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# Chapter 2: Analysis of DC & AC circuits

Dr Karthik R
School of Electrical Engineering
VIT University
karthik.r@vit.ac.in

## Overview of the chapter

Analysis of DC & AC circuits (9 Hours)
AC and DC Circuit Analysis for various circuits.
Phasors - How phasors make it easy to describe
sinusoidally varying quantities.
Single and Three Phase Systems
AC and DC power calculations

Introduction
The resistance, inductance and capacitance are
three basic elements of any electric network.
We now begin the analysis of circuits in which
the source voltage or current is time-varying.
In this chapter, we are particularly interested in
sinusoidally time-varying excitation, or simply,
excitation by a sinusoid.
A sinusoidal current is usually referred to as
alternating current (ac).
Circuits driven by sinusoidal current or voltage
sources are called ac circuits.
A sinusoid is a signal that has the form of the sine or cosine
function

## Alternating currents (ac) are currents that alternate in

direction (usually many times per second), passing first
in one direction, then in the other through a circuit.
Such currents are produced by voltage sources whose
polarities alternate between positive and negative
(rather than being fixed as with dc sources).
By convention, alternating currents are called ac currents
and alternating voltages are called ac voltages.

Sinusoids
Consider the sinusoidal voltage

function of t.

## It is evident that the sinusoid repeats itself every T seconds;

Frequency
The number of cycles per second of a waveform is defined as its frequency.

Period
The period, T, of a waveform, is the duration of one cycle. It is the inverse of
frequency.

Value

## The maximum potential between two

successive extreme values is sometimes of
interest and is called the peak-to-peak
voltage.
It is measured between minimum and
maximum peaks. Peak-to-peak voltages
are denoted Ep-p or Vp-p

Peak Value

## The peak value of a voltage or current is

its maximum value with respect to
zero.
Here, a sine wave rides on top of a dc
value, yielding a peak that is the sum of
the dc voltage and the ac waveform
amplitude.
For the case indicated, the peak voltage is
E + Em

The fact that v(t) repeats itself every T seconds is shown by replacing t by t + T

## where (t + ) is the argument and is the phase. Both argument and

phase can be in radians or degrees.
Let us examine the two sinusoids

## The starting point of v2 in

Figure occurs first in time.
Therefore, we say that v2 leads
v1 by or that v1 lags v2 by .
If = 0, then v1 and v2 are said
to be in phase; they reach their
minima and maxima at exactly the
same time.

## Voltages and Currents with Phase Shifts

If a sine wave does not pass through zero at t = 0
seconds, it has a phase shift.
Waveforms may be shifted to the left or to the right

Example Problem 1
Find the amplitude (Vm), phase () , period (T),
and frequency (F) of the sinusoid

Example Problem 1
Find the amplitude, phase, period, and frequency
of the sinusoid

BASIC TRIGONOMETRY

ESSENTIAL IDENTITIES
sin(
cos(

) sin cos
) cos cos

sin(

cos(

) cos

cos sin
sin sin

360 degrees

180

(degrees)

ACCEPTED EE CONVENTION

sin

sin( t

) sin( t 90 )

## SOME DERIVED IDENTITIES

APPLICATIO NS

sin(

) sin cos

cos sin

cos

sin(

cos(

) cos cos

sin sin
sin

cos(

cos

cos(

sin

sin(

sin cos
cos cos

1
sin(
2
1
cos(
2

1
sin(
2
1
) cos(
2

)
)

2
2
t
t

)
)
)
)

Practice
Problem 1

PHASORS
The notion of solving ac circuits using phasors
was first introduced by Charles Steinmetz in
1893.
Sinusoids are easily expressed in terms of
phasors, which are more convenient to work with
than sine and cosine functions.
A phasor is a complex number that represents the
amplitude and phase of a sinusoid.

Phasor
For analysis of alternating circuits, a
sinusoidal quantity (voltage or current) is
represented by a line of definite length rotating
in anti-clock wise direction with the same angular
velocity as that of the sinusoidal quantity.
This rotating line is called a Phasor.
However, a sinusoid is specified by its
amplitude and phase angle, they are termed
as Phasor.
A phasor is a complex number that represents the
amplitude and phase of a sinusoid.

Figure:
Evolution of a
Sine wave

Problem 1
continued

Problem 2

Problem 3

## Single Phase Series Circuits

Overview
AC in an Resistive Circuit
AC in an Inductive Circuit
AC in an Capacitive Circuit

Sinusoids
Consider the sinusoidal voltage

## The starting point of v2 in Figure occurs first in time.

Therefore, we say that v2 leads v1 by or that v1 lags v2 by .
If = 0, then v1 and v2 are said to be in phase; they reach their minima
and maxima at exactly the
same time.

Inference:

## Phasor diagram for

a resistive circuit

## Step 2: To calculate Power (P)

The instantaneous power in a.c. circuits can be
obtained by taking product of the instantaneous
values of current and voltage.

## A.C. in an Inductive circuit

Introduction to Inductance
The ideal inductor is an element that has the
ability to store energy in a magnetic field.
Inductors are typically made by winding a
coil of wire around a core, which can be an
insulator or a ferromagnetic material

## When a current flows through the coil, a

magnetic field is established.
In an ideal inductor, the resistance of the wire is
zero, so that a constant current through the
inductor will flow freely without causing a
voltage drop.
If a time-varying voltage is established across
the inductor, a corresponding current will result,
according to the following relationship:

(H)

R, L, C circuits

waveform

diagrams

## Effective (or) RMS Value

It is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a
varying quantity.
It is generally calculated for a series of discrete
values (or) for a continuously varying function

## Form Factor (Kf)

It is defined as the ratio of the rms value to the
average value for an alternating wave.
Kf=rms value / average value
For a sinusoidal wave the value is 1.11.

## Peak factor (Kp)

It is defined as the ratio of the peak
value/maximum value to the rms value for an
alternating wave.
Kp=maximum value/rms value
For a sinusoidal wave, the value is 1.414.

## Both Form factor and Peak factor are used to

indicate the shape of an alternating wave.
For a rectangular wave, Kp=Kf=1.

Overview
A.C. through Resistance and Inductance (R-L)
A.C. through Resistance and Capacitance (R-C)
A.C. through Resistance, Inductance and
Capacitance (R-L-C)

## A.C. through Resistance and Inductance (R-L)

Phase angle
Figure:
(a) Voltage diagram
(b) Impedance diagram

Problem 1

Problem 1

Solution

Problem 2

Problem 2

Solution

## A.C. through Resistance and Capacitance (R-C)

Figure:
(a) Voltage diagram
(b) Impedance diagram

Problem 1

Problem 1

Solution

## A.C. through Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance

(R-L-C)

Figure below shows a circuit having resistance R ohms, inductance L henrys and
capacitance C farads in series, connected across an a.c. supply of V volts (r.m.s.)
at a frequency of f hertz. Let I be the r.m.s. value of the current in amperes.

## The supply voltage is the phasor sum of

OA and OD, namely OE.

## If the inductive reactance is greater than the capacitive reactance, tan is

positive and the current lags the supply voltage by an angle ;
if less, tan is negative, signifying that the current leads the supply voltage by
an angle .
Note the case where XL = XC, and I = V/R. The current is in phase with
the voltage.

Problem 1

Problem 1

Solution

Phasor diagram

Problem 2

Problem 2

Solution

## Single Phase Parallel Networks

Dr Karthik R
School of Electrical Engineering
VIT University
karthik.r@vit.ac.in

R-L Parallel

R-C Parallel

Problem 1:

Problem 1: Solution