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DIgSILENT PowerFactory

Technical Reference Documentation

Rectifier / Inverter
ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec

DIgSILENT GmbH
Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9
72810 - Gomaringen
Germany
T: +49 7072 9168 0
F: +49 7072 9168 88
http://www.digsilent.de
info@digsilent.de
Version: 2016
Edition: 1

Copyright 2016, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.
No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means
electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

Contents

Contents
1 General Description

1.1 Fundamental Frequency Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1 Converter Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2 Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.1.3 Unbalanced Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2 Basic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.2.1 Basic Type Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

2 Load Flow Analysis


2.1 P-setpoint Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14
15

3 Short-Circuit Calculations

17

4 Harmonics

18

5 Dynamic Simulation

20

5.1 RMS Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.2 EMT Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

A Parameter Definitions

23

B Signal Definitions

25

List of Figures

26

List of Tables

27

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

General Description
General Description

General Description
11General
Description
General
Description

Figure 1: HVDC Converter including Built-In Transformer

Figure 1.1: HVDC converter including built-in transformer


Figure 1: HVDC Converter including Built-In Transformer

Figure 2: Detailed Circuit with Commutation Reactance and DC Reactance (not part of the model)
This converter model basically represents two different three-phase converters:

the three-phase diode rectifier

the2:
three-phase
Figure
Detailedline-commutated
Circuit with rectifier/inverter
Commutation Reactance and DC Reactance (not part of the model)

Figure 1.2: Detailed circuit with commutation reactance and DC reactance (not part of the
The diode rectifier is a full-bridge diode rectifier, which is rectifying the three-phase AC voltage to a 6-pulse DC
model)
This converter
represents
twobedifferent
voltage.
Due to the model
usage ofbasically
diodes, which
can neither
turned-onthree-phase
nor turned-off converters:
externally, the DC voltage or
DC current of the rectifier can not be controlled.

the three-phase diode rectifier

the three-phase line-commutated rectifier/inverter

The model can be configured


as:
The controlled converter model consists of six power thyristors, arranged as shown in Figure 2. These valves can
be turned-on by an external control signal (one dash), but only turns-off, when the current flowing through them
becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as inverter, depending on the control signals applied.

The diode rectifier is a full-bridge diode rectifier, which is rectifying the three-phase AC voltage to a 6-pulse DC
Three-phase diode
rectifier

voltage.
Due frequency
to the usage
of diodes,
which
canis neither
be turned-on
nor turned-off
the DC voltage or
The
fundamental
representation
of this
model
used for load-flow
calculations
and stabilityexternally,
analysis.

DCis current
rectifier
can
not be
controlled.
and
describedof
in the
section
1.1. The
detailed
modelling
of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT simulations,
Three-phase line-commutated
rectifier/inverter
where the converters are modelled as shown in Figure 2.

The controlled converter model consists of six power thyristors, arranged as shown in Figure 2. These valves can
turned-on by an
external
control signal
(oneis
dash),
but only turns-off,
when the current
through
The diode rectifier is abefull-bridge
diode
rectifier,
which
rectifying
the three-phase
ACflowing
voltage
to them
becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as inverter, depending on the control signals applied.
a 6-pulse DC voltage.
Due to the usage of diodes, which can neither be turned-on -or
turned-off
6-Pulse Bridge
4externally, the DC voltage
or
DC
current
of
the
rectifier
cannot
be
controlled.
The fundamental frequency representation of this model is used for load-flow calculations and stability analysis.
and is described in section 1.1. The detailed modelling of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT simulations,

The controlled converter


consists
of six
power
thyristors,
arranged as shown in Figure
where model
the converters
are modelled
as shown
in Figure
2.
1.2. These valves can be turned-on by an external control signal, but only turned-off when the
current flowing through them becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as
inverter, depending on the timing of the gate signal relative to the AC voltage wave.
6-Pulse Bridge

-4-

A fundamental frequency model is used for load flow calculations and stability analysis, and is
described in section 1.1. The detailed modelling of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT
simulations, where the converters are modelled as shown in Figure 1.2.

1.1

Fundamental Frequency Model

The models for load flow calculation and RMS-simulation are based on a fundamental frequency
approach. The equations of the thyristor converter and the diode rectifier are identical if the
diode rectifier is assumed as an uncontrolled thyristor converter (hence the firing angle is set
to zero).

