Web Thickness

Steel Section Modulus

Moment of Inertia
Weight

DLP1
LLP1

Midpoint Dead Load

Midpoint Live Load

Distance to Point Load 1

11.04

= MIN(a,b)

= Ic / yt

in3

kips

30.20

Postcomposite
14.08

length / 2

= Ic / yb

in3

in
in4

in

in
in
in

kips

Precomposite

kips
kips

kips
kips

kips

kips

kips

kips

kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

ft
ft

ft
2
ft
ft

55 psf

Construction Load

Slab and decking


Beam Self Weight

32 psf

38.136 kips
230.4 plf

34 psf

SDL

192 plf
20 psf

103.32 plf

31.78 psf

7.03
15.17

12.56
0.32

15.1

7.04

5.52

8.23

110.3
482.2
553.5

160.9
31.8

19.33
172.4
48.3

Live Load

Factored Loading Conditions

3.3.2.5a Cantilever Design Tool

kips

HSS Self Weight

DL

SDL
LL

Cantilever Beam Self Weight


LL
Postcomposite

Precomposite

Unfactored Loading Conditions

Postcomposite

Precomposite

LL

SDL

LL

DL
LL from Construction

Point Load 2 (factored)

plf

Postcomposite

in4

in

in

in

in
in

9.66 ft
Precomposite
16.46
kips

639.53

Sc

Section Modulus for Comp.

562.93

Str

Section Modulus for Tension

Factored Moment calculation

8832.14

13.81

yt

N.A. to top of beam


Icomp

15.69

yb

N.A. to bottom of beam

Composite Moment of Inertia

57.98
N/A
57.98

(a)
(b)
beff

Span/4
Beam Spacing
Effective Flange Width

Composite Beam Properties

Flange Width

25.5
1.46

d
tf

Overall Depth
Flange Thickness

56.3

As

Area of Steel

DL

HSS 2 Tributary Area:


HSS 2 Length:

Precomposite

Angled girder applies a point


load at the midspan of the
cantilever. The faade applies
an additional point load at the
end.

Fails Check

Cantilever Beam Span:


HSS 1 Tributary Area:
HSS 1 Length:

Input from Bank Information

Point Load 1 (factored)


W 24 x 192

No

Yes

User Input
Constant/Prev Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check

Section Type

0.00
(29)
8
100%

24 x 192
YES

3
Residential
Cantilever Long
Bank 3

Selected Shape's Properties

Camber
Shear Stud
Shear Stud Spacing
% Composite Action

W-Shape
Overall Check, Acceptable?

Bank:
Type:
Beam:

Construction

Decking and slab

SDL over HSS Trib. Areas


LL over HSS Trib. Areas

HSS Self Weight + DL (decking,slab)


200 lbs load at end point

HSS and Facade Reaction

LL over girder trib area

SDL over girder trib area

20 psf Construction LL

Girder Self Weight + DL(decking,slab)

Angled Girder Reactions

from Tower Geometry

Design tool to calculate the W-Shape and Shear stud configuration for cantilevers in all banks and floor types with a predetermined decking type running parallel to the cantilever. Loads are applied as point loads
from the angled girders and the HSS beams. A separate spreadsheet calculates pre- and post-composite deflection

3.3.2.5a Cantilever Design Tool

11/1/2011

C-84

0.32

LLtot

Total Factored LL
Moment from Dead Load
Moment from Live Load
Reaction
Total Moment
Total Moment w/ Radial Girder Continuity

557.6

Mpre
Mpost

YES
31.1
33.0

fb,1 < 0.9*Fy?


fb,2

0.66*Fy
fb,1 < 0.66*Fy?

N/A
100%
YES

314.62

Smin

Min. Req. Section Modulus


V'h

562.93

Stens

Section Modulus for Tension

Adjusted Horizontal Shear


% Composite Action
% Composite Action > 25% ?

491

Ss

Shear connectors, partial composite action


Steel Section Modulus

493
2815
493

900
1.535
1.8
YES

(i)
(ii)
Vh

Mcomp
f'c-comp
0.45*f'c-comp
f'c < 0.45*f'c-comp ?

45.0

0.9*Fy

YES

32.8

fb,1

Option 1
Option 2
Horizontal Shear

Horizontal Shear Vh

Composite Moment
Concrete compressive stress

Condition 2:

Condition 1:

Allowable Stress

Post-Composite Moment

900.1

562.9

Str

Section Modulus for Tension

Pre-Comosite Moment

491

315

Smin

Ss

865

Mmax

104.4
865

Steel Section Modulus

Stress Check

Total Reaction
Total Moment for Design

11.36
444.8
112.9
44.8
557.6
447.32

33.47

LLP2
Dltot

Endpoint Live Load

Total Factored DL

12.56

DLP2

Endpoint Dead Load

kips

in3

in3

in3

kips
kips
kips

kip-ft
ksi
ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip-ft

kip-ft

in3

in

kip-ft
3
in

kips
kip-ft

kips
kip-ft
kip-ft
kips
kip-ft
kip-ft

kips

kips

kips

kips
kip-ft
kip-ft
kips
kip-ft
kip-ft

kips

kips

kips

Postcomposite
LL (Point)

SDL (Point)

Fy:

f'c
Density

Shear Stud Properties

3.3.2.5a Cantilever Design Tool

Ec

Stud capacity

Diameter
Length
Spacing
wr
wr/h
# of Studs

Modular ratio

Created by:

in
in
in
in
in

29000 ksi

65 ksi

50 ksi

1.75 in
29.5 in

1.5VL22
2.5
1.5
36
6
3.5

104.4 kips
865.2 kip-ft

88 kips

40.8 kips

in
in
in
in

18.3 AISC Table 3-21

0.75
3
8
2.125
1.417
29

11

2574 ksi

115 pcf

4000 psi

TypeLightweight

Es:

Fu:

Concrete Modulus of Elascticity

Concrete Properties

Steel Properties

B
Total Composite Depth

Decking Type
Slab thickness
Rib Height
C
P
T

Slab and Decking Properties

Exterior Column Reaction


Exterior Column Moment

Reactions and Moments

Includes beam self weight

midpoint, long
cantilever has
two

= Vh*(Smin - Ss / Savail - Ss)2 = N/A if 100% composite action

= MIN(i, ii)

= 0.85*f'c* Ac
= As*Fy

= Mcomp/(n*St)

= (Mpre+ Mpost)/Str

= Mpre / Ss + Mpost/Str

Modulus for Tension

Steel Section

M / (0.66*Fy)

Does not include construction


loads

45.37
315.0
585.0
70.9
900.1
417.88

25.57

15.17

7.03

CJB / ADV

11/1/2011

C-85
0.404
0.644
YES

post

Postcomposite Defleciton
L/360
OK?

0.00

camber

Camber

8832
0.424

Ieff
pre

in
in

in

in

in4

kips
kips

30.61
15.35

Precomposite Deflection

kips
kips

kips
ft

20.62
10.66

Effective Moment of Inertia

Pre Composite
Unfactored Midpoint Load
Unfactored Enpoint Load
Post Composite
Unfactored Midpoint Load
Unfactored Enpoint Load

Deflection and Camber

530.7
YES

Vn

Total Capacity*

V < Vn ?

493
19

V
m

Total Shear Load


Distance from M0 to Mmax

Nominal Rib height 3"


Shear Stud Diamater 3/4"
Shear Stud Length 1 1/2"
Concrete Cover 1/2"
Slab Thickness 2"
Shear Stud Spacing 18"

Stud Checks from AISC I3.2c.1:

3.3.2.5a Cantilever Design Tool

References Cantilever Deflection Spredsheet

References Cantilever Deflection Spredsheet

= Ix + (Ic - Ix )*(V'h/Vh)2

= Qn = (studs/rib)*Vstud*nribs*m/l ; AISC I3-1c

= V'h

YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

I3.2c.1.a
I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.b
I3.2c.1.c
I3.2c.1.d

Created by:

CJB / ADV

11/1/2011

3.3.2.5b Cantilever Deflection Tool

Created by: ADV/CJB

11/1/2011

Calculates deflection under precomposite loads and under superimposed dead and live loads using principles of superposition

Input from Cantilever Worksheet


Es

29,000

Ieff

8,832

Is
Self Weight
Length
Midpoint

6,260
0.0160
232
116

Maximum Deflection
ksi
in4

Precomposite

0.42 in

Postcomposite

0.40 in

in4
kip/in
in
in

Unfactored Loads from Cantilever Worksheet


Midpoint Load
Endpoint Load

Precomposite Post Composite


20.62
30.61 kips
10.66
15.35 kips

Precomposite Deflection from:


(in)
0.0
2.3
4.6
7.0
9.3
11.6
13.9
16.2
18.6
20.9
23.2
25.5
27.8
30.1
32.5
34.8
37.1
39.4
41.7
44.1
46.4
48.7
51.0
53.3
55.7
58.0
60.3
62.6
64.9
67.3
69.6
71.9
74.2
76.5
78.8
81.2
83.5
85.8
88.1
90.4
92.8
95.1
97.4

Post Composite Deflection from:

Midpt Load
Endpt Load
Self Weight
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3.52E-05
3.65E-05
6.33E-06
7.80E-05
1.40E-04
1.46E-04
2.52E-05
3.10E-04
3.12E-04
3.26E-04
5.62E-05
6.95E-04
5.51E-04
5.78E-04
9.93E-05
1.23E-03
8.56E-04
9.01E-04
1.54E-04
1.91E-03
1.22E-03
1.29E-03
2.20E-04
2.74E-03
1.65E-03
1.75E-03
2.98E-04
3.71E-03
2.15E-03
2.28E-03
3.87E-04
4.81E-03
2.70E-03
2.88E-03
4.86E-04
6.06E-03
3.30E-03
3.54E-03
5.96E-04
7.44E-03
3.97E-03
4.27E-03
7.16E-04
8.96E-03
4.69E-03
5.06E-03
8.46E-04
1.06E-02
5.47E-03
5.92E-03
9.87E-04
1.24E-02
6.29E-03
6.85E-03
1.14E-03
1.43E-02
7.17E-03
7.83E-03
1.30E-03
1.63E-02
8.10E-03
8.88E-03
1.46E-03
1.84E-02
9.07E-03
9.99E-03
1.64E-03
2.07E-02
1.01E-02
1.12E-02
1.83E-03
2.31E-02
1.12E-02
1.24E-02
2.02E-03
2.56E-02
1.23E-02
1.37E-02
2.23E-03
2.82E-02
1.34E-02
1.50E-02
2.44E-03
3.09E-02
1.46E-02
1.64E-02
2.66E-03
3.37E-02
1.59E-02
1.79E-02
2.88E-03
3.66E-02
1.71E-02
1.94E-02
3.12E-03
3.97E-02
1.84E-02
2.10E-02
3.36E-03
4.28E-02
1.98E-02
2.26E-02
3.61E-03
4.60E-02
2.12E-02
2.43E-02
3.87E-03
4.93E-02
2.26E-02
2.60E-02
4.13E-03
5.27E-02
2.40E-02
2.78E-02
4.40E-03
5.63E-02
2.55E-02
2.97E-02
4.67E-03
5.98E-02
2.70E-02
3.16E-02
4.96E-03
6.35E-02
2.85E-02
3.35E-02
5.25E-03
6.73E-02
3.01E-02
3.55E-02
5.54E-03
7.11E-02
3.17E-02
3.75E-02
5.84E-03
7.50E-02
3.33E-02
3.96E-02
6.14E-03
7.90E-02
3.49E-02
4.18E-02
6.46E-03
8.31E-02
3.65E-02
4.40E-02
6.77E-03
8.73E-02
3.82E-02
4.62E-02
7.09E-03
9.15E-02
3.99E-02
4.85E-02
7.42E-03
9.58E-02
4.15E-02
5.08E-02
7.75E-03
1.00E-01
4.33E-02
5.32E-02
8.08E-03
1.05E-01
4.50E-02
5.56E-02
8.42E-03
1.09E-01

3.3.2.5b Cantilever Deflection Tool

(in)
0.0
2.3
4.6
7.0
9.3
11.6
13.9
16.2
18.6
20.9
23.2
25.5
27.8
30.1
32.5
34.8
37.1
39.4
41.7
44.1
46.4
48.7
51.0
53.3
55.7
58.0
60.3
62.6
64.9
67.3
69.6
71.9
74.2
76.5
78.8
81.2
83.5
85.8
88.1
90.4
92.8
95.1
97.4

Midpt Load
(in)
0.00E+00
3.70E-05
1.47E-04
3.29E-04
5.80E-04
9.00E-04
1.29E-03
1.74E-03
2.26E-03
2.84E-03
3.48E-03
4.18E-03
4.94E-03
5.75E-03
6.62E-03
7.55E-03
8.52E-03
9.55E-03
1.06E-02
1.17E-02
1.29E-02
1.41E-02
1.54E-02
1.67E-02
1.80E-02
1.94E-02
2.08E-02
2.23E-02
2.38E-02
2.53E-02
2.68E-02
2.84E-02
3.00E-02
3.17E-02
3.33E-02
3.50E-02
3.67E-02
3.84E-02
4.02E-02
4.19E-02
4.37E-02
4.55E-02
4.73E-02

Endpt Load
(in)
0.00E+00
3.72E-05
1.48E-04
3.33E-04
5.90E-04
9.18E-04
1.32E-03
1.79E-03
2.33E-03
2.94E-03
3.61E-03
4.36E-03
5.16E-03
6.04E-03
6.98E-03
7.99E-03
9.05E-03
1.02E-02
1.14E-02
1.26E-02
1.39E-02
1.53E-02
1.68E-02
1.82E-02
1.98E-02
2.14E-02
2.31E-02
2.48E-02
2.66E-02
2.84E-02
3.03E-02
3.22E-02
3.42E-02
3.62E-02
3.83E-02
4.04E-02
4.26E-02
4.48E-02
4.71E-02
4.94E-02
5.18E-02
5.42E-02
5.67E-02

Total
(in)
0.00E+00
7.42E-05
2.96E-04
6.62E-04
1.17E-03
1.82E-03
2.61E-03
3.53E-03
4.58E-03
5.77E-03
7.09E-03
8.53E-03
1.01E-02
1.18E-02
1.36E-02
1.55E-02
1.76E-02
1.97E-02
2.20E-02
2.44E-02
2.69E-02
2.95E-02
3.21E-02
3.49E-02
3.78E-02
4.08E-02
4.39E-02
4.71E-02
5.03E-02
5.37E-02
5.71E-02
6.06E-02
6.42E-02
6.79E-02
7.16E-02
7.54E-02
7.93E-02
8.33E-02
8.73E-02
9.14E-02
9.55E-02
9.97E-02
1.04E-01

C-86

Precomposite Deflection from:


(in)
99.7
102.0
104.4
106.7
109.0
111.3
113.6
116.0
118.3
120.6
122.9
125.2
127.5
129.9
132.2
134.5
136.8
139.1
141.5
143.8
146.1
148.4
150.7
153.1
155.4
157.7
160.0
162.3
164.7
167.0
169.3
171.6
173.9
176.2
178.6
180.9
183.2
185.5
187.8
190.2
192.5
194.8
197.1
199.4
201.8
204.1
206.4
208.7
211.0
213.4
215.7
218.0
220.3
222.6
224.9
227.3
229.6
231.9

C-87

Post Composite Deflection from:

Midpt Load
Endpt Load
Self Weight
Total
(in)
(in)
(in)
(in)
4.67E-02
5.80E-02
8.77E-03
1.14E-01
4.84E-02
6.05E-02
9.12E-03
1.18E-01
5.02E-02
6.31E-02
9.47E-03
1.23E-01
5.19E-02
6.56E-02
9.83E-03
1.27E-01
5.37E-02
6.82E-02
1.02E-02
1.32E-01
5.55E-02
7.09E-02
1.05E-02
1.37E-01
5.72E-02
7.36E-02
1.09E-02
1.42E-01
5.90E-02
7.63E-02
1.13E-02
1.47E-01
6.08E-02
7.91E-02
1.17E-02
1.52E-01
6.26E-02
8.19E-02
1.20E-02
1.56E-01
6.43E-02
8.47E-02
1.24E-02
1.61E-01
6.61E-02
8.76E-02
1.28E-02
1.66E-01
6.79E-02
9.05E-02
1.32E-02
1.72E-01
6.96E-02
9.34E-02
1.36E-02
1.77E-01
7.14E-02
9.64E-02
1.40E-02
1.82E-01
7.32E-02
9.94E-02
1.44E-02
1.87E-01
7.50E-02
1.02E-01
1.47E-02
1.92E-01
7.67E-02
1.06E-01
1.51E-02
1.97E-01
7.85E-02
1.09E-01
1.55E-02
2.03E-01
8.03E-02
1.12E-01
1.59E-02
2.08E-01
8.20E-02
1.15E-01
1.63E-02
2.13E-01
8.38E-02
1.18E-01
1.67E-02
2.19E-01
8.56E-02
1.21E-01
1.72E-02
2.24E-01
8.73E-02
1.24E-01
1.76E-02
2.29E-01
8.91E-02
1.28E-01
1.80E-02
2.35E-01
9.09E-02
1.31E-01
1.84E-02
2.40E-01
9.27E-02
1.34E-01
1.88E-02
2.46E-01
9.44E-02
1.38E-01
1.92E-02
2.51E-01
9.62E-02
1.41E-01
1.96E-02
2.57E-01
9.80E-02
1.44E-01
2.00E-02
2.62E-01
9.97E-02
1.48E-01
2.04E-02
2.68E-01
1.02E-01
1.51E-01
2.09E-02
2.74E-01
1.03E-01
1.55E-01
2.13E-02
2.79E-01
1.05E-01
1.58E-01
2.17E-02
2.85E-01
1.07E-01
1.61E-01
2.21E-02
2.90E-01
1.09E-01
1.65E-01
2.25E-02
2.96E-01
1.10E-01
1.68E-01
2.30E-02
3.02E-01
1.12E-01
1.72E-01
2.34E-02
3.07E-01
1.14E-01
1.75E-01
2.38E-02
3.13E-01
1.16E-01
1.79E-01
2.42E-02
3.19E-01
1.17E-01
1.83E-01
2.47E-02
3.25E-01
1.19E-01
1.86E-01
2.51E-02
3.30E-01
1.21E-01
1.90E-01
2.55E-02
3.36E-01
1.23E-01
1.93E-01
2.59E-02
3.42E-01
1.25E-01
1.97E-01
2.63E-02
3.48E-01
1.26E-01
2.00E-01
2.68E-02
3.54E-01
1.28E-01
2.04E-01
2.72E-02
3.59E-01
1.30E-01
2.08E-01
2.76E-02
3.65E-01
1.32E-01
2.11E-01
2.80E-02
3.71E-01
1.33E-01
2.15E-01
2.85E-02
3.77E-01
1.35E-01
2.19E-01
2.89E-02
3.83E-01
1.37E-01
2.22E-01
2.93E-02
3.89E-01
1.39E-01
2.26E-01
2.97E-02
3.94E-01
1.40E-01
2.30E-01
3.02E-02
4.00E-01
1.42E-01
2.33E-01
3.06E-02
4.06E-01
1.44E-01
2.37E-01
3.10E-02
4.12E-01
1.46E-01
2.41E-01
3.14E-02
4.18E-01
1.48E-01
2.44E-01
3.19E-02
4.24E-01

3.3.2.5b Cantilever Deflection Tool

(in)
99.7
102.0
104.4
106.7
109.0
111.3
113.6
116.0
118.3
120.6
122.9
125.2
127.5
129.9
132.2
134.5
136.8
139.1
141.5
143.8
146.1
148.4
150.7
153.1
155.4
157.7
160.0
162.3
164.7
167.0
169.3
171.6
173.9
176.2
178.6
180.9
183.2
185.5
187.8
190.2
192.5
194.8
197.1
199.4
201.8
204.1
206.4
208.7
211.0
213.4
215.7
218.0
220.3
222.6
224.9
227.3
229.6
231.9

Midpt Load
(in)
4.91E-02
5.10E-02
5.28E-02
5.47E-02
5.65E-02
5.84E-02
6.02E-02
6.21E-02
6.40E-02
6.58E-02
6.77E-02
6.96E-02
7.14E-02
7.33E-02
7.51E-02
7.70E-02
7.89E-02
8.07E-02
8.26E-02
8.45E-02
8.63E-02
8.82E-02
9.00E-02
9.19E-02
9.38E-02
9.56E-02
9.75E-02
9.94E-02
1.01E-01
1.03E-01
1.05E-01
1.07E-01
1.09E-01
1.11E-01
1.12E-01
1.14E-01
1.16E-01
1.18E-01
1.20E-01
1.22E-01
1.24E-01
1.25E-01
1.27E-01
1.29E-01
1.31E-01
1.33E-01
1.35E-01
1.37E-01
1.38E-01
1.40E-01
1.42E-01
1.44E-01
1.46E-01
1.48E-01
1.50E-01
1.52E-01
1.53E-01
1.55E-01

Endpt Load
(in)
5.92E-02
6.17E-02
6.43E-02
6.69E-02
6.96E-02
7.23E-02
7.51E-02
7.78E-02
8.07E-02
8.35E-02
8.64E-02
8.93E-02
9.23E-02
9.53E-02
9.83E-02
1.01E-01
1.04E-01
1.08E-01
1.11E-01
1.14E-01
1.17E-01
1.20E-01
1.24E-01
1.27E-01
1.30E-01
1.34E-01
1.37E-01
1.40E-01
1.44E-01
1.47E-01
1.51E-01
1.54E-01
1.58E-01
1.61E-01
1.65E-01
1.68E-01
1.72E-01
1.75E-01
1.79E-01
1.83E-01
1.86E-01
1.90E-01
1.93E-01
1.97E-01
2.01E-01
2.04E-01
2.08E-01
2.12E-01
2.16E-01
2.19E-01
2.23E-01
2.27E-01
2.30E-01
2.34E-01
2.38E-01
2.42E-01
2.45E-01
2.49E-01

Total
(in)
1.08E-01
1.13E-01
1.17E-01
1.22E-01
1.26E-01
1.31E-01
1.35E-01
1.40E-01
1.45E-01
1.49E-01
1.54E-01
1.59E-01
1.64E-01
1.69E-01
1.73E-01
1.78E-01
1.83E-01
1.88E-01
1.93E-01
1.98E-01
2.03E-01
2.09E-01
2.14E-01
2.19E-01
2.24E-01
2.29E-01
2.34E-01
2.40E-01
2.45E-01
2.50E-01
2.56E-01
2.61E-01
2.66E-01
2.72E-01
2.77E-01
2.82E-01
2.88E-01
2.93E-01
2.99E-01
3.04E-01
3.10E-01
3.15E-01
3.21E-01
3.26E-01
3.32E-01
3.37E-01
3.43E-01
3.48E-01
3.54E-01
3.60E-01
3.65E-01
3.71E-01
3.76E-01
3.82E-01
3.88E-01
3.93E-01
3.99E-01
4.04E-01

3.3.2.6 HSS Edge Beam Design

Created By:

DL 11/10/2012

Design tool to validate sellection HSS beam size on the building exterior
This tool calculates loads applied to the section and the section capacity
Beam Location
109th Floor - Mechanical

Color Key:

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Summary
Selected Section
Does section pass all checks?

HSS20X12X1/2
Yes

Beam Geometries
Side View Length of Beam
Uncurved Length of Beam
Angle of Curvature
Radius of Curvature
Eccentricity of Curvature
Torque Coefficient
Angular Twist Coefficient

L
L'

r
b
A
B

813
839.4
50
961.9
90.1
0.0255
0.0020

in
in
deg
in
in

See Diagram Below


= /360 * 2r
See Diagram Below
See Diagram Below
See Diagram Below
regression from Blodgett
regression from Blodgett

3.3.2.6 HSS Edge Beam Design

C-88

Applied Loads
Live Load
Dead Load
Factored Floor Load
Unfactored Floor Load
Tributary Area
Factored Distributed Load
Unfactored Distributed Load
End Torque
Angular Twist

LL
DL
wf
w
Atrib
wf
w
Tend

240
44.3
437
284.3
24,827

psf
psf
psf
psf
2
in

= 1.6LL+1.2DL
= LL+DL

89.8
58.4
2,361,639

lb/in
lb/in
lb*in

= wf*Atrib/L'

0.0064

deg

= B*r3*wtotal/Es*(b/t)

= w*L'/2

= w*Atrib/L'
= A*r2*wftotal

Bending Moment
Max Shear

Vmaxf

42.0

kip

Max Moment
1/4 Uncurved Length
1/2 Uncurved Length
3/4 Uncurved Length
Bending Moment 1/4 Length

Mmaxf

5879
210
420
630
735

2
Kip-in = w*L' /12
in
in
in
2
2
Kip-in = wL'*(6L'x-L' -6x )/12

Bending Moment 1/2 Length

MB
MC

2,939

2
2
Kip-in = wL'*(6L'x-L' -6x )/12

735

2
2
Kip-in = wL'*(6L'x-L' -6x )/12

Nominal Steel Strength

Fy

50

Steel Reduction Factor

y
yFy

0.9
45

ksi

= y*Fy

Smin

131

in3

= Mmaxf/yFy

Bending Moment 3/4 Length

L'/4
L'/2
3L'/4
MA

Shear

Factored Steel Strength


Minimum Required Section
Modulus

ksi

Section Properties
Selected Section
Section Modulus (Strong)

HSS20X12X1/2

Sx

155

in3

W
Ag

Yes
8.61
28.3

lb/in
in2

Awt

17.7

in2

Ht
b
t
h

20.0
12.0
0.465
19.1

R
b/t
Ht/t

1,674
22.8
40.0

in
in
in
in
in3

Passes check for S min < Sy?


Self Weight
Total Area
Effective Shear Area
Overall Depth
Overall Width
Design Wall Thickness
Depth less corner radii
Torsional resistance
Slenderness Ratio
Slenderness Ratio
C-89

= Ht-2*t
= 2*t*b2*Ht2/(b+Ht)

3.3.2.6 HSS Edge Beam Design

Slenderness Ratio
Moment of Inertia (Strong)

h/t
Ix

41.0
1,550.00

in

Moment of Inertia (Weak)

Iy

705

in4

Section Modulus (Weak)

Sy

117

in

Plastic Section Modulus

Zx

188

in

Radius of Gyration (Strong)

rx

7.39

in

Radius of Gyration (Weak)

ry

4.99

in

Web Plate Buckling Coefficient

kv

Cv

59.24
73.78
1

Limiting Thickness Ratio 1


Limiting Thickness Ratio 2
Web Shear Coefficient

3
3

G5
= 1.10*(kv*E/Fy)1/2 ; G2.1(b)
= 1.37*(kv*E/Fy)1/2 ; G2.1(b)
G2.1(b)
4

Polar Moment of Inertia

1,540

in

Torsional Shear Constant


Young's Modulus
Shear Modulus

C
E
Es

209
29,000
11,200

in3
ksi
ksi

wftotal
wtotal

100.1

lb/in

= wf+1.2*W

67.00

lb/in

= wf+W

max

1.93

in

= wtotal*L'4/(384*E*Ix)

allowable

3.50

in

= L'/240

Total Loads
Total Factored Load
Total Unfactored Load

deflection for fixed-fixed

Deflection
Max Deflection
Allowable Deflection
Passes for max < allowable?

Yes

Compactness
Uncurved Length of Beam
Unbraced Length of Beam

L'
Lb = L'

839
839

in
in

Compactness Ratio

27.0

= 1.12*(E/Fy)1/2 ; Table B4.1

Noncompact Ratio
Compactness

33.7
COMPACT

= 1.40*(E/Fy)1/2 ; Table B4.1


Section B4

Applied Load Summary


Max Shear Force

Vmaxf

42.0

Kip

Max Bending Moment

Mmaxf

5,879

Kip-in

Bending Moment 1/4 Length

MA

735

Kip-in

Bending Moment 1/2 Length

MB

2,939

Kip-in

Bending Moment 3/4 Length

MC

735

Kip-in

Cb

2.4

Beam Bending Coefficient


Torsion at Ends

Tend

2,362

12.5Mmax/(2.5Mmax+3MA+4MB+3MC) ; F1-3

Kip-in

3.3.2.6 HSS Edge Beam Design

C-90

Capacity Calculations
Nominal Steel Strength

Fy

50.0

ksi

Nominal Yield Capacity

Mn = M p

9,400

Kip-in = FyZx ; (F7-1)

Flange Local Buckling

Mn

N/A

1/2
Kip-in = Mp-(Mp-FyS)(3.57(b/t)(Fy/E) -4.0 ; (F7-2)

Web Local Buckling

Mn

N/A

1/2
Kip-in = Mp-(Mp-FySx)(0.305(h/t)(Fy/E) -0.738) ; (F7-

Nominal Moment Capacity

Mn

9,400

Fcr

59.0
73.9
30.0

ksi

Max Bending Stress


Max Shear Stress

fbf
fvf

37.9
2.4

ksi
ksi

Reduction Factor for Bending

0.9

Ch 4

Reduction Factor for Shear

0.9

G1

Reduction Factor fo Torsion

0.9

H3

Bending Capacity

Fbf

54.6

ksi

= y*Mn/Sx

Available Strength in Shear

Fvf
Tn

27.0

ksi

= v*0.6*Fy

5,643

Kip-in = T *Fcr*C

Thickness Ratio
Thickness Ratio
Torsional Strength

5)
Kip-in = MIN(above Mn's)

= 2.45(E/Fy)1/2 ; H3(b)
= 3.07(E/Fy)1/2 ; H3(b)

Capacity Calculations

Torsional Capacity

= Mmax/Sx ; 2-9
= Vmax/Awt ; 2-21

Ratios of Applied Loads to Load Capacity


Utilization Factor: Bending
Utilization Factor < 100% ?
Utilization Factor: Shear
Utilization Facotr < 100% ?
Utilization Factor: Torsion
Utilization Factor < 100% ?
Combined Effect
Utilization Factor < 100% ?

C-91

Ub
Uv
Ut

69.5%
Yes
8.8%
Yes
41.9%
Yes
95.1%
Yes

= fbf/Fbf
= fvf/Fvf
= Tend/Tn
2
= (fbf/Fbf)+(fvf/Fvf + Tend/Tn) ; (H3-6)

3.3.2.6 HSS Edge Beam Design

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

Created by:

SJR

5/9/2012

Vibration of the floor system was checked as a serviceability requirement. It was found that the selected
decking and joists met the requirements for a residential building as demonstrated below.

Estimated Peak Accelerations


Type
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential
Mechanical
Lobby
Residential -1
Residential -2

Bank

ap/g

ao/g

ap/g < ao/g ?

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4

0.332%
0.099%
0.199%
0.246%
0.040%
0.086%
0.194%
0.043%
0.073%
0.146%
0.130%

0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%
0.500%

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

C-92

Vibration Analysis Calculations

Created by:

SJR

5/9/2012

Analyzes typical residential, mechanical, and lobby floor bays for each bank. Compares estimated peak
acceleration to acceleration limit from AISC Design Guide 11 Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity , Figure
2.1. Each element is considered separately and then the system as a whole is evaluated.
Bank
Floor
Location

Color Key:

1
5
Lobby

Yes
No
Typical Bay:

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Joist

Joist

Joist

Girder

Girder

Consistent Inputs
Acceleration Limit

ao/g

0.5%

AISC Design Guide 11 Figure 2.1

Steel Modulus

Es 29,000,000 psi

Concrete Modulus
Dynamic Modular Ratio

Ec 2,574,000 psi
n
8.35

= Es/(1.35*Ec) ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.2


2

386

in/s

Po

lbs

65
0.2

c
SDL
LL

110
12
18

pcf
psf
psf

tc

3
2.5

in.

