This is DigSilent PowerFactory Technical Reference Documentation of the model a Rectifier

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This is DigSilent PowerFactory Technical Reference Documentation of the model a Rectifier

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Rectifier / Inverter

ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec

DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9

72810 - Gomaringen

Germany

T: +49 7072 9168 0

F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de

info@digsilent.de

Version: 2016

Edition: 1

Copyright 2016, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.

No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means

electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

Contents

Contents

1 General Description

1.1.2 Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

11

12

12

2.1 P-setpoint Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

15

3 Short-Circuit Calculations

17

4 Harmonics

18

5 Dynamic Simulation

20

20

21

A Parameter Definitions

23

B Signal Definitions

25

List of Figures

26

List of Tables

27

General Description

General Description

General Description

General Description

11General

Description

General

Description

Figure 1: HVDC Converter including Built-In Transformer

Figure 2: Detailed Circuit with Commutation Reactance and DC Reactance (not part of the model)

This converter model basically represents two different three-phase converters:

the2:

three-phase

Figure

Detailedline-commutated

Circuit with rectifier/inverter

Commutation Reactance and DC Reactance (not part of the model)

Figure 1.2: Detailed circuit with commutation reactance and DC reactance (not part of the

The diode rectifier is a full-bridge diode rectifier, which is rectifying the three-phase AC voltage to a 6-pulse DC

model)

This converter

represents

twobedifferent

voltage.

Due to the model

usage ofbasically

diodes, which

can neither

turned-onthree-phase

nor turned-off converters:

externally, the DC voltage or

DC current of the rectifier can not be controlled.

as:

The controlled converter model consists of six power thyristors, arranged as shown in Figure 2. These valves can

be turned-on by an external control signal (one dash), but only turns-off, when the current flowing through them

becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as inverter, depending on the control signals applied.

The diode rectifier is a full-bridge diode rectifier, which is rectifying the three-phase AC voltage to a 6-pulse DC

Three-phase diode

rectifier

voltage.

Due frequency

to the usage

of diodes,

which

canis neither

be turned-on

nor turned-off

the DC voltage or

The

fundamental

representation

of this

model

used for load-flow

calculations

and stabilityexternally,

analysis.

DCis current

rectifier

can

not be

controlled.

and

describedof

in the

section

1.1. The

detailed

modelling

of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT simulations,

Three-phase line-commutated

rectifier/inverter

where the converters are modelled as shown in Figure 2.

The controlled converter model consists of six power thyristors, arranged as shown in Figure 2. These valves can

turned-on by an

external

control signal

(oneis

dash),

but only turns-off,

when the current

through

The diode rectifier is abefull-bridge

diode

rectifier,

which

rectifying

the three-phase

ACflowing

voltage

to them

becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as inverter, depending on the control signals applied.

a 6-pulse DC voltage.

Due to the usage of diodes, which can neither be turned-on -or

turned-off

6-Pulse Bridge

4externally, the DC voltage

or

DC

current

of

the

rectifier

cannot

be

controlled.

The fundamental frequency representation of this model is used for load-flow calculations and stability analysis.

and is described in section 1.1. The detailed modelling of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT simulations,

consists

of six

power

thyristors,

arranged as shown in Figure

where model

the converters

are modelled

as shown

in Figure

2.

1.2. These valves can be turned-on by an external control signal, but only turned-off when the

current flowing through them becomes negative. This converter can operate as rectifier or as

inverter, depending on the timing of the gate signal relative to the AC voltage wave.

6-Pulse Bridge

-4-

A fundamental frequency model is used for load flow calculations and stability analysis, and is

described in section 1.1. The detailed modelling of all six thyristors is only necessary for EMT

simulations, where the converters are modelled as shown in Figure 1.2.

1.1

The models for load flow calculation and RMS-simulation are based on a fundamental frequency

approach. The equations of the thyristor converter and the diode rectifier are identical if the

diode rectifier is assumed as an uncontrolled thyristor converter (hence the firing angle is set

to zero).

General Description

During steady-state operation the converter can be modelled as a load with constant active and

reactive power P and Q. The following equations describe the converter in a detailed way and

give hints for the layout of an HVDC system.