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

During steady-state operation the converter can be modelled as a load with constant active and
reactive power P and Q. The following equations describe the converter in a detailed way and
give hints for the layout of an HVDC system.
The transmitted DC power of the high-voltage DC system is given by:

P d = Ud Id

(1)

The DC voltage of the ideal and uncontrolled converter, without load, is called the ideal no-load
direct voltage Ud0 , which is defined as follows:

Ud0

s0 q
=
sin

 
2

ULL
q
3

(2)

where s0 defines the number of commutation groups, q is the number of branches in a commutation group and ULL is the AC voltage supplied to the converter station. For a 6-pulse converter
there are two commutation groups (s0 = 2) and q is equal to 3, hence the Ud0 is

Ud0

3 2
ULL 1.35 ULL
=

(3)

This equation is valid for the uncontrolled thyristor converter ( = 0) as well as for the diode
bridge. The gate control of the thyristors can be used to delay the ignition of the valves. The
time delay due to the turn-on signal applied is defined to be t = . Then the DC voltage
depends on the ignition angle

Ud = Ud0 cos()

(4)

The effect of the ignition angle is shown in Figure 1.3, where the AC voltage, the phase
currents and the DC voltage can be seen for an idealized operation with the DC current Id
assumed to be constant. The ignition angle is also indicated in the figure. Here the time between
the transfer of the current from one valve to the next is assumed to be zero, i.e the leakage
reactance of the transformer is neglected and the commutation angle is zero.
To study more realistic converters the current commutation from one valve to the next must be
considered. The commutation leads to a drop in the DC voltage Ud :

Ud = Ud0 cos() Ud

(5)

Ud is defined as a function of Id and the commutation reactance Xc according to equation 6,


where Rc is the equivalent commutating resistance. Rc does not represent a real resistance
and thus has no associated power losses. Ud is defined as:

Ud = Rc Id =

3
3
Lc Id = Xc Id

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

(6)

General Description

DIgSILENT

General Description

1.50
1.00
0.50
-0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
0.000

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

Rectifier: Phase Voltage A/Terminal AC in p.u.


Rectifier: Phase Voltage B/Terminal AC in p.u.
Rectifier: Phase Voltage C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.50

1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
0.000

0.004

0.008

Rectifier: Phase Current A/Terminal AC in p.u.


Rectifier: Phase Current B/Terminal AC in p.u.
Rectifier: Phase Current C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00
0.000

0.004

0.008

Cub_1\Ud_R Measurement: Output Voltage, Real Part in p.u.

DIgSILENT

Three-Phase Thyristor Rectifier


alpha = 30, overlap angle u = 0

TechRef

Date: 4/7/2004
Annex: 1 /1

Figure 1.3:
3: Phase
voltages,
phase
currents
and DC
voltage
of a three-phase
rectifier rectifier
operating
with
Figure
Phase
voltages,
phase
currents
and
DC voltage
of a three-phase
operating
zero overlap angle

=
30
and
with = 30 and zero commutation angle
Here the time between the transfer of the current from valve i to the next valve is assumed to be zero, i.e the
leakage reactance of the transformer is neglected and the commutation angle is zero.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)


6-Pulse Bridge

5
-6-

General Description

Combining equations 5 and 6, the DC voltage can be expressed as:

Ud = Ud0 cos() +

3
Xc Id

(7)

Figure 1.4 shows the equivalent circuit for the rectifier including the effects of commutation.
Note in the figure and in the equations above, that the DC current is negative for the rectifier
operation due to the representation with load-orientation.

Rcr

Id
Udr

Udo cos

Figure 1.4: Rectifier equivalent circuit


commutating resistance Rcr
Rloss Vdrop
Rcr with equivalent

Id
The reactance of the converter transformer is usually
the biggest part of total reactance on the
AC side, hence it can be assumed that Xc is approximately that reactance:
Udr

Udo cos
Xc = Xr,sec =

2
ukr Ur,sec

100
Sr

(8)

where ukr , Ur,sec and Sr are the converter transformer short-circuit voltage (in %), rated voltage
on the secondary side and rated power respectively. With the DC current being equal to its
rated value Id , the DC voltage can be written in a different form as:

Ud = Ud0 (cos() dxr )

(9)

with

dxr =

1 ukr

2 100

(10)

The term dxr has been calculated from the following relationship:

dxr =

3
|Id |
Xc

Ud0

(11)

assuming the converter transformer rated current Ir is equal to sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) Id (see section
1.1.1) and expressing Udo according to equation 3.
The phase voltages and currents, as well as the DC voltage of a thyristor rectifier, including
effects of commutation can be seen in Figure 1.5. The ignition angle and the commutation
angle are indicated in the figure.
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

DIgSILENT

General Description

1.50
1.00
0.50
-0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
0.000

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

Rectifier: Phase Voltage A/Terminal AC in p.u.


Rectifier: Phase Voltage B/Terminal AC in p.u.
Rectifier: Phase Voltage C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.50

1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
0.000

0.004

0.008

Rectifier: Phase Current A/Terminal AC in p.u.


Rectifier: Phase Current B/Terminal AC in p.u.
Rectifier: Phase Current C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00
0.000

0.004

0.008

Cub_1\Ud_R Measurement: Output Voltage, Real Part in p.u.