Corrugation Thickness

tcor

1.5

in

Vulcraft Decking Catalogue

Effective Concrete Depth

deff

3.25

in

= tc + tcor/2

Decking Weight

wd

1.78

Theoretical Conc. Volume


Total Load

Vth

0.253
60

psf
Vulcraft Decking Catalogue
3
2
ft /ft Vulcraft Decking Catalogue
= SDL + LL + w d + c*Vth
psf

Gravity Acceleration
Constant Force
Model Dampening Ratio
Concrete Density
Superimposed Dead Load
Live Load

65 lb for floors ; AISC Design Guide 11 Table 4.1


AISC Design Guide 11 Table 4.1

Flooring Properties
Number of Joists
Concrete Thickness

C-93

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

Joist 1 Details
Joist Length

LJ1

183

Joist Tributary Area


Steel Size Chosen
Steel Weight

Atr

17,712
W12 x 22
22

Steel Area

As

6.48

Steel Moment Of Inertia (MOI)


Steel Depth

Ixx
d

156
12.3

Uniformly dist load / length

wl

41.9

Uniformly dist load / area

wa

0.433

lbs/in
lbs/in2

Effective Concrete Width

beff

73.2

in

=min(tributary width , 0.4*L J1)

Distance to centroid

ybar

0.780

below top of form deck

in
2
in
plf
2
in
in4
in

Joist 1 Calculations

Transformed MOI

It

564

in
in4

Mid-span Deflection
Natural Frequency

fn

0.0374
18.3

in
/s

= 5wlLJ1 /384EsIt
= 0.18*sqrt(g/) ; AISC Design Guide 11 3.3

Joist Spacing

sj

6.98

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Transformed Slab MOI

Ds

4.11

ft
in4/ft

Transformed Joist MOI

Dj

80.8

in4/ft

= It/S ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Width Factor

Cj

Effective Panel Width

Bj

86.9

in

= Cj(Ds/Dj) LJ1 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Panel Weight

Wj

6,887

lbs

= waBjLJ1 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.2

Estimated Peak Acceleration

ap/g

0.008%

uses parallel axis theorem


4

= de3/12n ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a


1/4

= Poexp(-0.35fn)/Wj ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.1

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

C-94

Joist 2 Details
Joist Length

LJ2

212

Joist Tributary Area


Steel Size Chosen
Steel Weight

Atr

21,600
W12 x 22
22

Steel Area

As

6.48

Steel Moment Of Inertia (MOI)


Steel Depth

Ixx
d

156
12.3

Uniformly dist load / length

wl

44.0

Uniformly dist load / area

wa

0.432

lbs/in
lbs/in2

Effective Concrete Width

beff

84.8

in

=min(tributary width , 0.4*L J2)

Distance to centroid

ybar

0.559

below top of form deck

in
2
in
plf
2
in
in4
in

Joist 2 Calculations

Transformed MOI

It

578

in
in4

Mid-span Deflection
Natural Frequency

fn

0.0690
13.5

in
/s

= 5wlLJ2 /384EsIt
= 0.18*sqrt(g/) ; AISC Design Guide 11 3.3

Joist Spacing
Transformed Slab MOI

S
Ds

6.98
4.11

ft
in4/ft

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Transformed Joist MOI

Dj

82.8

in4/ft

= It/S ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Width Factor

Cj

Effective Panel Width

Bj

100

in

= Cj(Ds/Dj)1/4LJ2 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Panel Weight

Wj

9,164

lbs

= waBjLJ2 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.2

Estimated Peak Acceleration

C-95

ap/g

0.032%

uses parallel axis theorem


4

= de3/12n ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

= Poexp(-0.35fn)/Wj ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.1

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

Joist 3 Details
Joist Length

LJ3

241

Joist Tributary Area


Steel Size Chosen
Steel Weight

Atr

25,200
W12 x 40
40

Steel Area

As

11.7

Steel Moment Of Inertia (MOI)


Steel Depth

Ixx
d

307
11.9

Uniformly dist load / length

wl

46.6

Uniformly dist load / area

wa

0.446

lbs/in
lbs/in2

Effective Concrete Width

beff

96.4

in

=min(tributary width , 0.4*L J3)

Distance to centroid

ybar

1.259

below top of form deck

in
2
in
plf
2
in
in4
in

Joist 3 Calculations

Transformed MOI

It

952

in
in4

Mid-span Deflection
Natural Frequency

fn

0.074
13.0

in
/s

= 5wlLJ3 /384EsIt
= 0.18*sqrt(g/) ; AISC Design Guide 11 3.3

Joist Spacing
Transformed Slab MOI

S
Ds

6.98
4.11

ft
in4/ft

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Transformed Joist MOI

Dj

136.4

in4/ft

= It/S ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Width Factor

Cj

Effective Panel Width

Bj

100

in

= Cj(Ds/Dj)1/4LJ3 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Panel Weight

Wj

10,790

lbs

= waBjLJ3 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.2

ap/g

0.032%

Estimated Peak Acceleration

uses parallel axis theorem


4

= de3/12n ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

= Poexp(-0.35fn)/Wj ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.1

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

C-96

Girder Details
Joist Length
Steel Size Chosen
Steel Weight
Steel Area
Steel Moment Of Inertia (MOI)
Steel Depth

LG

As
Ixx

335
W16 x 67
67
19.7

in
plf
in2
in

954
16.3

Uniformly dist load / length

wl

89.9

Uniformly dist load / area

wa

0.424

Effective Concrete Width

beff

134

in

=min(tributary width , 0.4*L G)

Distance to centroid

ybar

2.34

below top of form deck

Transformed MOI

It

2,545

in
in4

Mid-span Deflection
Natural Frequency

fn

0.254
18.3

in
/s

= (4/)*5wlLJ34/384EsIt
= 0.18*sqrt(g/) ; AISC Design Guide 11 3.3

Average Joist Length

Lj-avg

212

= de3/12n ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Average Joist MOI

Dj-avg

81.8

ft
in4/ft

Transformed Girder MOI

Dg

9.00

Effective Width Factor

Cg

1.8

Effective Panel Width

Bg

141

in

= Cj(Ds/Dj) LJ3 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

Effective Panel Weight

Wg

20,069

lbs

= waBjLJ3 ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.2

ap/g

0.003%

in

Girder Calculations

Estimated Peak Acceleration

C-97

lbs/in
lbs/in2

uses parallel axis theorem

= It/S ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a

AISC Design Guide 11 4.3a


1/4

= Poexp(-0.35fn)/Wg ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.1

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

Combined System Calculations


Total Joist Deflection
Total Girder Deflection
Total Deflection
Total Natural Frequency

j
g
T
fnT

0.060
0.254
0.314
6.31

in
in
in
/s

average of all joist deflections

Total Effective Joist Weight

Wj

8,947

lbs

average of all effective joist weights

Total Effective Girder Weight

Wg

20,069

lbs

Total Effective Weight

WT

17,939

lbs

Estimated Peak Acceleration

ap/g

0.199%

Acceleration Limit

ao/g

0.5%

ap/g < ao/g ?

Yes

= 0.18*sqrt(g/T) ; AISC Design Guide 11 3.3

= j/(T)*Wj + g/(T)*Wg ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.4


= Poexp(-0.35fnT)/W ; AISC Design Guide 11 4.1

3.3.3 Vibration Analysis

C-98

3.4 Columns

99

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

100

3.4.2 Composite Column Design 114


3.4.3 Steel Column Design

118

3.0 Gravity Design


C-99

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

Created by:

CTM

2/15/2012

This series of spreadsheets calculates the gravity loads via tributary areas on the columns and core segments
summing over the height of the building to determine the axial load each column must resist under gravity.

General Information
Notes:
The self weight of the columns has not been addressed
Live loads were assumed to be non-reducible
Safety factors of 1.2 for dead loads and 1.6 for live loads were used
Bank 4 has been divided into 4a and 4b to correspond to the two floor plans received.
Each bank has the same loads applied over its height so the values are input at the bottom of the
bank and refenerenced on the higher levels.
The tributary area and function of each floor are input into the column spreadsheets, the spreadsheets
expand to allow for multiple loads types in which case the percentage is input to indicate a fraction of the
tributary area for each type.
Bank transitions have been shown on takedown sheets, omitted levels are identical to those immediately
above and below.
Column transfers have been included as necessary and may not appear in the sample calculations shown.
As the core size decreases going up the building the walls are not aligned axially causing an eccentricity from
the from the walls above. The core walls segments were checked as columns using an intaction diagram to
identify area where the ececntricity will cause need for extra reinforcing.
The circular core has been modeled as a trapezoidal shape to be used in the interaction diagram, the plans
and dimensions shown correspond to these models.

Loads
Area Loads
Core
Lobby(non core)
Open
None
Mechanical
Residential

Line Loads
Faade

DL
(psf)
55
32
0

SDL
(psf)
57
57
0

LL
(psf)
100
100
0

39
32.5

10
55

240
34

DL
(lbs/ft)
145

slab openings

this includes the hss on the edges, it is a very


rough guess

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-100

Column Load Summaries


Exterior Steel Columns
In Banks 1 and 2 the exterior ring of 21 columns is composed of three columns that repeat seven
times, so there are three load scenarios, labeled as columns 1, 3a, and 3b.
Banks 3 and 4 have 14 exterior columns, columns 1 and 2.
Column 1 extends the full height of the building
Column 2 exists in banks 3 and 4, it then splits in two columns for bank 2 and 1 to become 3a and 3b

set back in the column layout (going towards the core) have not been considered

Final Loads at Ground Level


(factored)
DL
(kips)
5590
n/a
4242
4242

Column 1
Column 2
Column 3a
Column 3b

SDL
(kips)
7564
n/a
5800
5800

LL
(kips)
7481
n/a
5837
5837

Core Concrete Columns


The core is divided into four columns, of two shapes, a large and small layout on each bank.
The layout of four columns is the same for Banks 1 through 3 but the dimensions decrease going up
the building.
Bank 4 core geometry has two columns (Top Core) that transfer loads into the four columns of bank 3.

Final Loads at Ground Level


(factored)
E-W Core
N-S Core
Top Core

DL
(kips)
9706
12096
n/a

SDL
(kips)
13171
14203
n/a

LL
(kips)
24221
43350
n/a

typical column plan

C-101

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

Tributary Area Data

Created by: CTM/CYW

12/3/2012

This information was calculated based on the preliminary architectural drawings using AutoCAD.
Associated hand calculations are included.

Exterior Steel Columns


Color key:

Bank 1
Number of Columns
Long Outer Radius
Short Outer Radius
Average Outer Radius
Radius to Column
Radius to Core
Column/Core Boundary Radius
Maximum Trib. Area
Max ext. length
Minimum Trib. Area
Min ext. length
Core Trib. Area Boundary Line

Bank 3
Number of Columns
Long Outer Radius
Short Outer Radius
Average Outer Radius
Radius to Column
Radius to Core
Column/Core Boundary Radius
Maximum Trib. Area
Max ext. length
Minimum Trib. Area
Min ext. length
Core Trib. Area Boundary Line

User Input
Used in column load takedown

21
96.0
84.1
90.1
75.5
41
58.3
1037.6
37.2
646.5
26.6
63.4

14
80.6
71.8
76.2
61
35.42
48.2
922.4
33.1
421.5
52.0

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft2
ft
2
ft
ft
ft

Bank 2
Number of Columns
Long Outer Radius
Short Outer Radius
Average Outer Radius
Radius to Column
Radius to Core
Column/Core Boundary Radius
Maximum Trib. Area
Max ext. length
Minimum Trib. Area
Min ext. length
Core Trib. Area Boundary Line

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft2
ft
ft2
ft
ft

Bank 4a
Number of Columns
Long Outer Radius
Short Outer Radius
Average Outer Radius
Radius to Column
Radius to Core
Column/Core Boundary Radius
Maximum Trib. Area
Max ext. length
Minimum Trib. Area
Min ext. length
Core Trib. Area Boundary Line

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

21
90.9
79.9
85.4
68.5
41
54.8
799.8
31.6
526.8
24.5
58.9

14
72.0
63.4
67.7
57.75
34.33
46.0
669.4
35.3
504.9
49.6

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft2
ft
2
ft
ft
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft2
ft
ft2
ft
ft

C-102

Bank 4b
Number of Columns
14
Long Outer Radius
65.3 ft
Short Outer Radius
59.4 ft
Average Outer Radius
62.4 ft
Radius to Column
49.625 ft
Radius to Core
33.6 ft
Column/Core Boundary Radius
41.6 ft
2
Maximum Trib. Area
570.5 ft
Max ext. length
32.1 ft
2
Minimum Trib. Area
441.3 ft
Min ext. length
ft
Core Trib. Area Boundary Line
44.0 ft

Core Concrete Columns


centroid distances are along the axis of symmetry, axis show in diagram to right

Bank 1
E-W Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
N-S Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
Open to Below

Area
2
(ft )
218
1575
245
409

Centroid
(ft)
4.4105
-6.6
11.39
13.00

Area
(ft2)
323
1490
425
313
138

Centroid
(ft)
5.55
-5.63
14.95
13.96

typical layout, dimensions vary per floor

C-103

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

Bank 2
E-W Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
N-S Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
Open to Below

Area Centroid
2
(ft )
(ft)
145.88
3.4
1301
-5.8
245
9
335
12
Area
(ft2)
231
1508
418
241
145

Centroid
(ft)
4.578
-4.85
12.45
13.0154

Area
2
(ft )
136.4
1185
222

Centroid
(ft)
3.1
-5.6
7

Area
(ft2)
247
1041
376
76
160

Centroid
(ft)
4.61
-4.88
9.95
13.11

Bank 3
E-W Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area

N-S Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
Open to Below

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-104

Bank 4a
E-W Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area
N-S Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area

Area
2
(ft )

Centroid
(ft)
3.6684
956.275 -5.1164
189.96 8.5061
Area
(ft2)
1172
590
113

Centroid
(ft)
2.3315
-5.89
11.6333
11.57

Area
2
(ft )
157
1367
728
196

Centroid
(ft)
4.5649
5.7874
9.9475
22.308

Bank 4b
Top Core
Column
Residential Tributary Area
Mechanical Tributary Area
Lobby Tributary Area

C-105

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

Column 1

Loads From This Floor


DL
SDL
LL

Function

MidasGen Loads
DL+SDL
LL

...
137
137
137
19
39
252
272
291
314
336
...

905
960
1,014
1,078
1,142
...

19
19
19
23
23
...

55
55
55
64
64
...

403
434
466
502
538
...

531
568
606
650
694
...

556
583
611
644
676
...

252
272
291
314
336
...

442
474
505
542
579
...

463
486
509
536
563
...

4.7
4.7
4.7
5.1
5.1
...

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
...

32.1
32.1
32
35.3
35.3
...

19.4
19.4
19.4
22.8
22.8
...

31.4
31.4
31.4
36.8
36.8
...

18.5
18.5
18.5
21.8
21.8
...

100
100
100
100
100
...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
Residential
...

571
571
571
669
669
...

132
131
130
129
128
...

4
4
4
4
4
...

...

...
130
163
196
250
305
...

...
137
137
137
19
19
...

...
33
33
33
55
55
...

...
219
219
219
31
62
...

...
27
34
41
79
116
...

...
129
161
194
222
249
...

...
137
137
137
19
39
...

...
23
29
34
66
97
...

...
108
135
161
185
208
...

...
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
...

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
...

32.1
32.1
32
32.1
32.1
...

136.9
136.9
136.9
19.4
19.4
...

5.7
5.7
5.7
31.4
31.4
...

22.2
22.2
22.2
18.5
18.5
...

100
100
100
100
100
...

Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Residential
Residential
...

571
571
571
571
571
...

147
146
145
144
143
...

4
4
4
4
4
...

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

Column Design
Total DL
LL
unfactored
DL + SDL
(kips)
(kips)

...

Factored Loads
SDL
LL
= total
= total
SDL*1.2
LL*1.6
(kips)
(kips)

...

DL
= total
DL*1.2
(kips)

...

loads taken from summary sheet


(kips)
(kips)
(kips)

Total Loads
DL
SDL
LL
sum of: above, column transfer,
exterior edge, and floor loads
(kips)
(kips)
(kips)

...

Exterior Edge Loads


Load Type
DL: from
summary sheet
(kips)

...

Use

Ext. Lng
from trib
sheet
(ft)

...

Trib Area
from trib
sheet
ft^2

...

Level

...

Bank

4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3

114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107

669
669
669
669
922
922
922
922

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
None
Mechanical
Residential
Residential

100
100
100
100

21.8
21.8
21.8
21.4
0.0
36.0
30.0
30.0

36.8
36.8
36.8
38.2
0.0
9.2
50.7
50.7

22.8
22.8
22.8
66.9
0.0
221.4
31.4
31.4

35.3
35.3
35
35
33
33
33.1
33.1

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade

5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8

939
966
993
1,020
1,024
1,065
1,100
1,135

1,094
1,131
1,168
1,206
1,206
1,215
1,266
1,316

655
678
701
768
768
989
1,020
1,052

1,127
1,160
1,192
1,224
1,229
1,278
1,320
1,362

1,313
1,357
1,401
1,447
1,447
1,458
1,519
1,580

1,048
1,085
1,121
1,228
1,228
1,582
1,632
1,683

64
64
64
65
5
50
86
86

23
23
23
67
0
221
31
31

2,033
2,097
2,161
2,225
2,230
2,280
2,366
2,451

655
678
701
768
768
989
1,020
1,052
...
...

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4

3,209
3,239
3,270
3,300
3,306
3,351
3,391
3,430

4,276
4,320
4,364
4,410
4,410
4,420
4,477
4,534

3,128
3,155
3,182
3,262
3,262
3,511
3,547
3,582

3,851
3,887
3,924
3,960
3,967
4,022
4,069
4,116

5,131
5,184
5,237
5,291
5,291
5,304
5,372
5,441

5,005
5,048
5,092
5,220
5,220
5,618
5,675
5,731

75
75
75
76
5
56
96
96

27
27
27
80
0
249
35
35

7,485
7,559
7,634
7,710
7,715
7,771
7,868
7,964

3,128
3,155
3,182
3,262
3,262
3,511
3,547
3,582
...

...
...

31.6
31.6
32
32
37
37
37.2
37.2

...

...
...

27.2
27.2
27.2
80.0
0.0
249.0
35.3
35.3

...

...
...

44.0
44.0
44.0
45.6
0.0
10.4
57.1
57.1

...

...
...

26.0
26.0
26.0
25.6
0.0
40.5
33.7
33.7

...

...
...

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

...

...
...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
None
Mechanical
Residential
Residential

...

...
...

800
800
800
800
1,038
1,038
1,038
1,038

...

...
...

43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36

...

...
...

2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

...

...
...

1,992
2,024
2,055
2,147
2,147
2,339
2,367
2,394

...

...

5,016
5,102
5,187
5,274
5,279
5,323
5,397
5,472

...

31
31
31
92
0
192
27
27

...

...

86
86
86
87
5
44
75
75

...

3,188
3,238
3,288
3,436
3,436
3,743
3,786
3,830

...

...

3,406
3,467
3,528
3,591
3,591
3,600
3,653
3,706

...

2,614
2,656
2,697
2,738
2,744
2,787
2,824
2,860

...

...

1,992
2,024
2,055
2,147
2,147
2,339
2,367
2,394

...

2,838
2,889
2,940
2,992
2,992
3,000
3,044
3,088

...

...

2,178
2,213
2,248
2,282
2,287
2,322
2,353
2,384

...

4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6

...

...

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade

...

33.1
33.1
33
33
32
32
31.6
31.6

...

...

31.4
31.4
31.4
92.2
0.0
192.0
27.2
27.2

...

50.7
50.7
50.7
52.6
0.0
8.0
44.0
44.0

...

...

30.0
30.0
30.0
29.5
0.0
31.2
26.0
26.0

...

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

...

...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
None
Mechanical
Residential
Residential

...

922
922
922
922
800
800
800
800

...

77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70

...

3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2

...

...

100
100
100

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1,038
1,038
1,038

Residential
Residential
Residential

100
100
100

33.7
33.7
33.7

57.1
57.1
57.1

35.3
35.3
35.3

37.2
37.2
37
37.2
37.2
37.2

Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade
Faade

5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4

4,564
4,603
4,642
4,648
4,653
4,659
4,659

6,189
6,246
6,303
6,303
6,303
6,303
6,303

4,605
4,640
4,676
4,676
4,676
4,676
4,676

5,477
5,524
5,571
5,577
5,584
5,590
5,590

7,427
7,495
7,564
7,564
7,564
7,564
7,564

7,368
7,424
7,481
7,481
7,481
7,481
7,481

96
96
96
5
5
5

35
35
35
0
0
0

10,753
10,849
10,946
10,951
10,956
10,962
10,962

4,605
4,640
4,676
4,676
4,676
4,676
4,676

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-106

N-S Core
Notes: Baseline point is the left edge along the axis of symmetry, notated with a zero
Unless otherwise noted eccentricities are measured from the baseline
Column transfers are extimated based on geometry, some load is going to walls around elevators, not currently considered
Bldg
Centroid to Side Center to
used as baseline Centroid
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
Bank 4a

Bank

Level

(ft)

(ft)

5.5
4.578
4.61
2.3315

36.8
35.3
30.8
28.8

Trib Area

b2
(ft)
10.15
9.65

28.86

4.89

Function 1

Function 2

Function 3

levels where column size will be checked/designed

Total Loads By Function, Factored


1
2
3
4

Function 4

...
18,567
19,049
19,530
20,138
20,326
21,002
21,366
21,730

238
238
238

C-107

...

0.0
0.0
0

8,037
8,138
8,239
8,343
8,365
8,402
8,506
8,610

19,755
19,935
20,114
20,393
20,527
21,018
21,202
21,386

8,405
8,500
8,595
8,689
8,730
8,840
8,939
9,037

9,645
9,766
9,887
10,012
10,038
10,082
10,207
10,332

31,608
31,895
32,183
32,629
32,843
33,629
33,923
34,218

4.27
4.27
4.27
2.05
14.63
0.41
5.34
5.34

503.54
503.54
503.54
665.43
280.52
940.55
518.12
518.12

-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
1.426
0.050
-0.091
-0.002
-0.002

49,658
50,161
50,665
51,330
51,611
52,551
53,069
53,587
...

5.8
5.8
5.8

...

Open
Open
Open

7,004
7,083
7,163
7,241
7,275
7,367
7,449
7,531

...

14.0
14.0
13.96

...

13.2
13.2
13.2

179.61
179.61
179.61
279.10
133.44
491.18
184.12
184.12

...

Core
Core
Core

...

15.0
15.0
14.95

100.96
100.96
100.96
103.98
22.06
36.97
104.04
104.04

...

18.0
18.0
18

...

Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical

79.17
79.17
79.17
78.41
33.79
91.92
82.23
82.23

...

-5.6
-5.6
-5.63

...

63.0
63.0
63

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

...

Residential
Residential
Residential

...

2366
2366
2366

71
71
71
71
92
92
92
92

...

7
6
5
4
3
2
1

...

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

192
192
192
192
189
189
189
189

...

240
240
240
402
0
660
238
238

...

0.0
0.0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0

...

5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8

...

Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open

...

13.0
13.0
13.0154
13.0154
13.96
13.96
14.0
14.0

...

10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2

...

Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core

...

12.5
12.5
12.45
12.45
14.95
14.95
15.0
15.0

...

18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8
18
18
18.0
18.0

...

Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical

...

-4.9
-4.9
-4.85
-4.85
-5.63
-5.63
-5.6
-5.6

...

65.2
65.2
65.2
65.2
63
63
63.0
63.0

...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
Open
Mechanical
Residential
Residential

...

2312
2312
2312
2312
2366
2366
2366
2366

...

43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36

...

2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

...

32,651
33,015
33,379
33,861
34,124
35,055
35,559
36,062

...

-0.021
-0.021
-0.021
4.373
0.062
-0.119
-0.004
-0.004

...

364.02
364.02
364.02
482.26
263.25
930.74
503.54
503.54

...

2.71
2.71
2.71
0.85
12.60
0.09
4.27
4.27

...

21,520
21,736
21,952
22,284
22,490
23,274
23,561
23,849

...

5,820
5,902
5,985
6,070
6,091
6,131
6,252
6,373

...

5,311
5,377
5,442
5,507
5,543
5,650
5,745
5,840

...

13,450
13,585
13,720
13,928
14,056
14,546
14,726
14,905

...

4,850
4,919
4,987
5,058
5,076
5,109
5,210
5,311

...

4,426
4,481
4,535
4,589
4,619
4,708
4,788
4,867

...

135.09
135.09
135.09
207.75
128.36
490.14
179.61
179.61

...

68.64
68.64
68.64
70.84
18.05
33.13
100.96
100.96

...

54.60
54.60
54.60
54.04
30.18
88.97
79.17
79.17

...

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

...

22
22
22
22
71
71
71
71

...

166
166
166
166
192
192
192
192

...

175
175
175
294
0
667
240
240

...

0.0
0.0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0

...

6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6

...

Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open

...

8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
13.0154
13.0154
13.0
13.0

...

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4

...

Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core

...

10.0
10.0
9.95
9.95
12.45
12.45
12.5
12.5

...

22.7
22.7
22.7
22.7
18.8
18.8
18.8
18.8

...

Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical

...

-4.9
-4.9
-4.88
-4.88
-4.85
-4.85
-4.9
-4.9

...

66.6
66.6
66.6
66.6
65.2
65.2
65.2
65.2

...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
Open
Mechanical
Residential
Residential

...

1653
1653
1653
1653
2312
2312
2312
2312

...

77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70

...

3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2

...

...

...
0.065
0.063
0.062
1.870
0.048
-0.174
-0.032
-0.032
...

481.45
481.45
481.45
607.31
188.54
676.02
364.02
364.02
...

4.83
4.83
4.83
2.61
9.78
-0.79
2.71
2.71
...

12,818
13,127
13,435
13,868
14,024
14,603
14,819
15,035
...

2,873
2,965
3,057
3,152
3,161
3,184
3,267
3,349
...

2,876
2,957
3,038
3,118
3,141
3,215
3,280
3,346
...

8,011
8,204
8,397
8,667
8,765
9,127
9,262
9,397
...

2,394
2,471
2,547
2,626
2,635
2,654
2,722
2,791
...

2,397
2,464
2,532
2,598
2,617
2,679
2,734
2,788
...

192.84
192.84
192.84
270.19
97.66
361.87
135.09
135.09
...

76.77
76.77
76.77
79.12
8.09
19.10
68.64
68.64
...

67.31
67.31
67.31
66.72
18.82
61.75
54.60
54.60
...

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
...

33
33
33
33
22
22
22
22
...

262
262
262
262
166
166
166
166
...

187
187
187
313
0
487
175
175
...

0.0
0.0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
...

0.0
0.0
0
0
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
...

None
None
None
None
Open
Open
Open
Open
...

11.6
11.6
11.57
11.57
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
...

6.0
6.0
6
6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
...

Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
Core
...

11.6
11.6
11.6333
11.6333
9.95
9.95
10.0
10.0
...

31.5
31.5
31.5
31.5
22.7
22.7
22.7
22.7
...

Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
...

-5.9
-5.9
-5.89
-5.89
-4.88
-4.88
-4.9
-4.9
...

62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
66.6
66.6
66.6
66.6
...

Residential
Residential
Residential
Lobby(non core)
Open
Mechanical
Residential
Residential
...

1875
1875
1875
1875
1653
1653
1653
1653
...

114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
...

4a
4a
4a
3
3
3
3
3
...

...

(kips)

...

(ft)

...

(kips)

...

(ft)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

...

(kips)

Net Fact.
Loads

...

(kips)

Net
Eccentricity
from centroid

...

(kips)

net factored
loads per level

...

Dist to
Baseline

eccen
per level

...

Factored Loads
DL
SDL
LL

...

Use

DL

Total Loads
SDL
LL

...

Dist to
Baseline

Loads From This Floor


(Unfactored)
DL
SDL
LL

...

5.00
-1.01

...

Use

positive eccentricities
eccentricities

...

Dist to
Baseline

h4
(ft)
21.72
20.75
16.64
9.67

...

h3
(ft)
13.08
14.58
12.69
5.90

...

Use

h2
(ft)
5.08
2.52
3.95
1.00

...

Dist to
Baseline

h1
(ft)
3.56
3.65
0.00
2.77

...

b4
(ft)
38.58
38.58
42.73
38.63

...

Use

b3
(ft)
1.00
1.00
3.08
1.00

...

ft^2

b1
(ft)
18.29
19.29

189
189
189

92
92
92

0
0
0

82.23
82.23
82.23

104.04
104.04
104.04

184.12
184.12
184.12

9,916
9,998
10,080
10,080
10,080
10,080
10,080

11,627
11,731
11,835
11,835
11,835
11,835
11,835

26,726
26,910
27,094
27,094
27,094
27,094
27,094

11,899
11,998
12,096
12,096
12,096
12,096
12,096

13,953
14,078
14,203
14,203
14,203
14,203
14,203

42,761
43,056
43,350
43,350
43,350
43,350
43,350

5.34
5.34
5.34

518.12
518.12
518.12

-0.001
-0.001
-0.001

68,613
69,131
69,649
69,649
69,649
69,649
69,649

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

Core Columns to Evaluate

Created by: CTM

These are the levels where we are going to check the columns on the interaction diagram
We are considering each bank to be one column since it is all the same shape
We selected the bottom of each bank where the loads are largest and the top where the eccentricity is
greatest to plot on the interaction diagrams. This gives two points per core section per bank that need to
be plotted.

E-W Core

Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
Bank 4a

Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top

Eccentricity
(ft)
0.000
1.210
-0.015
5.895
0.047
0.834
-0.185
9.031

Load
(kips)
47098
30211
29657
15818
15437
6069
5758
2217

Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top

Eccentricity
(ft)
0.000
1.426
-0.003
4.373
-0.021
1.870
0.062
4.836

Load
(kips)
69649
51330
50665
33861
33379
20138
19530
11346

Bottom
Top

Eccentricity
(ft)
0.203
10.110

Load
(kips)
14882
986

N-S Core

Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
Bank 4a

Top Core

Bank 4b

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-108

Column Interaction Diagrams for Core Segments Under Gravity


These diagrams show where the initial wall size estimates need to be increased and reinforced to
address the moments resulting from the eccentricity of the core walls above each bank. The core was
evaluated with little to no rebar to understand the response of the concrete. Lateral loads have no
yet been addressed the sizes will need to be adjusted further after these loads are considered.

E-W Bank 1

C-109

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

E-W Bank 2

E-W Bank 3

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-110

E-W Bank 4a

N-S Bank 1

C-111

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

N-S Bank 2

N-S Bank 3

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

C-112

N-S Bank 4a

C-113

3.4.1 Column Load Takedown

3.4.2 Composite Column Design


This sheet summarizes the dimensions of the composite column with an embedded steel shape. It shows the
different sizes for Column 1, 2, and 3A & 3B.

Summary Tables

Bank Level
145
134
4
123
111
100
87
3
74
64
2
52
40
29
17
1
5
Lobby

Column 1 C1 Width (in)


W14X99
12
W14X99
12
W14X193
18
W14X342
18
W14X145
24
W14X342
24
W14X342
30
W14X99
36
W14X283
36
W14X426
36
W14X90
42
W14X342
42
W14X109
48
W14X132
48

Column Sizing Column 1


C1 Length (in) C1 Bar Size C1 # Bars C1 Tie Size
12
8
0
8
16
8
2
8
18
8
2
8
18
8
6
8
24
8
6
8
24
11
12
8
30
9
4
8
36
10
18
8
36
14
16
8
36
18
18
8
42
18
18
8
42
18
18
8
48
18
18
8
48
18
18
8

C1 Tie Spacing
6
6
9
9
12
12
15
18
18
18
21
21
24
24

Column Sizing Column 2


Bank Level
145
134
4
123
111
100
3
87
74
64
2
52
40
29
17
1
5
Lobby

Column 2 C2 Width (in)


W14X99
12
W14X99
12
W14X193
18
W14X342
18
W14X145
24
W14X342
24
W14X342
30

C2 Length (in)
12
16
18
18
24
24
30

C2 Bar Size C2 # Bars C2 Tie Size


8
0
8
8
2
8
8
2
8
8
6
8
8
6
8
11
12
8
9
4
8

3.4.2 Composite Column Design

C2 Tie Spacing
6
6
9
9
12
12
15

C-114

Bank Level
145
134
4
123
111
100
3
87
74
64
2
52
40
29
17
1
5
Lobby

C-115

Column
3A & 3B

C3AB
Width(in)

W14X99
W14X311
W14X455
W14X398
W14X605
W14X311
W14X342

24
24
24
30
30
36
36

Column Sizing Column 3A & 3B


C3AB
Length(in)
C3 Bar Size C3 # Bars C3 Tie Size

24
24
24
30
30
36
36

9
9
9
14
14
18
18

3.4.2 Composite Column Design

5
4
9
5
9
9
8

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

C3 Tie Spacing

12
12
12
15
15
18
18

Composite Column Design

Created by:

DF/JL

12/9/2011

This spreadsheet calculates the compressive capacity of a W-shape embedded in concrete using AISC
Chapter I2
Bank
Location
Column

2
Floor 40
1

Color Key:

Yes
No

Overall Checks
Limitations Pass?
Axial Capacity Pass?
% Capacity Used

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

YES
YES
92.9%

Loading Sheet
Factored Tributary Loads
Weight of Steel above 52
Weight of Concrete above 52
Weight of Steel between 52-40
Weight of Concrete between 52-40
Total Factored Load

Pu

14,471
295
718
67
193
15,745

kips
kips
kips
kips
kips
kips

Detailing Requirements
36
48
18
18
16

16*Reinforcing Diameter
48*Tie Diameter
0.5*Min Dimension
Tie Spacing
Minimum Shear Stud Spacing

in
in
in
in
in

AISC I2-1f
AISC I2-1f
AISC I2-1f
AISC I2-1f
AISC I2-1f

Inputs
Steel Section
Column Width
Column Length
Effective Length Factor
Unbraced Height of Column
Concrete Comp. Strength
Concrete Density
Reinforcing Bar Size
Reinforcing Bar Diameter

b
Lc
K
H
f'c
c

W14X426
36
in
36
in
1
158
in
14
ksi
lbs/ft3
160

dbar

#18
2.257

in

Reinforcing Bar Area

Abar

in

Number of bars per side


Tie Size
Number of Ties
Tie Spacing

nbars

9
#8
#5
18

in

nties

3.4.2 Composite Column Design

C-116

Tie Area

Atr

0.31

in

Tie Bar Diameter


Shear Stud Spacing
Cover

dtie

0.625
15
1.5

in
in
in

s
c

Limitations
Steel at least 1%?
Minimum Transverse reinforcement ok?
Reinforcement ratio ok?

YES
YES
YES

AISC I2-1a
AISC I2-1a
AISC I2-1a

Parameters
2

Area of Steel Section

As

125

in

Area of Rebar

Asr

72

in

Area of Ties
Gross Area

Atr
Ag

6
1,296

= Abar*nbar

in

= Atr * nties

in

= b*Lc

Area of Concrete

Ac

1,099

in

= Ag - As

Modulus of Elasticity Concrete

Ec

7,573

ksi

= c1.5* f'c0.5

Modulus of Elasticity Steel

Es

29,000 ksi

Min. Yield Stress Steel Section

Fy

50

ksi

Min. Yield Stress Bars

Fyr

60

Inertia of Steel Section

Is

1,110

ksi
in4

Inertia of Steel Bars


Inertia of Concrete

4
Isr 17,035 in
4
Ic 121,823 in

C1
Effective Stiffness

= 2*nbar* *dbar4/64 + Abard2


= b*Lc3/12 - Is - Isr
= 0.1 + 2*(As/ (Ac + As)) < 0.3; AISC I2-6

0.3
2

EIeff 5.56E+08 kip-in

= EsIs + 0.5*Es*Isr + C1*EC*IC; AISC I2-7

Compressive Strength
Axial Strength of Steel Section

Ps

6,250

kips

= As*Fy

Axial Strength of Steel Rebar

Psr

4,320

kips

= Asr*Fyr

Axial Strength of Concrete

Pc 13,078 kips

= 0.85 * f'c * Ac

Axial Compressive Strength

Po 23,648 kips

= Ps + Psr + Pc; AISC I2-4

Effective Compressive Strength

Pe 219,799 kips

= 2*EIeff/(K*H)2; AISC I2-5

Nominal Compressive Strength

Pn

= PO*(0.658(Po/Pe)); AISC I2-2

LRFD Compressive Factor


Factored Nominal Strength

C-117

c
cP n

22,607 kips
0.75
16,955 kips

3.4.2 Composite Column Design

3.4.3 Steel Column Design

Created by:

NC

12/9/2012

The steel column design tool assists in designing steel columns from W-shapes for pure axial load as per
AISC Steel Construction Manual 13th Edition, Chapter E.
Color Key:
Bank
Floors
Column

4
134-150
1
Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Material Properties
Nominal Steel Strength
Reduction Factor
Length of Column
Effective Length Factor
Steel Modulus of Elasticity

Fy

L
K
Es

50
ksi
0.9
158
in
1.0
29,000,000 psi

Section Properties
Chosen Section for Column

Wsection W14 x 99

Section Area
Radius of Gyration (Strong)

A
rx

29.1
6.17

in2
in

Radius of Gyration (Weak)

ry

3.71

Moment of Inertia (Strong)

Ix

1,110

in
in4

Moment of Inertia (Weak)

Iy

402

in4

Plastic Section Modulus (Strong)

Zx

173

in3

Plastic Section Modulus (Weak)

Zy

83.6

in3

Section Modulus (Strong)

Sx

157

in3

Section Modulus (Weak)

Sy

55

in3

Polar Moment of Inertia

5.37

in4

1,042
0.099

kips
kips/ft

Geometry and Loads


Factored Load (from CLT)
Column Self-Weight

wslf
nfloors

16

Pself

21

kips

= nfloors*L*wslf

Pu

1,063

kips

= P+Pself

Effective Length (Strong)

Le,x

25.6

= K*L/rx

Effective Length (Weak)

Le,y
Leff

42.6

= K*L/ry
Max (Le,x , Le,y)

Number of Floors
Load from Column Self-Weight
Total Factored Load

Chosen Effective Length

42.6

3.4.3 Steel Column Design

C-118

Load Capacity
Allowable Squash Stress
Elastic Critical Buckling Stress
Elastic Buckling Limit
Flexural Buckling Stress
Maximum Axial Load
Reduction Factor
Factored Max Axial Load
Check:

C-119

Fy

45

ksi

Fe

158

kips

Flim

113

Fcr

43.8

ksi

Pmax

1,274

kips

0.9
1,147
Yes

kips

Pmax
Pmax > Pu?