The transmitted DC power of the high-voltage DC system is given by:

P d = Ud Id

(1)

The DC voltage of the ideal and uncontrolled converter, without load, is called the ideal no-load

direct voltage Ud0 , which is defined as follows:

Ud0

s0 q

=

sin

2

ULL

q

3

(2)

where s0 defines the number of commutation groups, q is the number of branches in a commutation group and ULL is the AC voltage supplied to the converter station. For a 6-pulse converter

there are two commutation groups (s0 = 2) and q is equal to 3, hence the Ud0 is

Ud0

3 2

ULL 1.35 ULL

=

(3)

This equation is valid for the uncontrolled thyristor converter ( = 0) as well as for the diode

bridge. The gate control of the thyristors can be used to delay the ignition of the valves. The

time delay due to the turn-on signal applied is defined to be t = . Then the DC voltage

depends on the ignition angle

Ud = Ud0 cos()

(4)

The effect of the ignition angle is shown in Figure 1.3, where the AC voltage, the phase

currents and the DC voltage can be seen for an idealized operation with the DC current Id

assumed to be constant. The ignition angle is also indicated in the figure. Here the time between

the transfer of the current from one valve to the next is assumed to be zero, i.e the leakage

reactance of the transformer is neglected and the commutation angle is zero.

To study more realistic converters the current commutation from one valve to the next must be

considered. The commutation leads to a drop in the DC voltage Ud :

Ud = Ud0 cos() Ud

(5)

where Rc is the equivalent commutating resistance. Rc does not represent a real resistance

and thus has no associated power losses. Ud is defined as:

Ud = Rc Id =

3

3

Lc Id = Xc Id

(6)

General Description

DIgSILENT

General Description

1.50

1.00

0.50

-0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

0.000

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

Rectifier: Phase Voltage B/Terminal AC in p.u.

Rectifier: Phase Voltage C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

0.000

0.004

0.008

Rectifier: Phase Current B/Terminal AC in p.u.

Rectifier: Phase Current C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

0.000

0.004

0.008

DIgSILENT

alpha = 30, overlap angle u = 0

TechRef

Date: 4/7/2004

Annex: 1 /1

Figure 1.3:

3: Phase

voltages,

phase

currents

and DC

voltage

of a three-phase

rectifier rectifier

operating

with

Figure

Phase

voltages,

phase

currents

and

DC voltage

of a three-phase

operating

zero overlap angle

=

30

and

with = 30 and zero commutation angle

Here the time between the transfer of the current from valve i to the next valve is assumed to be zero, i.e the

leakage reactance of the transformer is neglected and the commutation angle is zero.

6-Pulse Bridge

5

-6-

General Description

Ud = Ud0 cos() +

3

Xc Id

(7)

Figure 1.4 shows the equivalent circuit for the rectifier including the effects of commutation.

Note in the figure and in the equations above, that the DC current is negative for the rectifier

operation due to the representation with load-orientation.

Rcr

Id

Udr

Udo cos

commutating resistance Rcr

Rloss Vdrop

Rcr with equivalent

Id

The reactance of the converter transformer is usually

the biggest part of total reactance on the

AC side, hence it can be assumed that Xc is approximately that reactance:

Udr

Udo cos

Xc = Xr,sec =

2

ukr Ur,sec

100

Sr

(8)

where ukr , Ur,sec and Sr are the converter transformer short-circuit voltage (in %), rated voltage

on the secondary side and rated power respectively. With the DC current being equal to its

rated value Id , the DC voltage can be written in a different form as:

(9)

with

dxr =

1 ukr

2 100

(10)

The term dxr has been calculated from the following relationship:

dxr =

3

|Id |

Xc

Ud0

(11)

assuming the converter transformer rated current Ir is equal to sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) Id (see section

1.1.1) and expressing Udo according to equation 3.

The phase voltages and currents, as well as the DC voltage of a thyristor rectifier, including

effects of commutation can be seen in Figure 1.5. The ignition angle and the commutation

angle are indicated in the figure.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

DIgSILENT

General Description

1.50

1.00

0.50

-0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

0.000

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

0.012

0.016

[s]

0.020

Rectifier: Phase Voltage B/Terminal AC in p.u.

Rectifier: Phase Voltage C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

0.000

0.004

0.008

Rectifier: Phase Current B/Terminal AC in p.u.

Rectifier: Phase Current C/Terminal AC in p.u.

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

0.000

0.004

0.008

DIgSILENT

alpha = 30, overlap angle u = 20

TechRef

Date: 4/7/2004

Annex: 1 /1

Figure

Phase

voltages,

phase

currents

andvoltage

DC voltage

of a three-phase

operating

Figure 1.5:

5: Phase

voltages,

phase

currents

and DC

of a three-phase

rectifierrectifier

operating

with

with

=

30

and

an

overlap

angle

of

=

20

= 30 and an overlap angle of = 20

Using these two angles two other angles can be defined, used in the HVDC theory. is called the extinction

angle, which is normally used to control the inverter side of the HVDC.

0 =

The ignition advance angle is specified as

6-Pulse Bridge

7

-8-

General Description

Using these two angles two other angles can be defined. The extinction angle , which is

normally used in the control on the inverter side of the HVDC, is defined as:

(12)

(13)

is often used in the HVDC controllers for both the rectifier and inverter side.