DIgSILENT

Three-Phase Thyristor Rectifier


alpha = 30, overlap angle u = 20

TechRef

Date: 4/7/2004
Annex: 1 /1

Figure
Phase
voltages,
phase
currents
andvoltage
DC voltage
of a three-phase
operating
Figure 1.5:
5: Phase
voltages,
phase
currents
and DC
of a three-phase
rectifierrectifier
operating
with

with

=
30
and
an
overlap
angle
of

=
20
= 30 and an overlap angle of = 20
Using these two angles two other angles can be defined, used in the HVDC theory. is called the extinction
angle, which is normally used to control the inverter side of the HVDC.

0 =
The ignition advance angle is specified as

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)


6-Pulse Bridge

7
-8-

General Description

Using these two angles two other angles can be defined. The extinction angle , which is
normally used in the control on the inverter side of the HVDC, is defined as:

(12)

The ignition advance angle is defined as

(13)

is often used in the HVDC controllers for both the rectifier and inverter side.
Using these different angles the DC voltage can be calculated differently for the rectifier and for
the inverter respectively:

Udr = Ud0

cos() + cos( + )
2

(14)

cos() + cos()
2

(15)

and

Udi = Ud0

The DC voltage for the inverter case is considered positive in equation 15. Using equations 14
and 9, the term dxr can be expressed as:

dxr =

cos() cos( + )
2

(16)

The phase currents of the 6-pulse bridge are shown in Figure 1.3 and Figure 1.5. In the literature the AC current is often calculated approximately from the ideal rectifier current with the
commutation angle neglected. In PowerFactory the amplitude of the fundamental frequency
current IL1 is calculated using the Fourier analysis of the phase current waveform, so the effect
of the commutation is taken into account. This leads to the following relationship between the
RMS value of the fundamental frequency component and the direct current:

IL1 = k

6
Id

(17)

where k is equal to

p
k=

[cos(2) cos 2( + )]2 + [2 + sin(2) cos 2( + )]2


4 [cos() cos( + )]

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

(18)

General Description

This factor is close to unity for small values of , but if the angle becomes larger, the error
increases up to 4% at = 60 . For unsymmetrical operation the phase currents have to be
calculated differently, which is described in section 1.1.3.
The power factor cos() can then be calculated, given the power equivalence on the AC and
DC side and using equations 3, 14 and 17:

3 2
cos() + cos( + )
3 ULL IL1 cos() = Ud Id =
ULL
Id

cos() =

1.1.1

1
[cos() + cos( + )]
2k

(19)

(20)

Converter Transformer

There are two possibilities to model the converter transformer in PowerFactory :


Built-in transformer
External converter transformer
The built-in transformer features a tap-changer on the HV side to control the secondary voltage.
The built-in transformer can be configured as Fixed Tap, to control the firing (alpha-control)
or extinction (gamma-control) angle of the converter. The commutation reactance is always
assumed to be on the secondary side of the transformer. Hence Xc is calculated as follows:

Xc =

2
ukr Ur,sec

100
Sr

(21)

where ukr , Ur,sec and Sr are the converter transformer short-circuit voltage (in %), rated voltage
on the secondary side and rated power respectively. If an external transformer is used for the
converter model, the AC voltage drop over the transformer is estimated using the commutation
reactance specified in the converter dialog window. If the parameters specified in the external
transformer and in the rectifier/inverter fit together, the same results are obtained as with the
built-in transformer.
If the rated DC voltage of the converter is known, the rated secondary voltage of the converter
transformer can be calculated using the following equation, which can derived from the equations above:

Ud

Ur,sec =
3 2 cos() dxr

(22)

The rated AC current on the converter side of the transformer equals the RMS value of the total
AC current which, neglecting commutation effects, consists of rectangular pulses with amplitude
equal to the rated DC current Id and duration of 120 . The rated AC current on the converter
side of the transformer is found as:
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

r
Ir,sec =

2
Id
3

(23)

Note that this current is the RMS value of the total AC current, and not of only its fundamental
frequency component, which is calculated instead as in equation 17. Hence the rated power
can be calculated as

Pd
Sr = 3 Ir,sec Ur,sec = 2 Id Ur,sec =
3 cos() dxr

1.1.2

(24)

Losses

The model of the HVDC does not include the effects of losses so far. The losses in the converter
bridge are caused due to the different components, i.e. the resistances of valves, transformers,
smoothing reactances.
An exact representation of the losses associated with the converter station is very sophisticated,
so it is common practice to model the losses in the Load Flow analysis as an equivalent series
resistance on the DC side. Two more terms accounting respectively for the forward voltage
drop in the thyristors and no-load losses depending on the DC voltage are also considered. In
PowerFactory , rectifier/inverter losses are specified in fundamental frequency models as:
No-load losses: specified with the parameter P nold in [kW].
Forward voltage drop losses: specified with the parameter swtLossF actor in [KW/A].
Resistive losses: specified with the parameter resLossF actor in [Ohm].
Total losses are calculated as:

Losses = Gnoload Ud2 + resLossF actor Id2 + Vdrop Id

(25)

with:
Vdrop = sign(Id ) swtLossF actor (1 exp200|Id | )
Gnoload =

Pnold
where UDCnom is expressed in kV
2
1000 Unom,DC

Losses: Converter losses in MW


To take into account losses, equation 7 must be modified, both for rectifier and inverter, as:

Ud = Ud0 cos() +

3
Xc Id + resLossF actor Id + Vdrop

(26)

The representation of station losses of a rectifier for load flow calculations is shown in Figure
1.6. Note in the figure and in the equation above, that the DC current is negative for the rectifier
operation due to the representation with load-orientation.
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

10

Rcr

Id
Udr

Udo cos
1

General Description

Rloss

Rcr

Vdrop

Id
Udr

Udo cos

Figure 1.6: Simplified modelling of losses for a 6-pulse converter


1.1.3

Unbalanced Operation

When the network voltages are unsymmetrical, the periods for natural conduction of the valves
are not the same and the DC voltage will be made of six pulses with different duration and
amplitude. The ideal no-load DC voltage can be calculated by taking the average of the pulses
over half a period. As an example, with reference to Figure 1.7, at t = ca + the DC current
starts flowing in phase a and returns back through phase b until t = bc . For a thyristor
converter, these angles can be delayed by a and c respectively. During this period, the
DC voltage is equal to the line-line voltage Uab . The angles ab , bc and ca , at which the
corresponding line-line voltages cross zero and become positive, are calculated internally in the
model, given the terminal voltage phasors. This holds only for load flow and RMS simulations.

Uab
Ubc
Uca
Ud

Ua
Ub
Uc

Ia
Ib
Ic

ca

bc-

ab
ca+

bc

ab+
ca+2

Figure 1.7: Currents and voltages for diode bridge rectifier with unbalanced network voltages
and smoothing reactor on the DC side
By taking the average of the resulting three pulses over half a period, the ideal no-load DC
voltage is calculated in load flow and RMS simulations as:

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

11

General Description

Ud =

1 
Uab [cos(ca + + a ab ) cos(bc + c ab )]+

Ubc [cos(ab + + b bc ) cos(ca + a bc )]+



Uca [cos(bc + + c ca ) cos(ab + b ca )]

(27)

In unsymmetrical load flow and RMS simulations, a PLL will measure the angle 1 of the positive
zero-crossing of the positive sequence line-line voltage. The firing angles of the valves are then
calculated in order to obtain an interval between the firing pulses of 60 . Therefore, the firing
angles a , b and c will not be identical but differ according to the phase-shift of the phase
voltages. The firing angles of the three phases are calculated internally in the model as (the
negative sign is due to the fact that negative angles imply a lagging phase in equation 27):

a = [ + (ca (1 4/3))]

(28)

b = [ + (ab 1 )]

(29)

c = [ + (bc (1 2/3))]

(30)

In general it is not possible to obtain a 60 interval between the firing pulses, since this would
require leading firing angles. As a consequence, the pulses will still have different length even
after applying different firing pulses for each phase.
The AC currents are affected by the different length of the pulses. Assuming a constant DC
current, the amplitude of the fundamental frequency component of the phase currents is no
longer equal because the conduction periods for each phase are different, as can be seen in
Figure 1.7. Let Ii represent the conducting time of phase i. The RMS value of the fundamental
frequency component of each phase current is easily calculated by Fourier series expansion as:

IL1i = k

Ii
4 Id
sin( )

2
2

(31)

The DC power is then calculated as the sum of the real power of all phases on the secondary
side of the transformer:

Pdc = Pa + Pb + Pc

1.2

(32)

Basic Data

On the Basic Data page a name for the element has to be entered. A type has to be selected or
defined for the element. Furthermore, the orientation has to be specified to allow representation
of either a rectifier or an inverter.

1.2.1

Basic Type Data

In the basic data page of the type of the inverter/rectifier, the main parameters of the converter
layout have to be entered. You can choose between rated AC or DC voltage and between rated
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

12

General Description

DC power and DC current. Furthermore the kind of converter can be defined (uncontrolled
diode rectifier or thyristor converter).
If the built-in transformer is chosen (which is advisable for most types of converters), there is
as well the necessity to enter the turns-ratio of the converter transformer, which is given by the
ratio of secondary to primary voltage, and the nominal firing angle .
Also the limits of the turns-ratio are given to specify the tap-changer ranges. The maximum
and minimum turns-ratio is given in per unit of the nominal turns-ratio (t2/t1) of the converter
transformer.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

