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Anther where pollen is produced

- Diploid cell, in each anther, four long
columns of tissue become distinct as some
cells enlarge and prepare for meiosis
(microspore mother cells
- Wall of the pollen (cell wall)

Flower Structure

Inner intine

Flower a stem with leaf-like structure

Pedicel stalk of a flower
Receptacle the very end of the axis, where the other
flower parts are attached
4 Types of Floral Appendages
*Accessory Parts do not participate in the
reproduction of plants
1. Sepals/Calyx
- lowermost and outermost of the 4 floral
- modified leaves that surround and enclose
the other flower parts as they mature
- protects the flower bud as it develops
Petaloid colorful sepals for
2. Petal/Corolla
- above the sepals on the receptacle
Petals and sepals perianth
*Esssential Parts participate in the formation of
plant seed
3. Stamen/Androecium
- Commonly referred as to male part of the
flower but technically doesnt because
sporophyte produces spores not gametes
which only have sex.
a. Filament (its stalk)

Outer extine
4. Pistil/Carpel/Gynoecium
a. Stigma catches pollen grains
b. Style elevates the stigma to a useful
c. Ovary contains the ovules where
megaspores are produced
- Inside the ovary: placenta that bears
- Ovules has a short stalk called
funiculus carries water and nutrients
from the placenta to the ovule
- Funiculus has a protective (usually
double) layer called the integument
- As in anthers, some nucleus cells enlarge in
preparation for meiosis; megaspore
mother cells (MMC)/megasporocytes
* Complete Flower all floral parts are present
* Incomplete Flower at least 1 or 2 parts are lacking
a. Regular floral parts, specially petals are of
same size and shape

b. Irregular there are floral parts with each

modified leaf different in size/shape from
i. Papilionaceous with large head/banner, 2 alae
and 2 carinae

iv. Bilabiate usually five petals with 1 fused pair and

3 unfused petals


ii. Caesalpinaceous alae and carinae are identical,

the banner is the smallest petal

iii. Orchideceous petals identical except for 1

labellum that marks the bilateral symmetry of the

- An aggregate of flowers bound by a single peduncle
- each small flower is called floret attached to a nonprimary stalk called pedicel
- Inflorescence can be determinate where its apex has
limited growth potential, and indeterminate where the
apex continuously develops new florets
1. Raceme (pinnately compound equivalent)

2. Spike sessile raceme

7. Spadix florets on a spathe structure

3. Panicle (bipinnate/pinnate raceme)

4. Corymb (inverted cyme)

8. Fascicle usually accompanied by bracts

5. Cyme (inverted corymb)

9. Head/Capitate with ray florets and disc


6. Catkin/Amend

10. Umbel candelaria shaped, can be

compound/double umbel

c. Dust Seeds tiny seeds

d. Inflated Capsules
1. Authocory plant itself

e. Pappus/Parachute

2. Anemochory wind
a. Papery Pericarp Outgrowth
3. Hydrochory water
a. Impervious pericarp bouyant traveling

c. Spongy Receptacles
4. Zoochory animals
a. barbs or spikes around the seed of fruit outer layer
to attack on to animal skin
b. Either indigestible or unedible seeds survive
destruction from eating