Using these different angles the DC voltage can be calculated differently for the rectifier and for

the inverter respectively:

Udr = Ud0

cos() + cos( + )

2

(14)

cos() + cos()

2

(15)

and

Udi = Ud0

The DC voltage for the inverter case is considered positive in equation 15. Using equations 14

and 9, the term dxr can be expressed as:

dxr =

cos() cos( + )

2

(16)

The phase currents of the 6-pulse bridge are shown in Figure 1.3 and Figure 1.5. In the literature the AC current is often calculated approximately from the ideal rectifier current with the

commutation angle neglected. In PowerFactory the amplitude of the fundamental frequency

current IL1 is calculated using the Fourier analysis of the phase current waveform, so the effect

of the commutation is taken into account. This leads to the following relationship between the

RMS value of the fundamental frequency component and the direct current:

IL1 = k

6

Id

(17)

where k is equal to

p

k=

4 [cos() cos( + )]

(18)

General Description

This factor is close to unity for small values of , but if the angle becomes larger, the error

increases up to 4% at = 60 . For unsymmetrical operation the phase currents have to be

calculated differently, which is described in section 1.1.3.

The power factor cos() can then be calculated, given the power equivalence on the AC and

DC side and using equations 3, 14 and 17:

3 2

cos() + cos( + )

3 ULL IL1 cos() = Ud Id =

ULL

Id

cos() =

1.1.1

1

[cos() + cos( + )]

2k

(19)

(20)

Converter Transformer

Built-in transformer

External converter transformer

The built-in transformer features a tap-changer on the HV side to control the secondary voltage.

The built-in transformer can be configured as Fixed Tap, to control the firing (alpha-control)

or extinction (gamma-control) angle of the converter. The commutation reactance is always

assumed to be on the secondary side of the transformer. Hence Xc is calculated as follows:

Xc =

2

ukr Ur,sec

100

Sr

(21)

where ukr , Ur,sec and Sr are the converter transformer short-circuit voltage (in %), rated voltage

on the secondary side and rated power respectively. If an external transformer is used for the

converter model, the AC voltage drop over the transformer is estimated using the commutation

reactance specified in the converter dialog window. If the parameters specified in the external

transformer and in the rectifier/inverter fit together, the same results are obtained as with the

built-in transformer.

If the rated DC voltage of the converter is known, the rated secondary voltage of the converter

transformer can be calculated using the following equation, which can derived from the equations above:

Ud

Ur,sec =

3 2 cos() dxr

(22)

The rated AC current on the converter side of the transformer equals the RMS value of the total

AC current which, neglecting commutation effects, consists of rectangular pulses with amplitude

equal to the rated DC current Id and duration of 120 . The rated AC current on the converter

side of the transformer is found as:

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

General Description

r

Ir,sec =

2

Id

3

(23)

Note that this current is the RMS value of the total AC current, and not of only its fundamental

frequency component, which is calculated instead as in equation 17. Hence the rated power

can be calculated as

Pd

Sr = 3 Ir,sec Ur,sec = 2 Id Ur,sec =

3 cos() dxr

1.1.2

(24)

Losses

The model of the HVDC does not include the effects of losses so far. The losses in the converter

bridge are caused due to the different components, i.e. the resistances of valves, transformers,

smoothing reactances.

An exact representation of the losses associated with the converter station is very sophisticated,

so it is common practice to model the losses in the Load Flow analysis as an equivalent series

resistance on the DC side. Two more terms accounting respectively for the forward voltage

drop in the thyristors and no-load losses depending on the DC voltage are also considered. In

PowerFactory , rectifier/inverter losses are specified in fundamental frequency models as:

No-load losses: specified with the parameter P nold in [kW].

Forward voltage drop losses: specified with the parameter swtLossF actor in [KW/A].

Resistive losses: specified with the parameter resLossF actor in [Ohm].

Total losses are calculated as:

(25)

with:

Vdrop = sign(Id ) swtLossF actor (1 exp200|Id | )

Gnoload =

Pnold

where UDCnom is expressed in kV

2

1000 Unom,DC

To take into account losses, equation 7 must be modified, both for rectifier and inverter, as:

Ud = Ud0 cos() +

3

Xc Id + resLossF actor Id + Vdrop

(26)

The representation of station losses of a rectifier for load flow calculations is shown in Figure

1.6. Note in the figure and in the equation above, that the DC current is negative for the rectifier

operation due to the representation with load-orientation.