13

Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow Analysis

In load flow analysis, it is common practice not to specify control variables directly but to define
the controlled variables instead. The control variable (the firing angle ) is then resulting from
the Load Flow calculation.
In the Load Flow command, several common control characteristics are supported by the HVDC
converter model. Meaning and typical application of the various control modes are the following:
Vdc: The firing angle is adjusted to obtain a predefined value for the DC voltage of the
converter. This control mode is typically used at the inverter side of an HVDC transmission
system.
Vac: Specifies the magnitude of the AC voltage at the converter terminals, when the DC
voltage is controlled externally. No typical application.
P: The transmitted DC power is held constant. Typically used for rectifier side in HVDC
systems.
Q: Specifies the amount of reactive power absorbed by the converter. No typical application.
I: The DC current of the converter is held constant. Typically used for rectifier control of an
HVDC transmission system.
Gamma: The extinction angle is specified. Normally the inverter side of an HVDC
system is controlled to a minimum .
EXT: The firing angle is specified as an input to the model, provided by a Controller
which must be specified with the parameter pctrl. The Controller is a line-commutated
rectifier/inverter element (ElmRec or ElmRecmono) as well. The EXT control mode is
useful in a 12-pulse arrangement with two converters: one converter is the Controller
performing one of the other control modes, while the second converter is in EXT control
mode.
These control modes are enabled if the flag Automatic Firing Angle Control is selected. Otherwise, the firing angle is set equal to the Actual Firing Angle, specified with the parameter
alpha set.
Minimum and maximum firing angle limits can be specified. If the converter reaches one of
these limits, the firing angle will remain constant at the limit and the converter cannot perform
the chosen control function.
A minimum value of the extinction angle, gammamin, can also be entered. The angle gammamin represents a safe value of in order to avoid commutation failure in normal operating
conditions; it does not represent the limiting value for commutation failure. If the inverter extinction angle reaches this limit, a warning is printed in the output window. For inverters in Vdc
(EXT) control mode, the option Consider minimum extinction angle (gammamin) for control is
available. If the option is selected, the inverter will no longer control the DC side voltage but will
switch to a gamma-control mode with gammamin as setpoint if gammamin is reached.
In load flow calculations, commutation failure is assumed to take place only when the sum of the
firing angle and of the overlap angle would be higher than 180 (negative ). A warning for
commutation failure is printed in the output window. In this case, the load flow is still calculated
assuming the overlap angle equal to zero. However, this may not represent a feasible operating
point.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

14

Load Flow Analysis

During load flow calculation, if the thyristor converter current is very low, the converter current
is set to zero. The thyristor converter voltage is set to zero with the firing angle equal to 90 . A
message is sent to the output window warning about zero current flowing in the converter.
Furthermore the control of the tap-changers of the converter transformer can be chosen between:
Fixed Tap: The position of the tap-changers is fixed to a given winding ratio.
alpha-control: The secondary voltage is adjusted by the tap-changers to obtain a specified
setpoint of the firing angle. This is typically used at the rectifier station of the HVDC.
gamma-control: The tap-changers are controlled to obtain a specified setpoint of the extinction angle. This is typically used at the inverter station of the HVDC.
Besides the firing angle control modes, the load flow page of the converter also comprises
additional information for the converter transformer. Here the commutation reactance Xc is
specified as the leakage reactance of the transformer, which is important for the calculation
of the commutation angle. Also the phase-shift of the converter transformer can be entered
here. This information is needed, when designing 12-pulse thyristor bridges with 30 phaseshift between two converters in series to reduce harmonic currents fed into the network.
Attention: This information is also needed, when no built-in transformer is selected in the
converter type! The value of the commutation reactance is specified as the reactance of the
converter transformer, modelled externally. The value of the commutation reactance is used to
estimate the voltage on the transformer primary side, given the converter terminal voltage and
current. The estimated voltage is used to calculate the ideal no-load DC voltage. Specifying
the correct value of the commutation reactance is also important to get realistic values for the
commutation angle.

2.1

P-setpoint Adaption

When the converter is in P control mode, usually the rectifier side in an HVDC system, the
active power setpoint can be modified by the following controllers if selected:
Angle-difference dependent P-droop
Active power participation
When the Angle-difference dependent P-droop option is selected, the active power setpoint is
modified for the rectifier and inverter case according to:

Pr = Pr,set + Kpphi (phiulocal phiuremote )


Pi = Pi,set Kpphi (phiulocal phiuremote )
When the Active power participation option is selected, the active power setpoint is modified for
the rectifier and inverter case according to:

Pr = Pr,set + Kpart Pmeas


Pi = Pi,set Kpart Pmeas
Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

15

Load Flow Analysis

where:
Pr,set is the active power setpoint, rectifier case.
Pi,set is the active power setpoint, inverter case.
Pr is the modified active power setpoint, rectifier case.
Pi is the modified active power setpoint, inverter case.
Kpphi is the specified factor for Angle-difference dependent P-droop.
Kpart is the specified factor for Active power participation.
phiuremote is the positive-sequence voltage angle of the remote busbar.
phiulocal is the positive-sequence voltage angle of the local busbar.
Pmeas is the active power measured (assumed positive with load orientation) at a specified
cubicle/boundary.
The Angle-difference dependent P-droop and Active power participation options can be used
to adapt the active power of the converter depending on the active power flow on a parallel
AC line. When the Active power participation option is selected, the sign of the parameter
Kpart depends on the orientation of the power flow at the point where the parameter Pmeas
is measured. Figure 2.1 shows how to correctly define the sign of Kpart. In the example, the
converter INV is performing the active power control and has the Active power participation
option selected.