3.4.3 Steel Column Design

E3-4
4.71(E/Fy)

1/2

If Leff Flim use E3-2 else


use E3-3
= Fcr*A

4.0 Lateral Design


4.1 Building as a Cantilever

121

4.2 MIDAS Gen FEA Summary

124

4.3 Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation - No Outriggers


4.4 Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation - Outriggers
4.5 Core Rebar Design

125

128

131

4.5.1 Design of Core Rebar for Vertical and Horizontal Shear

132

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity

134

4.5.3 Mathcad for Bank 4 Strong Axis Bending

138

4.6 Energy Method Optimization

156

4.6.1 Optimization Calculations

158

4.6.2 Resizing of Built-Up Members

161

4.0 Lateral Design


C-120

4.1 Preliminary Deflection Calculations

Created by:

CYW

5/11/2012

Generate sectional properties of the core wall for a simple cantilever deflection check in MASTAN.
Bank:
Location:

1 to 4
Core

Bank 1 Properties
tc

Wall thickness
Centerline radius
Centerline circumference

Cc

7
40
251

ft
ft
ft

Rc

= 2**Rc

Outer radius

Ro

43.5

ft

= Rc+tc/2

Inner radius

Ri

36.5

= Rc-tc/2

Moment of inertia (100% solid wall)


Opening length in core/gap
Number of gaps
Total open length in core
Percentage of solid wall

Ic

1,418,209
15
4
60
76%

ft
4
ft

Log
Ng
Lo
Ps

Transformed moment of inertia (with openings)


Bank 1 height
Concrete strength

It

h
f'c
Econc

Concrete modulus
Total Bank 1 wind load from RWDI
Distributed wind load

wtotal
w

= /4*(Ro2-Ri2)

ft
ft

= Log*Ng

= 100% - L o/Cc
4

1,079,637
513.5
14,000

ft
ft
psi

= Ic*Ps

6,744,331
2,108
4.1

psi
kips
kips/ft

= 57,000*f'c1/2 ; ACI 318-08 8.5

= wtotal/h

Bank 2 Properties
tc

Wall thickness
Centerline radius
Centerline circumference

Cc

4
39
245

ft
ft
ft

Rc

= 2**Rc

Outer radius

Ro

41.0

ft

= Rc+tc/2

Inner radius

Ri

37.0

= Rc-tc/2

Moment of inertia (100% solid wall)


Opening length in core/gap
Number of gaps
Total open length in core
Percentage of solid wall

Ic

747,385
15
4
60
76%

ft
ft4

Log
Ng
Lo
Ps

Transformed moment of inertia (with openings)


Bank 2 height
Concrete strength
Concrete modulus
Total Bank 2 wind load from RWDI
Distributed wind load

C-121

It

h
f'c
Econc
wtotal
w

564,385
448
14,000
6,744,331
2,111
4.7

= /4*(Ro2-Ri2)

ft
ft

= Log*Ng

= 100% - L o/Cc
ft4
ft
psi

= Ic*Ps

psi
kips
kips/ft

= 57,000*f'c1/2 ; ACI 318-08 8.5

4.1 Preliminary Deflection Calculations

= wtotal/h

Bank 3 Properties
tc

Wall thickness
Centerline radius
Centerline circumference

Cc

3
38
239

ft
ft
ft

Rc

= 2**Rc

Outer radius

Ro

39.5

ft

= Rc+tc/2

Inner radius

Ri

36.5

= Rc-tc/2

Moment of inertia (100% solid wall)


Opening length in core/gap
Number of gaps
Total open length in core
Percentage of solid wall

Ic

517,962
15
4
60
75%

ft
4
ft

Log
Ng
Lo
Ps

Transformed moment of inertia (with openings)


Bank 3 height
Concrete strength

It

h
f'c
Econc

Concrete modulus
Total Bank 3 wind load from RWDI
Distributed wind load

wtotal
w

387,800
487
14,000
6,744,331
2,544
5.2

= /4*(Ro -Ri )

ft
ft

= Log*Ng

= 100% - L o/Cc
4

ft
ft
psi

= Ic*Ps

psi
kips
kips/ft

= 57,000*f'c1/2 ; ACI 318-08 8.5

= wtotal/h

Bank 4 Properties
tc

Wall thickness
Centerline radius
Centerline circumference

Cc

2
34
210

ft
ft
ft

Rc

= 2**Rc

Outer radius

Ro

34.5

ft

= Rc+tc/2

Inner radius

Ri

32.5

= Rc-tc/2

Moment of inertia (100% solid wall)


Opening length in core/gap
Number of gaps
Total open length in core
Percentage of solid wall

Ic

236,429
15
2
30
86%

ft
ft4

Log
Ng
Lo
Ps

Transformed moment of inertia (with openings)


Bank 4 height
Concrete strength
Concrete modulus
Total Bank 4 wind load from RWDI
Distributed wind load

It

h
f'c
Econc
wtotal
w

202,732
448
14,000
6,744,331
2,394
5.3

= /4*(Ro2-Ri2)

ft
ft

= Log*Ng

= 100% - L o/Cc
4

ft
ft
psi

= Ic*Ps

psi
kips
kips/ft

= 57,000*f'c1/2 ; ACI 318-08 8.5

4.1 Preliminary Deflection Calculations

= wtotal/h

C-122

MASTAN Output

Undeformed

Maximum deflection

C-123

Deformed

10.79

ft

4.1 Preliminary Deflection Calculations

4.2 MIDAS Gen FEA Summary

Created by: CYW 5/11/2012

A detailed three dimensional structural analysis of the Spire was conducted using MIDAS Gen. All material
properties and baseline element shapes were taken from initial lateral and gravity design. Vertical members,
outriggers and belt trusses, and core wall thicknesses were resized throughout the iterative modeling process
based on element forces and moments, and serviceability requirements.

Modeling Approach

Loading Conditions

The model spans from the lobby at ground


elevation to the top of level 144.
The mega-columns and core wall at the ground
elevation are fixed to the ground.
All belt trusses and outriggers are modeled with
pin-pin end-releases.
All other structural elements have been applied
fixed-fixed end-releases.
Core walls are modeled as thick plate element with
drilling DOF.
Outriggers are modeled as truss elements.
X-bracing belt trusses between Bank 1 and Bank 2
are modeled as beam elements.
All other belt trusses are modeled as truss
elements.
Composite floor beams are modeled as W-Shape
Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) in cross section
properties. The width chosen in these SRC beams
are based on the effective width of the composite
beam from the gravity design.
Cantilevers and angled floor girders outside of the
exterior column grid are not modeled.
Hypothetical tuned mass damper and mechanical
floors at the Spires peak are not modeled.
Concrete strength of f'c = 14,000 psi is used in all
vertical concrete elements.
Concrete strength of f'c = 4,000 psi is used in all
horizontal concrete elements.
ASTM A992 standard with Fy = 50,000 psi steel is
used.

The wind data from wind tunnel testing is used


directly for strength design.
The wind data from wind tunnel testing is reduced
by a factor of 0.83 for serviceability design.
All lateral forces are applied along the z-axis at
each floor.
Unfactored dead loads and live loads from the
column load takedown were applied to nodes at
column ends.
The total unfactored dead load and live load for
the core was split equally into nodal forces to the
nodes connecting the radial girders to the core walls
or link beams.
MIDAS Gen calculates material self-weight in the
analysis, thus no self-weight is considered in applied
dead loads.
54 load combinations are used for strength design
checks.
24 load combinations are used for serviceability
design checks.

z
x
Undeformed Shape in MIDAS Gen model

C-124

4.2 MIDAS Gen FEA Summary

C-125

Created by: CJB & ADV

1/20/2012

160
13.2

Ec

14

6744331

f'c

626,016

983,313

Ac

Ic
Vc

Concrete Area
Concrete Moment of Inertia
Concrete Volume

LL
Wc

Mw
Ms

Floor Live Load


Core Self Weight Above

Wind Moment

9,410,000
8,821,667

84,464
354,663

81,958

6.93

Allowable Compression

-0.887

-3.610

Tapp

fcomp
fr

Applied Tension

Allowable Tension

6.468

Applied Compression

Capp

Bank

59,908
197,333

56,024

ksi

-2.989

4.647

5,160,000
5,485,154

ksi

Maximum Applied Stresses and Allowable Stresses

Seismic Moment

DL

Floor Dead Load

Loads and Moments per Bank per Floor

961,063

1,394,364

t
Ro

Thickness
Outer Radius
1395

1910

Ri

2
40
34
6
40

1
1
34
8
42

pcf
ft

ksi

ksi

Bank
Floor
Inner Radius

Core Properties per Bank per Floor

Density of concrete
Floor-to-floor height

Concrete Strength
Conc. Mod. of Elasticity

Concrete and Building Properties

-1.463

2.066

4a

570,000
802,276

21,238
30,395

15,356

125,278

175,954

500

4a
111
25
3
28
ft^2

ft
ft
ft

kip
kip

kip

ft^3

-0.465

1.050

4b

ksi

ksi

120,000 kip-ft
225,348 kip-ft

13,496
10,351

6,810

64,692

110,597 ft^4

327

4b
130
25
2
27

Passes Check
Fails Check

Calc/Lookup

Constant/Previous Calc.

User Input

= 7.5 * (f'c)^.5; ACI318 9.5.2.3 Modulus of Rupture

= 0.55* * f'c; ACI 318 14.5.2

These are the max values from the load combinations below. Green:
value is less than allowable. Red: value is greater than allowable.

Unfactored moments from Seismic forces in Seismic Loads.xls

Unfactored moments From Wind Tunnel Loads in Wind Loads.xls

= c * (Concrete Volume Above)

Unfactored loads calculated from cumulative forces on core wall


sections found in "Column Load Takedown.xls"

= (# of floors) * Ac * h

= (/4) * (Ro4 - Ri4)

= * (Ro2 - Ri2)

= Ri + t

Core wall designed for critical stresses at the base of the listed floor (i.e.
stresses from floor 40 dictate core wall design for floors 40-73)

Notes

Yes
No

4.2 Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation - No Outriggers

-2.698

3.552

2,420,000
2,859,767

37,076
97,170

33,366

417,344

495,618

855

3
74
32
4
36

= 57000*(f'c); ACI318 8.5.1

COLORS KEY:

This spreadsheet uses inputed gravity loads and moments induced by lateral seismic and wind forces to calculate the required core thickness. The calculations are only based on the
core for lateral resistance; outriggers are not included. For outriggers, see the sister sheet to this one, "Core Wall Calculation - Outriggers". The user can change the core properties
to design for the moments, based on 6 of the ASCE7 load combinations.

4.2 Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation - No Outriggers

C-126

FDL
c

FDL
FLL
c

fb

ft

c
t

Lateral Compression Stress

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

FLL
fa

fb

ft

c
t

Lateral Compression Stress

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

FDL
FMs

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Seismic Moment
Factored Live Load
Axial Compression Stress

Load Combination 5: 1.2D + 1.0E + L

LL
fa

FDL
FMw

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Wind Moment
Live Load
Axial Compression Stress

Load Combination 4: 1.2D + 1.6W + L

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Live Load
Net Compression Stress

Load Combination 2: 1.2D + 1.6L

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Net Compression Stress

Load Combination 1: 1.4D

2.909
-0.262

N/A

-1.585

1.585

40
304,028
5,485,154
59,908
1.323

4.057

-1.845

1.845

1
523,945
8,821,667
84,464
2.212

4.198
-0.574

5.361

-2.386

2.386

-0.937

-3.149

3.149

40
304,028
8,256,000
59,908
1.812

1.991

2.396

1
523,945
15,056,000
84,464
2.212

40
304,028
95,853

40
354,700
1.766

1
523,945
135,142

1
611,269
2.222

-0.610

1.163

-0.887

0.887

111
54,901
802,276
21,238
0.277

N/A

2.066

-1.008

1.008

111
54,901
912,000
21,238
1.059

1.236

111
54,901
33,981

111
64,052
0.890

-0.258

0.506

-0.382

0.382

130
20,593
225,348
13,496
0.124

N/A

1.050

-0.326

0.326

130
20,593
192,000
13,496
0.725

0.897

130
20,593
21,594

130
24,025
0.511

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip
kip-ft
kip
ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip
kip-ft
kip
ksi

kip
kip
ksi

kip
ksi

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMs*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.0 * (LL); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= 1.2 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.0 * (Ms); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMw*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.2 * LL; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= 1.2 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.6 * Mw; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.2* (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.6* LL; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= FDL/Ac

= 1.4* (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

4.2 Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation - No Outriggers

-0.738

2.147

-1.443

1.443

74
156,643
2,859,767
37,076
0.704

-0.379

3.527

-1.953

1.953

74
156,643
3,872,000
37,076
1.574

1.755

74
156,643
59,322

74
182,751
1.485

Calculations of Net Compression and Net Tension Stresses at the base of each bank of the Spire, using ASCE 7-05 Load
Combinations (ASCE 7-05 Section 2.3.2):

C-127

fb

ft

c
t

Lateral Compression Stress

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

ft

c
t

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress
2.414
-0.756

3.274

-1.585

1.585

0.829

-0.417

-1.845

1.845

1.429

fa

fb

Lateral Compression Stress

40
228,021
5,485,154

-2.989

-3.610

1
392,959
8,821,667

4.647

-3.818

3.818

0.829

40
228,021
13,209,600

6.468

-5.039

5.039

1.429

1
392,959
24,089,600

FDL
FMs

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Seismic Moment
Axial Compression Stress

Load Combination 7: 0.9D + 1.0E

fa

FDL
FMw

Load Combination 6: 0.9D + 1.6W

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Wind Moment
Axial Compression Stress

-0.737

1.036

-0.887

0.887

0.150

111
41,176
802,276

-1.463

1.762

-1.613

1.613

0.150

111
41,176
1,459,200

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

-0.326

0.438

-0.382

0.382

0.056

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

130
15,445 kip
225,348 kip-ft

-0.465

0.577

-0.521

0.521

0.056

130
15,445 kip
307,200 kip-ft

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMs*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 0.9 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.0 * (Ms); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMw*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 0.9 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.6 * Mw; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

4.2 Preliminary Core Wall Thickness Calculation - No Outriggers

-1.015

1.870

-1.443

1.443

0.427

74
117,483
2,859,767

-2.698

3.552

-3.125

3.125

0.427

74
117,483
6,195,200

C-128

Created by: ADV

1/25/2012

160
13.2

Density of concrete
Floor-to-floor height

626,016

538,473
0.7

1,771,295

983,313

Io
o

It
Vc

Column Moment of Inertia


Outrigger Reduction Factor

Transformed Moment of Inertia


Concrete Volume

9,410,000

8,821,667

LL
Wc

Mw

Ms

Floor Live Load


Core Self Weight Above

Wind Moment

Seismic Moment

84,464
354,663

DL

Floor Dead Load

Loads and Moments per Bank per Floor

81,958

1,098,964

1,394,364

Ic

Core Thickness
Core Outer Radius

5,485,154

5,160,000

59,908
197,333

56,024

197,001
0.7

961,063

1395

1910

Ac

Concrete Area
Core Moment of Inertia

2
40
34
6
40

Ri
t
Ro

pcf
ft

ksi

ksi

1
1
34
8
42

Floor
Core Inner Radius

Bank

Core and Outrigger Properties per Bank per Floor

6744331

Ec

c
h

Conc. Mod. of Elasticity

14

f'c

Concrete Strength

Concrete and Building Properties

2,859,767

2,420,000

37,076
97,170

33,366

417,344

520,438

35,457
0.7

495,618

855

3
74
32
4
36

225,348

120,000

13,496
10,351

6,810

64,692

113,432

4,050
0.7

110,597

327

4b
130
25
2
27

kip-ft

kip-ft

kip
kip

kip

ft^3

ft^4

ft^4

ft^4

ft^2

ft
ft
ft

User Input

Passes Check
Fails Check

Calc/Lookup

Constant/Previous Calc.

Unfactored moments from Seismic forces in Seismic Loads.xls

Unfactored moments From Wind Tunnel Loads in Wind Loads.xls

= c * Concrete Volume Above

Unfactored loads calculated from cumulative forces on core wall sections


found in "Column Load Takedown.xls"

= (# of floors) * Ac * h

Itotal = Icore + o*Icolumns

From "Column System Properties.xlsx"

= (/4) * (Ro4 - Ri4)

= * (Ro2 - Ri2)

= Ri + t

Core wall designed for critical stresses at the base of the listed floor (i.e.
stresses from floor 40 dictate core wall design for floors 40-73)

Notes

Yes
No

4.3 Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation - Outriggers

802,276

570,000

21,238
30,395

15,356

125,278

184,858

12,721
0.7

175,954

500

4a
111
25
3
28

= 57000*(f'c); ACI318 8.5.1

COLORS KEY:

This spreadsheet uses inputed gravity loads and moments induced by lateral seismic and wind forces to calculate the required core thickness. The calculations are only based on the core for lateral
resistance; outriggers are not included. For outriggers, see the sister sheet to this one, "Core Wall Calculation - Outriggers". The user can change the core properties to design for the moments,
based on 6 of the ASCE7 load combinations.

4.3 Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation - Outriggers

C-129

Maximum Applied Stresses and Allowable Stresses

6.93
-0.887

fcomp

Allowable Compression
Allowable Tension

ksi
ksi

10%
16%

17%
30%

3%
6%

-2.549

3
3.434

2%
5%

-1.385

4a
2.018

1%
3%

-0.452

4b
1.042
ksi

ksi

FDL
FLL
c

FDL
c

fb

ft

c
t

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

FDL
FMw
LL
fa

Lateral Compression Stress

1.6 * Wind Moment


Live Load
Axial Compression Stress

Floor
Factored Dead Load

Load Combination 4: 1.2D + 1.6W + L

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Live Load
Net Compression Stress

Load Combination 2: 1.2D + 1.6L

Net Compression Stress

Floor
Factored Dead Load

Load Combination 1: 1.4D

3.899
-0.275

-0.267

-2.087

2.087

8,256,000
59,908
1.812

40
304,028

40
304,028
95,853
1.991

40
354,700
1.766

4.691

-2.479

2.479

15,056,000
84,464
2.212

1
523,945

1
523,945
135,142
2.396

1
611,269
2.222

-0.286

3.434

-1.860

1.860

3,872,000
37,076
1.574

74
156,643

74
156,643
59,322
1.755

74
182,751
1.485

N/A

1.042

-0.317

0.317

192,000
13,496
0.725

130
20,593

130
20,593
21,594
0.897

130
24,025
0.511

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip-ft
kip
ksi

kip

kip
kip
ksi

kip
ksi

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMw*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.6 * Mw; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.2 * LL; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= 1.2 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.2* (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.6* LL; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= FDL/Ac

= 1.4* (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= 0.55* * f'c; ACI 318 14.5.2


= 7.5 * (f'c)^.5; ACI318 9.5.2.3 Modulus of Rupture

These are the percent reductions in Maximum Applied Stresses when


including the outriggers

These are the max values from the load combinations below. Green: value is
less than allowable. Red: value is greater than allowable.

4.3 Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation - Outriggers

N/A

2.018

-0.959

0.959

912,000
21,238
1.059

111
54,901

111
54,901
33,981
1.236

111
64,052
0.890

Calculations of Net Compression and Net Tension Stresses at the base of each bank of the Spire, using ASCE 7-10 Load
Combinations (ASCE 7-10 Section 2.3.2):

fr

-2.510

-2.538

Tapp

Applied Tension
% Reduction with Outriggers
In Applied Compression
In Applied Tension

2
4.168

1
5.395

Capp

Bank
Applied Compression

C-130

ft

c
t

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

ft

c
t

Lateral Compression Stress

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

fa

fb

ft

c
t

Axial Compression Stress

Lateral Compression Stress

Lateral Tensile Stress

Net Compression Stress


Net Tensile Stress

FDL
FMs

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Seismic Moment

Load Combination 7: 0.9D + 1.0E

fa

fb

Axial Compression Stress

FDL
FMw

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Wind Moment

Load Combination 6: 0.9D + 1.6W

fb

Lateral Compression Stress

Factored Live Load


Axial Compression Stress

FDL
FMs
FLL
fa

Load Combination 5: 1.2D + 1.0E + L

Floor
Factored Dead Load
Factored Seismic Moment

2.215
-0.557

-0.024

-1.386

1.386

0.829

2.881

-1.453

1.453

1.429

40
228,021
5,485,154

-2.510

-2.538

1
392,959
8,821,667

4.168

-3.339

3.339

0.829

5.395

-3.967

3.967

1.429

40
228,021
13,209,600

N/A

N/A

1
392,959
24,089,600

2.840

-1.386

1.386

40
304,028
5,485,154
95,853
1.454

3.849

-1.453

1.453

1
523,945
8,821,667
135,142
2.396

-0.947

1.801

-1.374

1.374

0.427

74
117,483
2,859,767

-2.549

3.403

-2.976

2.976

0.427

74
117,483
6,195,200

-0.589

2.159

-1.374

1.374

74
156,643
2,859,767
59,322
0.785

-0.316

0.429

-0.372

0.372

0.056

130
15,445
225,348

-0.452

0.564

-0.508

0.508

0.056

130
15,445
307,200

-0.219

0.526

-0.372

0.372

130
20,593
225,348
21,594
0.153

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip
kip-ft

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip
kip-ft

ksi

ksi

ksi

ksi

kip
kip-ft
kip
ksi

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMs*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 0.9 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.0 * (Ms); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMw*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 0.9 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.6 * Mw; ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= fa + ft

= fa + fb

= -fb

= FMs*Ro/Ic

= (FDL + FLL)/Ac

= 1.0 * (LL); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

= 1.2 * (DL+Wc); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2


= 1.0 * (Ms); ASCE 7-05 2.3.2

4.3 Final Core Wall Thickness Calculation - Outriggers

-0.694

0.994

-0.844

0.844

0.150

111
41,176
802,276

-1.385

1.685

-1.535

1.535

0.150

111
41,176
1,459,200

-0.521

1.167

-0.844

0.844

111
54,901
802,276
33,981
0.323

C-131

Bank 4

Bank 3

Bank 2

Bank 1

4.1
4.2

NS
EW

NS
EW

NS
EW

Rebar Summary

18
8

14
14

18
18

18
18

Horizontal Shear
Bar Size
Spacing
in

7
17

10
9

8
9

6
6

6
6

8
7

18
18

10
10

14 as vertical shear
14 as vertical shear

16 as vertical shear
12 as vertical shear

9 as vertical shear
10 as vertical shear

12 as vertical shear
12 as vertical shear

Flexural
Note: in all
cases, vertical
shear rebar was

4.5 Core Rebar Design

Vertical Shear
Bar Size
Spacing
in

In Banks 1, 2, and 3, the cores work in pairs to resist moment. The North-South cores work together to
resist moment about the x-axis, while the East-West cores work together to resist moment about the yaxis. On the 4th Bank, there are only two cores, North and South. They work together to resist the
moment about the x-axis, but have to work individually to resist the moment about the y-axis.

In all cases, the vertical reinforcing bars were sufficient for flexure as well.

Each core section is designed for the shear in it's particular direction; the North-South Core Sections are
design for shear in the North-South direction, etc.

Notes

4.5 Core Rebar Design

4.5.1 Design of Core Rebar for Vertical and Horizontal Shear


Created by:

KMC

5/9/2012

Typical calculation shown for Bank1, North-South Core Section.


Spreadsheet takes the loads (shear and axial) from MIDAS, and, using the sizes of MIDAS' representation
of the core, calculates the required rebar to resist horizontal shear.
There is no vertical shear, so the vertical reinforcing is determined purely from the code regulations. The
shears chosen are the worst case, as are the axial loads.
The form of the hand calc was taken from PCA Notes on ACI 318-08, page 21-27 through
21-29; all references are to ACI 318-08

Inputs
Max Horizontal Shear

Vu,hor

23,996

kips

Max Vertical Shear

Vu, ver

kips

Axial Force

Pu

38,521

kips

Compressive Strength of Concrete

f'c

14,000

psi

Wall Thickness

84

in

Wall Length

lw

503

in

Wall Height

hw

6,162

in

402

in

Approximate Structural Depth

= 0.8lw; 11.9.4

Maximum Permitted Concrete Shear Strength

Max Shear Strength


Vn okay?

Vn
Vn>Vu, hor?

0.75
29984
Yes

11.9.3
kips

= 10sqrt(f'c)hd; 11.9.3

4.5.1 Design of Core Rebar for Vertical and Horizontal Shear

C-132

Shear Strength Provided by Concrete


lw/2

251

in

hw/2

3,081

in

Position of critical shear


Moment at Critical Section

y
in
251
Mu 141,830,758 kips-in
kips
Shear Strength Provided by Concrete Vc
2,843

= min(lw/2, hw/2); 11.9.7


= (Vu, hor)(hw - y)
*see below

Horizontal Shear Reinforcement


Horizontal shear designed in accordance with 11.9.9

Fy

Yield Strength of Steel

Av/s

Steel Area/Spacing Ratio


Bar Size

60
1.21

ksi
in2/in

= (Vu, hor - Vc)/(Fyd); eq. 11-29

18

Area of Chosen Bar Size

Abar

4.00

in2

Max Spacing

smax

6.62

in

= min(lw/5, 3h, 18); 11.9.9.3

in
in2

= h*sselected

sselected

Selected Spacing

Ag

Gross Area
Ratio of Steel to Concrete
spacing small enough?
enough rebar?

504

steel
sselected<smax?

0.01587

steel<0.0025?

Yes

= 2*Av/Ag

Yes
11.9.9.2

Vertical Shear Reinforcement


Required Min steel
Bar Size
Area of Chosen Bar Size
Max Spacing
Selected Spacing
Ratio of Steel to Concrete
spacing small enough?
enough rebar?

C-133

min
#

=min(0.0025, 0.0025 + 0.5*(2.5 hw/lw)(trans - 0.0025)); eq. 11-30

0.00250

Abar

10
1.27

in2

smax

18.00

in

12

in

sselected
steel
sselected<smax?
steel>min?

0.00252

= min(lw/3, 3h, 18); 11.9.9.5


= 2*Av/Ag

Yes
Yes

4.5.1 Design of Core Rebar for Vertical and Horizontal Shear

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity


Created by: KMC

5/9/2012

This spreadsheet takes a given configuration of rebar, dimensions of the core, material properties,
required moment capacity, and determines whether capacity of column is adequate. It does so by
calculating moment capacity of column assuming all tension steel has yielded, and far edge of concrete
has cracked.

Inputs

Distance from center of core to far edge of core


Cover
Yield Strength of Steel
Compressive Strength of Concrete
Design Moment

3
2

h1

19.6

in

h2

80.3

in

h3

102

in

h4

102

in

b1

241

in

b2

65.4

in

b3
b4

12

in

372

in

d
c
Fy

527
2
60

in
in
ksi

f'c
Mu

14000

psi

45055

ft-kips

4
6

C-134

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity

Concrete Equivalent Area Calculations


The core is an irregular shape that is difficult to work with, mathematically. Thus, all of the six parts of the core
shown on previous page's drawing will be added together and then transformed into an equivalent rectangular
shape. This rectangular shape will have the same area of the core, the same , and its far edge will be in the
same position as the far edge of the original core (so that extreme concrete compression fiber will be in the
same place).

Calculations
Ac, Area
in

Part

Ac

in

in3

641 = h1b2/2

514 = d-(2/3)h1

329,674

641 = h1b2/2

514 = d-(2/3)h1

329,674

4,732 = h1b1

29,843 = h2b4

467 = d-h1-h2/2

13,944,127

1,213 = h3b3
1,213 = h3b3

376 = d-h1-h2-h
376 = d-h1-h2-h

456,064

6
Sum

517 = d-h1/2

38,284
con

2,447,372

456,064
17,962,974

= (Acr)/(Ac)

469 in

Dimensions of equivalent prismatic shape


Length

116 in

= (d-con)*2

Width

331 in

= Ac/l

Strain Calculations
Now, strain in tension steel and concrete is listed, and strain in compression steel is calculated.
Dist to Near Edge of Ten Steel from Center

dists

427

Dist to Far Edge of Concrete from Center

distc
c

Strain in Far Edge of Concrete

527

in

=d

in

= c(distc+ dists)/(c+ s)

in

= dists

0.003
564

Strain at Neutral Axis

distcc
cc

Dist to Near Edge of Comp Steel from Center

distsc

427

Distance to Neutral Axis from Edge

Functional Strain in Comp Steel

= d-h4 + c

s 0.00207

Strain in Tension Steel

Strain in Comp Steel

in

sc 0.00247
sc,equiv 0.00207

=c(distcc-(distc-distsc))/(distcc)
= min(0.00207, sc)

C-135

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity

Steel Equivalent Area Calculations


Similar to concrete, it is difficult to deal with each individual bar of rebar. Thus, the each core's rebar will be
transformed into an equivalent area of steel, with the same as the original layout of steel, in the same way
that the concrete was transformed.

Dist from Far = d - (dist


Edge of
from far edge
Concrete
of concrete) Bar Size

Number
of Bars

Abar
2

As, Total
Area of
Steel

in

in

525

10

1.27

21

26.7

14002

14

513

10

1.27

27

34.3

17591

26

501

10

1.27

31

39.4

19724

38
50
62

489
477
465

10
10
10

1.27
1.27
1.27

31
31
31

39.4
39.4
39.4

19252
18779
18307

74

453

10

1.27

31

39.4

17835

86

441

10

1.27

31

39.4

17362

98

429

10

1.27

2.54

1090

110

417

10

1.27

2.54

1059

122

405

10

1.27

2.54

1029

134

393

10

1.27

2.54

998

146
158
170

381
369
357

10
10
10

1.27
1.27
1.27

2
2
2

2.54
2.54
2.54

968
937
907

182

345

10

1.27

2.54

876

194

333

10

1.27

2.54

846

Sum

320.0

151562

474

in

in

in

st

in

As

= (As)/(As)

C-136

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity

Moment Calculations
Force from compression steel, tension steel, and concrete is calculated
Strain in Ten Steel

0.00207

Stress in Ten Steel

fs

60

ksi

= min(29000*s, Fy)

19202

kips

= fs*(As)

Force from Ten Steel

Fs, ten

Strain in Comp Steel

0.00207

Stress in Comp Steel

sc,equiv
fs

60

ksi

= min(29000*sc, Fy)

Force from Comp Steel

Fs, comp

19202

kips

= fs*(As)

Stress Block Coefficient

0.65

116

in

= min(1*distcc, l)

f'c avg

11.9

ksi

= 0.85*f'c/1000

455574

kips

= a*f'cavg*b

Depth of Comp Zone


Avg Concrete Stress

Fc

Force from Concrete

Moment Calculation Table


Moment capacity due to compression steel, tension steel, and concrete is calculated and summed,
incorporting required concrete corrective force needed to account for concrete displaced by
compression steel. Compression is positive.

Tension steel
Compression Steel
Concrete
Concrete Compression Force
Correction

Force

Dist from Column


Centroid,

Moment about
Column Centroid
(M=F*)

kips

in

kip-in

-19202 =-Fs,ten
19202 = Fs,comp
455574 = Fc
= 0.85*f'c*
-3808
(As) /1000

473.6

= st

-9.09E+06

473.6

= st

9.09E+06

469.2

= con

2.14E+08

473.6

= st

451765

Sum

2.E+08

Capacity Check
Total Moment About Column Centriod

moment capacity okay?

-2.E+06

Mn 2.12E+08 kip-in
Mn 1.77E+07 kip-ft

0.65
Mn 1.15E+07 kip-ft
Mn>Mu? Yes

C-137

4.5.2 Design of Core Rebar for Flexural Capacity

4.5.3
4.5.3Bank
Bank44Strong
StongAxis
AxisBending
Bending
Individual Strong Axis Bending
Capacity of 4th Bank Cores

Column Geometries

Column Geometries
b1 :=

55.167ft

h1 :=

0 ft

b2 :=

0 ft

h2 :=

2 ft

b3 :=

0 ft

h3 :=

0 ft

b4 := b1 +
b4 =

2 b2

55.167 ft

y :=

y=

b4

h4 := h1 + h2 + h3
h4 =

2 ft

Column
centroid

27.584ft

Column Geometries
Material Properties

C-138

ACI 318-08 10.2.7

Material Properties
fc :=

14000psi

1 :=

0.85

if fc

fy :=

29000 ksi

4000psi

fc 4000psi
0.85 0.05

1000psi
0.65 if fc 8000psi
1 =

Es :=

60000psi

if

4000psi < fc < 8000psi

0.65

cu :=

0.003

y :=

fy
Es

failure
c
d

cover
steel position
Strain in tension and compression steel found by assuming linear strain profile
through column. Similar triangles are used knowing the failure strain of concrete
in compression, distance from column compression face to neutral axis, and
distance from neutral axis to tension / compression steel.

Material Properties

C-139

Positive Bending
Reinforcing Steel Layout

Reinforcing Steel Layout


d is a vector showing the rebar placement starting at the compression face of the column
(the left side in the diagram). n is a vector showing the number of bars at any d-distance
from the compression face. Size is a vector of the sized of reinforcing bars at a given
d-distance. If different sized bars are used at any given distance,d, one row per bar size
must be included in each of the d, n, and size matrices. d, n, and size vectors are to be
determined by the user to provide adequate column axial and moment capacity.

Area steel :=

for i 0 .. length( d)

As vlookup size , BarSizes , 1 0 1 in

return As

As := Area steel

d=

23

37

51

65

79

93

107

121

135

10

149

11

163

12

177

13

191

14

205

15

...

in

n=

size =

10

10

11

11

12

12

13

13

14

14

15

...

15

...