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

10

Rcr

Id

Udr

Udo cos

1

General Description

Rloss

Rcr

Vdrop

Id

Udr

Udo cos

1.1.3

Unbalanced Operation

When the network voltages are unsymmetrical, the periods for natural conduction of the valves

are not the same and the DC voltage will be made of six pulses with different duration and

amplitude. The ideal no-load DC voltage can be calculated by taking the average of the pulses

over half a period. As an example, with reference to Figure 1.7, at t = ca + the DC current

starts flowing in phase a and returns back through phase b until t = bc . For a thyristor

converter, these angles can be delayed by a and c respectively. During this period, the

DC voltage is equal to the line-line voltage Uab . The angles ab , bc and ca , at which the

corresponding line-line voltages cross zero and become positive, are calculated internally in the

model, given the terminal voltage phasors. This holds only for load flow and RMS simulations.

Uab

Ubc

Uca

Ud

Ua

Ub

Uc

Ia

Ib

Ic

ca

bc-

ab

ca+

bc

ab+

ca+2

Figure 1.7: Currents and voltages for diode bridge rectifier with unbalanced network voltages

and smoothing reactor on the DC side

By taking the average of the resulting three pulses over half a period, the ideal no-load DC

voltage is calculated in load flow and RMS simulations as:

11

General Description

Ud =

1

Uab [cos(ca + + a ab ) cos(bc + c ab )]+

Uca [cos(bc + + c ca ) cos(ab + b ca )]

(27)

In unsymmetrical load flow and RMS simulations, a PLL will measure the angle 1 of the positive

zero-crossing of the positive sequence line-line voltage. The firing angles of the valves are then

calculated in order to obtain an interval between the firing pulses of 60 . Therefore, the firing

angles a , b and c will not be identical but differ according to the phase-shift of the phase

voltages. The firing angles of the three phases are calculated internally in the model as (the

negative sign is due to the fact that negative angles imply a lagging phase in equation 27):

a = [ + (ca (1 4/3))]

(28)

b = [ + (ab 1 )]

(29)

c = [ + (bc (1 2/3))]

(30)

In general it is not possible to obtain a 60 interval between the firing pulses, since this would

require leading firing angles. As a consequence, the pulses will still have different length even

after applying different firing pulses for each phase.

The AC currents are affected by the different length of the pulses. Assuming a constant DC

current, the amplitude of the fundamental frequency component of the phase currents is no

longer equal because the conduction periods for each phase are different, as can be seen in

Figure 1.7. Let Ii represent the conducting time of phase i. The RMS value of the fundamental

frequency component of each phase current is easily calculated by Fourier series expansion as:

IL1i = k

Ii

4 Id

sin( )

2

2

(31)

The DC power is then calculated as the sum of the real power of all phases on the secondary

side of the transformer:

Pdc = Pa + Pb + Pc

1.2

(32)

Basic Data

On the Basic Data page a name for the element has to be entered. A type has to be selected or

defined for the element. Furthermore, the orientation has to be specified to allow representation

of either a rectifier or an inverter.

1.2.1

In the basic data page of the type of the inverter/rectifier, the main parameters of the converter

layout have to be entered. You can choose between rated AC or DC voltage and between rated

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

12

General Description

DC power and DC current. Furthermore the kind of converter can be defined (uncontrolled

diode rectifier or thyristor converter).

If the built-in transformer is chosen (which is advisable for most types of converters), there is

as well the necessity to enter the turns-ratio of the converter transformer, which is given by the

ratio of secondary to primary voltage, and the nominal firing angle .

Also the limits of the turns-ratio are given to specify the tap-changer ranges. The maximum

and minimum turns-ratio is given in per unit of the nominal turns-ratio (t2/t1) of the converter

transformer.

13

In load flow analysis, it is common practice not to specify control variables directly but to define

the controlled variables instead. The control variable (the firing angle ) is then resulting from

the Load Flow calculation.

In the Load Flow command, several common control characteristics are supported by the HVDC

converter model. Meaning and typical application of the various control modes are the following:

Vdc: The firing angle is adjusted to obtain a predefined value for the DC voltage of the

converter. This control mode is typically used at the inverter side of an HVDC transmission

system.

Vac: Specifies the magnitude of the AC voltage at the converter terminals, when the DC

voltage is controlled externally. No typical application.

P: The transmitted DC power is held constant. Typically used for rectifier side in HVDC

systems.

Q: Specifies the amount of reactive power absorbed by the converter. No typical application.

I: The DC current of the converter is held constant. Typically used for rectifier control of an

HVDC transmission system.

Gamma: The extinction angle is specified. Normally the inverter side of an HVDC

system is controlled to a minimum .