Figure 2.1: Active power participation example for converter INV. Active power setpoint is
P=10MW.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

16

Short-Circuit Calculations

Short-Circuit Calculations

Typically the line-commutated converters are neglected during short-circuit calculations due to
the effect, that the thyristors are automatically blocking during very low voltages at the AC side.
This results in low short-circuit currents supplied by the converter. The calculation methods using the VDE, IEC or ANSI standards do neglect the contribution of the converters. If a complete
method short-circuit calculation is executed, the short-circuit current of the converter will not be
neglected but defined being the rated AC current of the converter.
Enabling the option Static converter-fed drive, the element can be used to represent in shortcircuit studies reversible static converter-fed drives, with the converter having then a different
layout than a six-pulse bridge. In this case, the contribution of the converter to the short-circuit
current is no longer neglected in the VDE 0102/0103 and IEC 60909 calculation method. According to these standards the converters are assumed to be asynchronous machines having
a short-circuit current ratio of Ishc /Irated = 3 and an R/X-ratio of R/X = 0.1. The short-circuit
current contribution is only considered in symmetrical short-circuits. In case of asymmetrical
short-circuits the current contribution of static converter drives is neglected. The contribution is
only used to calculate the initial and the peak short-circuit current (I and ip ).
The ANSI and the complete calculation method are not affected by this option.
Only the ElmRecmono is considered in the calculation of DC short-circuits according to IEC
61660 and ANSI/IEEE 946. Additional parameters required to perform DC short-circuit calculations according to the standards can be entered in the DC Short-Circuit page of the element
ElmRecmono and of the type TypRec. In these pages, data about the commutation resistance,
AC side impedance, DC side resistance and inductance, converter connection type and voltage
factor are specified.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

17

Harmonics

Harmonics

The currents of the 6-pulse thyristor-controlled converter, which are shown in Figure 1.3 with
the commutation effect neglected and in Figure 1.5 including commutation, are characteristic
waveforms. From these curves it can easily be seen, that the currents not only have a large
50-Hz-component but also cause a flow of harmonic currents of higher orders. Hence the most
accurate harmonic model of the HVDC converter is a harmonic current source. The order of the
harmonic currents is calculated as

h=6n1

(33)

(where n = an integer)
The assigned amount of current injected is

Ih =

IL1
h

(34)

Typically the 6-pulse converters have a characteristic spectrum of harmonic currents injected to
the AC system. If the Ideal Rectifier on the Harmonics page of the element is used, this typical
spectrum of the converter is assumed up to a specified number (normally 31) using the above
two equations with the commutation reactance neglected. This assumption usually causes the
harmonic currents to be larger than in reality, but gives a good approximation to use. The polarity
of the harmonics (angle) is 180 for the 5th , 11th , etc. harmonics (represented in the negative
sequence) and 0 for the 7th , 13th , etc. harmonics (represented in the positive sequence).
To represent the converter in a more realistic way, a harmonic current source can be defined
and the amplitude and angle of the harmonic currents can be defined as shown in Figure 4.1.
Here you can choose between a balanced and unbalanced representation. More information
can be derived from the Technical Reference of the type Harmonic Sources (TypHmccur ).

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

18

Harmonics

Figure 4.1: Example for a converter representation as harmonic current source

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

19

Dynamic Simulation

5
5.1

Dynamic Simulation
RMS Simulation

The stability model uses the same equations as described in section 2 (Load Flow analysis).
The converter transformer data, commutation reactance and phase shift, are identical with the
values specified on the load flow page of the element.
A separate minimum extinction angle for commutation failure gammamindyn can be specified
in the RMS page. This angle specifies the minimum extinction angle below which commutation
failure is assumed to take place. When the extinction angle reaches the specified gammamindyn, a message warning for commutation failure is printed in the output window, the DC side is
short-circuited and the converter current is assumed equal to zero. Notice that the gammamindyn angle has a different meaning than the gammamin angle specified for control purposes in
the load flow page.
With the signal short dc is possible to short-circuit the DC side of the element, in order to bypass
the valves. The DC voltage and the AC current go to zero during active short dc. With the signal
block all all thyristors will be blocked. The AC and DC current are then both zero. It is possible
to select the way the extinction angle is handled when the converter is blocked through the
parameter gammaMode: The angle can either be set to zero or kept constant.
The zero sequence current is always zero in RMS simulations.

alpha
tap
fref
short_dc

gamma
RMS
Simulation

gamma_min

block_all

Figure 5.1: Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (RMSsimulation)

gamma
gamma_min

alpha

Ip_A/B/C

tap
Fmeas
short_dc

EMT
Simulation

block_all

Im_A/B/C
Upc_A/B/C
Umc_A/B/C
U0

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

20

1.6 RMS Simulation

The stability model uses the same equations as described in section 1.3 of the load-flow analysis. Ther
further information needed.