Reinforcing Steel Layout


Defined Variables

C-140

Range2Vec( Range ) :=

Count ORIGIN
for i Range

Converts a given range variable into a


vector to be used in later calculations

Vec
i
Count
Count Count +

return Vec

z11 :=

6 , 5.999 .. 6

z21 := 6.5 , 7 .. 500

( )

( )

z12 := Range2Vec z11

z22 := Range2Vec z21

Strain multiplier array. Positive values of Z


correspond to positive (compressive) strains
in extreme layer of tension reinforcement. Two
vectors concatinated to save on computing
time

Z := stack z12 , z22


C values :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

dt d
length( d) 1
C col
i

0.003
d
0.003 Zi y t

Produces an aray of c values (distance


from compression face to neutral axis)
given a particular strain in the extreme
tension steel (which has a distance of dt
from the compression face

return C col
C col := Cvalues

aStressBlock :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
a 1 C col
i
i
return a

a := aStressBlock

Defined Variables
Compressive Concrete

C-141

Depth of equivalent stress block in


concrete
ACI 318-08 10.2.7.1

Compressive Concrete
AStressBlock :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Asb h2 + h3
i

( ai)
a +
i

h1

if

2 b2

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a +
i
i
Asb h3 b3 + h2 a +
i
i

( ai) 2h1
2 b2
h1 b2

0 ai < b3

if b3 a < b2
i

+ h1 a b2
i

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a + h1 b1 + h1 b2
i
i

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a + h1 b1 + h1 b2
i
i

if b2 a < b2 + b1
i

h1 b4 a
i

2 b2

h1 b4 a
i

2 b2

)2

if b2 + b1 a < b4 b3
i

+ b3 b4 + a h3 if b4 b3 < a b4
i
i

return Asb
Asb := AStressBlock
Force Concrete :=

Area of equivalent stress block

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Cc
i

0.85 fcAsb

return C c

Compressive force in the concrete

C c := ForceConcrete

C.c (kips)

2 10

1.5 10

1 10

5 10

600

400

200

200

Z
Compressive
Concrete
Tension
and Compression
Steel

C-142

Calculations for Tension and Compression Steel


Strains :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d)
s

j ,i

Produces an n x m matrix of strain values,


where n = number of values in d and m =
number of values in Z. Thus each column
gives the strain in the steel at distance, d,
given a particular strain in the extreme
tension steel.

Ccoli dj

0.003
Ccol
i

return s
s := Strains

0.05

Strains

0
0.05
0.1
0.15
600

400

200

200

Z
Stresses :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d)

fbar s Es
j ,i
fs
fbar if fy fbar fy
j ,i
fs
fy if fy > fbar
j ,i
fs
fy if fy < fbar
j ,i
return fs

fs := Stresses

C-143

Stresses in reinforcing steel.


Each column, i gives the stress
in each bar at distance dj.

1 10

f.s (psi)

5 10

0
4
5 10
5
1 10
600

400

200

200

Z
Forces :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Forces in each bar from


stress defined above

for j 0 .. length( d)

Fs
fs As if a < d
i
j
j ,i
j ,i j
Fs
fs

j ,i
j ,i

0.85fc As
j

otherwise

return Fs

Fs := Forces

F.s (kips)

40
20
0
20
40
600

400

200

200

Z
d1
d2
d3
d4
d5
d6
Tension and Compression Steel

C-144

Factors of controlled by strain in exrteme tension reinforcing steel. Areas controlled by


ACI 318 118 9.3.2.2

getPhi :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Phi
i

Phi
i

0.65
0.90

if

if

rows 1

( s)
T
s
i > y
rows 1

( s)
T
s
i < 0.005

rows 1

( s) .25

T
Phi 0.65 + s
i y .005
i

return Phi

Phi := getPhi

Forces and Moments

C-145

otherwise

Summed Forces and Moments


Forces sum :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Pn Cc +
i
i

i
Fs

return P n
P n := Forcessum
5

2 10

P.n (kips)

1.5 10

1 10

5 10

0
4
5 10
600

400

200

200

Z
ReducePn :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Pn P n Phi
i
i
i

9.3.2.2

return Pn
Pn := ReducePn
Momentssum :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d)
Msteel

j ,i

Fs y d
j
j ,i

Mn C c y
i
i

a
i

)
i

Msteel

return Mn
Mn := Momentssum
6

M.n (kip*ft)

1.5 10

1 10

5 10

600

400

200

200

C-146

ReduceMn :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Mn Phi Mn
i
i
i
return Mn

Mn := ReduceMn

Forces and Moments

Negative Bending
Reinforcing Steel Layout
dtemp := b4 d
findd2 :=

findn2 :=

for i 0 .. length( d)

d2 dtemp
i
length( d) 1 i

return d2

return n2

n2 := findn2

for i 0 .. length( d2)

As vlookupsize , BarSizes , 1 0 1 in

i
return As
As2 := Area steel2

Reinforcing Steel Layout


Defined Variables

C-147

findsize2 :=

for i 0 .. length( size)

size2 size
i
length( size) 1 i

return size2
size2 := findsize2

This function calculates the distances of reinforcement bars


reltive to right side of the column geometry in order to
calculate moments with the far right face at compression
failure. The resulting "d" vector is flipped, along with the
original "n" and "size" vectors to correspond to these new
distances.

d2 := findd2

Area steel2 :=

n2 n
i
length( n) 1 i

for i 0 .. length( n)

Defined Variables
C values2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

dt d2
length( d2) 1
C col
i

0.003
d
0.003 Zi y t

return Ccol

C col2 := C values2

aStressBlock2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

a 1 C col2
i
i
return a

a2 := aStressBlock2

Defined Variables

C-148

Strains2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d2)


s

j ,i

Produces an n x m matrix of strain values,


where n = number of values in d and m =
number of values in Z. Thus each column
gives the strain in the steel at distance, d,
given a particular strain in the extreme
tension steel.

Ccol2i d2j

0.003
Ccol2
i

return s
s2 := Strains2

Strains

0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
600

400

200

200

Z
Stresses2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d2)

fbar s2 Es
j ,i
fs
fbar if fy fbar fy
j ,i
fs
fy if fy > fbar
j ,i
fs
fy if fy < fbar
j ,i
return fs
fs2 := Stresses2

C-149

Stresses in reinforcing steel.


Each column, i gives the stress
in each bar at distance dj.

1 10

f.s (psi)

5 10

0
4
5 10
5
1 10
600

400

200

200

Z
Forces2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d2)

Fs
fs2 As2 if a2 < d2
i
j
j ,i
j ,i
j
Fs
fs2

j ,i
j ,i

0.85 fc As2
j

otherwise

return Fs

Forces in each bar from


stress defined above

Fs2 := Forces2

F.s (kips)

40
20
0
20
40
600

400

200

200

Z
d1
d2
d3
d4
d5
d6
Compressive Concrete

C-150

AStressBlock2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

Asb h2 + h3 a2
i
i

( a2 i)
+

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a2 +
i
i
Asb h3 b3 + h2 a2 +
i
i

h1

2 b2

( a2 i) 2h1
2 b2
h1 b2

if

0 a2 i < b3

if b3 a2 < b2
i

+ h1 a2 b2
i

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a2 + h1 b1 + h1 b2
i
i

Asb h3 b3 + h2 a2 + h1 b1 + h1 b2
i
i

if b2 a2 < b2 + b1
i

h1 b4 a2
i

2 b2

h1 b4 a2
i

)2

2 b2

if b2 + b1 a2 < b4 b3
i

+ b3 b4 + a2 h3 if b4 b3 < a2 b4
i
i

return Asb
Asb2 := AStressBlock2
Force Concrete2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Cc
i

0.85 fc Asb2

return C c
C c2 := Force Concrete2

Compressive Concrete
Safety Factors

Factors of controlled by strain in exrteme tension reinforcing steel. Areas controlled by


getPhi2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Phi
i

Phi
i

0.65
0.90

if

if

rows 1

( s2)
T
s2
i > y
rows 1

( s2)
T
s2

i < 0.005

rows 1

( s2) .25

Phi 0.65 + s2
i y .005
i

y

return Phi
Phi2 := getPhi2

Safety Factors
Forces and Moments

C-151

318 118 9.3.2.2

otherwise

Forces sum2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
P n Cc2 +
i
i

i
Fs2

return P n
P n2 := Forces sum2
5

2 10

P.n (kips)

1.5 10

1 10

5 10

0
4
5 10
600
ReducePn2 :=

400

for i 0 .. length( Z)

200

200

Pn P n2 Phi2
i
i
i
return Pn
Pn2 := ReducePn2
y2 := b4 y
Momentssum2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)

for j 0 .. length( d2)


Msteel

j ,i

Fs2 y2 d2
j
j ,i

Mn C c2 y2
i
i

a2

)
i

Msteel

return Mn
Mn2 := Momentssum2
5

M.n (kip*ft)

5 10

ReduceMn2 :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Mn Phi2 Mn2
i
i
i

0
5
5 10
6
1 10

6
1.5 10
600

400

200

200

return Mn
Mn2 := ReduceMn2

Forces and Moments


Max Compression Force

C-152

Ag := h1 b2 + b1 + h2 b4 +
Ast :=

2 ( h4 h1 h2) b3

Gross area of the


column

As

Total area of steel in the


column

PhiPn.max :=

for i 0 .. length( Z)
Pn.max
i

0.80 0.65 0.85 fc( Ag Ast) + fy Ast

return Pn.max

Maximum compression
force allowed for the
column (ACI 318-08
10.3.6.2)

Pn.max := PhiPn.max

Max Compression Force


Axial Tension

Strength of the column under tension is equal to the yield strength of the reinforcement in tension
P tension :=

for i 0 .. length( d)

P t fy As
i
i
return P t

P t := P tension
P nt :=

Pt

Pnt :=

Net capacity in pure tension

Design compacity in pure tension: = 0.9

0.9 Pnt

Mtension :=

for i 0 .. length( d)

Mt P t y d
i
i
i

return Mt

Mt := Mtension
Mnt :=

Mt

Mnt :=

C-153

0.9 Mnt

Net moment in pure tension

Design moment capacity in pure tension = 0.9

The following vectors are used merely for plotting purposes: plotting a line between the net
tension force / moment point and the points corresponding to the last force / moment pairs
from the P.n, M.n, P.n, and M.n vectors respectively
P nt

P nt1 := P
nlength P 1
n

( )

P nt

P nt2 := P
n2length P 1
( n2)

Pnt

Pnt1 := P
nlength P 1
( n)

Pnt

Pnt2 := P
n2length P 1
(
)
n2

Mnt

Mnt1 := M
nlength M 1
( n)

Mnt

Mnt2 := M
n2length M 1
n2

Mnt

Mnt1 := M
nlength M 1
(
)
n

Mnt

Mnt2 := M
n2length M 1
n2

Axial Tension
Design Loads

789 kip

P g := 636 kip

0
2991ft kip

Mg := 1600ft kip

Design Loads

C-154

Column Interaction Diagram


200000
179795.337

Axial Load (kips)

159590.674
139386.01
119181.347
98976.684
78772.021
58567.358
38362.694
18158.031
2046.632

-1.50 -1.20

-0.90 -0.60 -0.30

Moment

0.30

0.60

0.90

1.20 1.50

(kip*ft
x10^6)

Column Interaction Diagram


2000
1595.337

Axial Load (kips)

1190.674
786.01
381.347
23.316
427.979
832.642
1237.306
1641.969
2046.632

-1.50 -1.20

-0.90 -0.60 -0.30

0.30

Moment (kip*ft

x10^6)

C-155

0.60

0.90

1.20 1.50

C-156

Created by: JAC, MZ

5/1/2012

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

13004781

sum all:

= H / 400
60

Mega Columns 1 Floors 1-4


Mega Columns 3 Floors 1-4
Bank 1 Vertical Columns Floors 5-16
Bank 1 Vertical Columns Floors 17-28
Bank 1 Vertical Columns Floors 29-37
Bank 1-2 Transfer Columns Floors 38-39
Bank 1-2 Outriggers
Bank 2 Vertical Columns Floors 40-52
Bank 2 Vertical Columns Floors 56-63
Bank 2 Vertical Columns Floors 64-71
Bank 2-3 Transfer Columns Floors 72-73
Bank 2-3 Outriggers
Bank 3 Vertical Columns Floors 74-87
Bank 3 Vertical Columns Floors 88-99
Bank 3 Vertical Columns Floors 100-108
Bank 3-4 Transfer Columns Floors 109-110
Bank 3-4 Outriggers
Bank 4 Slanted Columns Floors 111-122
Bank 4 Slanted Columns Floors 123-133
Bank 4 Slanted Columns Floors 134-144

Member

29,000

Es(ksi):

Baseline
Area (in2)
848
848
848
848
848
848
215
848
848
848
848
215
688
688
688
688
215
688
688
688

in.
H/500
Optimized
Area (in2)
896
903
800
748
678
587
175
571
509
500
602
151
468
335
244
159
48
153
135
96
Area Provided Proposed
(in2)
Section
920
BU1
920
BU1
800
BU2
768
BU3
688
BU4
608
BU5
178
W14x605
576
BU6
512
BU7
512
BU7
608
BU8
162
W14x550
480
BU9
347
BU10
250
BU11
162
W14x550
51.8
W14x176
162
W14x550
134
W14x455
101
W14x342

4.6 Energy Method Optimization

H/400
Optimized
Area (in2)
717
723
640
599
542
470
140
457
407
400
481
121
374
268
195
127
38
123
108
77

(eq 10)

Tool performs energy method optimization from Baker 1996 paper (using equation 10 shown here) to compute optimal member sections for
different types of axial members of the lateral resisting system. These areas are compared to baseline areas and built-up sections satisfying
required area were determined.

4.6 Energy Method Optimization

C-157

% change

Section

Areas (in )
Baseline
Optimized

BU1

920

Mega
848

Area Comparison

Bank 1
848
688
768
800
BU4
BU3
BU2
-11
BU5
BU8
-28

608

Trans 1, 2
848

larger values in red

-17

W14x605

178

OR 1
215

-25

W14x550

162

OR 2
215

Bank 3
688
250
347
480
BU11
BU10
BU9
-48

4.6 Energy Method Optimization

Bank 2
848
512
512
576
BU7
BU7
BU6
-37

OR 3
215

Bank 4
688
101
162
52
134
162
W14x342
W14x550 W14x176 W14x455
W14x550
-76
-76
-81

Trans 3
688

4.6.1 Optimization Calculations


Steel Reduction Calculation
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Number of
Elements
7
14
252
252
189
21
21
273
231
168
21
21
196
154
140
14
14
168
154
154

Length L
(in)
754
754
158
158
158
327
530
158
158
158
342
475
158
158
158
316
432
158
158
158

Baseline Area
A (in2)
848
848
848
848
848
848
215
848
848
848
848
215
688
688
688
688
215
688
688
688

Optimized
Area (in2)
920
920
800
768
688
608
178
576
512
512
608
162
480
347
250
162
51.8
162
134
101

vol reduction in steel (ft3)


wt reduction in steel (ton)
% reduction

Baseline
Volume (ft3)
2,589
5,178
19,539
19,539
14,655
3,370
1,386
21,168
17,911
13,026
3,522
1,240
12,330
9,688
8,807
1,763
752
10,577
9,696
9,696

Optimized
Volume (ft3)
2,809
5,618
18,433
17,696
11,890
2,416
1,147
14,378
10,814
7,865
2,526
934
8,602
4,886
3,200
415
181
2,491
1,888
1,423

Volume
Change (ft3)
-220
-440
1,106
1,843
2,765
954
239
6,790
7,097
5,161
997
306
3,728
4,802
5,607
1,348
571
8,087
7,807
8,273

186,432
46,608

119,613
29,903

66,819
16,705
36

Base line Volume = L*A


Volume Change = Baseline - Optimized

C-158

4.6.1 Optimization Calculations

Steel Tonnage for Increased Performance


Drift (H/x) Drift (ft)
500
526
556
588
625

4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2

% Drift
Reduction
0
5
10
15
20

Baseline
Design
47
47
47
47
47

Optimized
Design
30.0
31.5
33.2
35.2
37.4

Baseline Design

Optimized Design

50
47

Steel, 1000 tons

45

40
37.4
35.2

33.2
35
31.5
30.0
30
0

10
% Reduction of Drift

C-159

4.6.1 Optimization Calculations

15

20

Calculations for Mega Column 3


Element number from appropiate nodes in
MidasGen FEA model.

Orig. Section
Material
Midas:

#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Section 1
Steel

A (in2)
L1 (in.)

709

L2 (in)

776

Leff (in)
E (ksi)

754
29,000

848

13421to13439by3 13422to13440by3

Element
Number

Axial ni, Virtual


Wind Load (kips)

13421
13422
13424
13425
13427
13428
13430
13431
13433
13434
13436
13437
13439
13440

1.49
0.92
0.25
-1.28
-1.49
-1.83
-1.83
-1.49
-1.28
0.25
0.92
1.49
1.72
1.72

0.5
(inAxial Fi, 0.7 WL L(niFi)
0.5
(kips)
kips )

3,778
3,110
499
-3,696
-4,335
-5,108
-5,108
-4,335
-3,696
499
3,110
3,778
4,861
4,861
sum
sum all

(niFi)0.5

Area Required
(kips )
Areq (in2)
56,547
75.03
561
40,313
53.49
400
8,417
11.17
83
51,837
68.78
514
60,569
80.36
601
72,866
96.68
723
72,865
96.68
723
60,569
80.36
601
51,837
68.78
514
8,417
11.17
83
40,313
53.49
400
56,547
75.03
561
68,918
91.44
683
68,918
91.44
683
max
723
718,932
7,129 < 11,872
13,004,781 sum
Check: Is baseline area greater?
Yes
0.5

C-160

4.6.1 Optimization Calculations

C-161

Created by:

JAC

5/1/2012

Total
Depth

Section
Name
BU1
BU1
BU2
BU3
BU4
BU5
BU6
BU7
BU7
BU8
BU9
BU10
BU11

Side Plate

Interior Plates

4.6.2 Resizing of Built-Up Members

plus interior area

Area Required
Areq (in2)
894
903
798
747
675
585
570
507
498
600
465
333
243
n x tp int x (d-2 tp side)

Interior
Total Depth
Interior
Total Width # of Interior Area Provided
Aprov (in2)
Thickness tp int
d (in)
Depth dint
b (in)
Plates n
4
38
30
40
5
920
4
38
30
40
5
920
4
32
24
40
5
800
4
32
24
36
5
768
4
28
20
36
5
688
4
28
20
36
4
608
4
28
20
32
4
576
4
28
20
24
4
512
4
28
20
24
4
512
4
28
20
26
5
608
4
28
20
20
4
480
with 22"x3" plates welded to the top and bottom flanges
347
with 22"x2" plates welded to the top and bottom flanges
250
tp int x b
side area

Total Width

Side Thickness
tp side (in)
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
W14x730
W14x550
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

OK?

Given a required cross-sectional area (from the optimization spreadsheet), this tool can be used to design a built-up column using steel plates
that most closely achieves that crosssection (by trial and error).

4.6.2 Resizing of Built-Up Members

5.0 Connection Design


5.1 Typical Connections
5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

163

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection

168

5.1.3 Girder to Column Connections


5.1.3.1

Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

5.1.3.2

Pinned Circumferential Girder to Column Connection 175

5.1.4 HSS to Cantilever Connection

177

5.1.5 Radial Girder to Concrete Core

180

5.1.5.1

Single Plate Connection

181

5.1.5.2

Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

185

5.2 Base of Mega-Column Connection

189

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

190

5.2.2 Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement

194

5.3 Outrigger Connections

196

5.3.1 Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection


5.3.2 Top of Outrigger to Core

171

197

199

5.0 Connection Design


C-162

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

Created by:

KMC

4/27/2012

This column splice is used for the mega-column and transfer column connections. The connection is made up
of pre-fabricated steel members that are welded together on site. In this calculation the capacity of the weld
and members are checked.
Bank
Column Location
Column Type

2-3
Transfer
BU-2

Forces from MIDAS for Load Case:

Color Key:

0.9D+1.6W

Axial Force

Pg 1,632 kips

Shear - y

Vy

2.92

kips

Shear - z

Vz

158

kips

Torsion

Tu -0.943 kip-in

Moment - y
Moment - z

My
Mz

140

kip-in

1.51

kip-in

Is Column Splice Okay?

Column Splice Elevation:

depth
plate length

Yes

Sample
Pre-fabricated
Node

Built-up Depth
Built-up Width
Member Thickness
Gross Area

d
bf
t
Ag

28.0
36.0
4.0
688

in
in
in
in2

x - Radius of Gyration

rx

11.3

in

y - Radius of Gyration

ry

11.0

in

Column Plan View:


width

Top Column Properties

Welds

L
K

158
0.65

in

L
K

39.5
0.65

in

Bottom Column Properties


Lateral Unbraced Length
Effective Length Factor

depth

Steel Properties - Column


Yield Strength
Tensile Strength

Welded Column
Splice
plate width

Column Details
Column Section Properties

Lateral Unbraced Length


Effective Length Factor

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Yes Passes Check
No Fails Check

Column

Plate A

Fy
Fu

50

ksi

65

ksi

C-163

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

Plate B

Plate Details
Plate A Properties
Thickness
Width

tp

0.75

in

wp

14

in

(dimension perpendicular to column)

in

(dimension parallel to column)

tp

0.75

in

wp

14

in

(dimension perpendicular to column)

in

(dimension parallel to column)

Fy
Fu

50

ksi

65

ksi

FEXX

70

ksi

Fw

42

ksi

Length

lp
*properties will be summed as necessary

Plate B Properties
Thickness
Width
Length

lp
*properties will be summed as necessary

Steel Properties - Plate


Yield Strength
Tensile Strength

Weld Details
Weld Properties
Filler Metal Class. Strength
Weld Strength

= 0.60*FEXX*(1.0+0.50*sin()1.5) where = 0 ; AISC J2-5


is assumed to be 0, as angle of force is unknown

Plate A Weld Properties


Leg Length
Throat Length
Weld Length per Side
Weld Area
Min. Leg Length of Weld
Max. Leg Length of Weld

Lw
Aw

0.25 in
0.354 in
40 in
2
14.1 in

(same for both welds, for construction purposes)


= leg length / cos(45o)

0.25 in
0.688 in

per AISC table J2.4


(depends on plate thickness); J2-2b

0.25 in
0.3536 in
40 in

= leg length / cos(45o)

Plate B Weld Properties


Leg Length
Throat Length
Weld Length per Side
Weld Area
Min. Leg Length of Weld
Max. Leg Length of Weld

Lw
Aw

14.1 in2
0.125 in
0.688 in

per AISC table J2.4


(depends on plate thickness); J2-2b

C-164

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

Tension Checks
Plate A Tension Check
Max. Tensile Load
Ult. Yielding Tens. Capacity
Shear Lag Factor
Effective Net Area
Ult. Rupture Tens. Capacity

Tu

413

kips

Tn-yield 473 kips


U 0.991
2
Ae 10.4 in
Tn-rupture

Minimum Tn

= 0.90*Fy*Ag ; AISC D2-1


= 1-(eccentricty)/(weld length) ; AISC table D3.1
= AnU ; AISC D3-1; An = Ag B4-3b; Ag = t*w

507

kips

= 0.90*Fu*Ae ; AISC D2-2

473

kips

= min( Tn-yield , Tn-rupture )

Tu Tn ?

Yes

Tu

408

Plate B Tension Check


Max. Tensile Load
Ult. Yielding Tens. Capacity
Shear Lag Factor
Effective Net Area
Ult. Rupture Tens. Capacity

kips

Tn-yield 473 kips


U 0.991
2
Ae 10.4 in
Tn-rupture

Minimum Tn
Tu Tn ?

= 0.90*Fy*Ag ; AISC D2-1


= 1-(eccentricty)/(weld length) ; AISC table D3.1
= AnU ; AISC D3-1; An = Ag B4-3b; Ag = t*w

507

kips

= 0.90*Fu*Ae ; AISC D2-2

473

kips

= min( Tn-yield , Tn-rupture )

Yes

Col, A Side Tension Check


Max. Tensile Load
Ult. Yielding Tens. Capacity
Shear Lag Factor
Effective Net Area
Ult. Rupture Tens. Capacity

Tu 1,634 kips
Tn-yield 30,960 kips
U 0.650
2
Ae 447 in

= 0.90*Fy*Ag ; AISC D2-1

Tn-rupture 21,801 kips

= 0.90*Fu*Ae ; AISC D2-2

Minimum Tn

= 1-(eccentricty)/(weld length) ; AISC table D3.1


= AnU ; AISC D3-1; An = Ag B4-3b; Ag = t*w
= min( Tn-yield , Tn-rupture )

21,801 kips
Tu Tn ?

Yes

Col, B Side Tension Check


Max. Tensile Load
Ult. Yielding Tens. Capacity
Shear Lag Factor
Effective Net Area
Ult. Rupture Tens. Capacity

Tu 1,634 kips
Tn-yield 30,960 kips
U 0.550
2
Ae 378 in

= 0.90*Fy*Ag ; AISC D2-1

Tn-rupture 18,447 kips

= 0.90*Fu*Ae ; AISC D2-2

Minimum Tn

= 1-(eccentricty)/(weld length) ; AISC table D3.1


= AnU ; AISC D3-1; An = Ag B4-3b; Ag = t*w
= min( Tn-yield , Tn-rupture )

18,447 kips
Tu Tn ?

Yes

C-165

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

Compression Checks
Top Column Compression Checks
Slenderness Ratio
KL/r < 25 ?
Max. Comp. Load

Pu

Ult. Comp. Capacity

9.36
Yes
0

= KL/r; J4-6

1
kips

Pn 30,960 kips
Pu Pn ?

= 0.90*Fy*Ag; J4-6

Yes

2.34
Yes
0

Bottom Column Compression Checks


Slenderness Ratio
KL/r < 25 ?
Max. Comp. Load
Ult. Comp. Capacity

Pu

= KL/r; J4-6

kips

Pn 30,960 kips
Pu Pn ?

Yes

= 0.90*Fy*Ag; J4-6

Column Bearing Check


Max. Bearing Load
Ult. Bearing Capacity

Ru

kips

Rn 46,440 kips
Ru Rn ? Yes

= 0.75*1.8*Fy*Apb ; AISC J7-1

C-166

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

Weld Checks
Total Weld Area

ATOT

56.6

in2

= 2*(AwPlateA+AwPlateB)

Plate A Weld Check


Area of weld A

2
AA 14.142 in

Max. x Force

Fx

Max. y Force

Fy 0.730 kips

= abs(Vy)*AA/ATOT

Max. z Force

Fz

39.5

kips

= abs(Vz)*AA/ATOT + abs(T)*AA/ATOT/(d/2)

Resultant Force

FR

410

kips

= sqrt(Fx2+Fy2+Fz2)

Rn-weld

445

kips

= Aw*Fw ; AISC J2-3

FR Rn-weld ?

Yes

Plate A Weld Capacity


Plate A Capacity
Column Side A Capacity

408

= max(0, (Pu)*AA/ATOT + abs(Mz)/d)

kips

Rn-plate 1,125 kips


FR Rn-plate ? Yes
Rn-col side 6,000 kips
FR Rn-col side ? Yes

= Lw*tp*Fy ; AISC J2-2

1
= Lw*t*Fy ; AISC J2-2

Plate B Weld Check


Area of weld B

AB

14.1

in2

= 2*(AwPlateA+AwPlateB)

Max. x Force

Fx

412

kips

= max(0, (Pu)*AB/ATOT+ abs(My)/bf

Max. y Force

Fy 0.743 kips

= abs(Vy)*AB/ATOT + abs(T)*AB/ATOT/(bf/2)

Max. z Force

Fz

39.5

kips

= abs(Vz)*AB/ATOT

Resultant Force

FR

414

kips

= sqrt(Fx2+Fy2+Fz2)

Rn-weld

445

kips

= Aw*Fw ; AISC J2-3

FR Rn-weld ?

Yes

Plate A Weld Capacity


Plate A Capacity
Column Side A Capacity

Rn-plate 1,125 kips


FR Rn-plate ? Yes
Rn-col side 6,000 kips
FR Rn-col side ? Yes

1
= Lw*tp*Fy ; AISC J2-2

1
= Lw*t*Fy ; AISC J2-2

1
1

C-167

5.1.1 Welded Column Splice

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection

Created by: JDM

3/13/12

Design tool for the floor joist to the radial girder connection using a single angle bolted into the web of each
member.
Bank:
4
Location: Typical Largest Floor joist

Joist

Angle

Color Key:

Joist

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Yes Passes Check
No Fails Check
C-bolt Center of Bolt

Angle
Girder

Design Adequate?
Vertical Load at Connection

PASS
Ru

24

kips

From Joist Design

Girder Properties
Girder section
Girder flange width
Girder flange thickness
Girder web thickness
Girder depth
Girder k1
Girder clear space

wsection
bf
tf
tw
d
k1
T

21 x 57
6.56
0.65
0.405
21.1
0.81
19.48

in
in
in
in
in
in

Wsection
bf
tf
tw
d
k1
T

12 x 22
4.03
0.425
0.26
12.3
0.625
11.05

in
in
in
in
in
in

Joist Properties
Joist section
Joist flange width
Joist flange thickness
Joist web thickness
Joist depth
Joist k1
Joist clear space

Angle Properties
Angle section
Angle length
Angle thickness
Angle leg width
Angle yield strength
Angle ultimate strength

Lsection L4X4X1/2
La
7
in
ta
0.5
in
wa
4
in
fy
50
ksi
fu
65
ksi

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection

pick angle with equal leg lengths

C-168

Bolt Properties
Bolt type
Bolt diameter
Shear strength
Number of bolts required (min 2)

db
Rn
n

A490
5/8
13.8
2

C-bolt to edge
Minimum edge distance
Angle edge distance
Angle edge distance > minumum edge distance?
C-bolt spacing
Width of plate minus bolt spacings
Plate space remaining 0?
Joist fits between girder flanges?
Angle fits between joist flanges?

1.25
0.875
0.94
YES
3.75
0.75
YES
YES
YES

in
k/bolt

AISC T7-1

Spacing Requirements
in
in
in

AISC Table J3.4

in
in

Shear Yielding
Rn

Shear yielding strength

Rn Ru?

55
YES

kips

= 0.6*Fy*Lp*tp ; AISC J4-1

1.53
34
YES

in2
kips

= (Lp-(n*db+1/8))*tp

1.82
0.8
86
82
YES

in2
in2
kips
kips

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)

Shear Rupture
Anv
Rn

Net area of shear plane


Shear rupture strength

Rn Ru?

= (0.75*0.6*Fu*Anv) ; AISC J4-4

Block Shear Rupture


Gross area of shear plane
Net area of tension plane
Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

Agv
Ant
Rn
Rn
MIN Rn Ru?

= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)
= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5
= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

Bearing and Tearout at Bolt Holes


Controlling material (min of tw,tp)
C-bolt distance to edge
Clear distance to edge
Tearout c-bolt to edge
Bearing c-bolt to edge
C-C distance between holes
Tearout center bolts
Bearing center bolts
Total bearing and tearout capacity

C-169

Joist Web
1.25
0.88
Rn
13
Rn
19
3.75
Rn
46
Rn
19
Rn
32
Rn Ru?
YES

in
in
kips
kips
in
kips
kips
kips

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection

= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a


= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a

Weld- Fillet Weld


Electrode classification number
Size of weld achieved with one pass
Throat thickness
Length of the weld
Weld strength

FEXX
size
wt
Lw
Rn
Rn Ru?

70
5/16
0.221
6.00
42
YES

ksi
in
in
in

= 0.707*size
one side of plate
= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

kips

C-170

5.1.2 Floor Joist to Radial Girder Connection

5.1.3.1 Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

Created by: JD

4/21/12

Design tool for the radial and cantilever girders to the exterior columns using two angles welded to the column
and bolted to the flange of the girder to resist the moment. To resist the shear there are two plates welded to
the column and bolted to the web of the incoming girder.
Bank:
4
Location: Typical Column

Color Key:

Moment Taken by Flange


Plates

Yes
No
C-bolt

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check
Center of Bolt

Girder
Column

Shear Force Taken by Web

Radial Girder to Column Connection


PASS

Design Adequate?
Moment at Connection

Mu

10160

Moment Arm

dm

28.6

in

Force to be Resisted by Flange Bolts

Rm

355

Kips

= Mu/dm

Vertical Load at Connection

Rv

220

Kips

From Midas Gen Model

Kip-in

Girder Properties
Girder section

Wsection

21 x 83

Beam flange width

bf

8.4

in

Beam flange thickness

tf

0.835

in

tw
d
K1

0.515
21.4
0.88

in
in
in

Plate thickness

tp

1.50

in

Plate length

Lp

12.0

in

Plate width

wp

7.0

in

plate yielding strength

Fy

50

ksi

plate ultimate strength

Fu

65

ksi

Beam web thickness


Beam depth
Beam k1

Plate Properties

C-171

5.1.3.1 Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

Bolt Properties
Web
Bolt type
Bolt diameter
Shear strength criteria
Number of bolts required (min 2)
Flange
Bolt type
Bolt diameter
Shear strength criteria
Number of bolts required (min 2)

db

A490
1 1/8

Rn
n

44.7
5

db

A490
1 1/8

Rn

in
k/bolt

AISC T7-1

in

44.7
8

k/bolt

AISC T7-1

2.40
1.78
1.75
YES
1.25
2.20
YES

in
in
in

AISC Table J3.4

Rn

540

kips

= 0.6*Fy*Lp*tp ; AISC J4-1

Rn Ru?

YES

in2
kips

= (Lp-(n*db+1/8))*tp

Spacing Requirements
C-bolt to edge
Plate edge distance
Minimum edge distance
Plate edge distance > minumum edge distance?
C-bolt spacing
Width of plate minus bolt spacings
Plate space remaining 0?

in
in

Plate Shear Yielding (Designed for Flange Only)


Shear yielding strength

Plate Shear Rupture (Designed for Flange Only)


Net area of shear plane
Plate shear rupture strength

Anv

9.56

Rn

280

Rn Ru?

YES

= (0.75*0.6*Fu*Anv) ; AISC J4-4

C-172

5.1.3.1 Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

Block Shear Rupture Web


Web
Gross area of shear plane

Agv

6.18

Ant

3.0

Rn

in2
2

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)
= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)

424

in
kips

Rn

283

kips

= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

MIN Rn Ru?

YES

in2

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)

Net area of tension plane


Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

Flange
Gross area of shear plane

Agv

10.02

Ant

4.8

Rn

= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)

514

in
kips

Rn

405

kips

= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

MIN Rn Ru?

YES

Net area of tension plane


Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

Bearing and Tearout at Bolt Holes Web


Web
Controlling material (min of tw,tp)
C-bolt distance to edge
Tearout c-bolt to edge

Bearing center bolts

Beam Web (tw<tp)


2.40
in
Rn
53
kips
Rn
68
kips
3.00
in
Rn
53
kips
Rn
68
kips

Total bearing and tearout capacity

Rn

264

Rn Ru?

YES

Bearing c-bolt to edge


C-C distance between holes
Tearout center bolts

= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a


= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a

kips

Flange
Controlling material (min of tw,tp)
C-bolt distance to edge
Tearout c-bolt to edge

Bearing center bolts

Plate (tp<tw)
2.40
in
Rn
87
kips
Rn
110
kips
3.00
in
Rn
85
kips
Rn
110
kips

Total bearing and tearout capacity

Rn

685

Rn Ru?