EXT: The firing angle is specified as an input to the model, provided by a Controller

which must be specified with the parameter pctrl. The Controller is a line-commutated

rectifier/inverter element (ElmRec or ElmRecmono) as well. The EXT control mode is

useful in a 12-pulse arrangement with two converters: one converter is the Controller

performing one of the other control modes, while the second converter is in EXT control

mode.

These control modes are enabled if the flag Automatic Firing Angle Control is selected. Otherwise, the firing angle is set equal to the Actual Firing Angle, specified with the parameter

alpha set.

Minimum and maximum firing angle limits can be specified. If the converter reaches one of

these limits, the firing angle will remain constant at the limit and the converter cannot perform

the chosen control function.

A minimum value of the extinction angle, gammamin, can also be entered. The angle gammamin represents a safe value of in order to avoid commutation failure in normal operating

conditions; it does not represent the limiting value for commutation failure. If the inverter extinction angle reaches this limit, a warning is printed in the output window. For inverters in Vdc

(EXT) control mode, the option Consider minimum extinction angle (gammamin) for control is

available. If the option is selected, the inverter will no longer control the DC side voltage but will

switch to a gamma-control mode with gammamin as setpoint if gammamin is reached.

In load flow calculations, commutation failure is assumed to take place only when the sum of the

firing angle and of the overlap angle would be higher than 180 (negative ). A warning for

commutation failure is printed in the output window. In this case, the load flow is still calculated

assuming the overlap angle equal to zero. However, this may not represent a feasible operating

point.

14

During load flow calculation, if the thyristor converter current is very low, the converter current

is set to zero. The thyristor converter voltage is set to zero with the firing angle equal to 90 . A

message is sent to the output window warning about zero current flowing in the converter.

Furthermore the control of the tap-changers of the converter transformer can be chosen between:

Fixed Tap: The position of the tap-changers is fixed to a given winding ratio.

alpha-control: The secondary voltage is adjusted by the tap-changers to obtain a specified

setpoint of the firing angle. This is typically used at the rectifier station of the HVDC.

gamma-control: The tap-changers are controlled to obtain a specified setpoint of the extinction angle. This is typically used at the inverter station of the HVDC.

Besides the firing angle control modes, the load flow page of the converter also comprises

additional information for the converter transformer. Here the commutation reactance Xc is

specified as the leakage reactance of the transformer, which is important for the calculation

of the commutation angle. Also the phase-shift of the converter transformer can be entered

here. This information is needed, when designing 12-pulse thyristor bridges with 30 phaseshift between two converters in series to reduce harmonic currents fed into the network.

Attention: This information is also needed, when no built-in transformer is selected in the

converter type! The value of the commutation reactance is specified as the reactance of the

converter transformer, modelled externally. The value of the commutation reactance is used to

estimate the voltage on the transformer primary side, given the converter terminal voltage and

current. The estimated voltage is used to calculate the ideal no-load DC voltage. Specifying

the correct value of the commutation reactance is also important to get realistic values for the

commutation angle.

2.1

P-setpoint Adaption

When the converter is in P control mode, usually the rectifier side in an HVDC system, the

active power setpoint can be modified by the following controllers if selected:

Angle-difference dependent P-droop

Active power participation

When the Angle-difference dependent P-droop option is selected, the active power setpoint is

modified for the rectifier and inverter case according to:

Pi = Pi,set Kpphi (phiulocal phiuremote )

When the Active power participation option is selected, the active power setpoint is modified for

the rectifier and inverter case according to:

Pi = Pi,set Kpart Pmeas

Rectifier / Inverter (ElmRec, ElmRecmono, TypRec)

15

where:

Pr,set is the active power setpoint, rectifier case.

Pi,set is the active power setpoint, inverter case.

Pr is the modified active power setpoint, rectifier case.

Pi is the modified active power setpoint, inverter case.

Kpphi is the specified factor for Angle-difference dependent P-droop.

Kpart is the specified factor for Active power participation.

phiuremote is the positive-sequence voltage angle of the remote busbar.

phiulocal is the positive-sequence voltage angle of the local busbar.

Pmeas is the active power measured (assumed positive with load orientation) at a specified

cubicle/boundary.

The Angle-difference dependent P-droop and Active power participation options can be used

to adapt the active power of the converter depending on the active power flow on a parallel

AC line. When the Active power participation option is selected, the sign of the parameter

Kpart depends on the orientation of the power flow at the point where the parameter Pmeas

is measured. Figure 2.1 shows how to correctly define the sign of Kpart. In the example, the

converter INV is performing the active power control and has the Active power participation

option selected.

Figure 2.1: Active power participation example for converter INV. Active power setpoint is

P=10MW.