Dynamic SimulationThe commutation reactance and its angle are identical with the values specified on the load-flow page
element.

5.2

EMT Simulation

1.7 EMT Simulation

For the electro-magnetic transient simulation the detailed modelling of all six thyristors or diodes
is necessary. Here theFor
converters
are modelled
as shown
in Figure
1.2. This
detailed
the electro-magnetic
transient
simulation
the detailed
modelling
of allmodel
six thyristors is necessary. H
represents the discrete converters
valves including
onand
off-resistances
of
the
switches
(R
,
G
)
and the discrete valves i
on
of
f
are modelled as shown in Figure 2. This detailed model is representing
the elements of the snubber-circuits
in
parallel
(shown
in
Figure
5.2).
These
values
can
be
on- and off-resistances of the switches (Ron, Goff) and the elements of the snubber-circuits in parallel (s
defined in the EMT page of the type TypRec.
Figure 10).

Figure 10: Detailed Valve Representation for EMT-Simulations

Figure 5.2: Detailed valve representation for EMT-simulations

For triggering the valves the built-in trigger-circuit is used, which converts the firing angle supplied by

For triggering the valves the built-in trigger-circuit can be used, which converts the firing angle
converter controller to the six correct firing signals of the discrete thyristors.
supplied by the converter controller to the six correct firing signals of the discrete thyristors.

an exact
triggering
of the
the timesofofthe
zero-crossing
of the
AC to
voltages
For an exact triggering For
of the
valves,
the times
of valves,
zero-crossing
AC voltages
have
be have to be measure
the 6-pulse
converter
doesnot
nothave
have aa built-in
measurement,
a PLLa element
measured. Since the 6-pulse
converter
does
built-inphase
phase
measurement,
PLL (*.ElmPhi__pll) has
is required
byisthe
converter
provided.
This meansThis
the means
output ofthe
a PLL
Fmeas
element (ElmPhi pll) has
to be provided.
output
of a PLL
Fmeas
required
byfor accurate operation
the converter for accurate operation.

With the signal short dc is possible to short-circuit the DC side of the element, through a valve
with resistance equal to Ron . With the signal block all all thyristors will be blocked. The AC and
Attention: Modelling the converter transformer externally (i.e. the Built-In Transformer is not used)
DC current are then both zero.

problems due to the exact value of commutation reactance specified on the load-flow pag

additional reactance
inserted
the transformer
element. with
Only the
small errors of this value a
The converter transformer data, commutation
reactance
and by
phase
shift, are identical
commutation
angle andThe
hence
the EMT extinction
simulation angle
can notgammacalculate the right initial condit
values specified on the load flow page
of the element.
minimum
mindyn is not used in EMT simulations.
it is recommended to use the built-in transformer of the converter element instead to get
results in the EMT-simulation!

If the built in transformer is used the zero sequence current is always zero.
Attention: Modelling the converter transformer externally (i.e. the flag Built-In Transformer
in TypRec is not selected) can cause problems due to the exact value of commutation reactance specified on the load flow page and the additional reactance inserted by the transformer
element. Only small errors of this value affect the commutation angle and hence the EMT simulation can not calculate the right initial conditions. Here it is recommended to use the built-in
transformer of the converter element instead to get correct results in the EMT-simulation!

6-Pulse Bridge

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

21

Dynamic Simulation

alpha
tap
fref
short_dc

gamma
RMS
Simulation

gamma_min

block_all

gamma
gamma_min

alpha

Ip_A/B/C

tap
Fmeas
short_dc

EMT
Simulation

block_all

Im_A/B/C
Upc_A/B/C
Umc_A/B/C
U0

Figure 5.3: Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (EMTsimulation)

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

22

Parameter Definitions

Parameter Definitions
Table A.1: I/O Signals of the PWM-converter model

Parameter
loc name
typ id
busac
busac bar
busdp
busdm
busdc
busdc bar
outserv
mode
bstp
uset
Pset
Qset
Iset
gamma set
pctrl
alphacn
alpha set
alphamin
alphamax
gammamin
gammaminCtrl
ntrcn
nntap
Xd
nt2ag
iPphidrp
Kpphi
p b1phiu
p b2phiu
iPpart
Kpart
p pmeas
iconfed
i int
maxorder
phmc
cTypHmc
icurref
Inom
iAstabint
gammamindyn
gammaMode
comres
Racmax
Xacmax
Racmin
Xacmin

