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Use

It is possible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

Form
if clause

main clause
will-future
or
infinitive
or
Modal + infinitive

Simple Present

Examples
If I study,
If you see John tonight,
If Ben gets up early,

I will pass the exams.


tell him to e-mail me.
he can catch the bus.

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.


If I study,
I will pass the exams

I will pass the exams.


if I study.

Use
It is theoretically possible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

Form
if clause
Simple Past

main clause
would + infinitive
or
could + infinitive
or
might + infinitive

Examples
If I studied,
If I studied,

I would pass the exams.


I could pass the exams.

If I studied,

I might pass the exams.

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.


If I studied,
I would pass the exams

I would pass the exams.


if I studied.

Use
It is impossible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

Form
if clause

main clause
would + have + past participle
or
could + have + past participle
or
might + have + past participle

Past Perfect

Examples
If I had studied,
If I had studied,
If I had studied,

I would have passed the exams.


I could have passed the exams.
I might have passed the exams.

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.


If I had studied,
I would have passed the exams

I would have passed the exams.


if I had studied.

Exercises
if-clauses, type I
Complete the sentences.
1. If it (rain)

, we (stay)

at home.

2. If you (know/not)

3. My mum (bake)

the way, I (pick)

you up.

a cake if you (come)

to see us.

if-clauses, type II
Complete the sentences.
1. If you (study)

2. If I (be)

3. She (come)

harder, you (get)

rich, I (travel)

better marks in your tests.

around the world.

to the market with us if she (have/not)

to work.

if-clauses, type III


Complete the sentences.
1. If you (help)

2. I (call)

3. They (go/not)

us, we (finish)

the work in next to no time.

you earlier if I (lose/not)

to the theatre by car if the weather (be)

if-clauses, mixed
Complete the sentences.
1. If I (have)

your phone number.

a compass, I would give it to you.

better.

2. If he hadnt been ill, he (run)

the marathon.

3. If you go to Ireland, you (need)

4. We (miss/not)

a raincoat.

the train if we had got up earlier.

5. If we lived in the country, the kids (play)

6. If they (eat/not)

outside all day long.

that much, they wouldnt have got a stomach ache.

7. I will not be able to write you if you (give/not)

me your address.

1) Complete this exercise with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.
A: We had a great time at Drew's house Sunday. Why didn't you come?
B: I had to study for Spanish.
A: If you

(come) with us, you

(see) an

awesome movie.
B: Yeah? What?
A: We rented Back to the Future. It's about a kid who time
travels back to his parents' high school days. He changes his own future.
At the end, his parents...
B: Wait-Don't tell me. If you

(tell) me the ending, you

(spoil) it for me. I want to see it myself.


A: OK. But have you ever thought about that?
B: About what?
A: About how things could be different. You grew up here in Baileyville,
and you're almost an adult now. But what
(be) like if you

your childhood

(be born) in a different

family?
B: Let's see. If I

(have) a different family, I

(not grow up) here in Baileyville.


A: And if you

(not grow up) here, I

(not

meet) you.
B: That's true. But getting back to the here-and-now, how did you do on
the Spanish test?
A: I flunked. I wish I

(not take) that course. I'm going to fail.

B: You just don't study enough. If you


you

(study) more,

(pass) this course easily this semester.

A: That's easy for you to say. You always get A's.


B: Sometimes I don't. It's not automatic. I

(not get) A's unless

(study) hard.

A: I suppose you're right.


B: If I

(be) you, I

(try) to do better on the next test.