16

Short-Circuit Calculations

Short-Circuit Calculations

Typically the line-commutated converters are neglected during short-circuit calculations due to

the effect, that the thyristors are automatically blocking during very low voltages at the AC side.

This results in low short-circuit currents supplied by the converter. The calculation methods using the VDE, IEC or ANSI standards do neglect the contribution of the converters. If a complete

method short-circuit calculation is executed, the short-circuit current of the converter will not be

neglected but defined being the rated AC current of the converter.

Enabling the option Static converter-fed drive, the element can be used to represent in shortcircuit studies reversible static converter-fed drives, with the converter having then a different

layout than a six-pulse bridge. In this case, the contribution of the converter to the short-circuit

current is no longer neglected in the VDE 0102/0103 and IEC 60909 calculation method. According to these standards the converters are assumed to be asynchronous machines having

a short-circuit current ratio of Ishc /Irated = 3 and an R/X-ratio of R/X = 0.1. The short-circuit

current contribution is only considered in symmetrical short-circuits. In case of asymmetrical

short-circuits the current contribution of static converter drives is neglected. The contribution is

only used to calculate the initial and the peak short-circuit current (I and ip ).

The ANSI and the complete calculation method are not affected by this option.

Only the ElmRecmono is considered in the calculation of DC short-circuits according to IEC

61660 and ANSI/IEEE 946. Additional parameters required to perform DC short-circuit calculations according to the standards can be entered in the DC Short-Circuit page of the element

ElmRecmono and of the type TypRec. In these pages, data about the commutation resistance,

AC side impedance, DC side resistance and inductance, converter connection type and voltage

factor are specified.

17

Harmonics

Harmonics

The currents of the 6-pulse thyristor-controlled converter, which are shown in Figure 1.3 with

the commutation effect neglected and in Figure 1.5 including commutation, are characteristic

waveforms. From these curves it can easily be seen, that the currents not only have a large

50-Hz-component but also cause a flow of harmonic currents of higher orders. Hence the most

accurate harmonic model of the HVDC converter is a harmonic current source. The order of the

harmonic currents is calculated as

h=6n1

(33)

(where n = an integer)

The assigned amount of current injected is

Ih =

IL1

h

(34)

Typically the 6-pulse converters have a characteristic spectrum of harmonic currents injected to

the AC system. If the Ideal Rectifier on the Harmonics page of the element is used, this typical

spectrum of the converter is assumed up to a specified number (normally 31) using the above

two equations with the commutation reactance neglected. This assumption usually causes the

harmonic currents to be larger than in reality, but gives a good approximation to use. The polarity

of the harmonics (angle) is 180 for the 5th , 11th , etc. harmonics (represented in the negative

sequence) and 0 for the 7th , 13th , etc. harmonics (represented in the positive sequence).

To represent the converter in a more realistic way, a harmonic current source can be defined

and the amplitude and angle of the harmonic currents can be defined as shown in Figure 4.1.

Here you can choose between a balanced and unbalanced representation. More information

can be derived from the Technical Reference of the type Harmonic Sources (TypHmccur ).

18

Harmonics

19

Dynamic Simulation

5

5.1

Dynamic Simulation

RMS Simulation

The stability model uses the same equations as described in section 2 (Load Flow analysis).

The converter transformer data, commutation reactance and phase shift, are identical with the

values specified on the load flow page of the element.

A separate minimum extinction angle for commutation failure gammamindyn can be specified

in the RMS page. This angle specifies the minimum extinction angle below which commutation

failure is assumed to take place. When the extinction angle reaches the specified gammamindyn, a message warning for commutation failure is printed in the output window, the DC side is

short-circuited and the converter current is assumed equal to zero. Notice that the gammamindyn angle has a different meaning than the gammamin angle specified for control purposes in

the load flow page.

With the signal short dc is possible to short-circuit the DC side of the element, in order to bypass

the valves. The DC voltage and the AC current go to zero during active short dc. With the signal

block all all thyristors will be blocked. The AC and DC current are then both zero. It is possible

to select the way the extinction angle is handled when the converter is blocked through the

parameter gammaMode: The angle can either be set to zero or kept constant.

The zero sequence current is always zero in RMS simulations.

alpha

tap

fref

short_dc

gamma

RMS

Simulation

gamma_min

block_all

Figure 5.1: Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (RMSsimulation)

gamma

gamma_min

alpha

Ip_A/B/C

tap

Fmeas

short_dc

EMT

Simulation

block_all

Im_A/B/C

Upc_A/B/C

Umc_A/B/C

U0

20

The stability model uses the same equations as described in section 1.3 of the load-flow analysis. Ther

further information needed.

Dynamic SimulationThe commutation reactance and its angle are identical with the values specified on the load-flow page

element.