YES

Bearing c-bolt to edge


C-C distance between holes
Tearout center bolts

= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a


= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a

kips

C-173

5.1.3.1 Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

Welds- Fillet Weld


Web
Electrode classification number
Size of weld with one pass
Throat thickness

FEXX
size
wt

70
1
0.707

ksi
in
in

= 0.707*size

Lw

11.00

in

one side of plate

kips

= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

ksi
in
in

= 0.707*size

Length of the weld

FEXX
70
size 1
wt 0.707
Lw 21.00

in

one side of plate

Weld strength

Rn

468

kips

= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

Rn Ru?

YES

Length of the weld


Weld strength

Flange
Electrode classification number
Size of weld with one pass
Throat thickness

Rn

245

Rn Ru?

YES

C-174

5.1.3.1 Fixed Radial Elements to Column Connection

5.1.3.2 Pinned Circumferential Girder to Column Connection

Created by: JDM

3/13/12

Design tool for the circumferential girders to the exterior columns using a single plate welded to the column and
bolted to the web of the girder.
Bank:
4
Location: Typical Column

Color Key:

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup

Plate
Column

Yes
No
C-bolt

Girder

Passes Check
Fails Check
Center of Bolt

PASS

Design Adequate?
Ru

Vertical Load at Connection

57

Kips

From Midas Gen Model

Girder Properties
Wsection
bf
tf
tw
d
k1

Girder section
Beam flange width
Beam flange thickness
Beam web thickness
Beam depth
Beam k1

14 x 43
8.0
0.53
0.305
13.7
1.00

in
in
in
in
in

tp
Lp
wp
fy
fu

0.50
10.0
6.0
50
65

in
in
in
ksi
ksi

db
Rn
n

A490
7/8
27.1
3

in
k/bolt

Plate Properties
Plate thickness
Plate length
Plate width
plate yielding strength
plate ultimate strength

Bolt Properties
Bolt type
Bolt diameter
Shear strength criteria
Number of bolts required (min 2)

AISC T7-1

C-175

5.1.3.2 Pinned Circumfrential Girder to Column Connection

Spacing Requirements
C-bolt to edge
Plate edge distance
Minimum edge distance
Plate edge distance > minumum edge distance?
C-bolt spacing
Width of plate minus bolt spacings
Plate space remaining 0?

2.00
1.50
1.25
YES
3.00
0.00
YES

in
in
in

150
YES

kips

= 0.6*Fy*Lp*tp ; AISC J4-1

3.75
110
YES

in2
kips

= (Lp-(n*db+1/8))*tp

3.05
1.5
184
143
YES

in2
in2
kips
kips

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)

AISC Table J3.4

in
in

Plate Shear Yielding


Rn

Shear yielding strength

Rn Ru?

Plate Shear Rupture


Net area of shear plane
Plate shear rupture strength

Anv
Rn
Rn Ru?

= (0.75*0.6*Fu*Anv) ; AISC J4-4

Block Shear Rupture


Gross area of shear plane
Net area of tension plane
Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

Agv
Ant
Rn
Rn
MIN Rn Ru?

= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)
= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5
= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

Bearing and Tearout at Bolt Holes


Controlling material (min of tw,tp)
C-bolt distance to edge
Tearout c-bolt to edge
Bearing c-bolt to edge
C-C distance between holes
Tearout center bolts
Bearing center bolts
Total bearing and tearout capacity

Beam Web (tw<tp)


2.00
in
Rn
27
kips
Rn
31
kips
3.00
in
Rn
36
kips
Rn
31
kips
Rn
89
kips
Rn Ru?
YES

= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a


= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a

Weld- Fillet Weld


Electrode classification number
Size of weld with one pass
Throat thickness
Length of the weld
Weld strength

FEXX
size
wt
Lw
Rn
Rn Ru?

70
5/16
0.221
9.00
63
YES

ksi
in
in
in
kips

= 0.707*size
one side of plate
= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

C-176

5.1.3.2 Pinned Circumfrential Girder to Column Connection

5.1.4 HSS to Cantilever Connection

Created by: JDM

3/15/2012

Design tool for the cantilever to HSS section with an angle bolted to the cantilever web and welded to the HSS
side.
Bank:
4
Location: End of typical long cantilever

Color Key:

Yes
No
C-bolt

Cantilever

HSS

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check
Center of Bolt

Angle

PASS

Design Adequate?
Vertical Load at Connection

Ru

24

kips

From Cantilever Design

Cantilever Properties
Cantilever section
Cantilever flange width
Cantilever flange thickness
Cantilever web thickness
Cantilever depth
Cantilever k1
Cantilever clear space

Wsection
bf
tf
tw
d
k1
T

27 x 194
14.0
1.34
0.75
28.1
1.19
25.7

in
in
in
in
in
in

HSS Section Properties


HSS section
HSS thickness
HSS width
HSS height

HSSsection
t
w
h

HSS16x8x5/16
0.291
in
8.0
in
16.0
in

Angle Properties
Angle type
Angle length
Angle thickness
Angle leg long length
Angle leg short length
Angle yield strength
Angle ultimate strength

Lsection L7X4X1/2
La
7.00
in
ta
0.50
in
wa
7.00
in
wa
4.00
in
fy
50
ksi
fu
65
ksi

C-177

5.1.4 HSS to Cantilever Connection

connected to cantilever
connected to HSS

Bolt Properties
Bolt type
Bolt diameter
Shear strength
Number of bolts required (min 2)
Number of bolts used

db
Rn
nmin
n

A490
5/8
13.8
2
4

C-bolt to edge
Minimum edge distance
Angle edge distance
Angle edge distance > minumum edge distance?
C-bolt spacing
Width of plate minus bolt spacings
Plate space remaining 0?
Anlge fits between cantilever flanges?

1.25
0.875
0.88
YES
3.75
0.75
YES
YES

in
k/bolt

AISC T7-1

conservative - torque in HSS


section

Spacing Requirements
in
in

AISC Table J3.4

in
in

Shear Yielding
Shear yielding strength

Rn
Rn Ru?

79
YES

kips

= 0.6*Fy*Lp*tp ; AISC J4-1

4.13
93
YES

in2
kips

= (Lp-(n*db+1/8))*tp

5.25
3.0
267
264
YES

in2
in2
kips
kips

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)

Shear Rupture
Net area of shear plane
Shear rupture strength

Anv
Rn
Rn Ru?

= (0.75*0.6*Fu*Anv) ; AISC J4-4

Block Shear Rupture


Gross area of shear plane
Net area of tension plane
Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

Agv
Ant
Rn
Rn
MIN Rn Ru?

= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)
= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5
= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

Bearing and Tearout at Bolt Holes


Controlling material (min of tw,ta)
C-bolt distance to edge
Clear distance to edge
Tearout c-bolt to edge
Bearing c-bolt to edge
C-C distance between holes
Tearout center bolts
Bearing center bolts
Total bearing and tearout capacity

Angle (ta<tw)
1.25
in
0.88
in
Rn
26
kips
Rn
37
kips
3.75
in
Rn
26
kips
Rn
55
kips
Rn
102
kips
Rn Ru?
YES

= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a


= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*1.2*Lc*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a
= 0.75*2.4*db*t*Fu ; AISC J3-6a

C-178

5.1.4 HSS to Cantilever Connection

Weld- Fillet Weld


Electrode classification number
Size of weld achieved with one pass
Throat thickness
Length of the weld
Weld strength

FEXX
size
wt
Lw
Rn
Rn Ru?

70
5/16
0.221
23.00
160
YES

ksi
in
in
in
kips

C-179

5.1.4 HSS to Cantilever Connection

= 0.707*size
one side of plate
= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

C-180

Created by:

JLB

5/10/2012

5.1.5 Radial Girder to Concrete Core

Radial girders are connected to the core by a simple-shear, single plate connection and headed anchor bolts. The design of this connection uses
two separate spreadsheets, one to design the single plate shear connection to the steel base plate, and one to design the headed anchor bolt
connection of the steel baseplate to the concrete core.

5.1.5 Radial Girder to Concrete Core

5.1.5.1 Single Plate Connection Design

Created by:

JLB

4/5/2012

Design tool that calculates the capacity of a given single plate connection design according to AISC Steel
Construction Manual, 14th Edition
Bank
Location
Beam
Passes final check?

3
Mech. Floor
Radial Girder
Yes

Color Key:

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Applied Loads
Factored shear force
Controlling Capacity

Vu
Rn

224

kips

237

kips

Bolt Layout and Properties


bolt type
bolt diameter

5) Group B (e.g., A490) bolts, when threads are excluded from shear planes
db 5/8 in
# of cols
possible horiz. Spacing

number of columns of bolts

nbh

number of rows of bolts

nbv

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

in

horizontal bolt spacing

sbh

in

5.5

Plate Properties and Dimensions


depth of plate
width of plate
plate thickness
distance from support face to 1st
bolts

d 18 in
b 12 in
tp 0.625 in
a

in

horizontal edge distance

Leh

in

vertical edge distance


specified minimum yield stress of
plate

Lev

in

36

ksi

minimum tensile strength of plate

Fu

58

ksi

Fy

Plate Thickness Exceeds Max Allowable

Beam Properties and Dimensions


beam depth
distance between weld centers
specified minimum yield stress

d 21.1 in
T 18.38 in
tw 0.405 in
Fy 50 ksi

specified minimum tensile stress

Fu

web thickness

65

ksi

C-181

5.1.5.1 Single Plate Connection Design

Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes

0.75
16

total number of bolts in group


clear distance btwn edge of hole
and edge of material for bottom
bolts

lcbtm

number of bolts in bottom row

nbtm

clear distance btwn edge of hole


and edge of adjacent hole
number of bolts minus bottom row
sum of bolt clear distance values
available bearing strength at bolt
holes

lc

= nbvnbh

in

5.25 in

nb

12

lc

75

in

Rn 1,777 kips

= Icbtmnbtm+Icnb
= Fu*min(1.2lc tw, 2.4ndtw) ; (J3-10)

Determine Max Plate Thickness


shear strength of individual bolt
area of individual bolt
coef. From Part 7 for the moment
only case (instantaneous center of
rotation at the centroid of the bolt
group)
maximum moment in unbraced
segment
maximum plate thickness

Fv

84

psi

Ab

0.23 in2

Table J3.2
2
= (/4)(db-0.9743/nt)

C'

115

Table 7-7 to 7-13

in

Mmax 2,426 kip*in


tmax

1.25 in

= (Fv/0.90)(Ab*C') ; (10-4)
= 6Mmax/(Fy*d2) ; (10-3)

C-182

5.1.5.1 Single Plate Connection Design

Check plate for limit states of shear yielding, shear buckling, and yielding due to flexure
Required shear strength

Vr = V u

224

1.00

nominal shear strength

Vn

243

kips

= 0.6*Fy*Ag

available shear strength


gross cross-sectional area of shear
plate
distance from support to center of
bolt group

Vc

243

kips

= v*Vn

Ag

kips

2
11.3 in

= d*tp

9
in
Mr 2,016 kip*in = Vr*e
b 0.90

limiting buckling moment

Mn 34,992 kip*in = Fy*Zpl


Mc 31,493 kip*in = b*Mn

nominal flexural strength


available flexural strength
plastic section modulus of shear
plate
Interaction

Zpl

972

in

= b*d2/4
2

ok? 0.854 Yes

= (Vr/Vc) + (Mr/Mc) <= 1.0 ; (10-5)

Agv

1.00
2
13.1 in

= [Lev+(nbv-1)*sbv]*tp

Rn

284

= *0.60*Fy*Agv ; (J4-3)

Check Plate for Shear Yielding


gross area subject to shear
available shear strength for shear
yielding of the plate

kips

Check Plate for Shear Rupture

Anv

0.75
2
9.4 in

= tp*[d-nbv*(db+0.125in)]

Rn

245

= *0.60*Fu*Anv ; (J4-4)

Ubs

0.5

gross area subject to shear

Agv

net area subject to shear

Anv

0.75
2
13.1 in
2
11.5 in

= [Leh-0.5*(db+0.125)]*tp

net area subject to shear


available strength for shear rupture
of the plate

kips

Check Plate for Block Shear Rupture


block shear rupture reduction
coefficient

= [Lev+(nbv-1)*sbv]*tp
= [Lev+(nbv-1)*sbv-(nbv-1/2)(db+0.125)]*tp

Ant

1.6

in2

FuAnt

71

kips

Table 9-3a

shear yielding component

0.6FyAgv

213

kips

Table 9-3b

shear rupture component

0.6FuAnv

300

kips

Table 9-3c

Rn

248

kips

= Ubs*Fu*Ant+MIN(0.60*Fu*Anv, 0.60Fy*Agv);
(J4-5)

net area subject to tension


tension rupture component

available strength for block shear


rupture along a shear failure path or
paths and a perpendicular tension
failure path

C-183

5.1.5.1 Single Plate Connection Design

Check Available Strength of Weld


0.405 in
3/16 in
0.343 in

thickness of thinner part joined


minimum weld size
maximum weld size
weld size (in sixteenths of an inch)
weld length
filler metal classification strength

available strength of welded joint

5/16

Lw

17

FEXX

70

0.75

Rn

237

= MIN(tw ,tp)

in
ksi

kips

= 2**0.60*FEXX*(sqrt(2)/2)*D*Lw

C-184

5.1.5.1 Single Plate Connection Design

5.1.5.2 Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

Created by:

JLB

3/1/2012

Design tool to calculate the capacity of groups of headed anchor bolts in concrete according to ACI 318-08

Bank
Location
Beam
Anchor configuration acceptable?

3
Mech. Floor
Radial Girder
Yes

Color Key:

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Applied Loads
factored tensile force applied to anchor or group of
anchors
factored shear force applied to a single anchor or
group of anchors
location of factored tensile force

Nua

72

kips

Vua

12

kips

cgN

18.5

in

measured from center of lowest bolt row

Bolt and Layout Properties


bolt type
number of columns of bolts per side

5) Group B (e.g., A490) bolts, when threads are excluded from shear planes
nbh
2
nbv
n
nL

4
8

db

5/8

in

eh

in

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

in

horizontal bolt spacing

sbh

effective embedment depth of anchor


vertical centroid of bolt group

hef

4
12

in
in

cgb

10.5

in

f'c

14000

psi

126

kips

170

kips

number of rows of bolts


number of anchors in group
number of hooked bolts
bolt diameter
distance from the inner surface of the shaft of a Jor L-bolt to the outer tip of the J- or L-bolt

included in the total # of anchors, n

measured from center of lowest bolt row

Concrete Properties
specified compressive strength of concrete

Results
Design Tension Strength

Nn

Design Shear Strength


Shear-Tension Interaction
Anchor configuration acceptable?

Vn

0.407
Yes

57%
7%
(Nua/Nn)5/3+(Vua/Vn)5/3
full strength in tension permitted if Vua <= 0.2Vn
full strength in shear permitted if Nua <= 0.2Nn
shear-tension interaction to be <= 1 otherwise

C-185

5.1.5.2 Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

Design Requirements for Tensile Loading (ACI 318-08 D.5)


Design Strength
Nominal Tension Strength
Strength reduction factor
Design Tension Strength

Nn

Nn

179,716
0.70
125.8

kips

Ase,N

0.226

in2

lbs

Minimum of Nsa , Ncbg, and Npng


According to D.4.4

D.5.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Tension


effective cross-sectional area of single anchor in
tension
number of anchors in group

= (/4)(db-0.9743/nt)2

specified tensile strength of anchor steel

Fu

125,000

psi

not greater than smaller of 1.9*Fy


and 125,000

anchor steel yield strength

Fy

113,000

psi

from Table J3.2

Nsa

226,002

lbs

= n*Ase,N*Fu ; (D-3)

ANco

1,296

in2

= 9*hef2 ; (D-6)

ANc

2,280

in2

equal to nANco for anchors spaced >=


3*hef apart

kc

24

24 for cast-on, 17 for post installed

1.0

For normal weight concrete

Nb

118,045

lbs

in

Nominal strength of group of anchors in tension

D.5.2 Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor


projected concrete failure area of a single anchor
if not limited by edge distance or spacing
projected concrete failure area of a group of
anchors
coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength in
tension
modification factor reflecting the reduced
mechanical properties of lightweight concrete
basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a
single anchor in cracked concrete

distance between resultant tension load on a


e'N
group of anchors and the centroid of the group of
anchors
mod. Factor for anchor groups loaded
ec,N
eccentrically in tension
mod. Factor for edge effects of anchors loaded in
ed,N
tension
mod. Factor for anchors located in region with no
c,N
cracking at service load levels
mod. Factor for post-installed anchors without
cp,N
supplementary reinforcement
nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of
Ncbg
a group of anchors

= kc**(f'c)1/2*hef1.5 ; (D-7)

0.7

= (1+2*e'N/3*hef)-1 ; (D-9)

1.0

No edge effects when far from edge

1.25

for cast-in anchors

1.0

for cast-in anchors

179,716

lbs

= (Anc/Anco)ec,Ned,Nc,Ncp,NNb ;
(D-5)

C-186

5.1.5.2 Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

D.5.3 Pullout Strength of Anchor in Tension


modification factor for an anchor located in a
egion of concrete member where analysis
indicates no cracking at service load levels
pullout strength in tension of a single headed stud
or headed bolt
nominal pullout strength of a single headed stud
or headed bolt in tension
pullout strength in tension of a single hooked bolt

1.4

Nph

75,137

lb

= 8*Abrg*f'c ; (D-15)

Npnh

105,192

lb

= c,P*NPh ; (D-14)

NpL

23,625

lb

= 0.9*f'ceh*db ; (D-16) for


3*db<=e*h<=4.5*db

33,075

lb

0.67

in2

= (31/2/2)F2-(/4)db2; Area of hex


head minus area of bolt shaft

841,533

lb

= Npnl*nL+Npnh*(n-nL)

nominal pullout strength of a single hooked bolt in


NpnL
tension
net bearing area of the head of stud, anchor bolt,
Abrg
or headed deformed bar
nominal pullout strength of a group of anchors

c,P = 1.0 where analysis indicates


cracking at service load levels

c,P

Npng

= c,P*NPL ; (D-14)

D.5.4 Concrete Side-Face Blowout strength of a Headed Anchor in Tension


Not applicable for large edge distances

C-187

5.1.5.2 Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

Design Requirements for Shear Loading (ACI 318-08 D.6)


Design Strength
Vn

Nominal Shear Strength


Strength reduction factor
Design Shear Strength

Vn

226,002
0.75
170

lbs

= MIN(Vsa,Vcpg)
According to D.4.4

kips

D.6.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Shear


number of columns of bolts

nbh

number of rows of bolts


number of anchors in group
bolt diameter

nbv
n
db

4
8
0.63

in

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

7.00

in2

horizontal bolt spacing

sbh

4.00

in2

anchor steel yield strength

Fy

84,000

psi

specified tensile strength of anchor steel

Fu

125,000

effect. X-sect. Area of single bolt


Nominal strength in shear

psi

from Table J3.2


not greater than smaller of 1.9*Fy
and 125,000

Ase,V

0.23

in2

= (/4)(db-0.9743/nt)2

Vsa

226,002

lbs

= n*Ase,V*Fu

D.6.2 Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in Shear


"For anchors far from the edge, D.6.2.usually will not govern. For these
cases, D.6.1 and D.6.3 often govern"

D.6.3 Concrete Pryout Strength of Anchor in Shear


Nominal pryout strength (group)
coefficient for pryout strength

Vcpg

359,432

kcp

2.00

lbs

= kpc*Ncbg ; (D-31)
= 1.0 for hef < 2.5in, 2.0 for
hef >= 2.5in

C-188

5.1.5.2 Concrete Anchor Bolt Design

5.2 Base of Mega-Column Connection


5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

190

5.2.2 Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement

194

Mega-Columns

3 Column Node Beam


Shaft Columns

Caisson Cap

Caissons

5.2 Base of Mega-Column Connection


C-189

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

Created by:

JL

4/28/2012

This Spreadsheet calculates the capacities and checks the connection from the bottom of the Mega-Column
to Caissons. The spreadsheet goes through bearing checks and local buckling from bearing, as well as weld
checks in tension. This spreadsheet follows the guidelines outlined in AISC Steel Construction Manuel 13th
ed. Chapter 16.
Location
Connection

Btm. of Mega-Columns
Typ. Connection

Color Key

Yes
No
3 Column Node Beam

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc./Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check
MegaColumn
Load

Loads Coming Down from Mega-Column


Compression

Pu

53,852

kips

Tension

Tu

23,488

kips

Shear-x direction

Vu-x

28,040

kips

Shear-y-direction

Vu-y

27,107

kips

Moment-x

Mu-x
Mu-y

3,486

kips-ft

-2,902

kip-ft

Moment-y

*All values from Midas Gen Model


Shaft Column

Mega-Column Steel Properties


dmc

36

in

Flange Width

bf-MC

36

in

Yield Strength of Steel

Fy-MC
Es-MC

50

ksi

29,000

ksi

Depth of Mega-Columns

Modulus of Elasticity

3 Column Node Beam Properties


Type of Section used
Overall Depth of Beam
Flange Thickness

d
tf

Built Up 1
36
in
4.0
in

Web Thickness

tw

4.0

in

Flange Width

bf

42.0

in

Yield Strength of Steel

Fy

50

ksi

Modulus of Elasticity
Length of beam
Add Additional Reinforcement?
Number of Stiffeners/Doublers
Thickness of Stiffener/Doubler

Es
L

29,000
24.0

n
ts

2
4.00

in

Depth of Stifener/Doubler

ds
f'c

28.0

in

14

ksi

Concrete Compressive Strength

ksi
ft
Yes

3 Column Node Section


If "No" input "0" Please

C-190

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

Shaft Column Properties


Type of Section Used
Overall Depth of Beam

dsc

Built Up 2
36.0
in

Flange Thickness

tf-sc

4.0

in

Web Thickness

tw-sc

4.0

in

Flange Width

bf-sc

20.0

in

Yield Strength of Steel

Fy-sc

50

ksi

Modulus of Elasticity

Es-sc

29,000

ksi

Lsc
f'c

64.0

ft

14

ksi

wt

PJP
3.75

in

FEXX

80

ksi

Weld length

Lw

72.0

Effective Weld Area

Aw

810

in
in2

Length of Column
Concrete Compressive Strength

Shaft Column Section

Shear Capacity of 3 Column Node Beam


Type of Weld
Weld Effective Throat Thickness
Electrode Strength of Weld

in

= bf*2
= wt *wl

Area for Shear of 3 Column Node

Anet

432

Weld Shear Reduction Factor

s-w

0.75

Base Mat. Shear Reduction Factor

s-BM

1.00

Shear Strength of Weld

Rn-w

29,160

kips

= s-w*0.60*Fexx*Aw ; Table J2.5

Rn-BM

12,960

kips

= s-BM*0.60* Anet*Fy; G2-1

Shear Str. of Base Material


Check Min. Rn > VU?

= tw*D + n*D*ts ; G2-1

Need Shear Studs

Required Remaining Tensile Str.

TU

10,528

kips

Concrete Compress. Strength

f'C

14

ksi

Density of Concrete

145

pcf

Modulus of Elasticity of Conc.

Ec

6,533

ksi

Tensile Strength of Shear Stud

FU

65

ksi

Stud Diameter

ds

0.75

Area of Stud

Asc

0.44

in
in2

= *db2/4

Strength of Shear Stud


number of shear studs required
number of rows of shear studs

Qn

kips

= min(0.5*Asc*f'c*Ec , Asc*Fu) ; I3-3

nrow

28.72
525
10

nstuds
S

53
3.40

number of shear studs per row


Spacing
Check Qn > Tu?

= wc1.5*(f'c)0.5 ; I3-3

= Tu/Qn

in
YES

= (L - 3*bf)/nstuds

C-191

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

Bearing Strength at Top of 3 Column Node Beam (Top) (AISC J7)


Reduction Factor

0.75

Projected Bearing Area

Apb

1,296

in2

= DMC*bf-MC

Rn

116,640

kips

= 1.8*Apb*Fy ; J7-1

bRn

87,480

kips

= b*Rn

Nominal Strength
Design Strength
Rn > Pu?

YES

Web Local Yielding at 3 Column Node (Top) (AISC J.10.1)


Reduction Factor
Location of force from edge
Dist. from flange to web weld
Bearing Length
Factored Design Strength

x
k
N
Rn

1.0
144
7.00
36
42,600

Rn > Pu/(# stiffeners + 1) ?

in
in
in
kips

= L*12 /2
= bf-MC
= (5k + N)*Fy*tw* ; J10-2

YES

Web Crippling at Top from Mega-Columns (AISC J.10.3)


Reduction Factor
Location of Force from Edge
Bearing Length
Nominal Strength
Factored Design Strength

x
N
Rn

0.75
144.00
36.00
61,653

in
in
kips

= L*12 /2
= bf-MC

Rn

46,240

kips

((E*Fy*tf)/tw)0.5 ; J10-4

Rn > Pn/(# stiffeners + 1) ?

= *0.80*tw2*(1+3(N/d)*(tw/tf)1.5)*

YES

Check Bearing Strength at Bottom from Shaft Column (AISC J7)


Reduction Factor
Projected Bearing Area
Nominal Strength
Design Strength

Apb

0.75
720

in2

= DMC*bf-MC

Rn

64,800

kips

= 1.8*Apb*Fy ; J7-1

Rn

48,600

kips

= b*Rn

Rn > Pu?

YES

Web local Yielding at Bottom from Shaft Column (AISC J.10.1)


Reduction Factor
Location of force from edge
Dist. from flange to web weld
Bearing Length
Factored Design Strength

x
k
N
Rn

Rn > Pu/(# stiffeners + 1) ?

1.00
100
7.00
20.0
33,000

in
in
in
kips

= bf-MC
= (5k + N)*Fy*tw* ; J10-2

YES

C-192

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

Web Crippling at Bottom from Shaft Column (AISC J.10.3)


Reduction Factor
Location of Force from Edge
Bearing Length
Nominal Strength
Factored Design Strength

x
N
Rn

0.75
20
6.0
61,653

in
kips

= bf-MC
= *0.40*tw2*(1+3(N/d)*(tw/tf)1.5)*

Rn

46,240

kips

((E*Fy*tf)/tw)0.5 ; J10-4

Rn > Pn/(# stiffeners + 1) ?

YES

Check Shaft Column Welds in Tension


Permeter of Column
Length of Weld

P
Lw

144
144

in
in

Throat Thickness

wt

2.50

in

Nominal Strength of Weld

Fw

70

ksi

Effective Area of Weld


Reduction Factor
Strength Capacity of Weld

Aw

Rn

360
0.80
12,096

in2

= L*w

kips

= *0.60*FEXX*Aw ; Table J2.5

Tu

11,744

kips

Required Tension Force


Check Rn >
*

Tu*

YES

Compare Against half of the tension since there are Two "Shaft Columns"

Checkout Shaft Column for Pullout and Tension Forces


Area of Steel Shape
Reduction Factor
Tensile Strength
Factored Tensile Strength
Required Tensile Strength
Check Pn>
*

Pn

272
0.9
13,600

in2

tPn

12,240

kips

Tu

11,744

kips

Tu*

= Fy*A ; D2-1

kips

YES

Compare Against half of the tension since there are Two "Shaft Columns"

Determine the Embedment Length of Column in Shaft


Diameter of Column*
Yield Strength of Shaft Column

d
Fy

36
50

in
ksi

Concrete Compressive Strength

f'c

14

ksi

Embedment Length

ld

761

in

ld
Embedment Length
Is Current Embedment Length Okay?
*Assume Column is a circle, diameter = depth

63.4

ft
YES

= Dsc

= fy*db/(25*(f'c)0.5) ; ACI 318 - Chapter D

C-193

5.2.1 Mega-Column to Caisson Connection

5.2.2 Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement

Created By:

JL

4/29/2012

Calculates the required reinforcing area based on the loads generated from Midas Gen. The area of
steel is calculated using the Whitney Stress Block for concrete and is then checked against minimum
steel equations found in CRSI 2008 Design Guide.
Color Key
Location
Bottom of Mega-Column
User Input
Connection
Typ. Connection
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Moment Coming Down from Mega-Column
Yes
Passes Check
Mu-x 3,486 kips-ft
Moment - X
No
Fails Check
MegaMu-x 41,832 kips-in
Moment - X
Column
3 Column
Mu-y 2,902 kips-ft
Moment - Y
Load
Node Beam
Mu-y 34,824 kips-in
Moment - Y

Caisson Cap Dimensions and Properties


Width of Caisson
Length of Caisson
Height of Caisson
Concrete Compressive Strength

b
L
h
f'c

18
28
22
14

Density of Concrete

150

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Ec 213,274 ksi

Rebar Yield Strength

fyr

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel


Bar Size of rebar
Diameter of rebar
Area of Reinforcing bar

60

ft
ft
ft
ksi
lb/ft3

Caisson
Cap
Shaft Column
= 57,000*f'c0.5

ksi

Es 29,000 ksi
#18
dbar 2.257 in
Abar 4.00 in2

Calculate the Required Number of Bars Along the x Direction (Short Bars)
Depth to centroid of rebar
Reduction Factor for Moment
Required Area of Steel

dx

Asr-req
4/3*Asr-req

Asr min Calculations

254
0.9
3.05
4.07

160
160

Required Number of Bars

nb

40

Spacing

sx

5.99

Spacing < Min( db or 1")?

in2
in

in

* See equation at the end of sheet

= 4/3 * As-req

= (3*(f'c)0.5*L*dx)/fy

i 15,958 in
ii 284,336 in2
iii
Asrmin

Controlling Asr-min

= H - 6" - 3" - d b/2

in

in2

= (200*L*dx)/fy
= 0.0018*L*H
= Min(i,ii,iii)
= As-min/As

in

= (L - nb*db) / db +1

YES

C-194

5.2.2 Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement

Calculate the Required Number of Bars Along the Y direction (Long Bars)
dy

Depth to centriod of rebar in Y


Reduction Factor for Moment
Required Area of Steel

Asr-req
4/3*Asr-req

252
0.9
2.56
3.42

= H - 6" - 3" - d b -db/2

in

** See equation at end of sheet

in

2
2

i 10,168 in
2
ii 281,808 in

Asr min Calculations

iii
Controlling As-min
Required Number of Bars

Asr min

103
103

nb

26

sy

Spacing
Spacing < Min( db or 1")?

3.07

in
in2

= 4/3 * As-req
= (3*(f'c)0.5*b*dy)/fy
= (200*b*dy)/fy
= 0.0018*b*H
= Min(I,ii,iii)
= As-min/As

in

= (b - nb*db) / (db +1)

YES

* Equation for As-req for Moment about X axis (Short Bars)


(

fy2
) 2 4 (
) Mux
2 0.85 f c
fy2
2(
)
2 0.85 f c

) (

** Equation for As-req for Moment about the Y axis ( Long Bars)
(
=

fy2
) 2 4 (
) Muy
2 0.85 f c
fy2
2(
)
2 0.85 f c

) (

C-195

5.2.2 Caisson Cap Moment Reinforcement

5.3 Outrigger Connections


5.3.1 Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection

197

5.3.2 Top of Outrigger to Core

199

Outriggers

5.3 Outrigger Connections


C-196

5.3.1 Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection

Created by: JD

4/21/12

Design tool for the outrigger truss to the exterior columns using welds. The radial girder will be designed using
the moment resisting girder connection spreadsheet.
Bank:
4
Location: Typical Column

Color Key:

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Plates
Outrigger
Column

Girder

Outrigger to Column Connection


PASS

Design Adequate?
Vertical Load at Connection

Ru

2500

Kips

From Midas Gen Model

Girder Properties
Girder section
Beam flange width
Beam flange thickness

Wsection 14 x 730
bf
17.9
in
tf
4.91
in
tw
d
K1

3.07
22.4
2.75

in
in
in

Plate thickness

tp

3.50

in

Plate length

Lp

26.0

in

Plate width

wp

20.0

in

plate yielding strength

Fy

50

ksi

plate ultimate strength

Fu

65

ksi

2730

kips

Beam web thickness


Beam depth
Beam k1

Plate Properties

Plate Shear Yielding


Shear yielding strength

Rn
Rn Ru?

= 0.6*Fy*Lp*tp ; AISC J4-1

YES

C-197

5.3.1 Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection

Plate Shear Rupture


Net area of shear plane
Plate shear rupture strength

Anv

91.00

Rn

2662

Rn Ru?

YES

in2
kips

= (Lp-(n*db+1/8))*tp

in2

= Lp*MIN(tp,tw)

= (0.75*0.6*Fu*Anv) ; AISC J4-4

Block Shear Rupture


Agv

Gross area of shear plane

79.82

Ant

61.4

Rn

= (wp-(db+1/8))*MIN(tp,tw)

5655

in
kips

Rn

4789

kips

= 0.75(0.6*Fy*Agv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

MIN Rn Ru?

YES

Net area of tension plane


Block shear rupture strength (min Rn)

= 0.75(0.6*Fu*Anv+Fu*Ant) ; AISC J4-5

Weld- Fillet Weld


Electrode classification number
Size of weld
Number of Welds Type 1
Throat thickness
Length of the weld type 1

FEXX
70
size 2
2
wt 1.414
Lw 25.00

Weld 1 strength
Number of welds type 2
Length of the weld type 2

Rn1

Weld 2 strength

Rn2

891

Rn

3118

Rn Ru?