Description
Name
Type (Typrec)
Terminal AC (StaCubic)
Terminal AC
Terminal DC+ (StaCubic)
Terminal DC- (StaCubic)
Terminal DC (StaCubic)
Terminal DC
Out of Service
Orientation (Rectifier/Inverter)
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Control-Characteristic
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Voltage Setpoint
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Power-Setpoint
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Reactive Power-Setpoint
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Current Setpoint
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Extinction Angle (gamma)
Setpoint
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Controller
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Automatic Firing Angle Control
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Actual Firing-Angle
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Minimum Firing Angle
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Maximum Firing Angle
Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Minimum Extinction Angle
Consider minimum extinction angle (gammamin) control
Converter Transformer: Tap-Changer
Converter Transformer: Actual Winding Ratio
Converter Transformer: Commutation Reactance
Converter Transformer: Phase Shift
Angle difference dependent P-Droop
Kpphi
Remote AC busbar (ElmTerm*)
Local AC busbar (ElmTerm*)
Active power participation
Participation factor
P(AC) measured at (StaCubic*,ElmBoundary)
Static converter-fed drive
Ideal Rectifier
Maximum Harmonic Order
Harmonic Currents (TypHmccur)
Type of Harmonic Sources
Harmonic Current Injections referred to
Rated Harmonic Current Injection
A-stable integration algorithm
Min. extinction angle for commutation failure
Handling of extinction angle if rectifier is blocked
Commutation resistance (Only ElmRecmono)
Max. values: AC resistance (Only ElmRecmono)
Max. values: AC reactance (Only ElmRecmono)
Min. values: AC resistance (Only ElmRecmono)
Min. values: AC reactance (Only ElmRecmono)

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

Unit

p.u.
MW
Mvar
kA
deg

deg
deg
deg
deg

p.u.
Ohm
*30deg
MW/degree

kA

Ohm
Ohm
Ohm
Ohm
Ohm
23

Parameter Definitions

volfac

IEC parameters: Voltage factor, c (Only ElmRecmono)

Table A.2: Parameters of the HVDC Converter Type


Parameter

Description

loc name
Unom
Unomdc
Pnom
Imax
tapnom
alphanom
i diode
i trf
tapmin
tapmax
Pnold
swtLossFactor
resLossFactor
Rthy
Goff
Gs
Cs
rres
rind
fr way

Name
Rated AC Voltage
Rated DC-Voltage (DC)
Rated Active Power
Rated DC-Current
Nominal Turns-Ratio (t2/t1)
Nominal Firing Angle
Diode-/Thyristor Converter
Converter Transformer: Built-In Transformer
Converter Transformer: Minimum Turns-Ratio
Converter Transformer: Maximum Turns-Ratio
Losses: No-load losses
Losses: Switching loss factor
Losses: Resistive loss factor
Thyristor-Resistance (at On)
Thyristor-Conductance (at Off)
Snubber-Conductance
Snubber-Capacity
Rectifier resistance (DC-side)
Rectifier inductance (DC-side)
ANSI/IEEE Parameters

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

Unit
kV
kV
MW
kA
deg

p.u.
p.u.
kW
kW/A
Ohm
Ohm
S
S
uF
mOhm
uH

24

Signal Definitions

Signal Definitions
Table B.1: Input/Output signals

Name

Description

Unit

Type

Model

alpha
tap
short dc
block all
fref
Fmeas
gamma
gamma min
Ip A
Ip B
Ip C
Im A
Im B
Im C
Upc A

Firing Angle
Tap-Position
DC Bypass
AC Blocking
Reference Frequency
Frequency
Extinction Angle
Extinction Angle (Min. in one cycle)
Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase A)
Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase B)
Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase C)
Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase A)
Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase B)
Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase C)
Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,
Phase A)
Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,
Phase B)
Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,
Phase C)
Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,
Phase A)
Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,
Phase B)
Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,
Phase C)
Zero Sequence Voltage

rad

p.u.
Hz
rad
rad
kA
kA
kA
kA
kA
kA
kV

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT

RMS, EMT
RMS, EMT
RMS, EMT
RMS, EMT
RMS
EMT
RMS, EMT
RMS, EMT
EMT
EMT
EMT
EMT
EMT
EMT
EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

KV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

Upc B
Upc C
Umc A
Umc B
Umc C
U0

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

25

List of Figures

List of Figures
1.1 HVDC converter including built-in transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Detailed circuit with commutation reactance and DC reactance (not part of the
model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Phase voltages, phase currents and DC voltage of a three-phase rectifier operating with = 30 and zero commutation angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Rectifier equivalent circuit with equivalent commutating resistance Rcr . . . . . .

1.5 Phase voltages, phase currents and DC voltage of a three-phase rectifier operating with = 30 and an overlap angle of = 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Simplified modelling of losses for a 6-pulse converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.7 Currents and voltages for diode bridge rectifier with unbalanced network voltages
and smoothing reactor on the DC side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.1 Active power participation example for converter INV. Active power setpoint is
P=10MW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.1 Example for a converter representation as harmonic current source

. . . . . . .

19

5.1 Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (RMSsimulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.2 Detailed valve representation for EMT-simulations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.3 Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (EMTsimulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

26

List of Tables

List of Tables
A.1 I/O Signals of the PWM-converter model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

A.2 Parameters of the HVDC Converter Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

B.1 Input/Output signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

27