5.2

EMT Simulation

For the electro-magnetic transient simulation the detailed modelling of all six thyristors or diodes

is necessary. Here theFor

converters

are modelled

as shown

in Figure

1.2. This

detailed

the electro-magnetic

transient

simulation

the detailed

modelling

of allmodel

six thyristors is necessary. H

represents the discrete converters

valves including

onand

off-resistances

of

the

switches

(R

,

G

)

and the discrete valves i

on

of

f

are modelled as shown in Figure 2. This detailed model is representing

the elements of the snubber-circuits

in

parallel

(shown

in

Figure

5.2).

These

values

can

be

on- and off-resistances of the switches (Ron, Goff) and the elements of the snubber-circuits in parallel (s

defined in the EMT page of the type TypRec.

Figure 10).

For triggering the valves the built-in trigger-circuit is used, which converts the firing angle supplied by

For triggering the valves the built-in trigger-circuit can be used, which converts the firing angle

converter controller to the six correct firing signals of the discrete thyristors.

supplied by the converter controller to the six correct firing signals of the discrete thyristors.

an exact

triggering

of the

the timesofofthe

zero-crossing

of the

AC to

voltages

For an exact triggering For

of the

valves,

the times

of valves,

zero-crossing

AC voltages

have

be have to be measure

the 6-pulse

converter

doesnot

nothave

have aa built-in

measurement,

a PLLa element

measured. Since the 6-pulse

converter

does

built-inphase

phase

measurement,

PLL (*.ElmPhi__pll) has

is required

byisthe

converter

provided.

This meansThis

the means

output ofthe

a PLL

Fmeas

element (ElmPhi pll) has

to be provided.

output

of a PLL

Fmeas

required

byfor accurate operation

the converter for accurate operation.

With the signal short dc is possible to short-circuit the DC side of the element, through a valve

with resistance equal to Ron . With the signal block all all thyristors will be blocked. The AC and

Attention: Modelling the converter transformer externally (i.e. the Built-In Transformer is not used)

DC current are then both zero.

problems due to the exact value of commutation reactance specified on the load-flow pag

additional reactance

inserted

the transformer

element. with

Only the

small errors of this value a

The converter transformer data, commutation

reactance

and by

phase

shift, are identical

commutation

angle andThe

hence

the EMT extinction

simulation angle

can notgammacalculate the right initial condit

values specified on the load flow page

of the element.

minimum

mindyn is not used in EMT simulations.

it is recommended to use the built-in transformer of the converter element instead to get

results in the EMT-simulation!

If the built in transformer is used the zero sequence current is always zero.

Attention: Modelling the converter transformer externally (i.e. the flag Built-In Transformer

in TypRec is not selected) can cause problems due to the exact value of commutation reactance specified on the load flow page and the additional reactance inserted by the transformer

element. Only small errors of this value affect the commutation angle and hence the EMT simulation can not calculate the right initial conditions. Here it is recommended to use the built-in

transformer of the converter element instead to get correct results in the EMT-simulation!

6-Pulse Bridge

21

Dynamic Simulation

alpha

tap

fref

short_dc

gamma

RMS

Simulation

gamma_min

block_all

gamma

gamma_min

alpha

Ip_A/B/C

tap

Fmeas

short_dc

EMT

Simulation

block_all

Im_A/B/C

Upc_A/B/C

Umc_A/B/C

U0

Figure 5.3: Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (EMTsimulation)

22

Parameter Definitions

Parameter Definitions

Table A.1: I/O Signals of the PWM-converter model

Parameter

loc name

typ id

busac

busac bar

busdp

busdm

busdc

busdc bar

outserv

mode

bstp

uset

Pset

Qset

Iset

gamma set

pctrl

alphacn

alpha set

alphamin

alphamax

gammamin

gammaminCtrl

ntrcn

nntap

Xd

nt2ag

iPphidrp

Kpphi

p b1phiu

p b2phiu

iPpart

Kpart

p pmeas

iconfed

i int

maxorder

phmc

cTypHmc

icurref

Inom

iAstabint

gammamindyn

gammaMode

comres

Racmax

Xacmax

Racmin

Xacmin

Description

Name

Type (Typrec)

Terminal AC (StaCubic)

Terminal AC

Terminal DC+ (StaCubic)

Terminal DC- (StaCubic)

Terminal DC (StaCubic)

Terminal DC

Out of Service

Orientation (Rectifier/Inverter)

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Control-Characteristic

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Voltage Setpoint

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Power-Setpoint

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Reactive Power-Setpoint

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Current Setpoint

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Extinction Angle (gamma)

Setpoint

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Controller

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Automatic Firing Angle Control