YES

Total weld strength

Lw

2227
2
10.00

ksi
in
in

= 0.707*size

in

one side of plate

kips

= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4

in
Kips

= 0.75*te*Lw*0.6*FEXX ; AISC J2-4


= Rn1+Rn2

C-198

5.3.1 Bottom of Outrigger to Column Connection

5.3.2 Top of Outrigger to Core


5.3.2.1

Gusset Plate Design Inputs

200

5.3.2.2

Single Bolt Shear Capacity

203

5.3.2.3

Bolt and Plate Checks for Outrigger Connection

204

5.3.2.4

Bolt and Plate Checks for Girder Connection

207

5.3.2.5

Weld Design for Gusset Plate to Embedded Steel Frame 210

5.3.2.6

Steel Frame Embedded in Concrete Core Design

211

5.3.2.7

Embedded Steel Frame Shear Stud Spacing

217

Weld

Gusset Plate
On Each Side

Radial Girder

Outrigger
Embedded Steel Frame
Within Concrete Core

5.3.2 Top of Outrigger to Core


C-199

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs


Input dimensions for gusset plate, outrigger member, column member, floor girder, and bolts
Column Section
selected section
specified minimum yield stress

Fy

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

65

ksi

web thickness

tw

0.635

in

flange thickness

tf
d
bf

0.855
33.5
11.6

in
in
in

k1

1.125

in

depth
width
distance from web center to line of flange toe of
fillet

W33 x 152
50
ksi

Girder Section
selected section
specified minimum yield stress

Fy

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

65

ksi

web thickness

tw

3.07

in

flange thickness

tf
d
bf

4.91
22.4
17.9

in
in
in

k1

2.75

in

Ru
Ru/2

224

kips

112

kips

depth
width
distance from web center to line of flange toe of
fillet
required loads
load per gusset plate

W14 x 730
50
ksi

C-200

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

number of horizontal bolt groups

ngh

min. spacing between horizontal bolt groups


sgv

2
7

in
in

in

selected spacing between horizontal bolt groups


spacing check
number of rows of bolts per group

nbv

8
Yes
1

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

number of columns of bolts


horizontal bolt spacing

nbh
sbh

3
3

in

Leh
Lev

in

in

Leh
Lev

in

4.95

in

= 2*k1+F

Edge Spacing on Plate


horizontal edge distance
vertical edge distance

Edge Spacing on Girder


horizontal edge distance
vertical edge distance

= (bf-sgv-2*(nbv-1)*sbv)/2

Outrigger Section
selected section
specified minimum yield stress

Fy

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

65

ksi

web thickness

tw

3.07

in

flange thickness

tf
d
bf

4.52
22.4
17.9

in
in
in

k1

2.75

in

ngv

depth
width
distance from web center to line of flange toe of
fillet
number of horizontal bolt groups
min. spacing between horizontal bolt groups

W14 x 730
50
ksi

in
in

in

selected spacing between horizontal bolt groups

sgv

spacing check
number of rows of bolts per group

nbv

8
Yes
2

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

number of columns of bolts


horizontal bolt spacing

nbh
sbh

required loads
load per gusset plate

Pu
Pu /2

in

2190

kips

1095

kips

C-201

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

= 2*k1+F

Edge Spacing on Plate


horizontal edge distance
vertical edge distance

Leh
Lev

in

in

Leh
Lev

in

1.95

in

Edge Spacing on Outrigger


horizontal edge distance
vertical edge distance

=(bf-sgv-2*(nbv-1)*sbv)/2

Plate Dimensions
plate thickness

tp

1.5

in

width at outrigger

Lout

26

in

width at girder

Lgird

18

in

Fy
Fu

36

ksi

70

ksi

specified minimum yield stress


specified minimum tensile strength

Bolt Properties
bolt type
bolt diameter
bolt head size

5) Group B (e.g., A490) bolts, when threads are excluded


from shear planes
bd
7/8
in
F

1 7/16

in

C-202

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.2 Single Bolt Shear Capacity


Determine if the bolts slip and fail in shear
available slip resistance
bolt diameter
mean slip coefficient
pretension multiplier

Rn

db

Du

16.6
1.00
7/8
0.30
1.13

factor for fillers

hf

min. fastener tension


number of slip planes
required to permit the
connection to slip

Tb

49

ns

available shear strength


reduction factor
nominal shear stress
nominal unthreaded body
area of bolt

Rn

Vn

37.9
0.75
84

Ab 0.601
shear strength greater than slip resistance?

kips

DuhfTbns

in
for Class A surfaces
for one filler btwn connected parts

kips

Table J3.1

kips

VnAb (J3-1)

ksi
in2

da 2/4

Yes

C-203

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.3 Bolt and Plate Checks for Outrigger Connection


Checking failure modes for bolts and plate at the connection between gusset plate and outrigger
connection

Strength Check
Pu

1,095

kips

Rn

1,212
Yes

kips

nmin

29

bolts min # for bolt shear

nb

32
Yes

bolts

tp

1.5

in

Lout

26

in

specified minimum yield stress

Fy

36

ksi

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

70

ksi

horizontal edge distance

Leh
Lev

in

in

db

7/8

in

number of horizontal bolt groups

ngh

selected spacing between horizontal bolt groups

sgv

number of rows of bolts per group

nbv

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

number of columns of bolts

nbh
sbh

8
4

in

specified minimum yield stress

Fy

50

ksi

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

65

ksi

flange thickness

tf

4.52

in

Leh
Lev

in

1.95

in

required strength
design strength
does it pass?

Bolt Check
min. # of bolts
actual number of bolts
does it pass?

Plate Properties
plate thickness
width at outrigger

vertical edge distance

Bolt Group Properties


bolt diameter

horizontal bolt spacing

in
in

Outrigger Properties

horizontal edge distance


vertical edge distance

C-204

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Gross Area of Plate


gross area

Ag

39.0

in2

= min( Aw, Agp)

Whitmore Section width

lw

46.3

Whitmore area

Aw

69.5

in
in2

= l wtp

gross area from plate dimensions

Agp

39.0

in

Rn

1,212

kips

= FnvAbnb (J3-1)

Rn

Fy

1,264
0.90
36

kips

= FyAg (J4-1)

Ag

39.0

Rn

Fu

1,752
0.75
70

Ae
U
An

33.4
1.0
33.4

Rn

Ubs

1,692
0.75
1.0

kips UbsFuAnt+0.60min(FuAnv,FyAgv);(J4-5)

Agv

51.0

in2

= Louttp

Bolt Shear Strength


design strength

Tensile Yielding of Gusset Plate


design strength
specified minimum yield stress
gross area

ksi
in2

Tensile Rupture of Gusset Plate


design strength
specified minimum tensile strength
effective net area
shear lag factor
net area

kips

= FuAe (J4-2)

ksi
in2

AnU (D3-1)
Table D3.1

in2

Block Shear Rupture of Gusset Plate


available strength
reduction coefficient
gross area subject to shear
net area subject to shear
net area subject to tension

= [Lev+(nbh-1)*sbh]tp

39.8

in

Ant

16.5

in2

Rn

Ubs

3,066
0.75
1.0

kips UbsFuAnt+0.60min(FuAnv,FyAgv); (J4-5)

Agv

135.4

in2

Anv

= [Leh+(nbh-1)*sbh-(nbh-0.5)(da+.125)]tp
= 2[Lev-0.5(da+0.125)]tp

Block Shear Rupture of Flange


available strength
reduction coefficient
gross area subject to shear
net area subject to shear
net area subject to tension

Anv
Ant

106.2
13.1

in

in

= [Lev+(nbh-1)*sbh]tf
= [Leh+(nbh-1)*sbh-(nbh-0.5)(da+.125)]tf
= 2[Lev-0.5(da+0.125)]tf

C-205

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Bolt Bearing on Gusset Plate


Rn

3,186
0.75

clear distance, in dir. of force, between


edge of hole and edge of material

l c edge

5.5

in

clear distance, in dir. of force, between


edge of hole and edge adjacent hole

l c int

3.1

in

1.51l c
nb3.0da

40.5

in

84.0

in

Rn

1,798
0.75

kips

clear distance, in dir. of force, between


edge of hole and edge of material

l c edge

2.5

in

clear distance, in dir. of force, between


edge of hole and edge adjacent hole

l c int

3.1

in

1.51l c
nb3.0da

8.2

in

84.0

in

available bearing strength

kips

= tpFuMIN( 1.51l c,nb3.0da) ; (J3-6b)

Bolt Bearing on Flange


available bearing strength

= tfFuMIN( 1.51l c,nb3.0da) ; (J3-6b)

C-206

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.4 Bolt and Plate Checks for Girder Connection


Checking failure modes for bolts and plate at the connection between gusset plate and outrigger
Strength Check
required strength
design strength
does it pass?

Ru

112

kips

Rn

227
Yes

kips

nmin

Bolt Check
min. # of bolts

bolts min # for bolt shear

nb

6
Yes

bolts

plate thickness

tp

1.5

in

width at girder

Lgird

18

in

specified minimum yield stress

Fy

36

ksi

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

70

ksi

horizontal edge distance

Leh
Lev

in

in

da

7/8

in

number of horizontal bolt groups


selected spacing between horizontal bolt
groups

ngh

sgv

number of rows of bolts per group

nbv

vertical bolt spacing

sbv

number of columns of bolts

nbh
sbh

3
3

in

specified minimum yield stress

Fy

50

ksi

specified minimum tensile strength

Fu

65

ksi

flange thickness

tf

actual number of bolts


does it pass?

Plate Properies (from Inputs)

vertical edge distance

Bolt Group Properties


bolt diameter

horizontal bolt spacing

in
in

Girder Properties

horizontal edge distance


vertical edge distance

Leh
Lev

4.91 in
4

in

4.95 in

C-207

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Gross Area of Plate


gross area

Ag

Whitmore Section width

lw

Whitmore area

Aw
Agp

gross area from plate dimensions

2
22.4 in

= MIN(Aw, Agp)

14.9 in
2
22.4 in

= l wtp

27.0 in

= Louttp

Bolt Shear Strength


design strength

Rn

227

Rn

Fy

726 kips
0.90
36 ksi
2
22.4 in

= FyAg (J4-1)

Rn 1270 kips
0.75
Fu 70 ksi
2
Ae 24.2 in

= FuAe (J4-2)

kips

= FnvAbnb (J3-1)

Tensile Yielding of Gusset Plate


design strength
specified minimum yield stress

Ag

gross area

Tensile Rupture of Gusset Plate


design strength
specified minimum tensile strength
effective net area
shear lag factor
net area

U
An

= AnU (D3-1)

1.0
2
24.2 in

Table D3.1

464 kips
0.75
1.0
2
16.5 in

= UbsFuAnt+0.60min(FuAnv,FyAgv) ; (J4-5)

Block Shear Rupture of Gusset Plate


available strength
reduction coefficient
gross area subject to shear

Rn

Ubs
Agv

net area subject to shear

Anv

net area subject to tension

Ant

= [Lev+(nbh-1)*sbh]tp

14.3 in
2
3.8 in

= [Leh+(nbh-1)*sbh-(nbh-0.5)(da+.125)]tp

560 kips
0.75
1.0
2
24.3 in

= UbsFuAnt+0.60min(FuAnv,FyAgv) ; (J4-5)

= 2[Lev-0.5(da+0.125)]tp

Block Shear Rupture of Flange


available strength
reduction coefficient
gross area subject to shear

Rn

Ubs
Agv

net area subject to shear

Anv

net area subject to tension

Ant

21.8 in
2
17.2 in

= [Lev+(nbh-1)*sbh]tf
= [Leh+(nbh-1)*sbh-(nbh-0.5)(da+.125)]tf
= 2[Lev-0.5(da+0.125)]tf

C-208

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Bolt Bearing on Gusset Plate


Rn

available bearing strength


clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of
hole and edge of material
clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of
hole and edge adjacent hole

786 kips
0.75

l c edge

2.5

in

l c int

2.1

in

1.51l c
nb3.0da

= tpFuMIN( 1.51l c,nb3.0da) ; (J3-6b)

10.0 in
15.8 in

Bolt Bearing on Flange


Rn 3770 kips
0.75

available bearing strength


clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of
hole and edge of material
clear distance, in dir. of force, between edge of
hole and edge adjacent hole

l c edge

4.5

in

l c int

2.1

in

1.51l c
nb3.0da

= tfFuMIN( 1.51l c,nb3.0da) ; (J3-6b)

18.9 in
15.8 in

C-209

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.5 Weld Design for Gusset Plate to Embedded Steel Frame


Design of weld of gusset plates to embedded steel frame

Weld Specifications
Weld Size
Weld Size in sixteenths of inch
Electrode
Strength of Weld
Electrode Coeffiencient

D
D
FEXX
C1

0.75
12
E70
70

in
1/16 in

=w * 16

ksi

Table 8-3

Table 8-3

Vector Addition of Loads


Outrigger Force X Component

Fx

1,602

kips

Outrigger Force Y Component


Shear Force
Net Load X Component

Fy
V
Fx

1,494
224
1,602

kips
kips
kips

V+Fy

1,718

kips

Ru

2,348
77

kips
degrees

43
69.3

degrees
in

25.4
0.367
42
0.606
4.135
2,579

in

2,348
Yes

kips

Net Load Y Component


Resultant Load
Angle of Load
Net Load Design
Outrigger Angle
Length of Weld
Distance Between Welds
Value for C Tables
Outrigger Force Eccentricity
Lookup Value for C Tables
Tabular Value
Strength of Weld Group
Required Strength
Does it pass strength requirements?

Lw
k*Lw
k
ex
a
C
Rn
Ru

= (Fx2 + (V+Fy)2).5
with respect to vertical

with respect to horizontal plane

=k*Lw/Lw

in

From Drawing S-2.005

kips

=ex/Lw
Table 8-4 Angle = 75 degrees
=*C*C1*D*Lw

C-210

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.6 Steel Frame Embedded in Concrete Core Design


Resulting steel sizes from model of steel frame embedded inside concrete core to take load
from outriggers

All members were assumed to be fully braced, simulating the frames embedment in
concrete.

All beams and columns are connected by moment connections.

All beams and columns are made of A992 Steel.

The top and bottom nodes of the frame are assumed to be fixed in all directions and
rotations.

Tensile Load

2190

kips

applied axially from points where outrigger connects to frame

Final Sizes
Beams
Columns
Ficticious Braces

W14 x 665
W33 x 152
W24 x 103 act in compression only

Local Coordinates

C-211

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

MIDAS Steel Code Check Results

Check

Member
Number

Section
Number

Length (ft)

Unbraced
Length (ft)

Combined
Shear
Unbraced Unbraced
Check Utilization Utilization
Length (ft) Length (ft)
Ratio
Ratio
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

2
0.388
4
0.513
7
0.381
8
0.539
9
0.488
12
0.386
13
0.55
14
0.497
17
0.386
19
0.493
22
0.385
23
0.547
24
0.49
27
0.384
28
0.547
29
0.489
32
0.385
33
0.547
34
0.49
37
0.385
38

2
0.002
2
0.012
2
0.002
2
0.01
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.012
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2

13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Effective
Length
Factor
Effective
Length
Factor
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65

Bending
Axial Load
Moment y
(kips)
(k-ft)

Bending
Moment y
(k-ft)

Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Axial
Moment
Moment
Strength Capacity z (k- Capacity z (k(kips)
ft)
ft)
-679
1,904
752
2,016
-669
1,904
-821
1,904
744
2,016
-678
1,904
-824
1,904
751
2,016
-680
1,904
752
2,016
-677
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-676
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-676
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-676
1,904
-824

4.54
2,096
47.54
2,096
-3.10
2,096
2.26
2,096
-9.96
2,096
-2.61
2,096
-5.32
2,096
-8.53
2,096
-2.03
2,096
-1.07
2,096
-0.55
2,096
-0.20
2,096
0.82
2,096
-0.43
2,096
-0.77
2,096
-0.89
2,096
-0.90
2,096
-1.28
2,096
-1.52
2,096
-1.17
2,096
-1.53

8.73
265.5
-35.86
265.5
8.57
265.5
-32.01
265.5
-34.11
265.5
8.65
265.5
-34.39
265.5
-36.15
265.5
8.36
265.5
-35.67
265.5
8.57
265.5
-34.06
265.5
-34.94
265.5
8.71
265.5
-33.96
265.5
-34.90
265.5
8.68
265.5
-34.07
265.5
-35.17
265.5
8.65
265.5
-34.02

C-212

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Check

Member
Number

Section
Number

Unbraced
Length (ft)
Length (ft)

Combined
Shear
Unbraced Unbraced
Check Utilization Utilization
Length (ft) Length (ft)
Ratio
Ratio
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

0.547
39
0.49
42
0.385
43
0.547
44
0.49
47
0.385
48
0.547
49
0.49
52
0.385
53
0.548
54
0.491
57
0.385
58
0.548
59
0.491
62
0.385
63
0.547
64
0.489
67
0.387
68
0.556
69
0.493
90
0.019
91
0.019

0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
2
0.002
2
0.011
2
0.011
1
0
1
0

0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
13
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Effective
Length
Factor
Effective
Length
Factor
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65

C-213

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Bending
Axial Load
Moment y
(kips)
(k-ft)

Bending
Moment y
(k-ft)

Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Axial
Moment
Moment
Strength Capacity z (k- Capacity z (k(kips)
ft)
ft)
1,904
750
2,016
-676
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-676
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-677
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-677
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-677
1,904
-824
1,904
750
2,016
-681
1,904
-826
1,904
754
2,016
182
8,820
182
8,820

2,096
-1.50
2,096
-1.38
2,096
-1.81
2,096
-1.77
2,096
-1.58
2,096
-2.16
2,096
-2.30
2,096
-1.55
2,096
-2.28
2,096
-2.32
2,096
-1.55
2,096
-1.67
2,096
-1.23
2,096
-1.15
2,096
-2.04
2,096
-3.42
2,096
-1.68
2,096
6.05
2,096
-11.97
2,096
-45.39
5,550
-45.61
5,550

265.5
-35.04
265.5
8.67
265.5
-34.07
265.5
-35.10
265.5
8.66
265.5
-34.00
265.5
-34.98
265.5
8.62
265.5
-34.12
265.5
-35.22
265.5
8.64
265.5
-34.16
265.5
-35.20
265.5
8.60
265.5
-33.98
265.5
-34.40
265.5
8.73
265.5
-35.62
265.5
-34.15
265.5
0.14
2655
-0.32
2655

Check

Member
Number

Section
Number

Unbraced
Length (ft)
Length (ft)

Combined
Shear
Unbraced Unbraced
Check Utilization Utilization
Length (ft) Length (ft)
Ratio
Ratio
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

92
0.019
93
0.019
94
0.019
95
0.019
96
0.021
97
0.02
98
0.02
99
0.019
100
0.019
101
0.019
102
0.019
103
0.018
104
0.374
105
0.374
106
0.374
107
0.374
108
0.374
109
0.377
110
0.403
111
0.073
112
0.393
113

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.003
1
0.988
1
0.002
1

16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.5834
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.5172
0
0.06624
0
16.5172
0
0.06624

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Effective
Length
Factor
Effective
Length
Factor
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65

Bending
Axial Load
Moment y
(kips)
(k-ft)

Bending
Moment y
(k-ft)

Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Axial
Moment
Moment
Strength Capacity z (k- Capacity z (k(kips)
ft)
ft)
182
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
183
8,820
183
8,820
180
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
182
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,294
8,820
3,293
8,820
3,291
8,820
322
8,820
3,284
8,820
4

-45.86
5,550
-45.65
5,550
-45.68
5,550
-45.20
5,550
-49.57
5,550
-44.66
5,550
-47.45
5,550
-47.01
5,550
-44.75
5,550
-43.93
5,550
-44.88
5,550
-45.18
5,550
2.32
5,550
2.27
5,550
2.12
5,550
2.19
5,550
2.43
5,550
3.62
5,550
67.33
5,550
-108.23
5,550
-55.65
5,550
-88.16

0.23
2655
0.32
2655
-1.19
2655
0.59
2655
4.55
2655
-4.30
2655
-2.14
2655
1.25
2655
-0.76
2655
-0.76
2655
0.33
2655
-0.06
2655
0.93
2655
-1.11
2655
-1.11
2655
1.14
2655
-1.31
2655
-10.34
2655
57.37
2655
-94.19
2655
-36.39
2655
-0.05

C-214

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Check

Member
Number

Section
Number

Unbraced
Length (ft)
Length (ft)

Combined
Shear
Unbraced Unbraced
Check Utilization Utilization
Length (ft) Length (ft)
Ratio
Ratio
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

0.016
114
0.376
116
0.374
117
0.374
118
0.374
119
0.374
127
0
129
0.001
130
0.565
131
0.409
132
0.41
133
0.41
134
0.409
135
0.407
136
0.408
137
0.408
138
0.408
139
0.408
140
0.408
141
0.409
142
0.409
143
0.407

0.988
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.001
2
0.011
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003
2
0.003

0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
0.06624
0
0.06624
0
13
0
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Effective
Length
Factor
Effective
Length
Factor
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

C-215

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Bending
Axial Load
Moment y
(kips)
(k-ft)

Bending
Moment y
(k-ft)

Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Axial
Moment
Moment
Strength Capacity z (k- Capacity z (k(kips)
ft)
ft)
8,820
3,286
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
3,295
8,820
0
8,820
-1
8,330
-823
1,904
751
2,016
746
2,016
751
2,016
751
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016
750
2,016

5,550
5.31
5,550
3.18
5,550
2.47
5,550
2.60
5,550
2.35
5,550
0.00
4,298
-3.74
5,550
43.36
2,096
1.30
1,916
2.99
1,916
-2.59
1,916
-2.76
1,916
-0.63
1,916
0.02
1,916
-0.70
1,916
-1.28
1,916
-1.42
1,916
-1.51
1,916
-1.83
1,916
-2.22
1,916
-0.83
1,916

2655
8.77
2655
0.68
2655
-1.31
2655
1.24
2655
1.24
2655
0.00
1771.95
-0.22
2655
-33.96
265.5
10.74
265.5
11.47
265.5
10.88
265.5
10.30
265.5
10.40
265.5
10.65
265.5
10.69
265.5
10.62
265.5
10.60
265.5
10.61
265.5
10.65
265.5
10.61
265.5
10.24
265.5

Check

Member
Number

Section
Number

Unbraced
Length (ft)
Length (ft)

Combined
Shear
Unbraced Unbraced
Check Utilization Utilization
Length (ft) Length (ft)
Ratio
Ratio
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

144
0.408
145
0.009
146
0.009
147
0.009
148
0.009
149
0.009
150
0.01
151
0.009
152
0
153
0.01
154
0.001
155
0.01
156
0.01
157
0.009
158
0.009
159
0.009
160
0.009
161
0
162
0
173
0.377
333
0.013
341
0.003
393
0.549

2
0.002
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.001
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.064
1
0.006
2
0.011

13
13
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.5172
0
0.06624
0
16.5172
0
0.06624
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
16.4576
0
0.06624
0
0.06624
0
16.4576
0
0.08416
0.08416
0.08416
0.08416
13
0

13
13
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.5172
16.5172
0.06624
0.06624
16.5172
16.5172
0.06624
0.06624
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
16.4576
0.06624
0.06624
0.06624
0.06624
16.4576
16.4576
0.08416
0.08416
0.08416
0.08416
0
0

Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
Lateral
Torsional
Buckling
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Effective
Length
Factor
Effective
Length
Factor
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.65
0.65

Bending
Axial Load
Moment y
(kips)
(k-ft)

Bending
Moment y
(k-ft)

Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Axial
Moment
Moment
Strength Capacity z (k- Capacity z (k(kips)
ft)
ft)
753
2,016
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
12
8,820
0
8,820
16
8,820
-1
8,330
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
14
8,820
0
8,820
0
8,820
3,293
8,820
-149
8,330
-45
8,330
-824
1,904

4.55
1,916
44.87
5,550
44.92
5,550
45.43
5,550
45.14
5,550
44.65
5,550
45.82
5,550
43.96
5,550
0.00
4,298
50.54
5,550
-3.74
5,550
49.84
5,550
46.77
5,550
43.49
5,550
43.40
5,550
44.41
5,550
44.54
5,550
0.00
4,298
0.00
4,298
1.97
5,550
9.11
5,550
-0.21
5,550
-1.83
2,096

9.73
265.5
0.09
2655
0.00
1771.95
0.02
2655
-0.59
2655
-0.63
2655
2.39
2655
2.40
2655
0.00
1771.95
1.00
2655
-0.22
2655
0.82
2655
1.70
2655
1.70
2655
-0.63
2655
-0.04
2655
0.11
2655
0.00
1771.95
0.00
1771.95
8.77
2655
5.10
2655
-1.39
2655
-34.42
265.5

C-216

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

5.3.2.7 Embedded Steel Frame Shear Stud Spacing


Design of shear studs for the columns and beams in the embedded steel frame to transfer loads to
concrete
Beam Shear Studs
Selected Section
Concrete Compressive Strength
Diameter of Shear Stud
Area of Shear Stud Connector

f'c
d
Asc

W14 x 665
14.0
0.50
0.20

ksi
in
in2

= *d /4

lbs/ft3
ksi

=c1.5*( f'c) 0.5

Weight of Concrete per Unit Volume


Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

c
Ec

160
7,573

Minimum Tensile Strength of a Shear Stud

Tu

65

Coefficient

Rg
Rp

1.00

Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn1

32.0

kips

= 0.5* Asc*(Ec f'c)0.5

Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn2

12.8

kips

=Asc * Rg*Rp *Tu

Controlling Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn

12.8

kips

= MIN(QN1, QN2)

Flange Width
Number of Rows of Shear Studs
Shear Force
Number of Shear Studs Per Row
Member Length
Spacing
Minimum Spacing

bf
r
V
n
L
s

17.7
4
3,364
66
16.5
3.00
3.00

in
rows
kips
ft
in
in

AISC I3.2.(6)

36.0

in

AISC I3.2.(6)

slong

3.0

in

s min slong smax ?

Yes

strans
s min strans smax ?

3.0

Coefficient

ksi

1.00

Shear Stud Specifications

Maximum Spacing

smin
smax

Selected Shear Stud Spacings


Longitudinal Spacing
Spacing Check
Transverse Spacing
Spacing Check

in

Yes

C-217

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

Axial Load in Member


=V/(Qn*r)
=L/N

Column Shear Studs


Selected Section
Concrete Compressive Strength
Diameter of Shear Stud
Area of Shear Stud Connector

f'c
d
Asc

W33 x 152
14.0
0.38
0.11

Weight of Concrete per Unit Volume

wc

160

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Ec

7,573

ksi

Minimum Tensile Strength of a Shear Stud

Tu

65

ksi

Coefficient

Rg
Rp

1.00

Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn1

17.98

kips

= 0.5* Asc*(Ec f'c)0.5

Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn2

7.18

kips

=Asc * Rg*Rp *Tu

Controlling Shear Strength of Shear Stud

Qn

7.18

kips

= MIN(QN1, QN2)

Flange Width
Number of Rows of Shear Studs
Shear Force
Number of Shear Studs
Member Length
Spacing
Minimum Spacing

bf
r
V
n
L
s

11.60
3
774
36
13.0
4.33
2.25

in
rows
kips
ft
in
in

AISC I3.2.(6)

36.0

in

AISC I3.2.(6)

slong

4.00

in

s min slong smax ?

Yes

strans
s min strans smax ?

2.25

Coefficient

ksi
in
in2

=*d /4

lbs/ft3
=wc1.5*( f'c) 0.5

1.00

Selected Shear Stud Spacings

Maximum Spacing

smin
smax

Axial Load in Member


=V/(Qn*r)
=L/N

Selected Shear Stud Spacings


Longitudinal Spacing
Spacing Check
Transverse Spacing
Spacing Check

in

Yes

C-218

5.3.2.1 Gusset Plate Design Inputs

6.0 Foundation Design


6.1 Retaining Wall

220

6.1.1 Soil Profile at Site

221

6.1.2 Effective Soil Pressure Calculations

222

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

224

6.1.4 Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis

228

6.2 Parking Garage

230

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

231

6.2.2 Parking Garage Columns


6.2.2.1

Parking Garage Column with Rebar

247

6.2.2.2

Parking Garage Column with W-Shape

248

6.2.3 Belled Caisson Design

6.3 Tower Foundation

250

6.3.1 Abaqus Analysis of Caissons

251

6.3.2 Mega-Column Caisson Design

253

6.3.3 Ring Beam Design

255

6.3.4 Core Caisson Design

257

6.3.5 Caisson Rebar

259

6.0 Foundation Design


C-219

249

6.1 Retaining Wall


6.1.1 Soil Profile at Site

221

6.1.2 Effective Soil Pressure Calculations

222

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

224

6.1.4 Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis

228

6.1 Retaining Wall


C-220

C-221

Created By: NT 5/11/2012

6.1.1 Soil Profile at Site

The job site is located next to Lake Michigan and the Chicago River so the water table is very high. The soil consists of a varitey of sands and clays
that were called out in the geotechnical report.

6.1.1 Soil Profile at Site

6.1.2 Effective Soil Pressure Calculation

Created by NT: 4/27/2012

Calculating effective pressure and horizontal force to be used in retaining wall design.
Note: Ground water table is at 5 ft depth as stated in the geotechnical report

User Input
Depth (d) (ft)
0
25
35
44
50
55
65
71
72

Density () (pcf) Effective Pressure (psf)* Horizontal Force (plf/ft run)**


0
0
0
135
1,815
2,838
70
1,891
1,955
70
1,823
1,845
70
1,868
1,690
70
1,906
1,654
70
1,982
2,019
70
2,028
1,802
70
2,035
1,495

Density of Water
Density of sand
Density of clay
For Firm/Stiff Clay Earth Pressure Coefficient

62.4
135
70

pcf
pcf
pcf
K a 0.704

Fourmulas
Porewater pressure (PP) = 62.4*H
H- height in ft
* Effective Pressure = (DP *) + Effective pressure from layers above - PP
** Horizontal force = Effective Pressure*K a + Pore Pressure

Reference -C.R.I Clayton, J. Milititsky and Woods, Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures, 2nd Ed.,
Conference Publication New York : American Society of Civil Engineers, 1993, Pg 149, Pg 377

6.1.2 Effective Soil Pressure Calculation


C-222

Effective pressure [psf]


0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Depth below ground [ft]

10

Sand

20
30
40

Clay

50
60
70
80

6.1.2 Effective Soil Pressure Calculation


C-223

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

Created By: NT 5/11/2012

Design tool for a retaining wall to resist soil pressures around the
exterior of the roundation. Wall has been designed as a simply
supported concrete slab, braced by the parking garage levels. The
top two storys are modeled as a cantilever due to uncertainty in
soil conditions.

Yes
No

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

Dimensions of Wall
Designing for 12 in vertical strip of wall
Maximum Unsupported Height
L
ts,min
Minimum Wall Thickness
ts, act
Actual Wall Thickness

23
28

ft
in

30

in

Cantilever at top of wall, 2 Stories + 2 Slabs


=L/10

ACI 318 Table 9.5 (a)

At Spans
Bar Size
Area of Bar

Abar

Diameter of bar

dbar 1.69 in

Yield Strength of Bars


Bar Spacing

14
2
2.25 in

Fy

60

ksi

sspan

in

Supports

Vertical Steel Bar Properties

At Supports
Bar Size
Area of Bar

# 14
2
Abar 2.25 in

Diameter of bar

dbar 1.69 in

Yield Strength of Bars


Bar Spacing

Fy

60

ksi

ssuport

16

in

Horizontal Shrinkage steel


Minimum steel ratio
Area of Steel Required
Bar Size
Area of Bar
No. of bars required
No. of bars provided
Spacing

g 0.0018
As
#
Abar

sshrink

per ACI 318


2

19 in
6
2
0.44 in
42
43
20 in

=g*L*ts, act

=As/Abar

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

C-224

Check for Moments At Center of Spans


2

As 4.50 in
2
Asmin 0.65 in

Area of steel
Minimum Steel Required

As > As min ?
Tension
Compression
Concrete Strength

1 0.75
c 2
d 27
a 7
d-(a/2) 24
Mn 537

in
in
in
in
kip-ft

s 0.006

Strain in Steel

As < As max ?
Strength Reduction Factor

Mm 305 kip-ft
FS 1.5
FS * Mm 458 kip-ft
*Mn > FS*Mm ? OK

C-225

ACI 318 08- 7.12.2.1

=As*fy
=T

ACI - 318-08 - 7.7.1


= h-c-dbar
=C/(0.85*f'c*b)
=T*(d-a/2)
Using Similar Triangles

OK

0.90
OK
*M 483 kip-ft

Maximum Moment on Wall


Factor of Safety for Overturning

=g*b*h

OK

T 270 kips
C 270 kips
f'c 4,000 psi

Beta 1
Concrete Cover
Structural Depth
Height of compression face
Moment Arm
Nominal Moment

=Abar*12/Sspan

ok when s > 0.005


From MASTAN
Principles of Foundation Engineering. By- Braja M. Das

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

Check for Moments At Supports


As 1.69 in2

Area of steel

Asmin 0.65 in2

Minimum Steel Required

As > As min ?
Tension
Compression
Concrete Cover
Concrete Strength

1 0.75
d 26
a 2.48
d - (a/2) 25
Mn 210

in
in
in
ft-kips

s 0.021

Strain in Steel

s > 0.005?
Strength Reduction Factor

= g*b*h

ACI 318 08- 7.12.2.1

OK

T 101 Kips
C 101 Kips
c 2 in
f'c 4,000 psi

Beta 1
Structural Depth
Height of compression face
Moment Arm
Nominal Moment

per 12 in width

=As*fy
=T

= h-c-dbar
=C/(0.85*f'c*b)
=T*(d-a/2)
Similar Triangles

OK

0.90
OK
*Mn 189 ft-kips

Maximum Moment on Wall


Factor of Safety for Overturning

Mm

98 ft-kips From MASTAN


FS 1.5
FS * Mm 147 ft-kips Principles of Foundation Engineering. By- Braja M. Das
*Mn > FS*Mm ? OK

Reference - Braja M. Das, Principles of Foundation Engineering, Monterey, Calif, 1984, pg 199

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

C-226

Calculating Factor of Safety For Sliding


Ht

Total Retaining Height

84

ft

7 Stories + 8 Slabs

0.52 radians
clay 70 psf
Geotechnical Report

Angle of friction for soil


Density Of Clay
Angle of Backfill Above The Wall
Rankine's Coefficient For Passive Earth Pressure

0.17 radians
=(tan(45+ /2))2
kp 0.1

Rankine's Passive Earth Pressure

Pp 25.3 kips

=0.5*clay*H2*kp

c 145 psf
P 113 kips
V 30.5 kips
FS 2.2
FS > 1.5 ? OK

Designing per ft.

Density of Reinforced concrete


Factored Horizontal Sliding Force *
Vertical Force, Self Weight of Wall
Calculated Factor of Safety For Sliding

per foot
=(V *tan(2*/3))+Pp / (Pcos))

* Worse Case From Effective Pressure Calculation, ( Horizontal Force*Height)


NOTE - Checking for running length of 1 feet
Reference - Braja M. Das, Principles of Foundation Engineering, Monterey, Calif, 1984, pg 199

Bearing Capacity Check


Undrained Shear Strength of Very Stiff Clay

Su

15

ksf

Geotechnical Report

Density Of Clay
Vertical Stress in Soil Adjacent To The Wall
Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Clay
Vertical Pressure Due To Wall

clay

70
6
21
12
OK

psf
ksf
ksf
ksf

Geotechnical Report

UBC
VBP
UBC > VBP ?

= clay*height

=+Su
=comcrete*Ht*h*1/h

NOTE - Checking for running length of 1 feet


Reference -C.R.I Clayton, J. Milititsky and Woods, Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures, 2nd Ed., Conference
Publication New York : American Society of Civil Engineers, 1993, , pg 54

C-227

6.1.3 Retaining Wall Design

6.1.4 Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis


A 2-D Mastan model was created to obtain the induced moments and deflected shape of the parking
garage retaining wall. Loads on the structure were obtained from the Effective Soil Pressure Calculation.
They were modeled as resultant point loads of the distributed loads contributed by each of the different
soil layers (sand, clay, hard pan) from the Soil Profile along the height of the retaining wall. Parking
floors provided supports and were modeled as fixities resisting the earth pressures. The bottom of the
wall, on very hard clay, was modeled as fixed and the top of the wall acted as a cantilever with a
maximum deflection of 0.00146 in. Figures of the Mastan output are included below. See also the
Retaining Wall Design spreadsheet.