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Actual Firing-Angle

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Minimum Firing Angle

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Maximum Firing Angle

Firing Angle (alpha-)Control: Minimum Extinction Angle

Consider minimum extinction angle (gammamin) control

Converter Transformer: Tap-Changer

Converter Transformer: Actual Winding Ratio

Converter Transformer: Commutation Reactance

Converter Transformer: Phase Shift

Angle difference dependent P-Droop

Kpphi

Remote AC busbar (ElmTerm*)

Local AC busbar (ElmTerm*)

Active power participation

Participation factor

P(AC) measured at (StaCubic*,ElmBoundary)

Static converter-fed drive

Ideal Rectifier

Maximum Harmonic Order

Harmonic Currents (TypHmccur)

Type of Harmonic Sources

Harmonic Current Injections referred to

Rated Harmonic Current Injection

A-stable integration algorithm

Min. extinction angle for commutation failure

Handling of extinction angle if rectifier is blocked

Commutation resistance (Only ElmRecmono)

Max. values: AC resistance (Only ElmRecmono)

Max. values: AC reactance (Only ElmRecmono)

Min. values: AC resistance (Only ElmRecmono)

Min. values: AC reactance (Only ElmRecmono)

Unit

p.u.

MW

Mvar

kA

deg

deg

deg

deg

deg

p.u.

Ohm

*30deg

MW/degree

kA

Ohm

Ohm

Ohm

Ohm

Ohm

23

Parameter Definitions

volfac

Parameter

Description

loc name

Unom

Unomdc

Pnom

Imax

tapnom

alphanom

i diode

i trf

tapmin

tapmax

Pnold

swtLossFactor

resLossFactor

Rthy

Goff

Gs

Cs

rres

rind

fr way

Name

Rated AC Voltage

Rated DC-Voltage (DC)

Rated Active Power

Rated DC-Current

Nominal Turns-Ratio (t2/t1)

Nominal Firing Angle

Diode-/Thyristor Converter

Converter Transformer: Built-In Transformer

Converter Transformer: Minimum Turns-Ratio

Converter Transformer: Maximum Turns-Ratio

Losses: No-load losses

Losses: Switching loss factor

Losses: Resistive loss factor

Thyristor-Resistance (at On)

Thyristor-Conductance (at Off)

Snubber-Conductance

Snubber-Capacity

Rectifier resistance (DC-side)

Rectifier inductance (DC-side)

ANSI/IEEE Parameters

Unit

kV

kV

MW

kA

deg

p.u.

p.u.

kW

kW/A

Ohm

Ohm

S

S

uF

mOhm

uH

24

Signal Definitions

Signal Definitions

Table B.1: Input/Output signals

Name

Description

Unit

Type

Model

alpha

tap

short dc

block all

fref

Fmeas

gamma

gamma min

Ip A

Ip B

Ip C

Im A

Im B

Im C

Upc A

Firing Angle

Tap-Position

DC Bypass

AC Blocking

Reference Frequency

Frequency

Extinction Angle

Extinction Angle (Min. in one cycle)

Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase A)

Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase B)

Thyristor Current (pos Thyristor, Phase C)

Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase A)

Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase B)

Thyristor Current (neg Thyristor, Phase C)

Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,

Phase A)

Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,

Phase B)

Capacitive Voltage (pos Snubber Capacity,

Phase C)

Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,

Phase A)

Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,

Phase B)

Capacitive Voltage (neg Snubber Capacity,

Phase C)

Zero Sequence Voltage

rad

p.u.

Hz

rad

rad

kA

kA

kA

kA

kA

kA

kV

IN

IN

IN

IN

IN

IN

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

RMS, EMT

RMS, EMT

RMS, EMT

RMS, EMT

RMS

EMT

RMS, EMT

RMS, EMT

EMT

EMT

EMT

EMT

EMT

EMT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

KV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

kV

OUT

EMT

Upc B

Upc C

Umc A

Umc B

Umc C

U0

25

List of Figures

List of Figures

1.1 HVDC converter including built-in transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Detailed circuit with commutation reactance and DC reactance (not part of the

model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Phase voltages, phase currents and DC voltage of a three-phase rectifier operating with = 30 and zero commutation angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Phase voltages, phase currents and DC voltage of a three-phase rectifier operating with = 30 and an overlap angle of = 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.7 Currents and voltages for diode bridge rectifier with unbalanced network voltages

and smoothing reactor on the DC side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.1 Active power participation example for converter INV. Active power setpoint is

P=10MW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

. . . . . . .

19

5.1 Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (RMSsimulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.3 Input/Output definition of the HVDC converter model for stability analysis (EMTsimulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

26

List of Tables

List of Tables

A.1 I/O Signals of the PWM-converter model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

24

25

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