Retaining Wall Mastan Moment

6.1.4 Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis


C-228

Retaining Wall Mastan Deformed Shape

6.1.4 Retaining Wall Mastan Analysis


C-229

6.2 Parking Garage


6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

231

6.2.2 Parking Garage Columns


6.2.2.1

Parking Garage Column with Rebar

247

6.2.2.2

Parking Garage Column with W-Shape

248

6.2.3 Belled Caisson Design

249

6.3 Tower Foundation


C-230

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

Created by: MZ

5/10/2012

Notes:
WWR (Welded Wire Reinforcement) is used instead of traditional rebars for parking garage design.
In the following WWR Refenrence Table, "D" denoted a deformed wire. The number following "D" gives
a cross-sectional area in hundredths of a square inch (ACI 318 - Appendix E)
Bar Size column indicates size of bars used to form WWR steel mesh.

WWR Reference Table


Nominal WWR Size
D11
D20
D31
D44
D60
D79

Bar Size
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8

Area [in ]
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79

Diameter [in]
0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.000

Level 1 Underground
NS Direction (30 ft Span)
Total Factored Moment
Width of Strip
WWR Area per Linear Foot
WWR Selected
Bar Spacing for WWR mesh
Bars Needed for WWR mesh

Mu [kip-ft]
[ft]
As
[in2]
s

[in]

EW Direction (28.5 ft Span)


Total Factored Moment
Width of Strip
WWR Area per Linear Foot
WWR Selected
Bar Spacing for WWR mesh
Bars Needed for WWR mesh

C-231

Mu [kip-ft]
[ft]
As
[in2]
s

[in]

Column Strip
Negative
Positive
-82.6
46.3
14.3
14.3
0.88
0.88
D44
D44
6.0
6.0
29
29

Middle Strip
Negative
Positive
-27.5
14.3
14.3
14.3
0.33
0.33
D44
D44
16.0
16.0
11
11

Column Strip
Negative
Positive
-71.6
38.3
14.3
14.3
0.88
0.88
D44
D44
6.0
6.0
29
29

Middle Strip
Negative
Positive
-21.6
11.5
15.8
15.8
0.33
0.33
D44
D44
16.0
16.0
12
12

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

Level 2-7 Underground


NS Direction (30 ft Span)
Total Factored Moment
Width of Strip
WWR Area per Linear Foot
WWR Selected
Bar Spacing for WWR mesh
Bars Needed for WWR mesh

Mu [kip-ft]
[ft]
As
[in2]
s

[in]

EW Direction (28.5 ft Span)


Total Factored Moment
Width of Strip
WWR Area per Linear Foot
WWR Selected
Bar Spacing for WWR mesh
Bars Needed for WWR mesh

Mu [kip-ft]
[ft]
As
[in2]
s

[in]

Column Strip
Negative
Positive
-30.3
16.5
14.3
14.3
0.31
0.31
D31
D31
12
12
15
15

Middle Strip
Negative
Positive
-10.1
5.5
14.3
14.3
0.31
0.23
D31
D31
12
16
15
11

Column Strip
Negative
Positive
-28.0
14.5
14.3
14.3
0.31
0.31
D31
D31
12
12
15
15

Middle Strip
Negative
Positive
-8.4
4.4
15.8
15.8
0.31
0.23
D31
D31
12
16
16
12

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

C-232

Parking Garage Reinforced Slab Design


Design tool for WWR (Welded Wire Reinforcement) of garage slab
Notes:
Slab for parking garage is designed using equivalent frame method
Pick positive and negative moment at critical sections respectively in each direction to design
All the slab panels are split into column strips and middle strips. For each ways design (NS and EW), critical
moments are proportionally distributed to column and middle strips
Slab is designed with drop panels and without interior beams or edge beams

Material Properties
Concrete Density
Concrete Strength

c
f'c

Concrete Modulus
WWR Yield Strength
WWR Elastic Modulus

Ec 2,410 ksi
Fy
80
ksi
Es 29,000 ksi

110
4,000

pcf
psi
=c1.5*33*f'c1/2; ACI 318-08 8.5, 8.6

Load Cases Summary


Parking Floor
Slab Self Weight
Superimposed Dead Load
Live Load
Total Factored Load

wslf
SDL
LL
wu

110
42
40
246

psf
psf
psf
psf

Parking Roof
Slab Self Weight
Superimposed Dead Load
Live Load
Snow Load
Total Factored Load

wslf
SID
LL
SL
wu

110
271
100
20
627

psf
psf
psf
psf
psf

C-233

= c*h

=1.2(SW+SID)+1.6LL, ASCE7-10 2.3.2

=1.2(SW+SID)+1.6LL+0.5SL, ASCE7-10 2.3.2

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

Basic Dimensions
Grid Span, NS Direction
Grid Span, EW Direction
Clear Span, whichever smaller

LNS
LEW
Ln

30.0
28.5
26.1

ft
ft
ft

Column Strip Width


Middle Strip Width, NS Direction
Middle Strip Width, EW Direction

bcol
bm,NS
bm,EW

14.3
14.3
15.8

ft
ft
ft

dcol
deq

32.0
28.4

in
in

=0.89*dcol, ACI 318-08 13.6.2.5

12.0
10.5
Yes
2.0

in
in

=Ln/30, ACI Table 9.5 (c)

Column
Column Diameter
Diameter of Equi. Section
Slab
Slab Thickness
Minimum Slab Thickness
Concrete Cover on Top and Btm

hmin
h>hmin?
c

w/ each side 0.25min(LNS, LEW) ACI 318-08


13.2.1

in

Diagram showing breakdown of slab strips:

Column Grid

Column Strip
Middle Strip

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

C-234

Drop Panel
Drop Panel Thickness
Minimum Thickness

hdr

7.0

in

hdr,min

3.0
11.5

in

=0.25h, ACI 318-08 13.2.5 (a)

in

=0.25(dext-deq/2) ACI 318-08 13.3.7

Maximum computing thickness


hdr>hdr,min?

Yes

Ldr

10.0

ft

distext
distext,min

5.0
4.75

ft

distext>distext,min?

Yes

Length of Square Drop Panel


Extent dist. from Center Support

ft

=(1/6)min(L NS,LEW), ACI 318-08 13.2.5 (b)

h
hdr
dext

Cut Section of Column with Drop Panel

C-235

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

Summary Table for Design Moments at Critical Section


Notes:
Moment Coefficient are from MASTAN analysis, using one foot slab applied with unit load.
Design for two typical level, level 1 underground and level 2-7 underground. Use parking roof load for
level 1 underground; parking floor load for level 2-7 underground.
For each typical level, design for EW and NS two directions.
For each direction, deisgn for column strip and middle strip, based on one foot slab.

Level 1 Underground
EW Direction

Span

28.5 ft

Critical Positive Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Column Strip Moment Distribution Coeff.
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

38.7
727
0.75
545
182
38.3
11.5

unit lb-ft
kip-ft

Mastan Analysis
wu*30ft

kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

ACI 318-08 13.6.4.1


Total Moment*0.75
Total Moment*(1-0.75)
Moment at Column Strip/b col
Moment at Column Strip/b m,EW

Critical Negative Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

-72.3
-1359
-1020
-340
-71.6
-21.6

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

NS Direction

Span

30.0 ft

Critical Positive Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

49.2
879
659
220
46.3
14.3

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

Critical Negative Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

-87.8
-1569
-1177
-392
-82.6
-27.5

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

wu*28.5ft
Total Moment*0.75
Total Moment*(1-0.75)
Moment at Column Strip/b col
Moment at Column Strip/b m,NS

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

C-236

Level 2-7 Underground


EW Direction

Span

28.5 ft

Critical Positive Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

37.3
276
207
69
14.5
4.4

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

Critical Negative Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

-71.9
-531
-399
-133
-28.0
-8.4

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

NS Direction

Span

30.0 ft

Critical Positive Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

44.7
314
235
78
16.5
5.5

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

Critical Negative Moment


Moment Coefficient under Unit Load
Total Moment at Panel Strip
Moment at Column Strip
Moment at Middle Strip
Moment at Column Strip, Plf
Moment at Middle Strip, Plf

-82.0
-576
-432
-144
-30.3
-10.1

unit lb-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft
kip-ft

C-237

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

MASTAN Output
One foot width of slab applied with unit load, showing critical design moment coefficients.
-72.25

38.65

Level 1 Underground, EW Direction


-87.83

49.17

Level 1 Underground, NS Direction

-71.90

37.29

Level 2-7 Underground, EW Direction


-82.01

44.70

Level 2-7 Underground, NS Direction

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

C-238

Design Calculations for WWR Concrete Slab

Created by:

MZ

5/10/2012

Level 1 North-South direction calculations have been included as representative of the typical calculations. It
consists of positive and negative moment reinforcement design for column and middle strip respectively.
Shear was also checked when ever negative moment is considered.
The East-West direction of level 1 and both directions of all other levels are calculated in the same manner but
with their individual inputs.
All the reinforcement design are based on one foot slab.

C-239

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

Level 1 Underground NS Direction, Column Strip, Positive Moment


LNS

Span Length
Critical Moment

Mu

30
46.3

ft
kip-ft

4,000
3400
#6
D44
0.44
0.750
80

psi
psi

Material Properties
Concrete Strength
Average Concrete Strength
Bar Size for WWR
Nominal WWR Size
Rebar Area
Nominal Diameter
WWR Yield Strength

f'c
f'c,avg

Abar
dbar
Fy

in
in
ksi

Flexural MMR Calculation (Per Foot Width)


Slab Thickness
Concrete Cover
Slab Effective Depth
Width
Bar Spacing
WWR Area
Tension at Yield
Depth of Equi. Comp. Stress Block
Nominal Moment Strength
Adjustment Factor for Moment
Design Moment Strength
Minimum Required Steel Area

h
c
d
b
s
As
T
a
Mn

Mn
Mn>Mu ?
As,min
As>As,min?

12.0
2.0
9.6
12.0
6.0
0.88
70
1.73
51.4
0.9
46.3
Yes
0.19
Yes

in
in
in
in
in

=h-c-dbar/2

in2
kips
in.
kip-ft

max.s=16in. ACI 318-08 3.5.3.7

=FyAs
=T/(b*f'c,avg)
=T(d-a/2)

kip-ft
in

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=0.0018bh*60/Fy, for Fy > 60 ksi


ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1

C-240

Level 1 Underground NS Direction, Column Strip, Negative Moment


LNS

Span Length
Critical Moment

Mu

30
-82.6

ft
kip-ft

4,000
3400
#6
D44
0.44
0.750
80

psi
psi

Material Properties
f'c

Concrete Strength
Average Concrete Strength
Bar Size for WWR
Nominal WWR Size
Rebar Area
Nominal Diameter
WWR Yield Strength

f'c,avg

Abar
dbar
Fy

in2
in
ksi

Flexural MMR Calculation (Per Foot Width)


Slab Thickness
Concrete Cover
Slab Effective Depth
Drop Panel Thickness
Total Effective Depth
Total Slab Thickness
Slab Beam Width
Bar Spacing
WWR Area
Tension at Yield
Depth of Equi. Comp. Stress Block
Nominal Moment Strength
Adjustment Factor for Moment
Design Moment Strength
Minimum Required Steel Area

C-241

h
c
d
hdr
dtot
htot
b
s
As
T
a
Mn

Mn
Mn>Mu ?
As,min
As>As,min?

12.0
2.0
9.6
7.0
16.6
19.0
12.0
6.0
0.88
70
1.73
92.5
0.9
83.2
Yes
0.31
Yes

in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in2
kips
in
kip-ft

=h-c-dbar/2
=d+hdr
=h+hdr

max.s=16in. ACI 318-08 3.5.3.7

=FyAs
=T/(b*f'c,avg)
=T(d-a/2)

kip-ft
in2

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=0.0018bh*60/Fy, for Fy > 60 ksi


ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1

MMR Shear Check


Beam Shear Check
Total Factored Load
Length of Equi. Column Section
Shear at dtot Distance from Col. face
Adjustment Factor for Shear
Shear Strength

Punching Shear Check


Tributary Area for one Column
Punching Shear at dtot/2 from Col. face
Punching Shear Perimeter
Punching Shear Strength

wu
deq
Vu

Vc
Vc>Vu?

627
28.4
7.8
0.75
18.9

psf
in
kips/ft

=wu(LNS/2-deq/2-dtot)
=(2*sqrt(f'c)*b*dtot),

kips/ft

ACI 318-08 11.2.1.1

Yes
=wu*LNS*LEW

Atri
Vu
b0
Vc
Vc>Vu?

855
527
180
567
Yes

ft
kips
in
kips

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=wu(Atri-(deq+dtot)2)
=4(deq+dtot)
=(4*sqrt(f'c)*b0*dtot)

C-242

Level 1 Underground NS Direction, Middle Strip, Positive Moment

Span Length
Critical Moment

LNS
Mu

30
14.3

ft
kip-ft

f'c

4,000

psi

f'c,avg

3400
#6
D44
0.44

psi

Material Properties
Concrete Strength
Average Concrete Strength
Bar Size for WWR
Nominal WWR Size
Rebar Area

Abar

0.750

in
in

80

ksi

h
c
d
b
s
As

12.0
2.0
9.6
12.0
16.0
0.33

in
in
in
in
in

Yield Tension

Depth of Equi. Comp. Stress Block

Nominal Diameter
WWR Yield Strength

dbar
Fy

Flexural MMR Calculation (Per Foot Width)


Slab Thickness
Concrete Cover
Slab Effective Depth
Width
Bar Spacing
WWR Area

Nominal Moment Strength


Adjustment Factor for Moment
Design Moment Strength
Minimum Required Steel Area

max.s=16in. ACI 318-08 3.5.3.7

26

in2
kips

0.65

in.

=T/(b*f'c,avg)

Mn

Mn

20.5
0.9
18.4

kip-ft

=T(d-a/2)

Mn>Mu ?

Yes
0.19
Yes

As,min
As>As,min?

C-243

=h-c-dbar/2

=FyAs

kip-ft
in2

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=0.0018bh*60/Fy, for Fy > 60 ksi


ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1

Level 1 Underground NS Direction, Middle Strip, Negative Moment


LNS

Span Length
Critical Moment

Mu

30
-27.5

ft
kip-ft

4,000
3400
#6
D44
0.44
0.750
80

psi
psi

Material Properties
f'c

Concrete Strength
Average Concrete Strength
Rebar Size for WWR
Nominal WWR Size
One Bar Area
Nominal Diameter
WWR Yield Strength

f'c,avg

Abar
dbar
Fy

in2
in
ksi

Flexural MMR Calculation (Per Foot Width)


Slab Thickness
Concrete Cover
Slab Effective Depth
Drop Panel Thickness
Total Effective Depth
Total Slab Thickness
Slab Beam Width
Bar Spacing
WWR Area
Yield Tension
Depth of Equi. Comp. Stress Block
Nominal Moment Strength
Adjustment Factor for Moment
Design Moment Strength
Minimum Required Steel Area

h
c
d
hdr
dtot
htot
b
s
As
T
a
Mn

Mn
Mn>Mu ?
As,min
As>As,min?

12.0
2.0
9.6
7.0
16.6
19.0
12.0
16.0
0.33
26
0.65
36
0.9
32
Yes
0.31
Yes

in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in2
kips
in
kip-ft

=h-c-dbar/2
=d+hdr
=h+hdr

max.s=16in. ACI 318-08 3.5.3.7

=FyAs
=T/(b*f'c,avg)
=T(d-a/2)

kip-ft
in2

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=0.0018bh*60/Fy, for Fy > 60 ksi


ACI 318-08 7.12.2.1

C-244

MMR Shear Check


Beam Shear Check
Total Factored Load
Length of Equi. Column Section
Shear at dtot Distance from Col. face
Adjustment Factor for Shear
Shear Strength

Punching Shear Check


Tributary Area for one Column
Punching Shear at dtot/2 from Col. face
Punching Shear Peremeter
Punching Shear Strength

C-245

wu
deq
Vu

Vc
Vc>Vu?

627
28.4
7.8
0.75
18.9
Yes

psf
in
kips/ft

=wu(LNS/2-deq/2-dtot)
=(2*sqrt(f'c)*b*dtot),

kips/ft

ACI 318-08 11.2.1.1

=wu*LNS*LEW

Atri
Vu
b0
Vc
Vc>Vu?

855
527
180
567
Yes

ft
kips
in
kips

6.2.1 Two-Way Slab Using WWR

=wu(Atri-(deq+dtot)2)
=4(deq+dtot)
=(4*sqrt(f'c)*b0*dtot)

C-246

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Caisson

psi

psf
psf
psf
ft2
kips

psf
psf
psf
ft2
kips

Column
Height

in
274
120
106
106
106
106
106
180

Column
Area

in2
452
452
707
707
707
1018
1018
1018

in
12
12
15
15
15
18
18
18
kips
314.0
798.5
1196.4
1594.2
1992.0
2393.2
2794.2
3202.1

Load on
column

3
0.0839 lb/in
1.5
in
3.0
in

4000

170
165
468
834
390.3

170
100
364
834
304

Column Radius

c
c
c

Garage
level

f'c

Concrete Density
Cover for Columns
Cover for Caissons

DL
LL

DL
LL

Concrete Strength

Concrete Properties

Dead Load
Parking Garage Live Load
Parking Garage Load
Tributary Area
Load on Column

Loads Levels 1-7

Dead Load
Terrace Live Load
Roof Load
Tributary Area
Load on Column

Roof Loads

12
12
12
12

x
x
x
x

14
14
53
170

W shape

Steel Shape

= 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2DL+1.6LL

This is the summary for the parking garage column geometries and reinforcing

6.2.2 Summary of Parking Garage Columns

#
6
6
6
12

Size
#6
#6
#6
#6

Rebar
in
21
21
27
27
27
33
33
30

Dc

Color Key:

5/9/2012

Size
#3
#3
#3
#3
#3
#3
#3
#3

Spiral
Rebar

Yes
No

in
2.24
2.24
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.31
2.31
1.10

Spiral
Spacing
(kips)
1004.1
1004.1
1518.9
1607.8
2592.6
2592.6
2993.4
3884.1

Column
Capacity

User Input
Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup
Passes Check
Fails Check

6.2.2 Summary of Parking Garage Columns

s
0.009
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.013

Spiral
Reinforcement
ratio

Created by: KLS

%
219.8
25.7
27.0
0.9
30.1
8.3
7.1
21.3

Over
Designed

(in2)
2.64
2.64
2.64
5.28
4.71
4.71
17.0
44.7

Area of
Steel

(kips)
0.034
0.015
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.023

Weight from
Steel

(in2)
449.7
449.7
704.2
701.6
702.1
1013.2
1000.9
973.2

Area of
Concrete

(kips)
10.3
4.5
6.3
6.2
6.2
9.0
8.9
14.7

Weight from
Concrete

(kips)
10.4
4.5
6.3
6.3
6.3
9.0
8.9
14.7

Weight of
Column

6.2.2.1 Parking Garage Column with Rebar

Created by: KLS

Design tool for concrete columns in parking garage reinforced with rebar.
Used for the Roof and Levels 1-3
Color key with summary.

5/9/2012

Load on Column - Roof


Dead Load
Terrace Live Load
Roof Load
Tributary Area
Load on Column
Moment

DL
LL

P
M

170
100
364
834
304
0

psf
psf
psf
2
ft

L
= 1.2DL+1.6LL

kips
kip-ft
Dc

Concrete Properties
Concrete Strength

f'c

4,000

psi

Concrete Density
Cover for Columns

0.08
1.5

lb/in3
in

ccol
ccais

Cover for Caissons

in

Column Design - Roof Load


Garage level
Column Radius
Column Area
Column Height
Load on column
Quantity of Rebar
Rebar Size

r
Ag

1
12

Cover
in

452
274
314
6
6

in2
in
kips

21.0

in

60.0
0.01
3

ksi
Size

0.375

in
in2

Pn

0.11
2.24
0.7
937

Area of Steel

As

0.66

kips
in2

Weight from Steel

ws

Area of Concrete

Ac

0.03
452

kips
in2

= n*h*1.502lbs/ft for #6 bars


= Ag-As

Weight from Concrete

wc

10.4

kips

wslf

10.4

kips

= c*h*Ac
= wc+ws

Pn>P?

Yes

h
P
n
#
Dc

Steel Yield Stength

Fy

Spiral Reinforcement ratio


Spiral Rebar
Diameter of Spiral Rebar

s
#
ds

Area of single Rebar

Asr

Spiral Spacing
Column Capacity

Weight of Column

C-247

= r2
includes self-weight
Minimum 6 ; ACI 10.3
= 2r-2(Cover)
2

= 0.45(Ag/(Dc /4)-1)f'c/Fy

in

= Asr*(Dc-ds)/(Dc2/4)s ; ACI 10.9.3


ACI 10.3.5.1
= 0.85[0.85f'c(Ag-As)+FyAs] ; ACI 10.3.5.1
= n*Asr

6.2.2.1 Parking Garage Column with Rebar

6.2.2.2 Parking Garage Column with W-Shape

Created by: KLS

5/9/2012

Design tool for columns with embedded shapes under pure axial load
Reference: Chapter I AISC Steel Construction Manual
Color key on
summary.

Loads
Pu

Total Load

3,766

kip

Section Type
W12x170

Column Properties
Radius of column
Area of cross-section
Yield Strength of Steel Shape

r
A
Fy

18
1,018
50

Cross-Sectional Area

As

49.91

Concrete Stength

f'c

Area of Concrete

Ac

968

Yield Strength of Rebar

Fysr

60

Cross-Sectional Area of rebar

Abar

0.00

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel

Es

29,000

Moment of Inertia (Strong)

Ix

1,639

ksi
in4

Moment of Inertia (Weak)

Iy

517

in4

Moment of Inertia of Steel

Is

517

in4

Moment of Inertia of rebar

Isr

in4

Effective Rigidity

C1

0.20

0.3

Density of Concrete

145

psf

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Ec

3,492

= wc sqrt(f'c)

Moment of Inertia of Concrete

Ic

81,931

psi
4
in
k-in2

= EsIs+0.5EsIsr+C1EcIc

Effective EI
Effective Length Factor
Length of Column

EIeff
K
h

7.16E+07
1
180

in
in2
ksi
in2
ksi
in2

W 12 x 170

ksi
in2
r

= 0.1+2(As/Ac+As)
1.5

= pin-pin connection

in

Column Capacity
Euler Buckling of Column

Compressive Stength
Reduction Factor
Ultimate Compressive Stress

Pe

21,825

Pno

5,787

kips

= FyAs+FysrAbar+0.85f'cAc

Pno/Pe

0.27

2.25

= if Pno2.25 Pn=Pno[0.658^(Pno/Pe)]

Pn

Pn

5,179
0.75
3,884
Yes

kips

= if Pno>2.25 Pn=0.877*Pe

Pn>Pu?

= EIeff/(Kh)

kips

6.2.2.2 Parking Garage Column with W-Shape

C-248

6.2.3 Belled Caisson Design


Belled caissons distribute the load from the parking garage columns over a larger area to lower the
pressure to below the allowable bearing pressure of the soil, 45 ksf.

Load at bo om of caisson
P := 3767kip

Parking Garage Columns.xls

Net Allowable Bearing Pressure on hardpan


:= 45ksf per Geotechnical Report

Area of Belled Caisson


Area :=

= 83.711 ft
Area

radius :=

= 5.162 ft

radius := 5.5ft
rshaft := 18in
R := radius rshaft = 4 ft
y :=

R
tan ( 30deg)

y := 7ft

C-249

= 6.928 ft

Angle must less than or equal


to 30 degrees per Chicago Building Code

6.3 Tower Foundation


6.3.1 Abaqus Analysis of Caissons

251

6.3.2 Mega-Column Caisson Design

253

6.3.3 Ring Beam Design

255

6.3.4 Core Caisson Design

257

6.3.5 Caisson Rebar

259

6.1 Retaining Wall


C-250

6.3.1 Abaqus Analysis of Caissons

Created By: NT/JAC 5/11/2012

A finite element analysis using Abaqus was performed to obtain the maximum stresses experienced by the
rock-socketed caissons. There were two main types of caissons, each requiring different Abaqus models. These
were the caissons transmitting loads from the concrete core down to the bedrock and the caissons
transmitting loads from the mega-columns. In either case, the caissons were modeled as quartered cylinders
embedded into the corners bedrock cubes, taking advantage of the symmetry in the geometry. In the Abaqus
results, bluer colors indicate lower stresses, whereas red colors indicate higher stresses.

Core Caissons
The core caissons experienced only axial loads in the form of gravity loads from the concrete core. No shear
forces were applied on these caissons. As can be seen in the figure below, there was a slight stress
concentration at the top of the caisson where the load was applied. The maximum Von-Mises compression
stress was 4.7 ksi, corresponding to a need for minimum reinforcing steel.

Abaqus model of stresses in the rock-socketed caissons under the concrete core

6.3.1 Abaqus Analysis of Caissons


C-251

Mega-Column Caissons
The mega-column caissons experienced both axial loads and shear forces, in the form of lateral and gravity
loads from the mega-columns. As such, the stresses in these caissons were higher. This can be seen in the
figure below, where darker red colors indicate higher stress concentration at the top surface of the caisson.
The maximum Von-Mises compression stress was 4.9 ksi, corresponding to a need for a higher amount of
reinforcing steel.

Abaqus model of stresses in the rock-socketed caissons under the mega columns

6.3.1 Abaqus Analysis of Caissons


C-252

6.3.2 Mega-Column Caisson Design

Created by: KLS 5/9/2012

Design tool for rock-socketed caissons supporting the mega-column


Acceptible?
% Overdesigned

YES
5.47%

See bottom of calculation for diagram.

Material Properties
Concrete Compressive Strength

f'c

14

ksi

Steel Yield Strength


Young's Modulus Bedrock
Poisson's Ratio Bedrock
Emperical Constant

Fy

35
3500
0.28
0.5

ksi
ksi

1152
102
120
114

in
in
in
in

dc
dd

102
0.9
1

in
in
in

0.0625

in

Mega Column Total Base Reaction


Weight of Connection
Column Caisson Base Reaction
Allowable Stress in Concrete

P
c

53,852
1,228
56,214
4.61

kips
kips
kips
ksi

Allowable Stress in rock

4.16

ksi

Ref. 4

Allowable Stress

all

4.16

ksi

Minimum of c,r

Actual Stress per Caisson


Factor of Safety

act

2.38
2

ksi

= P/(d2/4)

Chicago Building Code


Ref. 1
Ref. 2
Ref. 3

Dimensions
Depth to Bedrock
Depth in Bedrock
Diameter of Caisson
Diameter of Caisson socket
Length of Socket
Minimum Steel Casing
Actual Steel Casing Diameter
Deduct steel thickness for durability

L
Lo
d
bs
Ls

= 0.0075*d

Forces and Stresses

FS

from Midas Gen


= 0.3f'c+(Fy1.5(dc-dd))/d

= all/act

0.43

Settlements
Settlement in Rock
Settlement in Shaft

0.118
0.443

= (/2*act(1-2)(d/2))/(n*Ebedrock)
= (act(Lb+Lo))/(57*f'c)

in
in
0.05

C-253

6.3.2 Mega-Column Caisson Design

Uplift Check
Tmax

Maximum Tension Reaction

As

Area of Steel
Weight of Steel

23488
672
491

kip
in2

Midas Gen

kip

13.6 lb/ft for #18 bars

10638
160

in
pcf

Weight of Caisson

wc

1135

kip

Compressive Strength
Socket Shear

f
0.7
ksi
Vs 25571.31 kips

Resistance Against Uplift


Ru>Tmax?

Ru

26706
Yes

kips
0.12

Theoretical upperbound
Horizontal Subgrade Modulus

k
kh

9
2,150

ksf/ft

Shear Strength of rock


Lateral Pressure taken by rock
Shear Capacity of Rock

Su 455,526 ksf
h 4.10E+07 k/ft
Vr 4.10E+08 kips

Area of Concrete
Concrete Density

= 0.05f'c if qu>f'c ; Ref. 5


= *bs*L*f ; Ref. 6

Shear Check

Vmax

Maximum Shear
Factor of Safety
Design Shear
Vr>V?

FS
V

References
1 Mechanics of Material, James M Gere (1997)
2 Coduto, "Geotechnical Engineering Principles
and Practices"(1999)
3 Kulhawy, Phoon, and Akbas (1993) "Drilled
Shaft Side Resisitance in Clau Soil to Rock"
Geotech Spec Publications No. 38
4 Geotechnical Report
5 Kulhawy, Phoon, and Akbas (2005)
"Evaluation of Capacity of Rock Foundation
Sockets" Proceddings, 40th US Symposium on
Rock Mechanics, Anchoarage Alaska, June.

= 67*kh*sqrt(d*1ft) ; Ref. 4
= k*d*Su
= h*d

40000 kips
4
160000 kips
Yes

from Midas Gen


= Vmax*FS

Tmax

6 Geotechnical Design of Deep Foundations


20.6.4.1
Vs

6.3.2 Mega-Column Caisson Design

C-254

6.3.3 Ring Beam Design


A ring beam will be used to connect the core walls to the caissons. This is designed to even distribute
the axial load to the caissons and to resist that shear forces from the core.

Ring Beam Proper es


hring := 8ft

Height of Ring Beam

router := 47ft

Outer Radius of Ring Beam

rinner := 33ft

Inner Radius of Ring Beam

rcaissons := 5ft

Radius of Caissons

Aring := router

2
2

rinner = 3518.6 ft

Acaissons := 20 rcaissons

2
= 1570.8 ft

Aslab := rinner = 3421.2 ft

A := Aring + Aslab Acaissons = 5369 ft

Eec+ve Area for Fric+on

Soil Proper es
lbf
Su := 9000
2
ft
lbf
clay := 70
3
ft
w := 62.4

Undrained Shear Strength ; Geotechnical Report

Denisty of Clay

lbf
ft

Denisty of Water

Le := 49.2ft

e := clay + w

Eec+ve Density

Le := 49.2ft

Eec+ve Length for Earth Pressure on a Curved Surface

Pp := Le hring 4 Su e hring = 13752.7 kip


V := Pp + Su A = 62073.5 kip

C-255

Passive Earth Pressure ; CEE 6410

Shear Resistance from Soil

Design Base Shear: 49030 kip (from Midas Gen)


Vcore := 49030kip
V = 62073.5 kip
V > Vcore

Yes

= 1.3

FS :=

Vcore

C-256

6.3.4 Core Caisson Design

Created by: KLS 5/9/2012

Design tool for rock-socketed caissons supporting the core


See bottom of calculation for diagram.

Overall Check
Acceptible?
% Overdesigned

YES
29.70%

Material Properties
Concrete Compressive Strength

f'c

14

ksi

Steel Yield Strength


Young's Modulus Bedrock
Poisson's Ratio Bedrock
Emperical Constant

Fy

35
3,500
0.28
0.5

ksi
ksi

492
102
120
114

in
in
in
in
in

dc
dd

102
20
0.9
1

in
in

0.0625

in

Core Reaction at Elevation=0


Core Wall Weight Below Elevation=0
Core Caisson Total Base Reaction
Allowable Stress in Concrete

kips
kips
kips
ksi

from Midas Gen

P
c

378,016
21,970
400,489
4.61

Allowable Stress in rock

4.16

ksi

Ref. 4

Allowable Stress

all

4.16

ksi

Minimum of c,r

Actual Stress per Caisson


Factor of Safety

act

1.77
2

ksi

= P/(d2/4)

Chicago Building Code


Ref. 1
Ref. 2
Ref. 3

Dimensions
Depth to Bedrock
Depth in Bedrock
Diameter of Caisson
Diameter of Caisson socket
Length of Socket
Number of Caisson
Minimum Steel Casing
Actual Steel Casing Diameter
Deduct steel thickness for durability

L
Lo
d
ds
Ls

= 0.0075*d

Forces and Stresses

FS

includes self-weight
= 0.3f'c+(Fy1.5(dc-dd))/d

= all/act

0.57

Settlements
Settlement in Rock
Settlement in Shaft

0.088
0.156

= (/2*act(1-2)(d/2))/(n*Ebedrock)
= (act(Lb+Lo))/(57*f'c)

in
in
0.30

C-257

6.3.4 Core Caisson Design

Uplift Check
Tmax

2,100

kip

Area of Steel
Weight of Steel
Area of Concrete
Concrete Density

As

256
35.7
11,054
160

in2
kip
kip
pcf

Weight of Caisson
Unconfined Compressive Strength

wc
f

503.6
0.7

kip
ksi

Socket Shear

Vs

25,571

kips

Resistance Against Uplift


Ru>Tmax?

Ru

26,075

kips

Maximum Tension Reaction

Yes

Ref. 4
13.6 lb/ft for #18 bars

= 0.05f'c if qu>f'c ; Ref. 5


= *bs*L*qu ; Ref. 6
= Vs+Wc

0.92

References
1 Mechanics of Material, James M Gere (1997)
2 Coduto, "Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices"(1999)
3 Kulhawy, Phoon, and Akbas (1993) "Drilled Shaft Side Resisitance in Clau Soil to Rock" Geotech Spec
Publications No. 38
4 Geotechnical Report
5 Kulhawy, Phoon, and Akbas (2005) "Evaluation of Capacity of Rock Foundation Sockets" Proceddings, 40th US
Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Anchoarage Alaska, June.
6 Geotechnical Design of Deep Foundations 20.6.4.1

Tmax

Vs

6.3.4 Core Caisson Design

C-258

6.3.5 Caisson Rebar

Created by: KLS

5/9/2012

This spreadsheet calculates the amount of rebar needed inside the caissons

Caisson Properties
Radius

Color Key
User Input

ft
2
A 11,310 in
Fy
60
ksi

Area
Steel Yield Strength

Top of Mega-column Caissons


Stress at Top
Maximum Tension Force
Area of Steel

4.9
ksi
T 55,418 kip
2
As
924 in
272

in

Area of Rebar Needed


Bar Size
Area of Rebar
Number of Bars
Actual Area of Steel
Asactual>As

652
18
4
168
944

in2

Abar
As-actual

Yes
No
Abaqus Model
= *A
= T/Fy

Area of Embedded Steel Shape


#

Constant/Previous Calc.
Calc/Lookup

in2
in2

Yes

Bottom of Mega-column Caissons


Stress at Bottom
Maximum Tension Force
Area of Steel
Bar Size
Area of Rebar
Number of Bars
Actual Area of Steel
Asactual>As

1.9
ksi
T 21,488 kip
2
As
358 in
#
18
in2
Abar
4
90
2
As-actual
360 in

Abaqus Model
= *A
= T/Fy

Yes

Core Caissons
Stress in Core Caisson
Maximum Tension Force
Area of Steel
Bar Size
Area of Rebar
Number of Bars
Actual Area of Steel
Asactual>As

C-259

1.2
ksi
T 13,572 kip
2
As
226 in
#
18
in2
Abar
4
As-actual

64
256

Abaqus Model
= *A
= T/Fy

in2

Yes

6.3.5 Caisson Rebar

Passes Check
Fails Check

7.0 Creep and Shrinkage


7.1 Steel Column Deformation

261

7.1.1 Steel Column Properties and Loads

262

7.1.2 Steel Column Deformation Calculations

263

7.2 Concrete Core Deformation

265

7.2.1 Concrete Core Properties and Loads

266

7.2.2 Concrete Core Deformation Calculations

267

Displacement Over 20 Years


Core Displacement (inches)

25
20
15
CONSTRUCTION
ENDS

Concrete Core
Summary

10

STEEL
COLUMNS

5
0
0

10

15

20

Time (years)

C-260

7.1 Steel Column Deformation


This chart reflects the deformation of the steel columns for each floor group and the overall steel
deformation at a time of 2 years.
t = 2 years
730

Calculated
Days

Floors
Lobby
5-16
17-28
29-39
40-51
52-63
64-73
74-86
87-99
100-110
111-122
123-133
134-145

Deflection per
floor
0.979
0.077
0.067
0.057
0.049
0.041
0.034
0.054
0.042
0.031
0.021
0.012
0.004

Local Def
per floor
group
0.979
0.921
0.805
0.631
0.590
0.492
0.335
0.702
0.546
0.340
0.251
0.131
0.045

Ultimate Steel Deformation:

Global
Deformation Sum
0.98
1.90
2.71
3.34
3.93
4.42
4.75
5.46
6.00
6.34
6.59
6.72
6.77

inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches

6.77

inches

C-261

7.1 Steel Column Deformation

7.1.1 Steel Column Properties and Loads


Summary of column and core dimensions and the loads applied on each
Column Properties
Column dimensions
depth
base
concrete Strength
conc. modulus 57000*sqrt(f'c)
Total Area
Concrete Area

Lobby

17-28

29-39

40-51

52-63

64-73

74-86

87-99

100-110

111-122

123-133

134-145

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

40
40
14,000
6,744
928
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

36
36
14,000
6,744
688
0

in
in
psi
ksi
in2
2
in

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-1
928
36
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

BU-2
688
28
36
0
0

in2
in
in
in
in

1.000
187.5
188

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
41.3
41

1.000
30.6
31

1.000
30.6
31

1.000
30.6
31

1.000
30.6
31

1.000
30.6
31

1.000
30.6
31

kips
kips

d
40
b
40
f'c 14,000
Ec 6,744
At
928
Ac
0

Steel Shape:
Area
depth
width of flange
thickness of flange
thickness of web

W
A

Steel Ratio
Steel Shape Self Weight
TOTAL COLUMN SELF WEIGHT

Core Properties
Bank
Radius
thickness
Total Volume / Floor
Total Weight/Floor
Total Area/Floor
# of Columns
Area per core "column"
SW per core "column"

5-16

d
bf
tf
tw

1
40
8
26,527
4,244
2,010
21
96
202

2
38
6
18,900
3,024
1,432
21
68
144

3
36
4
11,937
1,910
904
14
65
136

DL
(kips)
35.6
96.2
32.7
74.6
36.0
86.0
35.6
63.7

LL
(kips)
34.9
35.3
30.1
27.2
28.2
31.0
34.9
22.8

SUS LL
(psf)
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

4
26
3.33
7,177
1,148
544
14
39
82

ft
ft
ft3
kips
ft2
ft2
kips

Unfactored Nodal Loads

Bank 1 (Core)
Bank 1 (Ext. Column)
Bank 2 (Core)
Bank 2 (Ext. Column)
Bank 3 (Core)
Bank 3 (Ext. Column)
Bank 4 (Core)
Bank 4 (Ext. Column)

SDL (psf)
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

SDL
(kips)
44.6
20.8
37.6
16.0
28.1
18.4
22.9
12.4

Trib. Area
(ft^2)
2,229
1,038
1,881
800
1,407
922
1,146
620

7.1.1 Steel Column Properties and Loads

C-262

7.1.2 Steel Column Deformation Calculations


This is a representative calculation, performed in the same manner for all floor sets. Creep and Shrinkage calculations per GL2000 Method from ACI 209.2R-27
Bank
Floor Group

1
5 - 16

Column Properties
fc (28) [psi]= 14000 psi
fcm28 (A-94) 16100 psi

d
b

in
in

s
k

0.13

from table A.14

1.15

from table A.14

538

microstrain ; (A-99)

level

10

f'c

14000 psi

shu

first level

Ec

6744

0.714

relative humidity from National Climatic Data Center average

last level

16.0

At

928

0.694

(A-100)

total def (t = 3yr)

0.9

inches

total def (t = 20yr)

0.9

inches

Ac

when t0=tc

in

Ac

0.0
158
0.0

in2

in2

d
bf

in
in
in
in

36
36
0
0
1

1.7
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2

34.4
68.7
103.1
137.5
171.8
206.2
240.6
274.9
309.3
343.6

62.3
62.3
62.3
62.3
124.5
124.5
124.5
124.5
186.8
186.8

97
131
165
200
296
331
365
399
496
530

0.01972
0.02931
0.03854
0.04771
0.07198
0.08133
0.09065
0.09996
0.12494
0.13433

0.00000
0.00000
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002
0.00002

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

tf
tw

in
in

5492
6021
6273
6429
6537
6619
6683
6735
6778
6816

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23

7.1.2 Steel Column Deformation Calculations

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003

deformation

Ec (ksi) (A-95)

9216
11273
12325
12999
13480
13846
14137
14377
14578
14751

Steel Deformation
(PL/AE)

fcmt(t) (A-96)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Number of
Columns/Column

e (A-97)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(t-tc) (A-101)

tlocal

tglobal

928

Bank

(tc)

As

elastic strain
unreinforced

time load is applied

fc (ksi)

Ps total (kip)

time drying begins

Ps SDL (kip)

928

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

120
256
404
540

As
height
v/s

30
34
37
34

day ended

tc (days)
t0 (days)

Ps DL (kip)

kips
kips
kips
kips
ksi

in

Creep Coefficient (A103)

137.5
115.9
77.7
62.9
29000

Corrected Shrinkage
(A-98)

Bank 1 Load
Bank 2 Load
Bank 3 Load
Bank 4 Load
Es

ksi
in2

BU-1
floors

C-263

40
40

Values for Creep and Shrinkage analysis

0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0012
0.0017
0.0019
0.0021
0.0023
0.0029
0.0031

fcmt(t) (A-96)

Ec (ksi) (A-95)

(t-tc) (A-101)

Corrected Shrinkage
(A-98)

Creep Coefficient (A103)

Ps DL (kip)

Ps SDL (kip)

Ps total (kip)

fc (ksi)

elastic strain
unreinforced

Bank

14901
15033
15150
15256
15351
15438
15518
15591
15658
15721
15779
15834
15885
15933
15978
16021
16062
16100
16509
16752
16917
17039
17134
17219
17232
17359
17449
17519
17564
17574
17619
17657
17687
17718
17800
17867
17954
18127
18188

6848
6876
6901
6923
6943
6961
6978
6993
7007
7020
7032
7043
7054
7064
7073
7082
7090
7098
7181
7230
7263
7288
7307
7324
7326
7351
7369
7383
7391
7393
7402
7410
7416
7422
7438
7451
7468
7501
7513

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23
373.23

2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.5

378.0
412.4
446.7
481.1
515.5
549.8
584.2
618.6
652.9
687.3
721.7
756.0
790.4
824.7
859.1
893.5
927.8
962.2
1477.7
1993.1
2508.6
3024.1
3539.5
4123.7
4210.6
5224.4
6238.1
7251.9
8062.9
8198.9
8879.0
9559.1
10180.9
10938.7
13075.9
13075.9
13075.9
13075.9
13075.9

186.8
186.8
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
249.0
192.0
192.0
192.0
192.0
192.0
147.6
147.6
147.6
147.6
147.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

565
599
696
730
764
799
833
868
902
936
971
1005
1039
1074
1108
1142
1177
1211
1727
2242
2758
3273
3789
4373
4403
5416
6430
7444
8255
8346
9027
9707
10328
11086
13076
13076
13076
13076
13076

0.14370
0.15307
0.17840
0.18782
0.19723
0.20663
0.21603
0.22543
0.23484
0.24424
0.25364
0.26304
0.27244
0.28184
0.29124
0.30065
0.31005
0.31946
0.46076
0.60238
0.74426
0.88634
1.02858
1.18995
1.19850
1.47949
1.76067
2.04202
2.26720
2.29299
2.48280
2.67254
2.84599
3.05734
3.61381
3.62007
3.62830
3.64459
3.65030

0.00002
0.00002
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00005
0.00006
0.00008
0.00010
0.00012
0.00014
0.00016
0.00016
0.00020
0.00024
0.00028
0.00031
0.00031
0.00034
0.00036
0.00038
0.00041
0.00049
0.00049
0.00049
0.00049
0.00049

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

7.1.2 Steel Column Deformation Calculations

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Switch to Bank 2 Load

Switch to Bank 3 Load

Switch to Bank 4 Load


Stop Applying Bank 4 Load

0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.010
0.013
0.016
0.019
0.022
0.026
0.026
0.032
0.038
0.044
0.048
0.049
0.053
0.057
0.061
0.065
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077

deformation

e (A-97)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Steel Deformation
(PL/AE)

tlocal
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
43
58
73
88
103
120
123
158
193
228
256
263
298
333
365
404
540
706
1071
3626
7276

Number of
Columns/Column

tglobal
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
67
82
97
112
127
144
147
182
217
252
280
287
322
357
389
428
564
730
1095
3650
7300

0.0033
0.0035
0.0041
0.0043
0.0045
0.0047
0.0049
0.0051
0.0053
0.0055
0.0057
0.0059
0.0061
0.0063
0.0065
0.0067
0.0069
0.0071
0.0101
0.0132
0.0162
0.0192
0.0222
0.0257
0.0258
0.0318
0.0378
0.0437
0.0485
0.0490
0.0530
0.0570
0.0606
0.0651
0.0768
0.0768
0.0768
0.0768
0.0768

C-264

7.2 Concrete Core Deformation

Created by: ADV, JDM, SJR, DSF

4/28/2012

This sheet summarizes values from the calculation pages in an easy to read format and calculates the total deformations of the core.

t = 2 years

Floors
Lobby
5-16
17-28
29-39
40-51
52-63
64-73
74-86
87-99
100-110
111-122
123-133
134-145

Deformation
per Floor
(in)
0.309
0.073
0.065
0.056
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.171
0.134
0.100
0.539
0.309
0.100

Concrete Core Summary


Total Deformation
Time (yr)
Def (in)
0
0
2
18.8
3
20.0
10
23.0
20
24.8

Deformation per
Floor Segment
(in)
0.31
0.88
0.77
0.62
0.04
0.04
0.03
2.22
1.74
1.10
6.47
3.39
1.20

t = 3 years
Sum of Floor Segment
Deformations
(in)
0.3
1.2
2.0
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
4.9
6.6
7.7
14.2
17.6
18.8

Deformation per Floor


(in)
0.319
0.075
0.067
0.058
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.180
0.142
0.107
0.576
0.333
0.110

t = 10 years

Deformation per
Floor Segment
(in)
0.32
0.90
0.80
0.64
0.05
0.04
0.03
2.34
1.84
1.18
6.91
3.67
1.33

Sum of Floor Segment


Deformations
(in)
0.3
1.2
2.0
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.8
5.1
7.0
8.1
15.0
18.7
20.0

Deformation per
Floor
(in)
0.350
0.083
0.074
0.064
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.204
0.162
0.123
0.664
0.388
0.132

20-Year Deformation Comparisons


Core Deformation:
24.8
Steel Deformation:
6.77
Difference:
18.0
Compensation / floor
0.12
Add around 20% to account for error
% Total Deformation at 2 yr

Deformation per
Floor Segment
(in)
0.35
0.99
0.88
0.71
0.05
0.05
0.03
2.66
2.11
1.36
7.97
4.26
1.58

t = 20 years
Sum of Floor Segment
Deformations
(in)
0.3
1.3
2.2
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.1
5.7
7.8
9.2
17.2
21.4
23.0

Deformation per
Floor
(in)
0.371
0.088
0.078
0.068
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.220
0.175
0.133
0.715
0.419
0.145

Construction Line
in
in
in
in

Time (yr)

Def (in)
1.64
1.64

75.9%

= def(2yr)/def(20yr)

C-265
7.2 Concrete Core Deformation

0
26

Deformation per
Floor Segment
(in)
0.37
1.05
0.94
0.75
0.06
0.05
0.04
2.86
2.27
1.47
8.59
4.61
1.74

Sum of Floor Segment


Deformations
(in)
0.4
1.4
2.4
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
6.1
8.4
9.9
18.4
23.1
24.8

7.2.1 Concrete Core Properties and Loads


This sheet displays the properties for the core used in the creep and shrinkage analysis.

Core Properties
Bank

4
26
3.33

Radius
Thickness
Total Volume / Floor

Ro
t
Vc

40
8

38
6

36
4

23,886

17,417

11,280

Total Weight/Floor

Wc

3,822

2,787

1,805

At

1,810
21

1,319
21

855
14

509
14

ft2

As

2,873
86
182

10,187
63
133

715
61
129

123
36
77

in2

LL
(kips)
34.9
35.3
30.1
27.2
28.2
31
34.9
22.8

SUS LL
(psf)
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

SDL
(psf)
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

SDL
(kips)
44.6
20.8
37.6
16.0
28.1
18.4
22.9
12.4

Total Area/Floor
# of Columns
Steel Area
Area per core "column"
Self Weight per core "column"

ft
ft

3
6,721 ft
1,075 kips

ft2
kips

Unfactored Nodal Loads


Taken from Finite Element Model
Bank 1 (Core)
Bank 1 (Ext. Column)
Bank 2 (Core)
Bank 2 (Ext. Column)
Bank 3 (Core)
Bank 3 (Ext. Column)
Bank 4 (Core)
Bank 4 (Ext. Column)

DL
(kips)
747.6
96.2
686.7
74.6
504
86
498.4
63.7

Reinforcing Steel Areas


Bank

Trib. Area
(ft2)
2,229
1,038
1,881
800
1,407
922
1,146
620

Core Radius

Ro

40

38

36

26

ft

Core Thickness
Core Circumference
Rebar Spacing (in)
Rebar Spacing (ft)
Bar Size
Number of Bars per Row

tc

6
239
9
0.75
18
318

4
226
12
1
8
226

3.33
163
14
1.17
6
140

ft
ft
in
ft

nb

8
251
12
1
10
251

Stee Area per Bar

Asb

1.27

0.79

0.44

in2

Steel Area per Row

Asr

319

1,273

179

62

in2

Number of Rows of Bars

nr

Total Steel Area

As
g

2,873

10,187

715

123

0.011

0.054

0.006

0.002

Percent Steel

in2

C-266

7.2.1 Concrete Core Properties and Loads

7.2.2 Concrete Core Deformation Calculations


This sheet performs creep and shrinkage calculations per the GL2000 model from ACI 209.2R-27. This sheet calculates the deformations for floor 10, which is mid-level in the 5-16 floor segment.
Bank
Floor Group

1
5 - 16

Bank Information

Core Properties

Specified 28-day Compressive Strength

f'c

14000

psi

Mean Concrete Compressive Strength

fcm28

16100

psi

Floor # Mid-level

Core Radius

Ro

40

ft

Core Thickness

tc

10

Column Area

Ag

1810

ft
ft2

= 1.1f'c + 700; ACI209R (A-94)

First Floor in Segment

f0

Concrete Area

Ac

1790

ft

Last Floor in Segment

ff

16

Steel Area

As

2873

in2

Steel Ratio

0.0110

Ultimate Deformation in Segment

1.05

= (ff - f0 + 1)*d20yr

in

Loading

= As/Ag

Values for Creep and Shrinkage Analysis

Bank
Load

1
930

2
819

3
633

4
575

kips

Strength Development Parameter


Cement Type Correction Factor

s
k

0.335
1

from table A.14


from table A.14

microstrain
# Floors of Load

30

34

37

34

Day Loading Ended

120

256

404

540

day

Material Properties
Es 29000 ksi

Steel Elastic Modulus

As

2873

in

Concrete Area

Ac

1790

h
V/S

158
42.7

ft2
in
in

Floor Height
Volume/Surface Ratio

shu

468

Relative Humidity
Humidity Correction Factor
Curing Days

0.714
0.694
4

days

time drying begins

Age of Loading

h
(h)
tc
to

days

time load is applied

Drying Correction Factor

(tc)

Steel Area

= Vc/(2*Ro)

Deformation Summary
2 years
3 years
10 years
20 years

C-267

Per Floor
0.073
0.075
0.083
0.088

Group
0.876
0.904
0.994
1.054

= 900*k*(4350/fcm28)0.5; ACI 209R (A-99)

Ultimate Shrinkage

units
in
in
in
in

7..2.2 Concrete Core Deformation Calculations

National Climatic Data Center average


= (1 - 1.18*h4); ACI 209R (A-100)

ACI 209R (A-104)

Steel Load, Ps DL

Steel Load, Ps SDL

Ps total

Concrete Stress, fc

Elastic Strain
Unreinforced

Creep Strain
Unreinforced

Shrinkage Strain

Pc(fc)

Elastic Deformation
Reinforced

Eleastic
Deformation
Unreinforced

Ratio of Reinforced
to Unreinforced

Rcfi

Bank

# Columns/Column

(in)

(in)

3,715

215

124

339

0.015

0.00000

0.00000

0.00000

27

0.00000

0.00006

0.074

0.920

4,668
5,177
5,508
5,748
5,933

422
627
831
1,034
1,237

122
120
120
238
237

544
748
951
1,272
1,474

0.030
0.046
0.063
0.088
0.105

0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002
0.00002

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00001
0.00001

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

55
83
113
157
188

0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002
0.00002

0.00008
0.00010
0.00012
0.00015
0.00017

0.091
0.100
0.106
0.110
0.113

0.935
0.941
0.945
0.947
0.948

1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
3
3

3,823

0.632
0.709
0.759
0.795
0.823

6,426
8,088
9,277
10,187
10,915

Creep Coefficient
(A-103)

kips

Corrected
Shrinkage (A-98)

in

(t-tc) (A-101)

in

Ec (ksi) (A-95)

in

fcmt(t) (A-96)

ksi

microstrain

19,144

7,695

0.0287

9.32

1.78

23,932

459

24,391

2.253

0.00029

0.00052

0.00001

4,032

0.00032

0.00226

0.142

0.960

280

256

1.119

20,146

7,881

0.0423

13.73

1.90

47,758

386

48,144

4.554

0.00058

0.00110

0.00001

8,151

0.00063

0.00438

0.145

0.961

428

404

1.131

20,607

7,965

0.0533

17.29

1.97

67,754

192

67,946

6.496

0.00082

0.00161

0.00002

11,625

0.00089

0.00613

0.146

0.961

564

540

1.138

20,854

8,009

0.0616

20.00

2.02

84,440

0.0

84,440

8.118

0.00101

0.00205

0.00002

14,528

0.00111

0.00758

0.147

0.961

730

706

1.144

21,054

8,045

0.0705

22.88

2.07

84,440

0.0

84,440

8.155

0.00101

0.00210

0.00002

14,594

0.00111

0.00755

0.147

0.961

1,095
3,650
7,300

1,071
3,626
7,276

1.151
1.165
1.170

21,320
21,854
22,044

8,093
8,187
8,221

0.0868
0.1585
0.2218

28.17
51.44
71.98

2.15
2.41
2.58

84,440
84,440
84,440

0.0
0.0
0.0

84,440
84,440
84,440

8.203
8.299
8.332

0.00101
0.00101
0.00101

0.00218
0.00244
0.00262

0.00003
0.00005
0.00007

14,680
14,851
14,912

0.00111
0.00111
0.00111

0.00751
0.00744
0.00741

0.148
0.150
0.150

0.962
0.962
0.962

4
4
4

2
2
2

Elastic
Strain

Creep
Strain

Shrinkage
Strain

Total
Deformation

in

in

in

in

0.00000
0.00000

0.00000
0.00000

0.000000
0.000000

0.00005
0.00009

0.00000

0.00000

0.000000

0.00014

0.00000

0.00000

0.000000

0.00019

0.00000

0.00000

0.000000

0.00044

0.00000

0.00000

0.000000

0.00059

1.090

120

144

0.00
0.60
0.79

0.000
0.866
1.22

0.0000
0.0027
0.0038

2
3
4
5
6

kips

0.487

e (A-97)

26
27
28
29
30

kips

ksi

tlocal
1

kips

psi

tglobal

days

days
25

0.00004
0.00008
0.00012
0.00015
0.00015
0.00015
0.00015
0.00015

0.00007
0.00016
0.00024
0.00030
0.00031
0.00032
0.00037
0.00039

0.000001
0.000002
0.000003
0.000003
0.000003
0.000004
0.000008
0.000011

0.01842
0.03862
0.05638
0.07154
0.07300
0.07534
0.08286
0.08786

7..2.2 Concrete Core Deformation Calculations

Switch to Bank 2 Load


Switch to Bank 3 Load
Switch to Bank 4 Load
Stop Applying Bank 4 Load

C-268

8.0 References
8.1 Energy-Based Design of Lateral Systems by W.F. Baker

270

8.2 Geotechnical Report for the Chicago Spire

274

8.0 References
C-269

8.1 Energy-Based Design of Lateral Systems

Abstract
The sizing of the members of the lateral resistance system for multi-story buildings

is often controlled by stiffness requirements. In order to achieve economical


buildings, it is important that these members be appropriately sized and that the
structural materials be efficiently distributed among the various components. This
paper presents a sizing technique utilizing energy methods that is currently in use by
several firms involved in the design of high-rise buildings.

William 1. Baker

Theoretical Basis

By moving the material from one

Axial Members

member to another, it is possible for all


members of the structure to have equal
energy densities.

Frequently in the design of high-rise

Assoc. Partner
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Chicago, IL, USA
\Villiam F. Baker is an Associate Partner
and Senior Structural Engineer of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago, Illinois,
USA. As Adjunct Professor of Architecture
he also works at the Illinois Institute of
Technology. He was involved in a number
of significant projects, amongst them the
Sears Tower Revitalization, Chicago (1985),
the 63 story AT&T Corporate Center,
Chicago (1990), and more recently, in 1992,
the USG Building, a 35 story office
building in Chicago.

buildings, the structural designer wants


to use the minimum material to resist a
prescribed wind load without exceeding
a deflection criteria (such as tip deflection). In essence, the external work done
by the wind load has been predefined.
The task then is to proportion the structure so that the internal work is attained
with a minimum volume structure. We
know from virtual work methods that

nFL

structure (Fig. 1) is given by

constraint can be formulated as


(1)

member, and n

is

the force in the

member due to a unit virtual lateral load


applied at the top.

Equation (1) contains some very useful


information for sizing of members. The
FL/EA term gives the actual elongation

of the individual member. The n is a


weighting function which gives the
relative influence of the individual
members on the total deflection.

Since the goal is to use the least volume

of material, it is useful to divide the


deflection contribution of each member
(given by the Eq. [1] by the volume of the

member). This creates a term which is


essentially a virtual work or energy density, e, and can be viewed as a measure of
efficiency. The energy density is given by
the following equation:

2/92

ture as given by

subject to the constraint that it has a


constant volume of material (V). This

the lateral (wind) loads, L/EA are the


geometric and material properties of a

Structural Engineering International

sulting structure is a minimum volume


structure. This can be investigated using
LaGrange Iultipliers. The approach is
to minimize the deflection of the struc-

the deflection at the top of a braced

where F is the force in a member due to

peer reviewed by international experts


and accepted by IABSE Publications
Committee

Now the question is whether the re-

g=EAL- v=O

A constrained deflection equation may


then be written as
A=f+Ag

Substituting for fan g from Equations


(3) and (4) respectively:

A =E !'f_+A(L4L-)
where X is a constant called the
LaGrange Multiplier. Given that the
geometry of the structure is set, the independent variables are the areas of the
individual elements (A1). The next step
is to differentiate the constrained
deflection equation with respect to the
areas, in order to find a local extremum.

-(y

)+x-c14L-)=o

Noting that the terms f and g are continuously differentiable and the g has a
nonzero gradient, it can be shown that ?
exists and is unique at a local extremum.

e = [(nF4L1)/(EA1)] I [L1A

(2)

E4
Science and C-270
Technology

99

//

>1kb

YL

Fig. 1

'
Unit
Load

for a statically determinate structure,

structure, then the deflection is a


minimum for a given volume of structure or, conversely, the volume of structure is a minimum for a given deflection.

will lead to

By comparing Equations (2) and (9), it

This can be shown by using the

can be seen that for a system of axial

LaGrange Multiplier approach. Paralleling the equations for axial members


produces

members, the energy density e, is in fact


the LaGrange Multiplier for a statically
determinate structure.

J.

If a structure is statically determinate, n,


and F1 are constant for a given structure
and loading. Equation (7) then reduces
to:

-nFL.

When X is equal for all members in a

It can be derived from the above, that


the optimum cross-sectional areas for a
statically determinant truss can be
determined from the following equation:
]O.5))

(8)

(Ai)req= 1:eqE 1F1)5 (E(L1 F n F1

(9)

Where A q is the target deflection and


n, and F, are the virtual and real forces
in member i, obtained from either hand

or
n .F.

F4

(10)

calculations or computer calculations

using a model with arbitrary crosssectional areas.


Cross-sectional area of

Theoretical Basis

member i

Flexural Members

a, b = Linear regression constants


E = Modulus of elasticity
e

= Energy density

= Axial force in member i


due to lateral load case
H = Story height
= Depth of member i
= Moment of inertia of
member i
L, = Length of member i
I
= Bay size
= Moment in member i
due to lateral load case
m1 = Moment in member i
due to unit load case
= Axial force in member i
due to unit load case
P = Horizontal shear in
beam and column
assemblage
r1
= Radius of gyration of
member i
u = Non-dimension length,
equals 0 at x = 0,
equals 1 at x = L
V = Volume of structure
= Width of member i
a = Correction factor for
flexural members
A = Tip deflection
= LaGrange Multiplier
v
= Virtual work of beam
element i times A1
F1

100

Science
and Technology
C-271

LM
, =__+A(EAL-v)

(14)

The local extremum is found by differentiation.

a
=

-L.M. dl.
'

El12

'__!-+AL.=O
dA1

(15)

or
M. dl.
,.L.
_..L

2-'

(16)

El, "

For a rectangular shape of constant


depth (h) and variable width (w):

_i-wh3=ih2A

I=

Nomenclature

A=

for other cross sections.

0A1

EA

an optimum material

distribution for certain types of cross


sections and is approximately minimal

=r2A

(17)

Therefore,

4-L=2
dA

A parallel approach can be applied to


flexural systems. The deflection contribution of flexural deformations is
given by

(18)

and
=

(19)

E i A.

which matches the energy density


(11)

El

For rolled US steel shapes, the moment


of inertia can be expressed as a linear
function of A.

where
NI =

Mmdu

M=

Moment in a member due to lateral load


case,

m=

Moment in a member due to unit load case

and
u

(Eq. 13).

I=a+bA

(20)

therefore,

= Non-dimensional length.

The integral is well known for elements

with the moment applied at the s and!

(21)

dA

end nodes (as is usually the case of

and

lateral analysis of multistory buildings)


and is given by:

Mb.
A =_!

(22)

El,

M = IMmdu
+

= [M3

(2m-m)

Which is somewhat different from the

M1(2m1m3)]/6

(12)

As was done with the axial members, a

virtual work density can be calculated


by

e=

M.

ii
(13)

energy density (Eq. 13).

For automated resizing, it is useful to


define . in terms of areas, radii of gyration and correction factors. Equation
(16) can be rewritten as:
=

(23)

As will be shown below, making the

where a is a correction factor defined

energy densities equal for all members

as:
Structural Engineering International

2/92

d11

(24)

and for
rolled shapes, a is given in Table I (a =
1.3 is a reasonable value for the design of

For rectangular shapes, a =

I=

Series

W 14 x 6182

+ bA

(in4)

(in2)

Range of
a

Average
a

59

39.1

1.07 to 1.09

1.08

commonly used shapes in strong axis

W14x90132

146

43.2

l.lOtol.l5

1.12

bending).

W14 x 145426

937

58.7

l.llto 1.47

1.30

Wl4x455730
W18
W21
W24
W27

-4640

87.4

l.3ltol.63

1.47

208

68.2

l.O9to 1.38

1.21

385

92.8

l.lOto 1.43

1.23

626

121

l.l2tol.45

1.25

946

152

l.l4to 1.32

1.22

W30
W33
W36

1674
2075
2445

193

1.l6to 1.41

1.29

229
257

l.l4to 1.35

1.24

l.l2to 1.31

1.20

As was done for axial members, the optimal cross-sectional area for a statically

determinant flexural member can be


determined from:
0.5

(A
' i/req

M.

req

0.5

0.5

L.M.

a.

ri

0.5

IX,

T1

(25)
The

Table

above assumes that the radius of

gyration (r) is constant for a member as


the members change size (this is a

reasonable assumption as long as the


member stays in the same series).

.'1uuu
20000

W36
+

19000
18000

17000

16000

VALUES FROM STEEL TABLES


LEAST SQUARES FIT FOR
I

= a + bA

15000

Theoretical Basis
General Beam Element

14000

For a general beam element, the pertinent deformations are axial, major axis
flexural, minor axis flexural, major axis
shear, minor axis shear and torsional.
The above sizing techniques can be extended to include all of these deforma-

10000

tions. Although it is clear that axial


deformations are a direct function of
the cross-sectional area, the other de-

3000

W33

13000

W14

12000
11000

9000

8000
7000
6000
5000

4000
2000
1000
1

In rectangular cross sections of constant

depth, the major and minor axis shear


section properties are linear functions
of cross-sectional area and these functions approach zero as the cross-sectional area approaches zero. Therefore,

a procedure similar to those above


shows that a uniform energy density
(element virtual work divided by element volume) will produce a minimum
volume structure.

The minor axis moment of inertia and


torsional properties are non-linear
functions of area. Uniform energy density is not equal to the LaGrange Multiplier and will not produce a minimum
volume structure (Table 2). However,
these deformations are often unimportant in many structural systems.

20

40

60

80

100

duced from the same roller, the major


and minor axis moment of inertias and
the major and minor axis shear areas are
approximately linear functions of area.
The sizing techniques previously descri-

bed can be used for the corresponding


deformations. The remaining section
property, the torsional constant, is not a
linear function of area and, therefore,
the energy density is not closely related
to minimum volume sizing. Fortunately,

torsional rotation is often an unimportant deformation.


In design, it is often sufficiently accurate to assume that all the properties
are linear functions of cross-sectional

area which intersect the origin. This


leads to the following resizing algorithm:

functions of area for

of the changes in the rollers used.

(L. v
'26'
/
req L
where v is equal to the total virtual

However, for those weights that are pro-

work of beam elementjtimes A.

weights of a given series depth because

Structural Engineering International 2/92

A. =

120

140

100

180

200

220

Area (in2)

Fig. 2

Rolled steel shapes generally do not


have section properties that are linear
all available

in = .54 cm

formations merit some discussion.

v 0.5

Design
A key part of the above discussion is that

this method provides the minimum


volume of material for statically deter-

minate structures (since the member


forces do not change as the member
sizes are changed). This may seem to
limit the usefulness of this method but a
closer look shows that it can be applied
to many problems.

An important concept to start with is


that all high-rise buildings are statically
determinate in a global sense (Fig. 3).
The building is simply a cantilever beam

and, therefore, at each story the shear


and overturning moment are known.
Since the global shear and moment are
known, the next question is how these

forces are shared among the lateral


systems present.

Fig. 4 shows lateral bracing systems


which are normally used in a building.
C-272
Science and Technology

101

_____

-3.''
-3
-3
-3
-3
-3

-3

-3
-3
-3

ly considered to be indeterminate, is
determinate for lateral loads when the
designer makes both diagonals in a

-3

Fig. 3

h.

.
I I.
a.

Fig.

All of these bracing systems can be considered statically determinate for lateral
loads. Even X-bracing, which is normal-

c.

b.

e.

f.

Bracing
(Typ.)

Floor
Plan

members should be removed from the


system. If the interactions converge on a

cent to core elements such as elevator


shafts and stairwells. Although these
elements share the lateral shears and
moments in a story, they often are proportioned on a basis of tributary wind
load. Therefore, as they are simultaneously resized, the forces in the mdividual members do not change significantly and behave as though they were
statically determinate.

problematic, is where there are parallel

systems of different types such as


parallel trusses of different depths or
combinations of parallel trusses and

Column: I, r, b
Girder: 'g' rg, bg

Il

4I:-

moment frames. For these systems the


force levels in the individual members

will change as the member sizes are

---A.-

changed. Therefore, the method no longer can be assured of giving minimum

volume structure. Although the technique no longer has a clear theoretical

Fig. 6

reasonable structure, it usually much


less redundant than the initial structure.
The LaGrange \ I u It iplier methodology
can also be applied to subsystems such
as a beam and column assemblage (Fig.
6).

mation is as follows:

H2IH ii
Pj[+j+

Axial

f(A)

d
dA

Elongation

LaGrange
Multiplier

Energy
Density

Fn

Fn

EA2

(A)

Major Axis
Flexure

EA2

Ah2

h2

12

12

EIA

EJA

A3

A2

3M
EIA

EIA

Vv

Vv

(I)

Minor Axis
Flexure

/2

4k2

(I)

Major Axis
Shear
(As,)

Minor Axis
Shear

(As)
Torsional
Rotation
(J)

A3

3k2

h2

GAVA

Which reduces to:

Vv

GAVA I
3T1

C-273
Science
and Technology

l2Ej2dA
g

12E12dA
C

(28)

or

dI

2 dA

dIg

(29)

ciAg

For rectangular cross sections this


becomes:
(30)

Where r and r are the radii of gyration


for the girder and column, respectively.

For rolled shapes, Equation 29 becomes:


b
I
.1=
_(

0.5

(31)

b can be taken from


Table 1 for the girder and columns

Where bg and

respectively.

It is interesting to note that the beam


and column subsystem result is independent of the story height or bay size.

GAVA

Conclusion
Vv

GAVA

j,
Tt 1

Table 2: Comparison of LaGrange Multiplier and Energy Density for Rectangular Cross
Section of Constant Depth (h)
102

(27)

(AH+A6l-v)

1
Displacement
(Property)

For this system, the constrained

deflection equation for flexural defor-

Another system type which is more

Fig. 5

IC

is common to have negative energy densities. This often indicates that the

the case).

when there are multiple parallel lines of


bracing in a building (Fig. 5). This is the
typical case for bracing which is adja-

d.

the technique to this type of structure.


As the material and loads are transferred from one lateral system to another it

story the same size (which is normally

. The next condition to be examined is

I .1.

basis, it may still be very useful to apply

A method has been presented which is


useful for the sizing of lateral bracing in
multi-story buildings where building
drift is the controlling factor. It has been
shown that the method will provide the
minimum volume structure for a statically determinate structure and the ap-

plication to indeterminate structures


has been discussed.
Structural Engineering International

2/92

8.2 Geotechnical Report for the Chicago Spire

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